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Baigiang7_Bat Dang Thuc Va Gia Tri Lon Nhat - Gia Tri Nho Nhat

Baigiang7_Bat Dang Thuc Va Gia Tri Lon Nhat - Gia Tri Nho Nhat

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Bili giang sa 7

., a ''''

BAT HAN Ii THUI: V A lilA Tn,

, ." 11 ." ~ " ",

LON NHAT. NHO NHAT I:UA HAM 50

B~t d~ng thirc va gia tri 16'n nhat, nho nhat cua ham s6 luon lit mQt chu d~ h~p d~n trong chuang trinh giang day va hoc t~p cua bQ men Toan a nha tnrong ph6 thong. Trong cac d~ thi men Toan cua cac ki thi tuyen sinh van Dai hoc, Cao d~ng, cac bai toan thuoc dang nay luon co mat, d~c biet trong nhirng nam g~n day no d~u

thuoc vao nlurng bai toan kho (thuong xuat hien a cau 5). -

Bai giang nay d~ cap d~n nhirng phuong phap Co' ban va thong dung nhAt d~ clurng minh b~t d5ng tlurc hoac tim gia tr] llyn nhAt va nho nh~t cua ham s6.

§ 1. so DVNG BAT DANG THUC COSI CHUNG MINH BAT DANG

, '" , , ..t 'J iii ., , ..t

THUC VA TIM GIA TRI LON NHAT, NHO NHAT CUA HAM SO

1. Cac ki~n thue co' ban

Bdt dimg thirc Cosi cho hai hodc ba s6

aJ N~u a, b la cac s6 khong am, khi do ta co: a r b rr --~ 'lab (I)

2

D~u bang trong ( 1 ) xay ra <=> a = b.

bl N~u a, b, c la cac s6 khong am, khi do ta co:

a+b+c~~ (2)

3

D~u bang trong (2) xay ra <=> a = b = c.

M9t dang thong dung cua bdt tlimg thtrc Cosi aJ N~u a, b la cac s6 dirong, thi

(I I) 1 1 4

(a+b) -+- ~4 hay -+-~-- (3)

a b a b a-s b

D~u biing trong (3) xay ra <=> a = b.

bl N~u a, b, c la cac s6 dirong, thi:

(I 1 I) 1 1 1 9

(a+b+c) -+-+- ~9 hay -+-+-~ (4)

abc abc a+b+c

D~u bAng trong (4) xay ra ¢:> a = b = c.

2. Cac dang toan co bin '"

Lop; 1: Cac bai toan su dung true tiep bat dang thirc Cosi

D~c di~m cua nhirng bai toan nay la co th~ su dung true ti~p ngay b~t d~ng thirc Cosi d~ clurng minh b~t d~ng tlurc trong d~, rna khong qua cac phep bi~n d6i

115

trung gian plurc tap. Voi nhirng bai toan nay cac s6 a, b (ho~c a, b, c) trong cac b!t d~ng thirc Cosi cho hai s6 (hoac ba s6) co th~ hra chon duoc ngay tir d~u bai,

Till du ] (Di thi tuyin sink D{,; "pc kh6; B - 2005)

Chung minh r~ng voi moi x E Ii<, ta eo:

( 12 )X ( 1 5 )" ( 20 )X

_ + _ + _ ~ 3x + 4x + 5x .

543

Khi nao b~t d~ng tlurc xay ra?

Ghii

, ,. ~

Ap dung bat dang tlurc Cosi cllo hai so, ta eo:

( Is2)X + ( 145)' >_:' (1.;:2)X ( 145.)X ( P )X ( 15)'

e : J hay.; +"4 ~2.l'; (1-)

D~lI bang troug ( 1 ) xay ra:

[12 ]'

(12)X ( 15" C;

~"5 = 4") ~. ~1 = 1 ~ x=O.

Lap luau hoan toan tirong t\r ta co:

c: r +( 230 r ~ 2.4' (2)

DAu bang trong (2) cling nhir trong (3) xay ra <=> x=O

Tir (1) (2) (3) suy ra (sau khi cong tung ve voi ve cua ba b~t d~ng tlurc)

[(1")' .(I-)X ("0)']

2 ; + ; + -3 ~ 2( 3' + 4" + 5:\ )

( P )' ( 15 )., ( "0)'

<=> ; +""4 + -3 ~3'+4'+S' (4)

DAu bang trong (4) xay ra khi va chi khi d6ng thoi co dAu b~ng xay ra trong (I) (2) (3) tire la khi va chi khi x =0.

Nhdn xet:

Dang tong quat cua bai toan tren la: Neu a, b, c ~ 0 thi:

a+b+c~Fab+Jbc"+j;;.

TII'd(l2: (Di thl tuyin sinh D{,; hpc kl,6; D - 2005)

Cho cac s6 dirong x, y, z thoa man xyz = 1. Chung minh r~ng:

JI + x3 + l JI + y3 + z3 ~I + z3 + x3 3 h3

"':""" __ _.O.._ + + ~ ,,_j.

xy yz zx

Khi nao d~u bAt d~ng tlurc xay ra?

Ghii

Theo b5t d~ng tlurc Cosi ta co:

1 + x3 + y3 ~ 3~l.x3 .y3 = 3xy .

116

Tit do suy ra:

JI + x3 + y3 J3

--'----- >--

xy - FY

D~u bang trong (I) xay ra <=> I = x' = / <=> x = y. Lap luan holm tol'lI1 nrong tu ta co:

JI + l + z3 > J3 (').

-'--~-- - -),

yz yz

(I)

zx

zx

D~lI bang trong (2) xay ra <=> y=z va d~u bang trong (3) xay ra <=> z=x. Cong tlmg v~ ( I) (2) (3) va co:

JI+x3,-y3 JI+y3+z3 JI+z3+x3 (I 1 IOJ

+ + ~ --+---- (4)

xy yz zx FY JYz j:;;.

D~u bang trong (4) xay ra khi va chi khi d6ng thai co d:1U bang trong (I) (2) (3), nrc la khi va chi khi x = y = x = 1 (chu Y do xyz = I).

L a i theo bAt dang thirc Cosi, ta co:

1 1 1 1

--+-+-~3 3(5)

FY ~ Fz;. ~ FY Fz Fz;.

(do xyz = I). D~lI bang trong (5) xay ra <=> x = y = z = I. Tir (4) (5) suy ra:

Jr-I +-x-3 -+-y-3 + JI + y3 + z3 + JI + z3 + x3 ~ 3J3 (6)

xy yz zx

D~u bang trong (6) xay ra <=> d6ng thai co d:1U bang trong (4) va (5) <=> x = y = z = I. Do la dpcm.

NJu,i11 xe!

Thi du 2 la di~n hinh cho plurong phap str dung tnrc ti~p b~t d~ng tlurc Cosi d~ chirng minh bAt d~ng tlurc.

TIIi d(1 3 (DJ thl tuyin sinh D{li II!,c kl,(jj D - 2008)

Cho x, y la cac s6 thuc khong am. Tim gia tri Ian nh~t va nho nh:1t cua bi~u tlurc sau:

(x - y )(1- xy]

p = 2 2 .

(I+x) (I+y)

Ghii

Do x, Y ~ 0, nen hi~n nhien ta co:

I( x - y )(1- xy)1 $; I( x + y)(1 + xy)1 = (x + y)(1 + xy] .

Vi the:

IPIJ(x-y~(1-xY~1 s (I+xy)(x+y) 2 (1) (1 + x) (I + yt [(x + y)(1 + xy)]

Theo b:1t d~ng thirc Cosi ta co: (x + °Y)(I + xy] ~ 2~"'( x-+----=y):-:(-I +-xy-=-) (2)

117

1 1 1

Tic (1)(2) suy ra: IPI~- =>_-~P~- (3)

4 4 4

K'~t hQ'P voi khi x = 1, y = 0, thl p=!,

4

khi x = 0, y = 1, thi P = _! ,

4

Tom lai, P d~t gia tri Ian nhAt = ± va dat gia tri nho nhAt khi P= -± ' Till dlJ. 4: (DR thl Illyin sill" D{li "{Ie Sai Gem k"tJi A - B 2007)

Cho a, b, e 1a ba s6 dirong thoa man a~+b2+e2=l. Tim gia tri 'nho n11At ella bieu

. ab be ea

time: P = - + - + - , e a b

Do a>O, b>O, e>O nen P>O va

a2b2 b2c2 c2a2

p2 = __ + __ + __ +2(a2 + b2 +c2)

c2 a2 b2

Ap dung bAt d~ng tlurc Cosi ta co:

a2b2 b2c2 2 a2b2 c2a2 2

--+-->2b --+-->2a'

2 2 _ 2 2 _ ,

c a c b

Tic do suy ra: P 2: 3(a2 + b2 + c2)

Do a2 + b2 + c2 = 1 => P22:3,

Vi P>O nen ta co: P 2: J3

, , J3

Diiu bang xay ra <=> a = b = e = - .

3

VA P IA " , h' I~ {;;3 khi a chi khi b J3

ay n tan gla tn non tat = " " I va c I 11 a = = c = - ,

, , , 3

Thl d{1 5: (DR I"; Illyin slnh Cao iliing Sir p"{lm Quang Bin" - 2006) Cho a 2:0, b 2:0. Chung minh 3a3 + 7b3 2: 9ab2,

Giiii

(I)

(2)

(3)

Theo bAt d~ng thirc Cosi ta co

3a3 + 7b3 = 3a3+ 3b3 + 4b3 ~ 3~36a3b6 = 3ab2 V36 (I) Do ab2 2:0, con if36 > 3 , nen tic (1) suy ra

3a3 + 4b3 2: 9ab2 (2) DAu bang trong (2) xay ra <=> ab' = O.

