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FFT - How to select Freq. Ranges, lines, Averages

FFT - How to select Freq. Ranges, lines, Averages

Shaft Rotating Speed Rolling Element Bearings Blades Journal 2x Bearings Gear instability 3x 1 KHz
Shaft
Rotating
Speed
Rolling Element
Bearings
Blades
Journal
2x
Bearings
Gear
instability
3x
1 KHz
3KHz
25KHz
Frequency Range

Frequency Range

30 Useful Frequency Range dB 20 10% limit -0.3f 0 3dB limit -0.5f 0 10
30
Useful Frequency Range
dB
20
10% limit -0.3f 0 3dB limit -0.5f 0
10
Frequency Response of Sensor
0
-10
-20
-30
-40
2Hz
10KHz
Relative Sensitivity

Frequency [xf 0 ]

Consider…Sensor…Instrument…Cables…Sensor Coupling

Sensitivity vs Frequency Range

Sensitivity vs Frequency Range

Sensitivity
Sensitivity

Frequency

Vibration Pickups

Vibration Pickups

Shaft Rotating Speed Rolling Element Bearings Blades Journal 2x Bearings Gear instability 3x 1 KHz
Shaft
Rotating
Speed
Rolling Element
Bearings
Blades
Journal
2x
Bearings
Gear
instability
3x
1 KHz
3KHz
25KHz

Non Contact Displacement

instability 3x 1 KHz 3KHz 25KHz Non Contact Displacement Velocity Probe Accelerometer Copyright 2004- PT. Putranata

Velocity Probe

1 KHz 3KHz 25KHz Non Contact Displacement Velocity Probe Accelerometer Copyright 2004- PT. Putranata Adi Mandiri

Accelerometer

25KHz Non Contact Displacement Velocity Probe Accelerometer Copyright 2004- PT. Putranata Adi Mandiri – sole agent
Coupling vs Frequency Range

Coupling vs Frequency Range

Threaded & bonded stud

Coupling vs Frequency Range Threaded & bonded stud VIB 8.660 VIB 8.680 SET VIB 8.685 SET
Coupling vs Frequency Range Threaded & bonded stud VIB 8.660 VIB 8.680 SET VIB 8.685 SET
Coupling vs Frequency Range Threaded & bonded stud VIB 8.660 VIB 8.680 SET VIB 8.685 SET
Coupling vs Frequency Range Threaded & bonded stud VIB 8.660 VIB 8.680 SET VIB 8.685 SET

VIB 8.660

vs Frequency Range Threaded & bonded stud VIB 8.660 VIB 8.680 SET VIB 8.685 SET Threaded
vs Frequency Range Threaded & bonded stud VIB 8.660 VIB 8.680 SET VIB 8.685 SET Threaded

VIB

8.680

SET

VIB

8.685

SET

Threaded & bonded transducer

VIB 6.10X VIB 6.12X
VIB 6.10X
VIB 6.12X
v v 10 10k 36k
v
v
10 10k
36k

5

Hz

2 20k 36k
2 20k 36k

1

Hz

Hand held Magnetic probe holder curved surfaces VIB 6.140 VIB 6.140 VIB 8.606 VIB 8.736
Hand held
Magnetic
probe
holder
curved
surfaces
VIB 6.140
VIB 6.140
VIB 8.606
VIB 8.736
v v 10 1k 2k 36k Hz
v
v
10 1k
2k
36k
Hz

2

VIB 6.140 VIB 8.606 VIB 8.736 v v 10 1k 2k 36k Hz 2 2 15k

2 15k Hz

Machine Signal Types

Machine Signal Types

Stationary Signals

Machine Signal Types Stationary Signals - Vibration from rotating machines Non - Stationary Signals - Vibration

- Vibration from rotating machines

Non - Stationary Signals

- Vibration from reciprocating machines (short term)

- Vibration from run-ups and coast-down

Informasi penting tentang mesin Amplitudo vibrasi frekuensi Apa saja yang mungkin menyebabkan vibrasi ? Copyright

Informasi penting tentang mesin

Amplitudo vibrasi frekuensi
Amplitudo
vibrasi
frekuensi

Apa saja yang mungkin menyebabkan vibrasi ?

Analisa Amplitudo, Frekuensi dan Fase - 1

Analisa Amplitudo, Frekuensi dan Fase - 1

PENYEBAB

AMPLITUDO

FREKUENSI

FASE

KETERANGAN

GAMBAR SPECTRUM

 

1. Unbalance

Sebanding dgn ketidak balance, dominan pd radial (2x aksial)

1 x rpm

Single

Kondisi sering ditemui

A

Unbalance Sebanding dgn ketidak balance, dominan pd radial (2x aksial) 1 x rpm Single Kondisi sering
 

reference

mark

 

f

1x

V e = 13 V f = 13 Pengukuran getaran : A e = 7
V e = 13
V f = 13
Pengukuran getaran :
A e = 7
A f = 8
V a = 4
V b = 3
V c = 4
H e = 15
H f = 15
A a = 3
A b = 4
A c = 5
A d = 5
H a = 4
H b = 5
H c = 3
H d = 2
V d = 4
Copyright 2004- PT. Putranata Adi Mandiri – sole agent Prüftechnik AG, Germany – PART 2
Copyright 2004- PT. Putranata Adi Mandiri – sole agent Prüftechnik AG, Germany – PART 2
Analisa Amplitudo, Frekuensi dan Fase - 2

Analisa Amplitudo, Frekuensi dan Fase - 2

PENYEBAB

AMPLITUDO

FREKUENSI

FASE

KETERANGAN

GAMBAR SPECTRUM

 

2. Misalignment kopling atau poros bengkok

Dominan pd aksial, 50% atau lebih dari arah radial

Sering 1 x & 2 x rpm. Kadang 3 x rpm

Single

Ditandai timbulnya vibrasi aksial. Gunakan alat laser- alignment. Apabila mesin baru dipasang terjadi vibrasi, maka kemungkinan besar karena misalignment.

