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Cardiovascular System

Blood

19-1

Composition of Blood

19-2

Functions of Blood

Transport of:

Gases, nutrients, waste products


Processed molecules
Regulatory molecules

Regulation of pH and osmosis


Maintenance of body temperature
Protection against foreign substances
Clot formation

19-3

Plasma
Liquid part of blood
Pale yellow made up of 91% water, 9% other
Colloid: Liquid containing suspended substances
that dont settle out
Albumin: Important in regulation of water
movement between tissues and blood
Globulins: Immune system or transport
molecules
Fibrinogen: Responsible for formation of
blood clots

19-4

Formed Elements

Red blood cells (erythrocytes)


White blood cells (leukocytes)
Granulocytes
Neutrophils
Eosinophils
Basophils

Agranulocytes
Lymphocytes
Monocytes

Platelets (thrombocytes)

19-5

Production of Formed Elements

Hematopoiesis or hemopoiesis: Process of


blood cell production

Stem cells: All formed elements derived


from single population
Proerythroblasts: Develop into red blood cells
Myeloblasts: Develop into basophils,
neutrophils, eosinophils
Lymphoblasts: Develop into lymphocytes
Monoblasts: Develop into monocytes
Megakaryoblasts: Develop into platelets

19-6

Hematopoiesis

19-7

Erythrocytes
Structure
Biconcave, anucleate

Components
Hemoglobin
Lipids, ATP, carbonic
anhydrase

Function
Transport oxygen from
lungs to tissues and
carbon dioxide from
tissues to lungs

19-8

Hemoglobin
Consists of:
4 globin molecules: Transport carbon dioxide
(carbonic anhydrase involved), nitric oxide
4 heme molecules: Transport oxygen
Iron is required for oxygen transport

19-9

Erythropoiesis
Production of red blood
cells
Stem cells
proerythroblasts early
erythroblasts intermediate
late reticulocytes

Erythropoietin: Hormone
to stimulate RBC
production

19-10

Leukocytes

Protect body against Types


microorganisms and
Neutrophils: Most common;
remove dead cells and
phagocytic cells destroy bacteria
(60%)
debris
Eosinophils: Detoxify chemicals;
Movements

Ameboid
Diapedesis
Chemotaxis
Passive Immunity
Active Immunity
Antigen Antibody

reduce inflammation (4%)


Basophils: Alergic reactions;
Release histamine, heparin increase
inflam. response (1%)
Lymphocytes: Immunity 2 types; b
& t Cell types. IgG-infection, IgMmicrobes, IgA-Resp & GI, IgEAlergy, IgD-immune response
Monocytes: Become macrophages
19-11

Leukocytes

19-12

Thrombocytes
Cell fragments pinched
off from megakaryocytes
in red bone marrow
Important in preventing
blood loss
Platelet plugs
Promoting formation and
contraction of clots

19-13

Hemostasis

Cessation of bleeding
Events preventing excessive blood loss
Vascular spasm: Vasoconstriction of damaged
blood vessels
Platelet plug formation
Coagulation or blood clotting

19-14

Platelet Plug Formation

19-15

Coagulation ~ blood changes from a liquid to a gel which forms a clot.


Stages
Activation of
prothrombinase
Conversion of
prothrombin to
thrombin
Conversion of
fibrinogen to fibrin

Pathways
Extrinsic
Intrinsic

19-16

Fibrinolysis ~ the normal break down of clots


Clot dissolved by
activity of plasmin,
an enzyme which
hydrolyzes fibrin

19-17

Genetics of Blood Types


Your blood type is established before you are BORN,
by specific GENES inherited from your parents.
Blood type is a multiple allelic codominant trait
There are 3 alleles or genes for blood type: A, B, &
O. Since we have 2 genes, there are 6 possible
combinations.
Blood Types
AA or AO = Type A
BB or BO = Type B
OO = Type O
AB = Type AB

http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/units/basics/blood/types
.cfm

Blood Grouping

Determined by antigens (agglutinogens) on


surface of RBCs
Antibodies (agglutinins) can bind to RBC
antigens, resulting in agglutination
(clumping) or hemolysis (rupture) of RBCs

19-19

ABO Blood Groups

19-20

How common is your blood type?


46.1%
38.8%
11.1%
3.9%

Agglutination Reaction

19-22

Rh Blood Group

First studied in rhesus monkeys


Types

Rh positive: Have these antigens present on


surface of RBCs
Rh negative: Do not have these antigens present

Hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN)


Mother produces anti-Rh antibodies that cross
placenta and cause agglutination and hemolysis
of fetal RBCs

19-23

Erythroblastosis Fetalis

19-24

Diagnostic Blood Tests


Type and crossmatch
Complete blood count
Red blood count
Hemoglobin measurement
Hematocrit measurement

White blood count


Differential white blood
count
Clotting

19-25

Blood Disorders
Erythrocytosis: RBC
overabundance
Anemia: Deficiency of
hemoglobin

Iron-deficiency
Pernicious
Hemorrhagic
Hemolytic
Sickle-cell

19-26

Blood Disorders

Hemophilia: blood does


not clot properly due to
lack of clotting proteins
Thrombocytopenia: low
platelet count causing
excessive bruising and
slow clotting
Leukemia: cancer of
blood forming tissues

Septicemia: infection in
the blood
Malaria: female mosquito
transmitted parasite, flu
like symptoms
Infectious
mononucleosis: caused
by the epstein-barr virus
spread though saliva

19-27