Ttrc Iii. trong hai s6 a, b co it nhAt mQt s6 bang 0,

Thl dlJ. 6 (Di I"; luyill sinh Cao iliing Ca klli luyin kim -2006) Cho a, b, c>O, Chung minh

a3 b3 c3

- + - + - ~ ab + be + ca ,

b c a

118

,nat

__ ... a cno tuong dirong vai b~t ding thirc sau:

(a: +abHb: +bc H ~ +ca)~2(ab+bc+ca) (I)

Theo b~t ding thirc Cosi ta co: .

a: + ab =a( a: + b )~a.2a = 2a' (2)

3

O~u bang xay ra <=> ~ == ab <=> a :::: b. b

b3 c3

Ttrong tu ta co: -+bc~2b2 (3) -+ca2:2c2 (4)

c b

oA~ bang trong (3), trong (4) xay ra tuong irng khi va chi khi b = c: c = a.

Cong tung v~ voi v~ cua (2) (3) (4) ta co:

VT (I)? 2(a2 + b2 + c2). (5)

oau b~ng trong (5) xay ra <=> d6ng thai co d~u bang trong (2) (3) (4) <=> a = b "" c.

Lai theo bAt d~ng thirc Cosi ta co:

2(a2 + b2 +c2) =(a2 + b2)+(b2 +c2)+ (c2 +a2) 2: 2(ab+ be + ca). (6) oAu bang trong (6) xay ra <=> a = b =c.

Tir (5) va (6) suy ra VT (I)? VP (I) =:> dpcm.

Odu b~ng xay ra <=> d6ng thai co ddu bang trong (5) (6). <=> a = b:::; c.

TII'd{l 7:

Cho hai s6 duong x, y thay d6i va thoa man di8u ki~n x + y ? 4. Tim gia tri ,hAt cua bi€u thirc:

\ co:

3x2 +4 2 + y3

A= +--

4x y2

(I)

dung bAt dAng thirc Cosi, ta co:

x 1 /xl

"4 +; 2: 2~4'; = 1.

)~ng trong (2) xay fa khi va chi khi: x 1

-=- <=> x==2. 4 x

(2)

119

Lai theo bAt dAng tlurc Cosi ta co: ~ + r + r ~ 33 ~.r.r == ~ .

y- 8 8 Y 8 8 4

I Y

DAll bang trong (3) xay ra <:::> - == - <:::> y == 3 .

/ 8

Lai co: x + y ~ 4 (gia thi~t)

Dfill bAng trong (4) xay ra <:::> x + Y = 4 .

Tu(2) (3)(4) ta co: A~ 1+2} +2=~.

4 2

(3 )

(4)

vsv A > ~

... - 2

- (5)

DAll bang trong (5) xay ra <:::> dong thai co dAu bang trong (2) (3) (4) <:::> x = y = 2.

Nhu th~ min A = 2_ <:::> x = y = 2. 2

Till tltl8

Cho x > 0, y > 0 va x + y = I. Clurng minh:

I I r;;

p== 1 1+-~4+2v3.

x + y xy

Ghli

Ta co x + Y = I ~ (x+y):' = I ~ x3 + yl + 3xy{x + y) = I ~ x' + i + 3xy = I.

• x3 + y3 + 3xy x3 + yJ + 3xy 3xy x3 + y3

V ay P = 1 3 + == 4 + 3 3 + . ( 1 )

x - + y xy x + y xy

Theo bc1t dAng tlnrc Cosi ta co:

333

xy + x +y >2J3 ~ dpcm

x3 + l xy-

, . {x+y=1

Dau bang xay ra <:::> 3 3 r:;::::'

x +Y ==-J3xy

TIIi tI(1 9:

Cho x>O, y>O va x2+l = I. Chirng minh

S=(I+X{I+~ )+(1+Y)(1+~)3J2+4.

Ghii

Ta co

S=(I+X)(t+J..)+(I+Y)(I+J..) =1+x+J..+~+I+J..+y+r.

Y x Y y x x

== (x +~) + (Y + +-) + (2 +~) + _!_(J.. + J..) + 2. (1)

... x _Y Y x 2 x x

Theo bAt dltng tlnrc Cosi ta co:

120

x + 2_ ~ 12 (2);

x

y+_l ~J2 2y

(3)

DAu b~ng trong (2) va (3) xay ra <> x == y == ~ . Lai theo bAt dAng thirc Cosi, ta co:

~+r~2 (4); 2_+'2_>_2_> 2 ==2J2 (5)

y x x y - FY - Jx:Z + l 1

.J2

DAlI b~ng trong (4) va (5) xay ra <=> x == y == ~. Thay (2), (3), (4), (5) vito (I) ta co:

S?3Ji+4. (6)

DAlI bang trong (6) xay ra <=> d6ng thai co dAu b~ng trong (2) (3) (4) (5) I

co x e y= J2'

TItI (/(1 10:

Cl O· I I I "> Clni . I ~ I

10 x, v, z> va -- + -- + - == .. • lUng mill 1 rang: xyz $ - .

• l+ x I+y l+ z 8

Do do theo bAt dAng tlurc Cosi, ta co:

,-----

_1_~2 xy (I)

l+ x (l+y)(l+z)

DAlI bang trong ( I) xay ra <=> _y- == _z_ <=> y == z .

1 +y I +z .

Lap luau tuong t~r, ta co

_1_ "> xz ("»

>.. -

I+y- (l+z)(l+x)

I -~2 I+z

xy (3)

(1+z)(l+y)

DAu bang trong (2) (3) xay ra <=> x == Z vii X == y. Nhfll1 v~ voi v~ (I) (2) (3) ta co:

I > 8 xyz

(l+x)(l+y)(l+z) - (l+x)(l+y)(l+z)

1

=> xyz $ - => dpcm. 8

DAti b~ng xay ra <=> x == y == z .

121

Loai 2: Sir dung bfrt d~ng thirc Cosi k~t hop voi bi~n d6i d~i s6

V&i cac bai t~p dang nay khong th~ ap dung tnrc ti~p bfrt d~ng thirc Cosi d~ clurng minh nlur cac bai t~p thuoc dang I. D~ co th~ sti dung diroc bfrt d~ng thirc Cosi, tnroc h~t ta cAn thuc hanh cac phep bien d6i dai s6, rna chu y~u la phep d~t An phu, Sau qua trinh bi~n d6i ta dua bfrt d~ng thirc cAn chirng minh v~ dang rna co th~ sti dung true ti~p diroc bfrt d~ng thirc Cosio

TIIi tI(1 1 (Di thi luyi" sinh D(li hoc kltai A-2007)

Cho x, y, z>O va xyz= I. Tim gia tr] nho nhfrt cua bieu thirc sau:

x 2 (y + z) l ( z + x) z2 ( x + y)

p= I.: r+ r: r:t- C" 1.:'

yvy+2z"z z"z+2x"x z"z+2yvY

Ghii Ap dung bAt d~ng thirc Cosi ta co:--

y + z ~ 2Fz ~ x2 (y + z) ~ 2xJx2yz = 2x../x (do xyz=l) V~y ta co:

x2(y+z)~2x../x (I); y2(z+x)~2yJY (2); z2(x+y)~2zFz .(3)

, ,2x../x 2yJY 2zFz

Tu (1 )(2)(3) ta co: P ~ I.: r: + t: r: + r: I.: .

YvY + 2zvz z"z + 2x"x z"z + 2yvY

Dfru bang trong (4) xay ra <=> d6ng thai co dfru bAng trong ( 1 ) (2) (3)

<=> x =y=z= 1

x../x = 4c + a - 2b

9

yJY = 4a+ :-2C . (5)

zFz = 4b+c-2a

9

(4)

{a = yJY + 2zFz

D~t b = zFz + 2xFz <=> c = x../x + 2yJY

2(4c+a-2b) 2(4a+b-2c) 2(4b+c-2a)

Tu(4)(5) suy ra: P~ + +---'-----"-

9b 9c 9a

~P~~[4(~+~+~)+(~+~+~)-6l. (6)

9 bca bca

Do a>O, b>O, c>O, nen lai theo bAt d~ng tlurc Cosi ta co:

~+~+~~3~~.~.~ =3

b cab c a

abc J~b~ b+~+;~3Vb'~'; =3

Tu (6) suy ra P ~ 2 (7).

Dau bang trong (7) xay ra <=> a = b = c va co dAu bang trong (4) <=> x=y=z=l.

V ~y min P = 2 <=> x = y :;:: z = I.

122

r" d{1 2: (D€ thi tuy2n si,," D{li "pc k"Ji A - 2009)

ho x>O, y>O, PO va thea man di~u kien xfx+y+z) =Jxyz, hung minh:

(X+y)3 +(x+y)' +3(x+y)(x+z)(y+z)s5(y+zf.

Ghii .

)~t a == x + y; b == x + z; C == y; khi do ta co a > 0, b > 0, c > 0 va:

a+b-c a+c-b b+c-a

x == 2 ;y = 2 ;z = 2

Tu gia thi8t x(x+y+z)=3yz, ta co:

a+b-c.a+b+c =3a+b-c.b+c-a

2 2 2 2

<::> (a + b)2 - c2 == 3( ab + ac - a2 + bc + c2 - ac - b2 - be + ab).