A

   

double

double

triple

f

   

1x

2x

V e = 3 V f = 4 Pengukuran getaran : A e = 4
V e = 3
V f = 4
Pengukuran getaran :
A e = 4
A f = 5
V a = 4
V b = 10
V c = 10
H e = 4
H f = 3
A a = 7
A b = 15
A c = 15
A d = 7
H a = 5
H b = 10
H c = 10
H d = 5
V d = 4
Analisa Amplitudo, Frekuensi dan Fase - 3

Analisa Amplitudo, Frekuensi dan Fase - 3

PENYEBAB

AMPLITUDO

FREKUENSI

FASE

KETERANGAN

GAMBAR SPECTRUM

 

3. Anti friction bearing buruk

Tidak stabil, ukur percepatan, gunakan acceleration probe

Sangat tinggi, beberapa kali Rpm, 1x, 2x, 3x, 4x … 10x…

Tdk tentu,

Vibrasi akan timbul apabila bearing sdh parah. Gunakan vibrotip / shockpulse u deteksi awal

A

 

Berubah-

Berubah-
 

rubah

f

 
   

1x

2x

3x

4x

V e = 5 V f = 3 Pengukuran getaran : A e = 4
V e = 5
V f = 3
Pengukuran getaran :
A e = 4
A f = 2
V a = 2
V b = 4
V c = 5-10
H e = 4
H f = 4
A a = 4
A b = 3
A c = 10-15
A d = 5
H a = 3
H b = 3
H c = 5-10
H d = 4
V d = 3
Analisa Amplitudo, Frekuensi dan Fase - 3

Analisa Amplitudo, Frekuensi dan Fase - 3

PENYEBAB

AMPLITUDO

FREKUENSI

 

KETERANGAN

GAMBAR SPECTRUM

 

3.

Anti friction

Tidak stabil, ukur percepatan, gunakan acceleration probe

Sangat tinggi, beberapa kali Rpm, 1x, 2x, 3x, 4x,5 x,6x

Excessive

Excessive Clearance normally accompanied by FTP modulating other frequencies; can also sifnificantly affect balance sensitivity

A

   

bearing buruk

Internal

bearing buruk Internal

clearances

f

1x

2x

3x

4x

PENYEBAB

AMPLITUDO

FREKUENSI

 

KETERANGAN

GAMBAR SPECTRUM

 

3.

Anti friction

Tidak stabil, ukur percepatan, gunakan acceleration probe

Sangat tinggi,

Bearing

Frequency 3X or greater is the predominant multiple

A

   

bearing buruk

beberapa kali

turning on

bearing buruk beberapa kali turning on

Rpm, 3x

shaft

f

or greater

 

1x

2x

3x

4x

PENYEBAB

AMPLITUDO

FREKUENSI

 

KETERANGAN

GAMBAR SPECTRUM

 

3.

Anti friction

Tidak stabil, ukur percepatan, gunakan acceleration probe

Sangat tinggi,

Bearing

Frequency 3X or greater is the predominant multiple

A

   

bearing buruk

beberapa kali

turning on

bearing buruk beberapa kali turning on

Rpm, 3x

shaft

f

or greater

 

1x

2x

3x

4x

Analisa Amplitudo, Frekuensi dan Fase - 7

Analisa Amplitudo, Frekuensi dan Fase - 7

PENYEBAB

AMPLITUDO

FREKUENSI

FASE

KETERANGAN

GAMBAR SPECTRUM

 

7. Mechanical looseness (Housing bearing aus)

Tinggi pada

2 x rpm

2 referensi

Sering bersamaan dgn unbalance / misalignment

A

(Housing bearing aus) Tinggi pada 2 x rpm 2 referensi Sering bersamaan dgn unbalance / misalignment
 

aksial

agak kacau

f

2x

• Frequency • 1-6X Clearance Defect Excessive internal Remarks Copyright 2004- PT. Putranata Adi Mandiri

• Frequency • 1-6X Clearance

Defect

Excessive internal

Remarks

Why shock pulses for rolling bearing noise ?

Why shock pulses for rolling bearing noise ?

c = f nat m x
c
=
f nat
m
x
 

1

1

1

1

(

 

)

 

,

,

 

m

l

d

a

c = stiffness m = Mass
c = stiffness
m = Mass

Machine vibration

Shock pulse range rolling bearing

Material crack plastical / elastical deformation

Natural frequencies rolling bearing pieces f nat,O f nat, Ι f nat,B 2 1 l
Natural frequencies rolling bearing pieces
f nat,O
f nat, Ι
f nat,B
2
1
l
1
2
d
a
d
=
n
1 mm
f
≈ x
≈ x ⋅
1/1 000 m
l
=
n
⋅ m
a
= n ⋅μm
30 000 Hz
f nat
f
x ⋅
1 / 1 m
f
≈ x
⋅ 1 / 1 00
≈ x ⋅ 30
Hz
≈ x ⋅ 300
000 Hz
f nat
f nat

Example

000 m

30 Hz ≈ x ⋅ 300 000 Hz f nat f nat Example 000 m 1
30 Hz ≈ x ⋅ 300 000 Hz f nat f nat Example 000 m 1

1 000

10 000

36 000

100 000

f log

f nat Example 000 m 1 000 10 000 36 000 100 000 f l o

/ Hz

acceleration shock pulses ultra sound emission Copyright 2004- PT. Putranata Adi Mandiri – sole agent

acceleration

shock pulses

ultra sound emission

Copyright 2004- PT. Putranata Adi Mandiri – sole agent Prüftechnik AG, Germany – PART 2

velocity

15

emission Copyright 2004- PT. Putranata Adi Mandiri – sole agent Prüftechnik AG, Germany – PART 2
Pengukuran vibrasi dan jarak frekuensi

Pengukuran vibrasi dan jarak frekuensi

Component & Machine Vibration Frictional Vibration (Sliding, Rolling, Shock, Rubbing Vibrations) Size of machine
Component & Machine Vibration
Frictional Vibration (Sliding, Rolling, Shock, Rubbing Vibrations)
Size of machine component
Speed /
Rolling speed
Shock
Velocity
Pulses
Acceleration
Analisa Amplitudo, Frekuensi dan Fase - 4

Analisa Amplitudo, Frekuensi dan Fase - 4

PENYEBAB

AMPLITUDO

FREKUENSI

FASE

KETERANGAN

GAMBAR SPECTRUM

 

