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UsinganAnalyticalScaletoMeasuretheMassLossofEggshellsExposedto

DietPepsi,DietMountainDew,andDiet7­Up

CharlesDebczak,ImranRashid,andSebastienRivest

MacombMathematicsScienceandTechnologyCenter

Chemistry

10A

Mrs.Hilliard,Mr.Supal,Mrs.Dewey

21May2015

TableofContents

Introduction……………………………………………………………………………

1

ReviewofLiterature…………………………………………………………………….4

ProblemStatement…………………………………………………………………….14

ExperimentalDesign………………………………………………………………… 15

DataandObservations……………………………………………………………… 18

DataAnalysisandInterpretation…………………………………………………… 26

Conclusion…………………………………………………………………………… 38

Appendix1:BlowingoutEggInnards……………………………………………….45

Appendix2:RandomizationofTrials……………………………………………… 46

Appendix3:TakingthepHoftheSodas……………………………………………48

Appendix4:MassLossFormulas……………………………………………………49

Appendix5:StatisticalTestSampleCalculations………………………………….50

WorksCited…………………………………………………………………………….51

Introduction

ThecarbonatedsoftdrinkmarketintheUnitedStatesalonein2008was

73billiondollars(Singleton).Carbonatedsoftdrinksarebecomingverycommon

refreshmentformanypeopleintheUnitedStates.However,theharmfulside

effectsofsodaonteethtendtobeoverlooked.Itisunfortunatelyeasytoassume

thateachtypeofsodaavailablewilldothesamethingtoaperson’sdental

health,oreventhatdietsodawillnotharmaperson’sdentalhealth.Thepurpose

ofthisexperimentwastotesttheeffectsofDietPepsi,DietMountainDew,and

Diet7­Upontheenamelofhumanteeth,andtodeterminewhichsodacauses

themosttoothdecay,basedontheirpHlevels.Whentheenamelofhumanteeth

breaksdown,toothdecaybeginstoform(Valadez).

Theexperimentwasrunbysimplyplacingeggshellsintoeachdifferent

sodafor48hours,measuringthemassbeforetheeggshellsweresoakedand

themassaftertheeggshellsweresoaked.Thirtycupsofeachsodawereused,

andoneeggshellwasplacedintoeachcupforatotalofthirtytrialspersoda.

Whiletheeggshellssatinthesoda,thepHlevelofthesodawastakenevery

twenty­fourhours,startingrightbeforetheeggshellwasdroppedintothesoda.

Additionally,threecontrolsofdistilledwaterwereconductedtoensurethatsoda

trulydoeshaveaneffectontheeggshellsratherthansomethingelse.The

experimentwasconductedtakingthepHeverydaytoobserveifthesodawith

thelowestaveragepHwouldcausethemostdamagetotheeggshell.Eggshells

wereusedastheyaremucheasiertoworkwithandgetaholdof,andreact

similarlytohumanteethinthepresenceofacids(Garcia).Thisprocedurehas

accomplishedtheobjectivesandpurposebecausethemasslossoftheegg

shellsaccuratelyrepresentsthedeteriorationofteethduetotheirsimilarcalcium

compounds(Jacobson).

Theresultsoftheexperimentcanbeusedtodeterminewhichsodaoutof

thoseused,isthemostdamagingtoaperson’sdentalhealth.Thisinformationis

veryusefultothegeneralpublic,giventhatthesodaindustryissolarge.People

wouldhaveinformationtohelpmakeawiserchoicewithwhattheydrink.Many

peoplemaybelievethat“diet”meansithasnoharmfuleffectsontheirdental

health,asdietsodascontainnosugar(Valadez).However,giventhatthereis

stillacidindietsodas,deteriorationisstillexpected,contrarytopopularbelief

(Valadez).Additionally,thewaypeopledrinksodasisoftensippingthemallday

(Valadez).Theeffectsofthesoda’sacidonteethlastabouttwentyminutes,and

theprocessrestartswitheverysipofsoda(Valadez).Thismeansthattooth

brushingcannothelppreventerosionoftoothenamelunlessteetharebrushed

betweeneverysipofsoda,andassuchknowingwhatsodacausesthemost

damagetoaperson’steethcanbeveryusefulforthosewhosipthesodaallday.

Additionally,dentalstudiescouldbenefitfromthedata.Dentistscoulduse

thedatatorecommendcertaintypesofsoftdrinksoverotherstopatients,or

perhapstothegeneralpublic.Thedatacollectedmayalsohelpdentists

diagnoseorevenfindnewwaystotreatpatientswithtoothdecaycausedby

soda.Furthermore,studiesandresearchsuchasthiscouldhelplarge

corporationsincludingtheUSFoodandDrugAdministration(FDA),decidewhat

theyshouldallowthegeneralpublicbeexposedtoandhowitisaffectingtheir

health.TheFDAorgovernmentcouldtakeactionsuchasrequiringlabelson

sugardenseandaciddensesodasthatareharmfultodentalhealth.Thiscould

makethepublicawareofwhatsodasareprobablybestavoided.