<::> a 2 + b2 - e2 + 2ab :::: 6ab - 3a 3 + 3c2 - 3b2 .

<::> e2 == a2 + b2 - abo

BAt d~ng thirc cAn clnrng minh:

(x+y? +(x+y)3 +3(x+y)(x+z)(y+z)s5(y+z)3. <::> a' + b' + 3abc 5 5c3.

Theo (I ) ta co:

c2 == a2 + b2 _ ab:::: (a + b)2 - 3ab .

Theo bAt dAng tlurc Cosi ta co:

ab 5 (a + b)2 4

Do do tir (3) co:

2 (a + b)2 (a + b)2

c2 2 (a + b) - 3 hay c2 2 ~--'--

4 4

Do a, b, c >0, nen tir (4) ta co:

a +b s zc.

DAu bang trong (5) xay ra <::> a=b, Taco:

(2) <::> (a + b)( a2 -ab + b2)+ 3abc 5 5c3

<::> (a + b )c2 + 3abc s5c3 (theo (I» <::>(a+b)c+3abs5c2 (6). (doc>O) Theo bAt dAng tlnrc Cosi va theo (4) ta co:

3abs~(a+b)2 s3c2. 4

Tir (7) va do c>O suy ra: (a + b)c 5 2c2 . Tir (7) (8) suy ra (5) dung => dpcm.

(I)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

(7) (8)

123

I I

I I

I I

I I

I I

Nhdn xet:

Trong bai t~p tren ta sir dung bAt d5ng thirc Cosi a dang dan gian nhat,

a +b 2: 2.Ja.b <=> (a + b)2 ~ 4ab.

Tuy nhien, phep bien d6i dai s6 a day dong vai tro rAt quan trong. TIIi tI{t 3:

Chung minh rang trong moi tam giac ABC, ta co:

abc ~ [b + a - c) (a + e - b) (b + e - a) , a day a, b. c lit ba canh ella tam giac.

Giiii

O~t x = b + e- a; y = a + e - b: z = a + b - e; Khi do x, y, z--O

, , y+zb x+y x+y

vataco: a=--; =--;c=--.

2 2 2

Tir do: abc2:(b+e-a)(a+e-b)(a+b-e).

<=> (y + z)(x + z)(y + x) 2: 6xyz. (1 )

Theo bAt dang tlurc Cosi, ta co:

jy+ z.> 2Fz

x+z~2fu x+y~2h'

Tir do slIY ra: (y + z)(x + y)(y + z) 2: Sxyz. V~y (1) dung ~ dpcm,

DAu bang xay fa <=> x = y = z <=> a=b=e

<=> ABC lit tam giac d~u.

Nhdn xet:

o day ta sit dung bAt d5ng thirc Cosi dang dan gian nhat: a + b ~ 2 j;ili voi a, b >0. Tuy nhien, pluroug phap bien d6i dai s6 d~ dira bai toan v~ dang co the ap dung duoc bAt dang tlurc Cosi moi quan trong.

TIIi tI(t 4: (DJ IIIi IlIyBII sill" D!Ii "!JC kluji A - 2006)

Cho hai s5 tlurc x 1: 0, y 1: 0 thay d6i va thoa man dieu kien (x + yjxy = x2 + y2 - xy.

Tim gia tr] Ion nhAt ella bi~lI tlurc:

1 1

A=-3 +3' x y

Giiii

0- 1 b 1 KI' de , " I'!

~t a= -; = - . 11 0 ur gia t net:

x y

" ,

(x + yixy = x-+ y-- xy, ta co

( I I) I 1 1 I , ,

- + - - = -, - - + -, <=> a + b = a- + b" - ab ( 1 )

a b ab a" ab b"

124

Taco: A=~+~=a3+b3 =(a+b)(a2-ab+b2)=(a+b)2 (do I l l). x y

Theo b~t d~ng tlurc Cosi ta co: (a + b)2 ~ 4ab => ab ~.!_ (a + b)~ . (2) 4

Do do: tir (I) (2) ta co

1 ) , 1 3 ) 1 ( )'

a+b=a-+b--ab=(a+br-3ab~(a+bt-- (a+bt =>a+b~- a s b ~

4 4

~ (a + b)2 - 4(a + b) < ° => ° ::s a + b:s4 (3)

Tlr(3) suy ra: A = (a + bi::s 16 (4)

D~u bang trong (4) xay ra <=> a + b = 4 va a = b <=> x = y = .!_. 2

Tom lai min A> 16 <=> x=y=.!_.

. 2

TIti tI(t 5

Cho x > 0, y > 0, Z > ° va xyz = 1. Tim gia tr] 10'n nh~t cua bieu tlurc:

1 1 1

p=, 2 + 2 ' +, 2 .

x " +2y +3 y +Zz" +3 z: +Zx +3

Gh\i

Ap dung bftt dang tlurc Cosi, ta co:--

{< + y2 ~ 2xy

y- + I ~ 2y

,. ') 1 1

Tir do suy ra: x-+ 2y- +3 ~ 2(xy+y+ 1) => 2 , ~ ( ) . (1)

x + 2y- + 3 2 xy + Y + 1

1 1

L~p luau tuong nr co, , ~ ---- (2)

y- + 2z~ + 3 2(yz + z + I)

1

-,---, -:S: -(---:-) .

z: + 2z- + 3 2 xz + x + 1

Dftu bang trong (I) (2) (3) xay ra khi va chi khi x = y =1; y = z = I; z = x = I. Cong tung v~ voi v~ cua (I) (2) (3) va co:

p ~.!_( 1 _ + 1 + 1 ) .

2 xy + y + 1 yz + z + 1 zx + x + 1

D~u bang trong (4) xay ra khi va chi khi x = y = z = 1.

Vi xyz = 1 nen vi~t lai ( 1 ) diroi dang:

1 (1 xv y 1

p <- + . +----"~-

- 2 xy + y + 1 xlz + xyz + xy xyz + xy + Y

1 (I xy y) 1

hay p~- ---+_. --+ =>p~-.

2 xy + y + 1 xy + Y + 1 xy + y + 1 2

(3)

(4)

(5)

125

v ~y Pmax = ~ <=> x= y = z = 1 . TItf dfl6:

Cho x, y, z >0. Chung minh

P= x + Y + z :S~.

2x + Y + x 2y + z + x 2z + x + Y 4

Giai

D~t A = 2x + Y + z; 8 = x + 2y + z; C = z + y + 2z Khi do

3 A - (8 + C) 38 - (C + A) 3C - (A + 8)

x = 4 ;y = 4 ;z = 4 .

VA P 3A-(8+C) 38-(C+A) 3C-(A+8)

~y - + +

4A 48 4C

=±[9-( ~ + ~H ~ + ~)-(~ + ~)]~~

~ dpcrn

Dftu bAng xay ra <=> A = 8 = C <=> x = y = z.

Loai 3: Sti dung bAt d~ng tlurc cc ban

(x + y)(_!_ + _!_):?: 4; (x + Y + z)(_!_ + _!_ +.!.):?: 9.

x Y x Y z

Rftt nhieu bai toan chung minh bftt d~ng thirc hoac tim gia tri Ion nhftt va nho nhAt cua ham s6 quy v~ hai bftt d~ng tlurc co ban noi tren. Vi th~ co th~ xem nhir viec sti dung hai bAt dang tlurc nay la mot trong nhirng each sti dung bAt d~ng thirc Cosi trong cac bai toan cu th~.

Till d{1 1: (Di thi luyJII sinh Dpi II!JC kltai A - 2005)

Cho x, y, z >0 va _!_ +.!. +.!. = 4. Chung minh:

x y z

----+ + :Sl.

2x + Y + z x + 2y + z x + y + 2z

Ap dung bAt d~ng thirc

.!. + .!. :?: _4_ (1) a day a>O, b>O a b a + b

(bftt d~ng thirc nay suy true ti~p tir hai bftt dfing tlurc Cosi

a + b ~ 2 Fab va .!. + .!.:?: ~), ta co

a b "\jab

1 I 4

--- + --:?: ----

x + y x + Y 2x + Y + z

Dau bAng cua ( I) xay ra <=> y = z.

Lai ap dung (1) ta co:

(2)

126

J_+J_~~_ va J_+J_~_4_ ~~+..!_+_I_~4(_I_+_I_). (3)

x y x+y x z x+ z x y z x+y y+ z

oAu b~ng trong (3) xay ra ~ x = y = z.

re (2) (3) ta co: ~ + J_ + _I_ ~ 16 (4)

x Y z 2x + y + z

oAu bang trong (4) xay ra ~ x = y = z.

1 2 1 16

L~p luau tuong tv ta co: _ + _ + _ ~ __ -

x y z x + 2y + z

1 1 2 16

_+_+_~---_

x y z x + y + 2z

Cong tung v~ (4) (5) (6) suy ra:

..!_ + J_ + _I_ ~ 4( 1 + 1 + 1 )

x Y z 2x + y + z x + 2y + z x + y + 2z

T' " I':' 1 1 1 4 A

If gla t net _ + _ + - = suy ra lIpcm.

x y z

, , 4

Oau bang xay ra ~ x = y = z = _ .

3

TIIi elfl}

Cho x > 0, y > 0, z > 0 va x + y + Z = I.