4. Sleeve, metal, Jurnal bearing (friction bearing) / eksentrik

Tidak besar,

1 x rpm, seolah- olah seperti unbalance

Single

pd rodagigi vibrasi segaris dengan pusat kontak. pd motor/gen vibrasi hilang bila mesin dimatikan. pd pompa/blower kemungkinan unbalance

A

   

aksial

aksial

lebih tinggi

f

 

1x

V e = 4 V f = 4 Pengukuran getaran : A e = 4
V e = 4
V f = 4
Pengukuran getaran :
A e = 4
A f = 5
V a = 4
V b = 7
V c = 3
H e = 4
H f = 3
A a = 7
A b = 15
A c = 4
A d = 4
H a = 3
H b = 8
H c = 5
H d = 3
V d = 5
Alignment pada sleeve bearing

Alignment pada sleeve bearing

Posisi pada saat pekerjaan alignment

Posisi seharusnya pada saat setelah alignment

alignment Posisi seharusnya pada saat setelah alignment Sleeve bearing Ball bearing Copyright 2004- PT. Putranata
alignment Posisi seharusnya pada saat setelah alignment Sleeve bearing Ball bearing Copyright 2004- PT. Putranata

Sleeve bearing

Ball bearing

pada saat setelah alignment Sleeve bearing Ball bearing Copyright 2004- PT. Putranata Adi Mandiri – sole
Analisa Amplitudo, Frekuensi dan Fase - 5

Analisa Amplitudo, Frekuensi dan Fase - 5

PENYEBAB

5. Rodagigi

buruk atau

bersuara

AMPLITUDO

Rendah, ukur

kecepatan &

percepatan,

gunakan

acceleration

FREKUENSI

Sangat tinggi Jumlah gigi x rpm

FASE

Tdk tentu

KETERANGAN

Awal rusak bersuara, semakin lama keras. Vibrasi biasanya dalam toleransi.

GAMBAR SPECTRUM

A

A 1x 2x tooth 3x 4x f

1x

2x

tooth

3x

4x

f

V e = 7 V f = 3 Pengukuran getaran : A e = 8
V e = 7
V f = 3
Pengukuran getaran :
A e = 8
A f = 5
V a = 4
V b = 3
V c = 7
H e = 6
H f = 4
A a = 3
A b = 4
A c = 8
A d = 9
H a = 3
H b = 2
H c = 7
H d = 7
V d = 7
Analisa Amplitudo, Frekuensi dan Fase - 6

Analisa Amplitudo, Frekuensi dan Fase - 6

PENYEBAB

6. Gear mesh buruk atau bersuara (pada saat start / stop)

AMPLITUDO

Rendah, ukur kecepatan & percepatan, gunakan accel.

FREKUENSI

Sangat tinggi Jumlah gigi x rpm

FASE

Tdk tentu

KETERANGAN

Sering terjadi

pada saat

pemasangan

GAMBAR SPECTRUM

A

A 1x 2x tooth 3x 4x f

1x

2x

tooth

3x

4x

f

V e = 7 V f = 3 Pengukuran getaran : A e = 8
V e = 7
V f = 3
Pengukuran getaran :
A e = 8
A f = 5
V a = 4
V b = 3
V c = 7
H e = 6
H f = 4
A a = 3
A b = 4
A c = 8
A d = 9
H a = 3
H b = 2
H c = 7
H d = 7
V d = 7
Analisa Amplitudo, Frekuensi dan Fase - 7

Analisa Amplitudo, Frekuensi dan Fase - 7

PENYEBAB

AMPLITUDO

FREKUENSI

FASE

KETERANGAN

GAMBAR SPECTRUM

 

7. Mechanical looseness (Housing bearing aus)

Tinggi pada

2 x rpm

2 referensi

Sering bersamaan dgn unbalance / misalignment

A

(Housing bearing aus) Tinggi pada 2 x rpm 2 referensi Sering bersamaan dgn unbalance / misalignment
 

aksial

agak kacau

f

2x

V e = 3 V f = 3 Pengukuran getaran : A e = 4
V e = 3
V f = 3
Pengukuran getaran :
A e = 4
A f = 4
V a = 4
V b = 12
V c = 5
H e = 4
H f = 2
A a = 3
A b = 15
A c = 5
A d = 3
H a = 3
H b = 12
H c = 5
H d = 4
V d = 5
Analisa Amplitudo, Frekuensi dan Fase - 8

Analisa Amplitudo, Frekuensi dan Fase - 8

PENYEBAB

AMPLITUDO

FREKUENSI

FASE

KETERANGAN

GAMBAR SPECTRUM

 

8. Mechanical Looseness (Pondasi kendor – dudukan lemah/karatan – baut kendor)

Tinggi pada

Kurang dari 1 x rpm

Tdk tentu

Kencangkan baut Untuk memastikan

A

– dudukan lemah/karatan – baut kendor) Tinggi pada Kurang dari 1 x rpm Tdk tentu Kencangkan

vertikal

f

   

<1x

V e = 3 V f = 2 Pengukuran getaran : A e = 4
V e = 3
V f = 2
Pengukuran getaran :
A e = 4
A f = 3
V a = 9
V b = 10
V c = 5
H e = 3
H f = 4
A a = 3
A b = 4
A c = 2
A d = 2
H a = 2
H b = 4
H c = 2
H d = 4
V d = 3
Analisa Amplitudo, Frekuensi dan Fase - 9

Analisa Amplitudo, Frekuensi dan Fase - 9

PENYEBAB

AMPLITUDO

FREKUENSI

FASE

KETERANGAN

GAMBAR SPECTRUM

 

9. Mechanical looseness (Pondasi melengkung)

Tinggi pada

2 x rpm

2 referensi

Sering bersamaan dgn unbalance / misalignment

A

looseness (Pondasi melengkung) Tinggi pada 2 x rpm 2 referensi Sering bersamaan dgn unbalance / misalignment
 

vertikal,

agak kacau

horizontal &

f

aksial

2x

V e = 3 V f = 3 Pengukuran getaran : A e = 4
V e = 3
V f = 3
Pengukuran getaran :
A e = 4
A f = 4
V a = 9
V b = 12
V c = 5
H e = 4
H f = 2
A a = 7
A b = 6
A c = 5
A d = 3
H a = 13
H b = 14
H c = 5
H d = 4
V d = 5
Analisa Amplitudo, Frekuensi dan Fase - 10

Analisa Amplitudo, Frekuensi dan Fase - 10

PENYEBAB

AMPLITUDO

FREKUENSI

FASE

KETERANGAN

GAMBAR SPECTRUM

 

10. Drive belt buruk

Tdk

1,2,3

1 atau 2 tergantung frekuensi, tdk tetap

Biasanya terjadi karena belt tdk berada pada tempatnya secara sempurna.

