Sei sulla pagina 1di 12

Pyrolysis of Plastic Waste

Seminar Project by
Krunal D. Meghani
No. 804
Guided by : Dr. Manu Agarwal

Introduction
Plastic waste management is one of the key issues that need to be

addressed in working towards a sustainable future.


The Per capita consumption of plastics (kg/ person) increases due to

increase in population which causes negative impact on environment.


For plastic : Time for Degradation = __?____ Years.
Landfilling : Soil and air pollution
Incineration : Emission of NOx , Sox etc.
Viable solution : Production of Oil from Plastic waste (Pyrolysis)

Pyrolysis
Pyro = heat.

Lysis = break down.

Plastic Pyrolysis is endothermic chemical


reaction. This reaction involves molecular
breakdown of larger molecules into smaller
molecules in presence of heat.
Absence of Oxygen ( i.e. no burning)
High temperatures leading to very high
molecular vibrations.
Due to vibrations, Molecules are stretched
and shaken to such an extent that
molecules starts breaking down into
smaller molecules.

[1] Web reference :pyrocrat system , Retrieved from http://www.pyrolysisplant.com/what-is-pyrolysis/

Types of Pyrolysis
Types:
1. Thermal PyrolysisThe plastic waste is heated at high temperature.
. Slow pyrolysis : slow heating rate (0.1-1 0C/s), 35% yield of carbon black.
. Fast Pyrolysis : Heating rate (10-200 0C/s), 75% yield of pyro oil.
. Flash pyrolysis : very high heating rate (> 1000 0C/s), 85% yield of gas.
2. Catalytic PyrolysisThe plastic waste is processed using a catalyst.
3. Hydrocracking The feedstock is reacted with hydrogen and a

catalyst.

[1] Demibras A, Bio refineries: current activities and future developments .Energy conversation and management ,2009,50,2782-2801

Raw material Feed stock


Desired feed stock
1.

Polyethylene (PE) and High Density Polyethylene (HDPE)---Water cans


Detergent bottles, Plastic bags , Plastic packaging scrap, Oil bottles and
plastic oil containers etc.

2.
3.
4.

LDPE-------Plastic bags ,Wire coverings, bags of dry cleaning etc.


PP or Polypropylene-----bottle caps ,computer parts etc.
PS or polystyrene------cups ,CD ,food containers ,Styrofoam etc.

.Undesired Feed stock


1. PET or Polyethylene Terephthalate---- Due to Presence of oxygen.
2. PVC or Polyvinyl Chloride--- Presence of Chlorine.

[1]Plastic2oil Inc., Plastic Feedstock Supply, Retrieved from http://www.plastic2oil.com/site/plastic-feedstock

Catalytic pyrolysis Vs. Conventional pyrolysis


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Sorting process
Melter Needed for removal
of metallic solids etc.
Pretreatment-Dechlorination ,
Moisture Removal etc.
Pyrolysis Reactor- 3 types
Catalytic Reactor
improvement
Condensation
Fractional Distillation
separation from pyro oil

[1] G. H. Zhang, J. F. Zhu, and A. Okuwaki, Prospect and current status of recycling waste plastics and technology for converting them into oil in
China, Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 50, no. 3, (2007) 231239,
[2] Antony Raja and Advaith Murali, Journal of Materials Science and Engineering ,B 1 (2011) 86-89

Factors affecting pyrolysis


Temperature and
Heating Rate

High value for both enhance bond breaking and favors the
production of small molecules

Pyrolysis time

Longer residence time yields more carbon black as well as


thermally stable products

Reactor type

Determines quality of heat transfer ,mixing, gas and liquid


phase residence time

Condensation

Low pressure reduces the condensation of reactive


fragments forming coke and heavies.

Presence of
Oxygen

Dilutes the products and influences equilibrium ,kinetics and


mechanism

Additives

Influence kinetics and mechanism

Scheirs, H., and W. Kaminsky eds., Feedstock Recycling and Pyrolysis of Waste Plastics: Converting Waste Plastics into Diesel and Other
Fuels, 1st edition, John Wiley & Sons Ltd, UK, (2006) ,6-32

Other types
Plasma arc pyrolysis
Arc is established between two electrodes.
Allows system to handle glass ,metal ,ash
Temperature : 1650-100000c

Microwave pyrolysis
Heat transfer by microwave absorbent to plastic
Graphitic carbon and inorganic oxides are microwave absorbents

[1] Huang, J., and R. Liang, A new waste disposal technology - Plasma arc pyrolysis system, Plasma science and Technology, 5(2), (2003). 17431748.
[2] Su Shiung, L. and A. Howard, A Review on Waste to Energy Processes Using Microwave Pyrolysis, Energies, 5, (2012), 4209-4232

Products and Comparison


Products : Pyrolysis oil (gasoline, diesel , naphtha) , Pet
coke (carbon black) , Off gases[10-12%]
Properties

Regular gasoline

Plastic waste
fuel

Color, visual
Specific gravity at 28 C
Specific gravity at15 C
Gross calorific value
Net calorific value
API gravity
Sulphur content(by mass)
Flash point (C)
Pour point (C)
Cloud point (C)

Orange
0.7423
0.7528
11210
10460
56.46
0.1
23
<20
<20

Pale yellow
0.7254
0.7365
11262
10498
60.65
<0.002
22
<20
<20

[1] A.U. Zadgaonkar, Information Brochure and Technical Write-up, Retrieved from http://www.frantechasia.com/Downloads/Eco%20Friendly%20Plastic
%20Fuel.pdf

Applications
liquid hydrocarbon:

1)
2)
3)
4)
5)

Boilers
As input feed for Petroleum Refineries
Hot water generators
Marine Fuel ( Bunker fuel )
Electric generators ( mixed with 50% diesel)

Gas :

a) Any near by industries using LPG


b) For in-house consumption
For solid fuel (carbon black) :

a) Plastic and Paint industries ( As Filler ), Thermal power plants


b) Metallurgical Industries, Rubber industry.
[1] A.U. Zadgaonkar, Information Brochure and Technical Write-up, Retrieved from http://www.frantechasia.com/Downloads/Eco%20Friendly
%20Plastic%20Fuel.pdf

Advantages and Disadvantages

Advantag
es
The processor uses its own off-gases as fuel (10-12% of outlet).
Approximately 2-4% of the resulting product is Pet coke (Carbon Black)
The process operates at atmospheric pressure, and is not susceptible to
leaks.
The conversion ratio for waste plastic into fuel averages 60 to 80%
Water is used for cooling only. The water is not in contact with the process
itself, keeping it clean and uncontaminated.
Disadvanta
ges
The main problem for this process is the Pyrolysis equipments corrosion incurred
by PVC in mixed plastic wastes
More paraffin is produced in the process of Pyrolysis.
Moisture Content

[1]Plastic2oil Inc., The Plastic2Oil Advantage, Retrieved from http://www.plastic2oil.com/site/advantage


[2]American Chemistry Council, Environmental and Economic Analysis of Emerging Plastics Conversion
Technologies, January 10, 2012

Thank you !!!


Any Questions ? ?