Tim gia tri Ian nlHit cua bieu tlurc: S = _x_ + _y_ + _z_ .

. x r I y+1 z+1

Vi~t lai S durri dang:

S= I-_I_+ 1 __ 1_+ I __ z_ =3_(_1_+_1_+_1_).

x+ I y+1 z-i l x t l y+1 z+1

Ap dung bAt d~ng tlurc Cosi ta co:

[(x + I) + (y + I) + (z+ I)J(_I- +_1_+_1_) ~9 x+ ] y+1 z t l

1 1 1 9

~--+--+--~- (do x+y + z= I)

x s l y+1 z e l 4

Tlr(l) suy ra S~~

4

, , 1

Dau bang trong (2) xay ra ~ x = y = z = _ . 3

• 3 1

Vay maxS = _ ~ x = y = z = -.

. 4 3

TIIi tI(1 3:

Cho a, b, c >0. Chung minh _a_ + _b_ + _c_ ~ ~ . b+ c c+ a a s b 2

(5)

(6)

(I)

(2).

127

Taco:

abc 3 abc 9

--+--+--~- <=>I+--+I+--+I+--~-

b+ c c+a a-r b 2 b +c c+a a-i b 2

2 (a + b + c )(_1_ + _I _ + _1_) ~ 9

b-i c c+a a v b

<=> [(b+ c)+ (c + a)+ (a + b)J(_I- +_1_ +_1_) ~9. (1)

b-e c c+ a a-i b

Thea b~t d~ng thirc Cosi co ban thi (I) dung => dpcm. D~u bang xay ra <=> a = b = c.

TIIi tI(14

Clurng minh r~ng trong moi tam giac ABC, ta co:

_1_ +_1_ + _1_ > 2(~ + ~ +~) p-a p-b p-c - abc'

a day a, b. c la ba canh, con P la rura chu vi tam giac.

Giai Thea bAt d~ng thirc Cosi co ban, ta co:

I I 4 4

--+--> =-

p-a p-b - (p-a)+{p-b) c·

DAu bang trong ( 1 ) xay ra <=> p - a = p - b <=> a = b. Tuong nr ta co:

(1)

1 I 4

--+--~p-a p-c b

I I 4

--+--~-. p-b p-c 'a

(2)

(3 )

DAu b~ng trong (2) (3) xay ra tuong irng khi a = b; b = c. Cong tung v~ (I) (2)

(3) suy ra dpcm.

DAu bang xay ra <=> a = b = c <=> ABC Ii! tam giac d~u. TIti (/(/5

Cho x > 0, y > 0 va x + y < I . Tim gia tri n116 nhAt cua bieu tlurc:

~ ~

x " y~ I

P=--+--+-.-+x+y.

I-x I-y x+y

Ta co the viet lai (P) a dang

x2 y2 I

P ={I +x)+-· -+(I+y)+-+---2

I-x . I-y x+y

1 I 1

=--+--+---2.

I-x I-y x+y

Thea bAt d~ng tlurc Cosi co bun ta co:

(I)

128

[(1- x)+(I-y)+(x + Y)il-I_+_I_+_I_)~9 I-x I-y x+y

I I I 9

~--+--+--~-.

I-x I-y x +y 2

ro (I )(2) suy ra P ~ ~.

2

D§u bang trong (3) xay ra <=> {X = y _ <=> x = y =.! .

1- x - 2x 3

V• . P 5 I

ay mill = - <=> x = Y =. -.

'·23

·(2)

(3)

Till t/(I 6

Cho x, y, zt > O. Tim gia trj nho nh§t cua bieu thirc

p=x-t+t-y +y-z+z-x. t+y y+z z+x x+ t

Ghli

Ta co: p=[x-t +I)+[t-y +I)+(Y-Z +I)+(z-x +1)--4

t+y y+z z+x . x+ t

= x + y + t+ z + x + y + t + z _ 4

t+y y+z z+x x + t

=(x + y)(_I_+_I_)+(z+ t)[_I_+_I_)-4. (-I)·

t+y z e x y+ z x+t

Theo b§t dang tlurc C6si co ban, ta co:

I 1 4 1 1 4

--+--> ._-+-->----

t s x z+x-x+y+z+t'y+z x+t-x+y+z+t

(x+y)(z+t)

Thay vao ( 1 ) ta co: P ~ 4 - 4 => P ~ 0 .

x+y+z+t

V~y P ~ O. M~t khac chang han khi x = y = z = t = I thl P = O. Do do Pm", = O.

LO\li 4: SU dung phep them bot khi str dung su dung b§t d~ng thirc C6si:

Co hai each them bot chinh: them bot h~ng sf> va them bot bi~u thirc chua bien. Xet cac thi du minh hoa sau day.

Till t/(lJ: (DJ tlt! II~l·J" sinh 010 (lting kllti A, B - 2005) Cho x ~ 2, y ~ 3, z ~ 4. Tim gia trj lon nh~t cua bieu tlnrc:

xy.Jz - 4 + .yz.Jx - 2 + zx~y - 3

P= .

xyz

. Giai

xy.Jz - 4 + yz.Jx - 2 + zx~y - 3

P= .

xyz

Taco:

(I )

129

j bot hang s6 va Slr dung bAt d~ng thirc COSI, 1i1 '_v. ~(Z_4)45(Z-4)+4 ~ ~ 5_!_

2 Z 4

I( ) (x-2)+2 ~x-2 1

'Jx-225 ~ 5--

2 x 2Ji

~(y-3)3 5 (y-3)+3 ~ ~ 5_1_

2 y 2J3

a: P 5 _!_(_I_ + _1_ + _!_) 2 Ji J3 2

(2)

rong (2) xay ra ~ x = 4, Y "':' 6, Z = 8;

p:::::i(~+ ~+k).

'0 va x + y + z::::~. Chung minh ring ~x+3y +~y+3z +2Jz+3x 53. 4

Giai

ich them bot h~ng s6 va theo bAt d~ng thirc C6si ta co

Vx + 3y :::: ~( X + 3y ).1.1 5 x + 3y + 1 + I :::: x + 3y + 2 (I) ·33

1,r::-:-:;: 3/( 3) I I Y + 3z + 1 + 1 Y + 3z + 22)

" Y T ')L ::::: V y + z . . $; :::::: (

3 3

ifi+3x :::::~(z+3x).1.15 z+3x+l+l::::: z+3x+2 (3)

3 3

.g nrng v~ (I) (2) (3) va do x + y + z= ~ suy ra dpC01. 4

{X + 3y:::::1

LU bang xay ra ~ Y + 3z ::::: I ~ x ::::: y ::::: Z ::::: j . z « 3x::::: I

30

Z3 Z3 Z2

3+3+1~32 . (3)

x x x

Cong tung v~ voi v~ cua (I) (2) (3) ta eo

2[ x: + y; + Z:) + 3 ~ 3[ x~ + < + z:). (4)

y z x y z x

oAu bdng trong (4) xay ra ¢::> d6ng thai eo dAu bang trong (I ) (2) (3) ¢::> x == Y == z. Lai theo bAt ddng thirc Cosi ta eo

[£+t_+£] >3 (5)

y2 z2 x2 - .

oAu bdng trong (5) xay ra ¢::> x = Y = z>0. Tu(4) (5) suy ra:

x 3 l z3 X 2 y2 z2 -+-+-~-+-+- (6) => dpcrn y3 z3 x3 i z2 x2

oAu bdng trong (6) xay ra co x = y = z >0. TIIi d(l 4:

Cho x, y, z >0 va x + y + Z = I. Chung minh

S=x+FY+~5,i. 3

Vi~t lai S diroi dang:

S = x + J_~x.4y + J_~x.4y, 1 6z .

2 4

TI b~ d' I' C" 'S x+4y x+4y+16x

leo at ang t nrc OSI, ta eo: 5, x + -- + ---=---

4 12

16(x + y+ z) 4

=> S 5, = - (do x + y + Z = I) => dpcrn.

12 3

16

x=-

21

{X=4Y=16Z.-.,. 4

oAu bdng xay ra ¢::> .......,. y-

x+y+z=1 -21

1

Z=-.

21

TIIi (/(/5:

Cho -I S x S I. Chung minh

S = ~I - x2 + ~I - x + ~I + x 5, 3.

Theo bAt dAng tlurc Cosi, ta eo:

~1_.x2 =~I-X.~I+X5,JI+X+~ (I) 2

131

~I- x = tlJ - x.l ~ ~ + 1 (2) 2

~I + x = ~I + x.1 ~ Ji.+;. + I (3) 2

Cong tung v~ (I) (2) (3), ta co

S~I+~ +Ji.+;. (4)

DAu b~ng trong (4) xay ra ~ d6ng thai co dAu b~ng trong (I) (2) (3) ~ x=o.

Lai co: ~ =J(I-x).1 ~(I-;)+l,

J(I + x) = J(I + x) + I ~ (1 +;) + I .