A

2 tergantung frekuensi, tdk tetap Biasanya terjadi karena belt tdk berada pada tempatnya secara sempurna. A
 

tentu/berpulsa

atau 4 x rpm belt

f

 

1x

2x

3x

4x

Belt V e = 8 V f = 4 Pengukuran getaran : A e =
Belt
V e = 8
V f = 4
Pengukuran getaran :
A e = 8
A f = 3
V a = 3
V b = 2
V c = 10
H e = 7
H f = 2
A a = 2
A b = 3
A c = 10
A d = 10
H a = 2
H b = 4
H c = 10
H d = 8
V d = 10
Copyright 2004- PT. Putranata Adi Mandiri – sole agent Prüftechnik AG, Germany – PART 2
Copyright 2004- PT. Putranata Adi Mandiri – sole agent Prüftechnik AG, Germany – PART 2
Analisa Amplitudo, Frekuensi dan Fase - 11

Analisa Amplitudo, Frekuensi dan Fase - 11

PENYEBAB

AMPLITUDO

FREKUENSI

FASE

KETERANGAN

GAMBAR SPECTRUM

 

11. Elektrikal

Tidak tinggi, ada suara berdengung, lebih terasa bila dimatikan

2

x rpm lebih

Single/

Vibrasi & suara hilang bila mesin dimatikan

A

berdengung, lebih terasa bila dimatikan 2 x rpm lebih Single/ Vibrasi & suara hilang bila mesin
 

tinggi daripd

rotate

1

x rpm.

double

f

 

mark

 

1x

2x

V e = 3 V f = 2 Pengukuran getaran : A e = 3
V e = 3
V f = 2
Pengukuran getaran :
A e = 3
A f = 3
V a = 7
V b = 6
V c = 4
H e = 3
H f = 1
A a = 6
A b = 7
A c = 5
A d = 5
H a = 8
H b = 8
H c = 5
H d = 3
V d = 3
Copyright 2004- PT. Putranata Adi Mandiri – sole agent Prüftechnik AG, Germany – PART 2
Copyright 2004- PT. Putranata Adi Mandiri – sole agent Prüftechnik AG, Germany – PART 2
Analisa Amplitudo, Frekuensi dan Fase - 12

Analisa Amplitudo, Frekuensi dan Fase - 12

PENYEBAB

AMPLITUDO

FREKUENSI

FASE

KETERANGAN

GAMBAR SPECTRUM

 

12. Gaya aerodinamik / hidrolik

Tinggi pada

1 x rpm atau jumlah sudu atau fan atau impeler x rpm

Tdk tentu

Lebih terasa bila beban tidak stabil.

A

   

vertikal atau

vertikal atau
vertikal atau

horizontal

f

   

1x

Jml x

V e = 14 V f = 13 Pengukuran getaran : A e = 7
V e = 14
V f = 13
Pengukuran getaran :
A e = 7
A f = 7
V a = 1
V b = 2
V c = 4
H e = 13
H f = 14
A a = 1
A b = 3
A c = 5
A d = 3
H a = 2
H b = 2
H c = 3
H d = 4
V d = 4
Analisa Amplitudo, Frekuensi dan Fase - 13

Analisa Amplitudo, Frekuensi dan Fase - 13

PENYEBAB

AMPLITUDO

FREKUENSI

FASE

KETERANGAN

GAMBAR SPECTRUM

 

13. Gaya

Dominan aksial

1 x,2 x rpm atau lebih

Single,

Pada mesin

A

13. Gaya Dominan aksial 1 x,2 x rpm atau lebih Single, Pada mesin A  
 

reciprocating

double,

reciprocating

 

triple

bisa ganti

f

desain/isolasi

1x

2x

V e = 2 V f = 2 Pengukuran getaran : A e = 3
V e = 2
V f = 2
Pengukuran getaran :
A e = 3
A f = 3
V a = 7
V b = 8
V c = 3
H e = 4
H f = 2
A a = 6
A b = 7
A c = 4
A d = 4
H a = 8
H b = 7
H c = 2
H d = 4
V d = 3
Ringkasan Analisa Amplitudo, Frekuensi dan Fase

Ringkasan Analisa Amplitudo, Frekuensi dan Fase

PENYEBAB AMPLITUDO FREKUENSI FASE KETERANGAN GAMBAR SPECTRUM 1. Unbalance Sebanding dgn ketidak balance, dominan
PENYEBAB
AMPLITUDO
FREKUENSI
FASE
KETERANGAN
GAMBAR SPECTRUM
1.
Unbalance
Sebanding dgn
ketidak balance,
dominan pd
radial (2x aksial)
1
x rpm
Single
Kondisi sering
ditemui
A
reference
mark
f
1x
2.
Misalignment
Single
Ditandai timbulnya vibrasi
aksial. Gunakan alat laser-
alignment. Apabila mesin
baru dipasang terjadi
vibrasi, maka kemungkinan
besar karena misalignment.
A
kopling atau
poros bengkok
Dominan pd
aksial, 50%
atau lebih dari
arah radial
Sering 1 x & 2 x
rpm. Kadang 3 x
rpm
double
triple
f
1x
2x
3.
Anti friction
Tidak stabil,
ukur acceleration
untuk freq.
tinggi
Sangat tinggi,
beberapa kali
Rpm, 1x, 2x, 3x,
4x … 10x… x
Tdk tentu,
Vibrasi akan timbul
apabila bearing sdh
parah. Gunakan
enveloping &
shockpulse
A
bearing buruk
Berubah-
rubah
f
1x
2x
3x
4x
4.
Sleeve, metal,
Tidak besar,
1
Single
A
Jurnal bearing
aksial
(friction
x rpm, seolah-
olah seperti
unbalance
lebih tinggi
pd rodagigi vibrasi segaris
dengan pusat kontak. pd
motor/gen vibrasi hilang
bila mesin dimatikan. pd
pompa/blower
kemungkinan unbalance
f
bearing)
1x
5.
Rodagigi
Rendah, ukur
kecepatan &
percepatan,
gunakan accel.
Sangat tinggi
Jumlah gigi x
rpm
Tdk tentu
A
buruk atau
bersuara
Awal rusak bersuara,
semakin lama keras.
Vibrasi biasanya
dalam toleransi.
f
1x
2x
3x
4x