Tir do: ~ + Ji.+;. ~ 2. (5)

DAu bang trong (5) xay ra ~ x = o. Tir (4) (5) di d~n S::; 3 (6) => dpcm . DAu bang trong (6) xay ra ~ x = o. Till t/(l 6:

Cho x, y, z >0 va xyz=l , Chung minh r~ng

x3 y3 z3 3

p= +. + >-

(l+y)(l+z) (l+z)(l+x) (1+x)(l+y)-4·

Ghii Ap dung bAt d~n~ tlurc Cosi, ta co:-

x3 l+y l-r z x3(1+y)(l+z)

---- + - + - > 33 ____;:__~--"-

(1 + y) (1 + z) 8 8 - 64 (1 + y)( 1 + z)

x3 1+ Y 1 + z 3

( )( )+-+-~-x.(I)

I+y l-i-z 8 8 4

hay:

L~plu~n tuong ttr, ta co:

y3 1+ z 1 + x 3 2

(l+z)(l+x) +-8-+-8-~4Y'( )

z3 I + x 1 + Y 3 (3)

-~--+-+->-z

(l+x)(l+y) 8 8 - 4 .

Cong tung v~ (l )(2) (3), ta co: P + % ~ ~(x + y + z) (4)

Lai theo bAt dAng tlurc Cosi, ta co: x + y + z ~ 3~ = 3 (do xyz = I) (5) Tir(4) (5) suy ra: P~ ~ => dpcm.

4

D~u bang xay ra ~ x = y = z = 1.

132

TId d(l 7:

Cho x, y, z>O va FY + JYz. + ji;. = 1. Chung minh ring:

x2 y2 z2 1

S=_-+-_+-_~-.

x+ y y+ z z+ x 2

Giai

2

Ap dung b~t d~ng thirc Cosi, ta co: _x_ + x + y ~ x (1) x+y 4

Y2 y s z

-_+-_~y (2)

y+z 4

z2 z+ X -_+-_~z. (3)

z s- x 4

Cong tung v~ (I )(2)(3) va co: S ~ x + y + z . (4)

. 2

Lai ap dung b~t d~ng tlnrc Cosi, ta co:

x + y ~ 2J;y;y +z ~ 2Fz;z+ x ~ 2.[;;.

V~y: x+y+z~J;y+JYz.+ji;. =1.(5)

. Tu (4)(5) suy ra: S ~ _!_ => dpem

2

~ ~ . 1

Dati bang xay ra <=> x = y = z = -

3

Nh(1Il xe!

Trong cac thi du 6, 7, 8 ta dii str dung phep them bot bieu thirc chua bien khi

Slr dung b~t d~ng thirc Cosio TIIi d(18

CI I' b ~ d ,1 I I J Ch' . h ~

10 x, y. z a a so uong va - + - + - =. ung mill rang:

3x 3Y 3z

9" 9Y 9z 3x + 3Y + 3z

---+ + >----

y; + 3Y+z 3Y + 3HZ 3z + 3x+y - 4

Giai D~t a=J"; b = JY; c=J" => a, b, c> O.

Tir gia thiet ta co: 3x+y + 3Y+z + 3z+x = 3"Yz <=> ab + be + ea = abc (J) Khi do b~t dAng thirc cAn chirng minh co dang nrong dirong:

a2 b2 e2 a + b + c

--+--+--~---

a + be b + ca c + ab 4

a3 b3 c3 a+b+c

<=> + +-->--_

a 2 + abc b2 + abc c2 + abc - 4

<=> aJ + b3 + z3 ~ (a+b+c) (2)(do(J».

(a+b)(a+c) (b+c)(b+a) (c+a)("c+b) 4

133

Theo bAt dAng thirc Cosi, ta co:

a3 a + b a+ c 3a

--.,----+--+-->- (2)

(a+b){a+c) 8 8 - 4

b3 b+ c b+ a 3b

-----+--+-->- (3)

(b+c){b+a) 8 8 - 4

c3 c +a c+b 3c

--:---.,......,.---.,.. + -- + -- > - . (4)

(c+a){c+b) 8 8 - 4

Cong tung v~(2) (3) (4) => 2 dung => dpcm.

Dl1u bang xay ra <=> a = b = c = 3 <=> x = y = z = I.

§2. SU DVNG CHIEU BIEN THIEN HAM s6 DE CHUNG MINH BAT DANG THDC vA TIM GIA TRJ LON NHAT, NH6 NHAT eVA HAM s6

Day la mot trong nhirng phirong phap co ban d~ chirng minh bAt dAng tlurc, D~ sti dung phuong phap nay nguoi ta ti~n hanh nhir sau:

- V6i m6i bl1t d~ng thirc hay chon mot ham s6 thich hop (cac ham s6 nay thirong co th~ thay ngay tu dAu bai, hoac sau mot vai phep bien d6i don gian Sf tim ducc no).

- Khao sat chien bien thien ham s6 vira tim dircc tren mien xac dinh cua no (mien xac djnh nay duoc tim thl1y dua vao di~u kien cua dAu bai). Thong thirong ta sti dung dao ham d~ I~p ra bang bi~n thien.

- Tir buoc 2 Sf cho ta lui giai cua phep chtrng minh bl1t dAng tlurc, hoac gia trj 1611 nhl1t, nho nhl1t cua ham s6 cAn tim.

TIIi (/1,l1: (Bi thi luyill sinh D(li IIpc kllJi B - 2009) Tim gia tri 16n nhftt va nho nhAt cua bi~u thirc:

A = 3( x4 + y4 + x2y2) _ 2( x2 + y2) + I,

voi x, y la cac s6 thoa man di~u kien: (x + y? + 4xy ~ 2 .

Giii

Dua vao bl1t d~ng thirc hi~n nhien (x + y)2 ~ 4xy , nen nr

(X+y)3 + 4xy ~ 2 => (x+yi + (x+Yi~ (X+y)3 + 4xy ~2 => (x+yr' + (X+y)2 - 2 ~ 0

=> [(x + y) -I J[ (x + y)2 + (x + y) + 2 ] ~ 0 (I)

2 .

Do (x + y)2 + ( x + y) + 2 = [( x + y) + _!_] + 2. > 0 va tir (I) suy ra: x+y ~ I.

·2 4

V~y n~u c~p (x, y) thoa man yeu cAu dAu bai thl x + y ~ 1 (2) Ta bien d6i A nhir sau:

A = 3( x4 + y4 + x2l) - 2( x2 + y2) + 1

134

(X2 + y2)2

Do x4 + y4 ;::: nen tu (3) suy ra:

2

A;:::~(x2+y2)2 +~(x4+y4)_2(x2+y2)+1

2 . 4

hay A;::: ~ ( X 2 + y2 ) 2 - 2 ( X 2 + y2 ) + I.

Vi x2 + y2;::: (x + y)2 nen tu (2) ta co x2 + y2;:::_!_.

2 . 2

Dat tilt) = 2 r' - 2t + Ivai t ;::: _!_

. 4 2

Ta co f'(t)= 2t - 2 Tir do ta co bang bien thien sau : 2

f(t)

4 9

V~y minf(t)=f(_!_)=~ (4)

t~~ 2 16

2

Tir (4) suy ra A 2: _2__ . Mat khac ta d~ thfry khi x = y = _!_ thl A = ~.

16 . 2 16

Tom lai min A = 196 (va co th~ thfry di~u do xay ra <=> x = y = i). Tid t/{I 2 (Di 1M tuyi" sinh D{li /'(Jc k/,6i D - 2009)

Cho x, y 2: 0 va x + y = I. Tim gia trj Ian nhfrt va nho nhAt cua bieu thirc:

S = (4x2 + 3y)( 4y2 + 3x) + 25xy .

Giai

Ta co:

. S=(4x2 +3Y)(4Y2 +3x)+25XY =16x2y2 + 12(x3 +l)+34xy

= 16( x2 + y2) + 12( x + y)( x2 - xy + y2) + 34xy

= 16x 2l + 12[ (x + y)2 - 3xy ] + 34xy (do x+y = I) = 16x2y2 - 2xy + 12 (I)(cung do x + Y = 1).

D~t xy = t ta co: (do x 2: 0; y 2: 0)

135

( )2

o 5 xy 5 x + Y = _! => 0 5 t 5 _! .

4 4 4

Vi th~ xet ham s6 f(t) = 16e - 2t + 12 vci 05 t 5 _!

. 4

Ta c6: f '(t) = 32t - 2.

Do d6 ta co bang bien thien sau

t 0

o

+

16 4

f'(t)

f(t) ~ /

V• . f f( 1) 191

~ymt::~r)= 16 =16

m~rr =rnax {f(O);f(±)}~max{12;2;}~2;.

Gia tr] nho nhAt cua S dat duoc

1 {X+Y=1 [x=2+J3;y=2-J3

<=:> t = - <=:> 1 <=:> 4 4

16xy = 16 x = 2 - J3 . y = 2 + J3 .

4' 4

., . I ' ~. d d 1 {X + y = 1 1

Gla tq all nhat cua S at UQ"C <=:> t = - <=:> . 1 <=:> x = y = - .

. 4 xy =- 2

4

Till ci{, 3 (Di thi I"yin sin" Cao tllillg kll6i A, B - 2009) Cho 0 < a < b < 1. Chung minh: a 2 In b - b2 In a> In a -In b.

Ghii

Ta c6: a2 In b - b2 In a> In a -In b <=:> In b( a2 + I) > In a (I + b2)

In a In b (1)

<=:> --<--

a2+1 b2+1'

Xe I . ~ fit ) In t , . 0 1

et lam so t = --2 ,vO'! < t < .

1 + t

1 + t2

---- - 2t In t 2 2 I

Ta c6: f'(t) = t = 1 + t - 2t .., n t . (2)

(l+t)2 t(l+t2r

136

~ ~ I + r' - 2t21nt > 0 => f'(t) >0 V 0 < t < 1. • .,.y nt) la ham s6 d6ng bi~n tren (0~1). Do O<a<b<l nen

Ina Inb

f(a) < f(b) hay -2-- < -2-'

. a -s l b +1

V~y (1) dung => dpcm.

Tid til! 4: (Di thi luyin sin" Cao d&ng kl,6i A, B - 2008) Cho x, y lit cac so thirc va thoa man Xl + l::= 2.

Tim gia tri Ian nh~t va nho nh~t ella bi~u thirc: p:::: 2( x3 + l) - 3xy .

Ghii

P :::: 2 ( x + y) ( X 2 - xy + y2) - 3 xy = 2 ( x + y) (2 - xy] - 3 xy ~. ( 1 )

( )2

T· x + Y - 2 . h~ khi d~ + hl

a co: xy:::: 2 ' VI t e sau I ~t t = x y, t I

( t2 - 2) t2 - 2 3 3 2 3 3 2

P=2t 2--- -3-- =4t-t +2t--t +3 =-t --t +6t+3.(2)

2 2 2· 2

( )2 .

_ • ,2 2 x+y 2

Rorangtaco: x +y ~ =>(x+y) 54

2

=> -2 sr s z.

Til do xet ham s6 f(t) = -e -~t~ + 6t + 3 voi -2 ~ t ~ 2 => f'(t}> -3t2-3t+6. 2

Ta co bang bien thien sau:

t -2

f(t)

2

f(t)

V~y maxf(t)=f(I)==~,

[-2;2] 2

min f(t):::: min {f(-2);f(2)} = min{ -7;1} =-7 [-2;2]

[ 1+J3

13 x2+ 2=2 x=--

1 do max P = -'- <=> { y <=> 2

2 x+y=I I-J3

y=-- 2

[ I-J3

ho~c x = 2 r:; 1 + '1/3 y=--.

2

. {x2 + y2 :::: 2{X ==-1

nun P = -7 <=> <=>

x+y=-2 y==-I

137

Thi d{l 5: (IJi II'; luyin sin" IJpi I,pc kl,ai B - 2007) Cho x, y, z >0. Tim gia trj nho nhAt cua bi~u tlurc:

p= x(~+_1 )+y(r+_l )+z(~+_1 ).

2 yz 2 ZK 2 xy

x2 y2 z2 x2 +y2 +z2

Taco: P=-+-+-+ . (1)

2 2 2 xyz

Ap dung bAt d~ng tlnrc Cosi, ta co: x 2 + y2 + Z2 ~ xy + zy + zx . Tir do theo (1) thi:

P X 2 y2 z2 xy + yz + zx ~ - + - + - + _.:___;:__-

2 2 2 xyz

=>p~( x; +~H~ ++H ~ +H(2)

oAu bang trong (2) xay nl <=> x = y = Z. 2

Xet ha ~fir) t 1 ,. 0

et am so \ t = - + - val t>

2 t

c , , _ 1 t3-1 (t-l}(t2+t+l)

Ta co. f (t) - t - - = -- = --"":""""'---'-

t2 t2 t2

00 e + t + 1 >0 V t (noi rieng V t>O, nen ta co bang bi~n thien sau:

t 0

f;(t

f(t)

V~y min f'(t) = f(l} = ~ tir do suy ra :

(o;+«» 2

x2 1 3 y2 1 3 z2 3

-+-~-;-+-~-;-+-~-. (3)

2 x22 y22 z2

Tir (2) (3) suy ra: P ~ 2.. (4)

2

oAu bing trong (4) xay ra <=> x = y = z = 1.

00 do min P = 2. <=> x = y = z = 1.

2

T'" d{l 6 (IJi thi luyin sin" IJpi "pc k"ai D - 2007)

. Cho a ~ b> O. Chung minh ring: (28 + 218 r ~(2b + 21b r

138

Giai

Taco: (2a+ 21a J ~(2b+ 21b J (I)

(1+4a)h (1+4b)a ( )b ( )a In(I+4a).ln(1+4b)

<=> s <=> 1+ 4a s 1+ 4b <=> s ---'----'-

2<1+b 2a+h . a b

(do a, b>O) (2)

In (I + 4x)

Xet ham s6 f(x) = . voi x> O.

x

4 x In 4 x - ( 4 x + I) In (4 x + I)

Ta co: f '(x) = < 0 \Ix> O.

x2(4x+I)

V~y f(x) 1<\ ham nghich bi~n khi x>O. Do a ~b>O nen ta co: f(a) ~ f(b). V~y (2) dung => dpcm. D~u bang xay ra <=> a = b ..

Till d(ll1:

Cho x > 0, y > 0, Z > 0 va thoa man di~u kien x + y + Z ~ ~. Tim gia tri nho 2

h~ , J b' ~ I' P I I I

n at cua leu t mc: = x + y + Z + - + - + -.

x y Z

Giai Theo b~t d~ng thirc Cosi, ta co:

(I I I) I I I 9

(x+y+x) -+-+- .?9 =>-+-+-?

x y Z x y Z x+y+z

9

P?x+y+z+ .(1)

x+y+z

D~u bang trong (1) xay ra <=> x = y = z

D~t t= x+y+z, khi do 0< t ~ % .

Xet ha ~fi() 9"0 3

et am so t = t + - VO'l <t ~ -.

t 2

2

T 'f() I 9 t -9 T 'b' b'~ h'·

a co t = -- 2 = -2- . a co ang len t len:

t t

t

o

3

3

V~y min f(t) =f(%) = I; .

139

V" . p 15 3

~y mm = - ¢:> t = - ¢:> x = Y = z = -.

22· 2

TIIi (11;1 7: (D2 thi tuyin sinh D{li hpc kha; B - 2004)

T' ... J • h~ . h' h~ . h' ~ In x2 "d [I 3] irn gra tn on n at va non at cua am so: y = -- tren O~Jl ;e.

x .

Giai

1 2

21n x. - x -In x In x (2 -In x)

Ta co: y' = x = _--0... __ .s:

x2 x2

Tic do co bang bi~n thien sau:

x J e e
Inx 0 + I +
2-1nx + 0 -
y' 0 + 0 - 2

.y ~~

V ~y = max y = y ( e2 ) = ; ¢:> x = e2 .

[1;e3] e

Miny=min miny=min{Y(J);y(e3)}=min{0; ~}=O¢:>X=I.

[1;e3] e

Till dl;l 8: (D2 tlli tuyin s;,,11 D{li IIpc kllai D - 2003)

Tim gia tr] Ion nh~t va nho nh~t cua ham s6 y = ~ tren doan [- 1 ;2]. x2 + I

Giai ~_(X+I)~X

X2 + 1 I-x

Ta co y' = ----~-~___;_~=---==

x2 +1 (x2 +l)~

Tic do ta co bang bi~n thien sau:

'x -I 1 2

y'

+

o

y V~y maxy =y(]) =.)2; miny =min{y( -1);y(2)}= min{o; ~} =0.

[-1;2] [-1;2] ...;5

]40

TIIi (/(1 9: (Bi thi luyi" sinh Bpi IJpc khai B - 2003) Tim gia trj Ion nhat va nho nh§t cua ham s6:

;=x+~4-x2 voi-2~x~2.

Giai

T ' '1 x ~-x

a eo:-y= - =

~4-x2 ~4-x2

Khi -2 ~ x ~ 0 thi ~ 4 - x2 - X > 0

Khi 0 ~ x ~ 2, ta co: (4-x2) _x2 = 4-2x2. Do do ta co y' > 0 khi 0 ~ x < 2 J2

va y' < 0 khi J2 < x ~ 2 .

Tom Iai ta co bang bi~n thien sau:

x

-2

o

2

y'

+

+

o

y V~y max y = y (J2) = 2J2 ;

Min y = min {y( -2);y(2)} = min {-2;2} = -2.

Nhdn xet:

Ta co th~ giai nhir sau:

Do-2~x~2 ~ x+~4-x2 ~-2 va y(-2) =-2 V~y miny =2

f)~ tim gia trj Ion nh§t ta se Slr dung b§t dAng thirc Bunhiaeopski.

Binh lU(II1: Voi cac thi du 5, 7. 8, 9 vi~e Slr dung tnrc ti~p phuong phap chieu bien thien ham s6 d~ giai bai toan la ro rang va qua don gian,

Trong cac thi du 4, 3, 2, 1 va IOta thirong Slr dung d~t bi~n phu d~ co ham s6 tirong ling. Khi d{it ~n phu, di~u hru y la cAm tim mien xac dinh eho bi~n moi do.

Thi e1{1 10: (Bi II'; luyin sinh Cat) ddng Giao thong V{in I{;; - 2005) Cho x, y. ~O va x+y= 1. Tim gia trj Ion nh§t va nho nh§t cua bi~u thirc:

P = 32"+ 3) .

Ghli

Ta co y = l-x, tir do P = 32x + 31-x = 32x + ~ voi 0 ~ x ~ 1. 3

f)~t t = 3\ khi do 1 ~ t ~ 3.

xe h' ~ f() , 3 f' () 2 3 2t3 - 3

et am so: t = t- + - ~ t = t - 2 = -2- .

t t t

Tir do co bang bi~n thien sau:

141

f(t)

3

t

f(t)

o +

------ --------

V~y max P = max f(t)

{X -I

= max {f(I);f(3)}=max{4;IO}=IO~t=3~ -.