tooth

Analisa Amplitudo, Frekuensi dan Fase - 2

Analisa Amplitudo, Frekuensi dan Fase - 2

PENYEBAB AMPLITUDO FREKUENSI FASE KETERANGAN GAMBAR SPECTRUM 6. Gear mesh Rendah, ukur kecepatan &
PENYEBAB
AMPLITUDO
FREKUENSI
FASE
KETERANGAN
GAMBAR SPECTRUM
6.
Gear mesh
Rendah, ukur
kecepatan &
percepatan,
gunakan accel.
Sangat tinggi
Jumlah gigi x
rpm
Tdk
Sering terjadi
A
buruk atau
bersuara pada
saat start/stop
pada saat
tentu
pemasangan
f
1x
2x
3x
4x
7.
Mechanical
Tinggi pada
2
x rpm
2
referensi
looseness
bearing aus)
Sering
bersamaan dgn
unbalance /
misalignment
A
aksial
agak kacau
(Housing
f
2x
8. Mechanical
Looseness (Pondasi
kendor – dudukan
lemah/karatan –
baut kendor)
Tinggi pada
Kurang dari
Tdk tentu
Kencangkan baut
Untuk memastikan
A
vertikal
1
x rpm
f
<1x
9.
Mechanical
Tinggi pada
2
x rpm
2
referensi
horizontal &
Sering
bersamaan dgn
unbalance /
misalignment
A
looseness
vertikal,
agak kacau
(Pondasi
f
melengkung)
aksial
2x
10. Drive belt
buruk
Tdk
1,2,3
1
atau 2
Biasanya terjadi
karena belt tdk berada
pada tempatnya secara
sempurna.
A
tentu/berpulsa
atau 4 x
rpm belt
tergantung
frekuensi,
f
tdk tetap
1x
2x
3x
4x
Analisa Amplitudo, Frekuensi dan Fase - 3

Analisa Amplitudo, Frekuensi dan Fase - 3

PENYEBAB

AMPLITUDO

FREKUENSI

FASE

KETERANGAN

GAMBAR SPECTRUM

 

11. Elektrikal

Tidak tinggi, ada suara dengung, lbh terasa bila dimatikan

2

x rpm lebih

Single/

Vibrasi & suara hilang bila mesin dimatikan

A

lbh terasa bila dimatikan 2 x rpm lebih Single/ Vibrasi & suara hilang bila mesin dimatikan
   

tinggi daripd

rotate

1

x rpm.

double

f

 

mark

 

1x

2x

12. Gaya

Tinggi pada

1 x rpm / jml sudu / fan atau impeler x rpm

Tdk tentu

Lebih terasa bila beban tidak stabil.

A

Tinggi pada 1 x rpm / jml sudu / fan atau impeler x rpm Tdk tentu
 
Tinggi pada 1 x rpm / jml sudu / fan atau impeler x rpm Tdk tentu
 

aerodinamik /

vertikal atau

hidrolik

horizontal

f

 

1x

Jml x

13.

Gaya

Dominan aksial

1

x,2 x rpm

Single,

Pada mesin

A

   

reciprocating

atau lebih

double,

reciprocating

reciprocating atau lebih double, reciprocating  
 

triple

bisa ganti

f

desain/isolasi

1x

2x

Latihan - 1 A BC D Roller Sleeve Coupling bearing bearing Single phase 5 blade
Latihan - 1
A
BC
D
Roller
Sleeve
Coupling
bearing
bearing
Single phase
5 blade
motor
impeller

PICKUP

LOCATION

Peak

FREQ

Peak

FREQ

Peak

FREQ

Peak

FREQ

(mm/s)

(cpm)

(mm/s)

(cpm)

(mm/s)

(cpm)

(mm/s)

(cpm)

 

Vertikal

1.7

1500

0.3

3000

0.05

6000

   

A

Horizontal

2.4

1500

0.5

3000

0.05

6000

Aksial

1.2

1500

0.09

3000

0.01

6000

Vertikal

2.1

1500

0.4

3000

0.05

6000

0.08

Variable 37500

B

Horizontal

3.2

1500

0.7

3000

0.05

6000

0.07

Variable 37500

Aksial

1.9

1500

0.15

3000

0.01

6000

- -

Vertikal

1.1

1500

0.2

3000

0.05

7500

- -

C

Horizontal

1.3

1500

0.15

3000

0.4

7500

0.4

1400

Aksial

1.2

1500

-

-

-

-

0.45

1400

D

Vertikal

Horizontal

1.3

1.1

1500

1500

0.2

0.09

3000

3000

0.4 7500

0.05 7500

0.25

0.30

1400

1400

Aksial

1.5

1500

-

-

-

-

0.42

1400

Aksial 1.5 1500 - - - - 0.42 1400 Copyright 2004- PT. Putranata Adi Mandiri –

Copyright 2004- PT. Putranata Adi Mandiri – sole agent Prüftechnik AG, Germany – PART 2

33

PERTANYAAN : LATIHAN-1

PERTANYAAN : LATIHAN-1

(a)

Kemungkinan penyebab apa yang mengakibatkan terjadinya vibrasi 1500 cpm pada bearing A dan B ?

(b)

Bila kemungkinan penyebabnya lebih dari satu, bagaimana cara Anda untuk menemukan penyebab yang sesungguhnya ?

(c)

Apa penyebab terjadinya vibrasi 3000 cpm pd bearing A,B,C & D ?

(d)

Apa penyebab terjadinya vibrasi 6000 cpm pd bearing A dan B ?

(e)

Apa penyebab terjadinya vibrasi 37500 cpm pd bearing B ?

(f)

Apa penyebab terjadinya vibrasi 7500 cpm pd bearing C dan D ?

(g)

Apa penyebab terjadinya vibrasi 1400 cpm pd bearing C dan D ?

(h)

Bagaimana Anda menentukan apakah penyebab vibrasi tersebut harus ditanggulangi ?