ISts3 y = 0

(1%) ~ 1% X=IOg31%

MinP = min f'(t) = f 3 i = 33 .2. ~ t = 3 i ~ 2

1:<;1:<;3 2 4 2 1%

y = I -log3 3 -. 2

§3. cAc PHUONG PHAP KHAc CHUNG MINH BAT DANG THUC vA TiM GIA TRJ LON NHAT, NH6 NHAT CVA HAM s6

Trong muc nay, chung tai d6 c~p d~n mot s6 plurong phap khac d~ chirng minh bAt dAng thirc va tim gia tr] Ian nhAt, nho nhAt cua ham s6. M~c du cac bai t~p Slr dung nhirng phirong phap nay hoac la chua co mat, hoac la co mat chi m(>t, hai IAn trong cac ki thi tuy~n sinh vao Dai hoc va Cao dAng trong nhirng nam gAn day. Nhirng chung tai nghi rdng phuong phap rna s~p duoc gioi thieu 6 day hl rAt co ich trong vi~c clumg minh bAt dAng thirc va tim gia trj Ian nhAt va nho nhAt cua ham s6. Vi~c Slr dung no d~ giai cac hili toan trong cac ki thi tuyen sinh s~p toi la kha nang hoan toan hien thirc va co tinh kha thi Ian.

a. Phuong plltip miin gla ITi /zam sa iii cJllrng min" hal iI/lng 11,1« va lim gid ITi Idn n"al va n/ziJ n/za, cila Ilam sa.

Phuong phap nay d~c bi~t hiiu hieu d~ tim gia tr] Ian nhAt va nho nhAt cua cac ham s6 co dang sau day (ho~c cac dang khac rna co th~ dira v6 chung):

f(x)= als~nx+blcosx+cl ;f(x)= alx~+blx+cl .

a2 S1l1X + b2 cosx + C2 a2x~ + b2x + C2

D~ giai cac bai roan nay, ta ti~n hanh theo Iuoc db sau day:

Gia Slr Yo la m(>t gia tr] tuy Y cua ham s6. Khi do phirong trinh sau (~n x) f(x) = yo (I) co nghiem.

Tir dang cua (I) rna ta co cac di6u kien thich tu;Yp. Noi chung cac di~u ki~n nay eo dang a ~ yo ~ p. (2)

Tir (2) suy ra max f(x) = p va min f(x) = a.

142

TIll (11;11: (Bi thi luyin sinh B(li hoc kllai B - 2008) Cho x2 + y2 = I.

, 2(x2+6xy)

Chung minh rang: -6 s 2 s 3 .

I +2xy+2y

Giiii

Vi x2 + l = I, nen dtra bAt d~ng thirc da cho v~ dang sau:

2(x2 +6xy)

-6~ 2 2~3.(I)

x +2xy+3y

Xet hai kha nang:

- N~u y = 0 (khi do x = I). Luc nay (I) hi~n nhien dung vi no co d~ng-6 < 2 < 3

- N~u y #- 0, khi do:

[( )2 J

x x

2 - +6-

Y Y 2t2 + I2t , .

(I) ~ -6 s 2 ~ 3 ~ .,...6 ~ 2 s 3 vat V t e lR

(x) x . t + 2t + 3

- +2-+3

Y Y

2

G· I' .. " , . I' ~ fi( ) 2t + I2t .. Tlb

91 m a gra tn tuy y cua lam so t = 2 vat t e ~.

t +2t+3

. Khi do phuong trinh sau (~n t) 2t2+I2t

---=m

t2 +2t+3

(2)

co nghiem. Do e+2t+3 >0, 'It eJR,nen

(2) ~2t2 +I2t=mt2 +2mt+3m

~ (m - 2)t2 + 2{ m - 6)t + 3m = 0 . (3) N~u m = 2 thl ro rang (3) co nghiern.

N~u m #- 2, khi do (3) c6 nghiern khi va chi khi

6'=(m-6)2-3(m-2)m~0~m2+3m-18:S0~-6:sm:S3 (m #-2) Tom Iai ta co: -6:S m:S 3.

, 2(x2 +6xy)

Dieu do co nghla Iii: -6 s 2' 2 s 3 ~ dpcm.

x +2xy+3y

oAu b~ng ben trai xay ra khi: m = 3 <=> t2 - 6t + 9 = 0 ~ t = 3

{X2 +y2 =1 [x= lo ; y= Jw

~ x ~

- =3 3 -I .

Y X=- ../10; y= ../10'

Ph&n con lai (dAu b~ng ben phai xay ra) xin danh cho ban doc.

143

TIll d(t 2:

1m ' 1 2sinx+cosx+1 2

Chung minh rAng voi moi x E ~, ta co: -_ ~ ~ .

2 sinx - 2cosx + 3

Giai

G· I' ., ., , . I' ~ fir) 2sinx+cosx+1 r » IR Q1 m a gra tn tuy y cua lam so: \x = . . vm x eo .

s II1X - 2 cos x + 3

Kh'd' 1 inh (~ ) Zsin x +cos x+J (I)

i co p urong trin sau an x: . =m

s II1X - 2 cos x + 3

co nghiem. Do sinx-2cosx + 3 ~ 3 - J5 > 0 V x, nen

(I) <=> 2sin x + cosx +1 = m(sinx + 2cosx + 3) ¢:> (2-m)sinx+ (l+2m)cosx = 3m-I (2)

Theo Iy thuyet phuong trlnh hrong giac (phirong trlnh b~c nhAt d6i voi sinx va cosx thl (2) co nghiem:

2 ( )2 ( )2 2 1 , ,

<=> (2 - 111) + 1 + 2m ~ 3m -I <=> .2m -3m-2 ~O <=> -- <m ~2. Do la dpcm.

2

Chit y: DAu bang ben phai xay ra <=> m = -..!.. <=> sinx = -I (theo (2» 2

7t

<=> x=--+k27t,k EZ

2

Ban doc nr xet khi nao dAu bang ben phai xay ra!

b. PIIII'l1llg pluip s,i' df;lng bAI i/(ing 111I1'C Bunhiacopski

B~t d~ng thirc Bunhiacopski la met bAt diing thirc cling rAt thong dung chi sau b~t d~ng thirc Cosio M~c du no chi xu At hien mot I~n trong cac d~ thi, nhung khong VI th~ rna ta xem nhe cac dang bai t~p thuoc loai nay.

Till dft 1 (DJ II'; I,!yln sin" Bpi I,pc kl,ai !l- 2003)

Tim gia tri Ian nhat va nho nhat cua ham so:

f(x)=x+J4-x2 tren mi~n-2~x~2.

Giai

Do x ~ - 2 nen hi~n nhien ta co: f(x) ~ -2 voi V x E IR. M~t khac f(-2) = -2 => min nx) =-2

Ta s~ Slr dung bAt diing thirc Bunhiacopski d~ tim gia tr] Ian nhAt cua ham s6. Ap dung Bunhiacopski voi hai day:

x; ~ 4 - X 2 va I; 1 ta co:

2 2 {f ( x) ~ 2 J2

[x2+(4-x2)J(12+12)~(x+.J4-X) =>8~(x+.J4-x) => f(J2)=2J2

- .

V~y max f'(x)> 2J2 .

-2sxs2

Chily:

1/ Hay so sanh voi loi giai Slr dung phuong phap chi€u bi~n thien ham s6.

144

21 Cac ban hay giai thich vi sao khong sir dung diroc bAt dAng tlurc Bunhiacopski d~· tim gia trj be nhfrt?

(Vi theo bfrt d~ng thirc Bunhiacopski thl f(x):::: 2J2 nhung khong tAn tai Xc rna f(xo) == -2J2 ! Tai sao?)

Tllj d{l2:

Cho x, y, z; la cac s6 thoa man di~u kien xy + yz + zx == 4. Chung minh:

4 16

x"+y +z,,~-

3

Giai

Ap dung bfrt d~ng tlurc Bunhiacopski cho hai day s6 2 2 2 'I 1 1

x ,y ,z . va , ,

Ta co: (x4 + l + z .. )( 12 + 12 + 12) ~ (x2 + y2 + z2/

=>3(x4+y4+z4)~(x2+l+z2/ .(1)

, , x2 y2 z2

Dau bang trong (I) xay ra <=> - == - == - <=> x2 = y2 = z2 .

1 1 1

Lai ap dung bAt dAng tlnrc Bunhiacopski cho hai day s6: x, y, z va y, z, x ta co:

(x2 + l +z2 )(l + z2 + x2)~(xy + yz+zx)2

=>(x2 +y2 +z2t ~(xy+yz+zx)2==16(2)

(do xy+yz+zx==4)

oAu b~ng trong (2) xay ra <=> ~ = r = ~ .

y z x

16

Tir (I) (2) suy ra: X4 + y" + z4 ~ - => dpcm.