Latihan - 2

Latihan - 2

Water turbine A BC D 12 blades Sleeve Coupling bearing Generator
Water turbine
A
BC
D
12 blades
Sleeve
Coupling
bearing
Generator

Roller

bearing

PICKUP

LOCATION

DISP

FREQ

DISP

FREQ

DISP

FREQ

DISP

FREQ

 

Vertikal

2.7

1500

1.2

3000

1.3

4500

1.2

40000

A

Horizontal

2.8

1500

1.2

3000

1.1

4500

1.3

40000

Aksial

1.3

1500

1.3

3000

0.9

4500

Vertikal

1.8

1500

1.2

3000

1.2

4500

B

Horizontal

1.9

1500

1.4

3000

1.2

4500

Aksial

1.2

1500

0.9

3000

1.0

4500

Vertikal

1.2

1500

0.9

18000

C

Horizontal

1.1

1500

1.1

18000

2.0

1300

Aksial

1.1

1500

-

-

2.1

1300

Vertikal

1.2

1500

1.3

18000

2.1

1300

D

Horizontal

1.3

1500

1.2

18000

2.2

1300

Aksial

1.1

1500

-

-

2.0

1300

PERTANYAAN : LATIHAN-2

PERTANYAAN : LATIHAN-2

aa) Kemungkinan penyebab apa yang mengakibatkan terjadinya vibrasi 1500 cpm pada

b)

bearing A dan B ?

Bila kemungkinan penyebabnya lebih dari satu, bagaimana cara Anda untuk menemukan

penyebab yang sesungguhnya ?

(c)

(d)

(e)

(f) Apa penyebab terjadinya vibrasi 18000 cpm pada bearing C dan D ?

Apa penyebab terjadinya vibrasi 3000 cpm pada bearing A dan B ?

Apa penyebab terjadinya vibrasi 40000 cpm pada bearing A ?

Apa penyebab terjadinya vibrasi 4500 cpm pada bearing A dan B ?

(g)

Apa penyebab terjadinya vibrasi 1300 cpm pada bearing C dan D ?

h)

Bagaimana Anda menentukan apakah penyebab vibrasi tersebut harus ditanggulangi ?

Latihan - 3

Latihan - 3

A B C D 5 blade impeller
A
B
C
D
5 blade impeller

1500 rpm

Single phase motor
Single phase motor

Roller

bearing

3000 rpm

Sleeve

bearing

PICKUP

LOCATION

AMPL

FREQ

AMPL

FREQ

AMPL

FREQ

AMPL

FREQ

 

Vertikal

2.8

1500

1.2

3000

1.3

4500

1.2

40000

A

Horizontal

2.9

1500

1.2

3000

1.1

4500

1.3

40000

Aksial

2.4

1500

1.3

3000

0.9

4500

Vertikal

4.0

1500

1.2

3000

1.2

4500

B

Horizontal

4.1

1500

1.4

3000

1.2

4500

Aksial

4.9

1500

0.9

3000

1.0

4500

Vertikal

4.5

3000

0.9

36000

1.9

1300

C

Horizontal

4.4

3000

1.1

36000

2.0

1300

Aksial

4.8

3000

1.1

36000

2.1

1300

Vertikal

3.8

3000

1.3

36000

2.1

1300

D

Horizontal

3.9

3000

1.2

36000

2.2

1300

Aksial

3.3

3000

1.1

36000

2.0

1300

Latihan - 4

Latihan - 4

A B gearbox C D Single phase motor compressor
A
B gearbox
C
D
Single phase motor
compressor

1500 rpm

Roller

bearing

3000 rpm

Sleeve

bearing

PICKUP

LOCATION

AMPL

FREQ

AMPL

FREQ

AMPL

FREQ

AMPL

FREQ

 

Vertikal

2.8

1500

1.2

3000

1.3

4500

1.2

40000

A

Horizontal

2.9

1500

1.2

3000

1.1

4500

1.3

40000

Aksial

2.4

1500

1.3

3000

0.9

4500

Vertikal

4.0

1500

1.2

3000

1.2

4500

1.4

24000

B

Horizontal

4.1

1500

1.4

3000

1.2

4500

1.2

24000

Aksial

4.9

1500

0.9

3000

1.0

4500

1.3

24000

Vertikal

4.5

3000

0.9

36000

1.9

1300

1.2

24000

C

Horizontal

4.4

3000

1.1

36000

2.0

1300

1.1

24000

Aksial

4.8

3000

1.1

36000

2.1

1300

1.1

24000

Vertikal

3.8

3000

1.3

36000

2.1

1300

D

Horizontal

3.9

3000

1.2

36000

2.2

1300

Aksial

3.3

3000

1.1

36000

2.0

1300

Machine Signal Types

Machine Signal Types

Machine Signal Types Time Semi Static • Shaft Position Harmonic •Imbalance •Misalignment Modulated • Torsional
Machine Signal Types Time Semi Static • Shaft Position Harmonic •Imbalance •Misalignment Modulated • Torsional
Machine Signal Types Time Semi Static • Shaft Position Harmonic •Imbalance •Misalignment Modulated • Torsional
Machine Signal Types Time Semi Static • Shaft Position Harmonic •Imbalance •Misalignment Modulated • Torsional
Machine Signal Types Time Semi Static • Shaft Position Harmonic •Imbalance •Misalignment Modulated • Torsional

Time

Semi Static

• Shaft Position

Harmonic

•Imbalance

•Misalignment

Modulated

• Torsional Load

• Tooth Fatigue

• Eccentricity

Random

•Lubrication Problems

• Rolling Element (RE) Bearing Mounting defect

• Flow Exited

Pulsed

• RE Bearing Wear

• Rubs

• Blade Damage, fouling

• Surge, Cavitation,

• Local Tooth Defects

1X 2X 200Hz 1X 5 kHz 1X 10 kHz 1X 10 kHz
1X
2X
200Hz
1X
5 kHz
1X
10 kHz
1X
10 kHz

Frequency

Penyebab vibrasi dan frekuensi karakteristiknya Possible Dominant Direction Comments cause Frequency

Penyebab vibrasi dan frekuensi karakteristiknya

Possible

Dominant

Direction

Comments

cause

Frequency

   

Unbalance

1x rotation frequency

Radial for dyna-

Amplitude proportional to unbalance and RPM;

   

mic imbalance,

caused by displacement of rotation axis from mass

   

possibly axial

center of gravity

Misalignment;

1x rotation frequency

Radial and

Severe axial vibration and 2nd harmonic; best

bent shaft

often 2x and higher

axial

realigned with ROTALIGN © , OPTALIGN © V or SYSTEM

 

multiples

 

2 TURBALIGN ©

Bearing

High frequency vibration,

Radial and

May be diagnosed from vibration only through

damage

Shock pulse vibration

axial

use of diagnostic functions, shock pulse analysis

     

or envelope curve analysis.

Sleeve

Subharmonic, exactly

Radial

Usually dependent upon RPM and operating

bearing play

1/2 or 1/3 of rotation

 

temperature.

 

frequency

   

Oil film whirl

40% - 50% of rotation

Radial

Occurs with high-speed machines; phase

or whip (sleeve

frequency

 

fluctuates.

bearings)

     

Hysteresis

Critical shaft rotation

Radial

Vibrations are excited as machine climbs through

whirl

frequency

 

critical RPM and remain at higher speeds. Remedy :

     

Rotor must be reworked (mounting improved).

Gear tooth

Tooth mesh frequency

Radial and

Sidebands occur from modulation of tooth mesh

damage

and multiples thereof

axial

vibration at rotation frequency; may be isolated using

 

with sidebands located

 

envelope analysis.

 

at multiples of rotation

   
 

frequency

   

Belt drive

Rotation frequency and

Radial

Additionally recommended : combined RPM and belt

damage

multiples thereof

 

speed measurements to check for belt slippage.

Turbulence;

Blade/vane passing

Radial and

Additionaly recommended for pumps : shock pulse

cavitation

frequency

axial

measurement at the pump housing.

Electrically

Rotation frequency,

Radial and

Sidebands may also occur located at multiples

induced

2x line frequency

axial

of the rotation frequency; vibration ceases when power

vibration

   

is cut off.

Frequency

Multiples of motor line

Radial

Disappears in direct line operation; proportional

alternator

frequency

 

to motor line frequency.

signal

     
to motor line frequency. signal       Copyright 2004- PT. Putranata Adi Mandiri – sole

Copyright 2004- PT. Putranata Adi Mandiri – sole agent Prüftechnik AG, Germany – PART 2

40

Contoh lapangan : Sifter

Contoh lapangan : Sifter

Contoh lapangan : Sifter Copyright 2004- PT. Putranata Adi Mandiri – sole agent Prüftechnik AG, Germany
Spectra frekuensi dari Sifter

Spectra frekuensi dari Sifter

Spectra frekuensi dari Sifter Copyright 2004- PT. Putranata Adi Mandiri – sole agent Prüftechnik AG, Germany
Contoh no. 2 : Turbocompressor

Contoh no. 2 : Turbocompressor

Tidak lama sebelum perbaikan total Tidak lama setelah perbaikan total
Tidak lama sebelum
perbaikan total
Tidak lama setelah
perbaikan total
Contoh no. 3 : Foundry Fan

Contoh no. 3 : Foundry Fan

Contoh no. 3 : Foundry Fan Copyright 2004- PT. Putranata Adi Mandiri – sole agent Prüftechnik
Contoh no. 4 : Tunnel Furnace Fan

Contoh no. 4 : Tunnel Furnace Fan

Contoh no. 4 : Tunnel Furnace Fan Copyright 2004- PT. Putranata Adi Mandiri – sole agent
Contoh : Pompa centrifugal

Contoh : Pompa centrifugal

Contoh : Pompa centrifugal Copyright 2004- PT. Putranata Adi Mandiri – sole agent Prüftechnik AG, Germany
Machine Vibration Example 1

Machine Vibration Example 1

Unbalance

Machine Vibration Example 1 Unbalance f n Machine spectrum: v [mm/s] f n f [Hz] Misalignment
Machine Vibration Example 1 Unbalance f n Machine spectrum: v [mm/s] f n f [Hz] Misalignment

f n

Machine spectrum:

v

Vibration Example 1 Unbalance f n Machine spectrum: v [mm/s] f n f [Hz] Misalignment f

[mm/s]

Example 1 Unbalance f n Machine spectrum: v [mm/s] f n f [Hz] Misalignment f n
Example 1 Unbalance f n Machine spectrum: v [mm/s] f n f [Hz] Misalignment f n

f n

f

[Hz]

Misalignment

f n Machine spectrum: v [mm/s] f n f [Hz] Misalignment f n Machine spectrum: v

f n

Machine spectrum:

v

[mm/s] f n f [Hz] Misalignment f n Machine spectrum: v [mm/s] f n 2 x

[mm/s]

f n f [Hz] Misalignment f n Machine spectrum: v [mm/s] f n 2 x f
f n f [Hz] Misalignment f n Machine spectrum: v [mm/s] f n 2 x f
f n f [Hz] Misalignment f n Machine spectrum: v [mm/s] f n 2 x f
f n f [Hz] Misalignment f n Machine spectrum: v [mm/s] f n 2 x f
f n f [Hz] Misalignment f n Machine spectrum: v [mm/s] f n 2 x f
f n f [Hz] Misalignment f n Machine spectrum: v [mm/s] f n 2 x f
f n f [Hz] Misalignment f n Machine spectrum: v [mm/s] f n 2 x f
f n f [Hz] Misalignment f n Machine spectrum: v [mm/s] f n 2 x f
f n f [Hz] Misalignment f n Machine spectrum: v [mm/s] f n 2 x f
f n f [Hz] Misalignment f n Machine spectrum: v [mm/s] f n 2 x f

f n

2xf n

f [Hz]

Symptom : High Amplitude at

f n

Fundamental Freq. Fn = RPM [Rev/min]

60

Symptom : Increased amplitude visible at f n and/ or 2x

First and Second order of rotor frequency

Radial : parallel misalignment

Evaluation criteria:ISO 10816-3

• Evaluation criteria: ISO 1 0 8 1 6 - 3 axial : angular misalignment Copyright

axial : angular misalignment

Copyright 2004- PT. Putranata Adi Mandiri – sole agent Prüftechnik AG, Germany – PART 2