3

xy + yz + zx == 16 [ 2J3

x2 ==y2 =z2 x=y=z=-3- .

oAu bang xay ra <=> <=>

x y z 2J3

-=-=- x =y=z=---.

y z x 3

TIll d{l3

Cho x, y, z>O. Chung minh:

_x_ + _y_ + _z_ ~ I. Y + 2z z + 2x x + 2y

Giai

Ap dung bAt d~ng tlurc Bunhiacopilicho hai day

~,~ y ,J Z va Jx(y+2z),Jy(z+2x),Jz(x+2y),

V~ z+2x x+2y .

ta co:

145

(_x_ +_y_+_Z_)[ x(y + 2z)+ y(z+2x)+z(x + 2y)] ~(x + y + Z)2 y+2z z+ Zx x+2y

(X y Z) (x + y + Z)2

~ --+--+-- > (1)

y-r Zz z+2x x+2y - x(y+2z)+y(z+2x)+z(x+2Y)

DAu bang trong ( I ) xay ra

x

z

y

<=> y + 2z = ;-~-2~ = x + 2y <=> x = y = z.

x{2+2z) y(2+2x) z(2+2y)

( )2

x+y+z 2 , ,

Ta co VP (I) = ( ) ~ I (2) do x + y- + r: ~ xy + yz + zx.

3 xy+ yz+ zx

DAu bang trong (2) xay ra <=> x = y = z. ro (I) (2) suy ra dpcm.

D~lI bang xay ra <=> x = y = z.

c. Plurang pluip su (i(lIIg ill'{tng giac

Trong mQt s6 tnrong hop nguoi ta co th~ d6i bien d~ dira bieu thirc trong b~t dAng tlurc, hoac trong ham s6 cAn I~y gia trj 1611 nh~t, nho nh~t v~ dang IIlQ11g giac. SU dung cac phep bien d6i luong giac co th~ lam cho viec clurng minh b~t dAng thirc hoac tim gia trj Ian nhat, nho nh~t d~ dang hon,

Hai phep d6i bien thong dung, va hay dung fa: D~t x = sin t (hoac x = cos t); x = tan t (hoac cot t)

Till til! 1 (Di thi luyin sinh Dai hoc kl16i B - 2003)

, , ,

Tim gia tri Ian nhat va nho nhat cua ham s6:

f(x) = x + ..14- x2 tren doan [-2; 2]

Ghii

D 2 2,', I ~ dW • (1t 1t)' d' ,

0- :s x :s nen co t ie ~t x = sm t -"2 s t ~"2 til 0 ta co:

max f'(x) = max F(t); min f(x) = min F(t) , a day

-2sxs2 -~$XS~ -2sxs2 -~sts~

2 2 2 2

F(t) =2sint+J4-sin2t =2sint+2Icostl=2sint+2cost .

(vi khi (-.:: ~ t ~.::) thi cost >0

. 2 2 -

~ [cos tl = cos t.

'Do do F(t) = 2v'2cOS( t - ~). (I)

. 1t 1t 31t 1t 1t

Khl --~t~-~--~t--~-

2 2 4 4 4

:::)_.J2 ~cos(t-2:)~1 (2)

2 4 .

146

T(r(1)(2)suyra max F(t)=2J2, min F(t)=-2.

-~~t~_:t_ _ _:t_~t~_:t_

2 2 2 2

. 1t -31t 1t

V~y mm f(x)=-2 ~ t--=-~t=--~x=-2,

-2~x~2 4 4 2

max f(x)=2Ji ~ t-~=O~t=~=>x=Ji.

-2~x~2 4 4

Chuy:

Hay so sanh vo'i )(ri giai cua thi du tren bang each: - Dung bAt d~ng tlurc Bunhiacopski.

- Dung phuong phap chi~u bien thien ham s6.

Till d(l 2 (Bi thl tuyin sinh Bpi Ilfle klla; B - 2008)

2(x2+6XY)

Cho Xl + y2 = I. Chung minh r~ng: -6 ~ 2 2 ~ 3 .

x + 2xy+3y

Ghii

Do Xl + y2 = I, nen d~t X = sint, y =~t. Khi do:

2(x2 +6xy) 2(sin2t+6sintcost) l-cos2t+6sin2t

p- - -------

"-. -1+2xy+2y2 -1+2sintcost+2cos2t - sin2t+cos2t+2 .

D~n day su dung phuong phap mi~n gia trj ham s6 (gi6ng nhu thi du 2, muc a) se suy ra: -6:S P:S 3.

Till d{13

Gia Slr X va y khong d6ng nh§t b~ng O. Chung minh

-2Ji -2 ~ x2 _(x_4y)2 s 2Ji -2. x2 +4y

Ghii

N~u y=O (khi do xi- 0). Ta co:

2 ( )2

x - x-4 ,. .

2 ;, = 0, bat dang thirc hien nhien dung.

x +4y

2 ( )2

x - x-4y

N~u y i- 0 khi -2Ji - 2 ~ 2 2 s 2J2 - 2

x +4y

<'>_2,/2_)t)' -(~-2)' 5.2,/2-2 (I) (;y) + 1

D~t ~ = tan t, khi do 2y

147

(I) <=> -2J2 _ 2 ~ tan2 t -(tan t - 2)2 s 2J2 _ 2 tan2t+1

<=> -2J2 - 2 s cos2 t( 4tan t -4) s 2J2 - 2

<=> -2J2 - 2 s sin 2t -cos2t ~ 2J2 - 2 <=> -J2 s sin( 2t -~) ~ J2 (2) Vi (2) dung => dpcm.

BAJ T4p TTl GJAJ

Dung bAt d~ng thirc Cosi giai cac bai toan sau:

Baj 1:

Cho x, y, z> O. Chung minh

x 2 z 3

p= + + ~-.

2x + Y + z x + 2y + z . x + y + 2z 4

Baj 2:

Cho x, y, z> 0 va xyz = xy + yz + zx. Chung minh

1 1 1 3

p= + + <-.

x+2y+3z 2x+3y+z 3x+y+2z 16

B(1i 3:

Cho x, y, z> 0 va x2 + y2 + Z2 = 1. Chung minh

x y z 3.J3

., 2 +., 2 + 2 2 ~--.

v: + z v: + x y + x 2

B(1i 4:

Cho x> 0, y > 0 va x + y = I. Chung minh: ~ + ~ ~ J2 .

"I-x vl-y

Btli 5:

Cho a, b, c > 0 va a4 + b4 + c4 = 48. Chung minh ab2 + be2 + ca2 S 24.

Baj 6:

Cho x, y, z Ia ba s6 dirong va x + y + Z = I. Chung minh ~+~+~~J6.

Baj 7:

x2 y2 z2 3

Cho x, y, z>O va xyz = I. Chung minh: --+--+--~-.

I+y l i z l+ x 2

Baj 8:

Cho x, y, z la ba s6 dirong thoa man x + y + Z = O. Chung minh ~2+4x +~2+4Y +~2+4z "?3.J3.

148

Blii 9:

Cho x, y, z la ba s6 dirong va x + y + z ~ 3 chimg minh x y Z

JY+ j;+ rx"?3.

Dung phuong phap chiJu bi~n thien ham s6 giai cdc bai todn-sau:

Blii 10:

Cho 0 < x < y < I. Chung minh

.: _1_(ln _1__ -In _x_) > 4 .

y-x I-y I-x

Blii 11:

Cho x > y > O. Chung minh

In x I --<-

x-I rx·

Blii 13:

Tim gia trj Ion nhAt va nho nhAt cua ham s6:

f(x) =sin xcos2 x voi 0 sx ~~ 2

D' ,( 3Jj

apso: --.

16

BliiU:

Cho 1 ~ x ~2 va 3 ~y ~. Tim gia trj 100 nheit va nho nhAt cua bieu thirc:

p = X4 +L_(£'+ y2 )+~+.r

y4 x4 y2 x2 Y X

,,( 4249. 1083

Dap so: max P = -- . mill P = --.

16 ' 54

Blli 15:

Tim gia trj lon nhAt va nho nhAt cua ham s6

f(x) = J3 + x +J6-x -~I8+3x - x2 voi - 3~x ~6

D,,( fir) 3 . fir) 9 - 3J2

ap so: max \x = ; mm ,x = .

. 2

Blii 16:

Cho f(x) = x6 + 4( 1 - X2)3 voi -1 ~ x ~ 1. Tim gia tri 100 nhAt va nho nhAt cua ham s6.

Daps6: max f(x) = 4; min t{x) = .i.

9

Dung phU'071g phdp btlt iJimg thtrc Bunhiacopski giai cdc bai loan sau:

Blii 17:

Cho ba s6 khong am x, y, z va thea man di~u ki~n x + y + Z = 1. Chung minh

Xl + yl + Z3 "?..!..

9

149

Bai 18:

Cho x, y, z thoa man x(x - 1) + y(y - 1) + z(z - 1) ~ ~. 3

Chung minh: -1 :s x+y+z :s 4. BiU 19:

Cho ba s6 dirong x, y, z va xyz =1. Chung minh

x2 l z2

-----::-- + + ~ 1.

x + y + lz y + z + z3x Z + X + x3y

Slr dung hrong giac a~ giai cdc hili loan sau:

BiU 20: .

Cho x2+ l= 1, u2+ v2= 1. Chung minh

Ix(u+v)+y(u-v)I~.J2 .

Biii 21:

Cho a, b, c E IR. Chung minh

la - cl la - bl Ib - cl

J];;;2 J);J s J];;;2 J);b2 + ~1 + b2 J);J .

Str dung phtrang phdp midn gia tri helm s6 giai cdc hili todn sau:

Bai 22:

Cho x, y E IR. Chung minh

5 x + 2y+ 1

--< <-

14 - x2 + y2 + 7 - 2 .

Bai 23:

Chung minh r~ng voi moi xEIR ta co:

3 2x2+7x+23 5 -< <-

·2 - x2 + 2x + 10 - 2

150

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