47

Machine Vibration Example 2

Machine Vibration Example 2

Gear mesh faults

f n1

Machine Vibration Example 2 Gear mesh faults f n1 z 1 f n2 z 2 Cracked
Machine Vibration Example 2 Gear mesh faults f n1 z 1 f n2 z 2 Cracked
Machine Vibration Example 2 Gear mesh faults f n1 z 1 f n2 z 2 Cracked

z 1

Machine Vibration Example 2 Gear mesh faults f n1 z 1 f n2 z 2 Cracked

f n2

z 2

Cracked / Broken Tooth

f n1

f n1 z 1 f n2 z 2 Cracked / Broken Tooth f n1 z 1

z 1

z 1 f n2 z 2 Cracked / Broken Tooth f n1 z 1 z 2

z 2

f n2 z 2 Cracked / Broken Tooth f n1 z 1 z 2 f n2

f n2

a

2 Cracked / Broken Tooth f n1 z 1 z 2 f n2 a mm/s² Machine

mm/s²

Machine Spectrum:

f n1 z 1 z 2 f n2 a mm/s² Machine Spectrum : f z 2xf
f n1 z 1 z 2 f n2 a mm/s² Machine Spectrum : f z 2xf
f n1 z 1 z 2 f n2 a mm/s² Machine Spectrum : f z 2xf
f n1 z 1 z 2 f n2 a mm/s² Machine Spectrum : f z 2xf
f n1 z 1 z 2 f n2 a mm/s² Machine Spectrum : f z 2xf
f n1 z 1 z 2 f n2 a mm/s² Machine Spectrum : f z 2xf
f n1 z 1 z 2 f n2 a mm/s² Machine Spectrum : f z 2xf

f z

2xf z

3xf z

4xf z

f (Hz)

a Machine Spectrum: mm/s² 2xf z 3xf z f z f (Hz)
a
Machine Spectrum:
mm/s²
2xf z
3xf z
f z
f (Hz)

Symptom : Harmonics of f z

visible Gear mesh frequency f z = f n1 . Z 1 = f n2 . Z 2

Symptom : Side bands with f n

Side band distance f n is the fundamental frequency of the defective gear (broken tooth)

many side bands around f z gear mesh with slowly

Z, Z 2 : number of gear teeth

gear mesh with slowly • Z, Z 2 : number of gear teeth • f :

f

: rotational frequency driven shaft

n1

decreased amplitudes

Copyright 2004- PT. Putranata Adi Mandiri – sole agent Prüftechnik AG, Germany – PART 2

48

Machine Vibration Example 3

Machine Vibration Example 3

Bad foundation

Machine Vibration Example 3 Bad foundation f n v mm/s Machine spectrum: f n 2xf n

f n

v

Machine Vibration Example 3 Bad foundation f n v mm/s Machine spectrum: f n 2xf n

mm/s

Machine spectrum:

Example 3 Bad foundation f n v mm/s Machine spectrum: f n 2xf n 3xf n
Example 3 Bad foundation f n v mm/s Machine spectrum: f n 2xf n 3xf n
Example 3 Bad foundation f n v mm/s Machine spectrum: f n 2xf n 3xf n
Example 3 Bad foundation f n v mm/s Machine spectrum: f n 2xf n 3xf n
Example 3 Bad foundation f n v mm/s Machine spectrum: f n 2xf n 3xf n
Example 3 Bad foundation f n v mm/s Machine spectrum: f n 2xf n 3xf n
Example 3 Bad foundation f n v mm/s Machine spectrum: f n 2xf n 3xf n
Example 3 Bad foundation f n v mm/s Machine spectrum: f n 2xf n 3xf n
Example 3 Bad foundation f n v mm/s Machine spectrum: f n 2xf n 3xf n
Example 3 Bad foundation f n v mm/s Machine spectrum: f n 2xf n 3xf n
Example 3 Bad foundation f n v mm/s Machine spectrum: f n 2xf n 3xf n
Example 3 Bad foundation f n v mm/s Machine spectrum: f n 2xf n 3xf n
Example 3 Bad foundation f n v mm/s Machine spectrum: f n 2xf n 3xf n
Example 3 Bad foundation f n v mm/s Machine spectrum: f n 2xf n 3xf n
Example 3 Bad foundation f n v mm/s Machine spectrum: f n 2xf n 3xf n
Example 3 Bad foundation f n v mm/s Machine spectrum: f n 2xf n 3xf n
Example 3 Bad foundation f n v mm/s Machine spectrum: f n 2xf n 3xf n
Example 3 Bad foundation f n v mm/s Machine spectrum: f n 2xf n 3xf n
Example 3 Bad foundation f n v mm/s Machine spectrum: f n 2xf n 3xf n
Example 3 Bad foundation f n v mm/s Machine spectrum: f n 2xf n 3xf n
Example 3 Bad foundation f n v mm/s Machine spectrum: f n 2xf n 3xf n
Example 3 Bad foundation f n v mm/s Machine spectrum: f n 2xf n 3xf n
Example 3 Bad foundation f n v mm/s Machine spectrum: f n 2xf n 3xf n
Example 3 Bad foundation f n v mm/s Machine spectrum: f n 2xf n 3xf n
Example 3 Bad foundation f n v mm/s Machine spectrum: f n 2xf n 3xf n
Example 3 Bad foundation f n v mm/s Machine spectrum: f n 2xf n 3xf n

f

n

2xf n

3xf n

4xf n

f (Hz)

Turbulences

s=9

spectrum: f n 2xf n 3xf n 4xf n f (Hz) Turbulences s=9 f n x=3
f n
f n

x=3

(e.g. fixture for bearing)

v

f (Hz) Turbulences s=9 f n x=3 (e.g. fixture for bearing) v mm/s Machine spectrum: f

mm/s

Machine spectrum:

Machine spectrum:
f n x=3 (e.g. fixture for bearing) v mm/s Machine spectrum: f n f BPF x

f n

f BPF

x f BPF

f (Hz)

Symptom : Harmonics of f n are visible RPM[Rev/min]

fundamental freq. f n =

60

Root Cause:

Symptom : Blade pass frequency f BPF

Blade pass frequency f BPF = f n . s

Higher orders x*f BPF = f n . s . x

Resonance or Instability

number of blades