ReviewofLiterature

Drinkingsodascausescavitiesbecausesoda’ssugareventuallybreaks

downtheenamelofthetooth.Thebacteriainthemouthbreakdownsugar

containedinsodasintoacids.Acidsarewhatbreaksdownandweakenthe

enameloftheteeth,whichleadstotoothdecay(Valadez).MountainDewisa

goodexampleofthisprocess.Dentistshaveevennamedtheconditioninwhich

childrendrinkheavyamountsofMountainDewas“MountainDewMouth”.Itis

causedbyMountainDew’sheavysugarlevels,andleadstomanycavities

(Main).Dietsodasdonotcontainsugar,butdocontaintheirownacids.These

acidsworktobreakdownandweakentoothenamelaswiththoseformedby

mouthbacteria(Valadez).

Thehumantoothismadeupoftwomajorparts,thecrownandtheroot.

Thecrownisthevisiblepartofthetoothandcontainsenamel.Theenamelacts

asaprotectiveshieldingfortherootofthetoothasitisthehardestsubstancein

thebody.Thesecondlayerofthetoothisthedentine,whichismoresensitive

thanenamel.Thedentinelayersoverthepulp,asoft,fleshytissuethatcontains

thenervesandbloodsupplyforthetooth.Therootofthetoothisembeddedin

thegumsandiscoveredbyahardtissuecalledcementum.Therootofatoothis

supportedbyabone(DentalHealthFoundationIreland). Adiagramdepicting

thestructureofatoothcanbefoundinFigure1.

Figure1. DiagramofaTooth Figure1showsthemaincomponentsofatoothlabeled.Thetoothis

Figure1. DiagramofaTooth

Figure1showsthemaincomponentsofatoothlabeled.Thetoothis

shownwithinthegumsanditsrootissupportedbyabone(DentalHealth

FoundationIreland).

ThepHscaleisusedtorepresentthechemicalacidityofasubstance.pH

standsforpowerofhydrogen,Hbeingcapitalizedbecauseitistheelemental

symbolofhydrogen(Anderson).Thescalemeasurestheconcentrationof

hydrogenions(H+ )todeterminetheacidityofasubstance.Thescaleranges

from0­14andatbothendsofthescaleareextremes.ApHreadingof7is

consideredneutral. Asubstancewithareadingbetween7and14wouldbea

baseandasubstancewithareadingbetween7and0wouldbeanacid.Mixing

acidswithbasescanneutralizethesolution.ThepHscaleislogarithmic,andthe

formulacanbefoundbelow(Anderson).

pH=­log10 [H+]

Logarithmicmeansthateachintegervaluethatdeviatesawayfrom7is

tentimesmoreacidicorbasicthantheonebeforeitrespectively.Allthis

aforementionedinformationcanbeseeninFigure2foundbelow(Anderson),

alongwiththeexpectedpHvaluesthatcanbeseeninTable1(von

Fraunhofer).

alongwiththeexpectedpHvaluesthatcanbeseeninTable1(von Fraunhofer).

Figure2. pHScale

Figure2showsthevaluesonthepHscaleandlabelswhichvaluesare

alkalineandwhichareacidic(AbundantHealthCenter).Thesodasusedinthe

experimentarelabeledonthescale.Allthreeofthesodasareconsideredacidic.

MountainDew,asstatedabove,ishighinsugars. MountainDew

containshighfructosecornsyrup,whichisaliquidformofsugarmadefromcorn

starches.MountainDewalsocontainsacids,suchascitricacid,whichareused

toaddflavortothedrink(Key­Cell,LLC).DietMountainDew,however,contains

sugarsubstitutessuchasaspartame(C14 H18 N2 O5 )andacesulfamepotassium

(C4 H4 KNO4 S),anditdoesnotcontainhighfructosecornsyrup(PepsiCo.).Diet

MountainDewhasapHof3.27.AnotherpopularsodaisDietPepsi. DietPepsi,

justlikeDietMountainDew,alsocontainsmanysugarsubstitutesthatalterthe

pHlevelofthedrink.DietPepsihasapHof2(vonFraunhofer). Furthermore,

Diet7­Up,which,unliketheothersodas,hasahigherpHof3.71.AspH

decreasesinsoftdrinks,theybecomemoredangerousforteeth(Lloyd).The

informationforDietMountainDew,Diet7Up,andDietPepsiwereallusedto

designtheexperiment.Table1depictstheacidityandcorresponding14­day

weightlossoftestteethinmg/cm2 foreachbeveragerespectively(von

Fraunhofer).

Table1

pHofBeverages

Table1 pHofBeverages Table1abovewascreatedtoshowthepHofmanydifferentbeverages (vonFraunhofer).

Table1abovewascreatedtoshowthepHofmanydifferentbeverages

(vonFraunhofer). Analyzingthistable,itcanbeseenthatallbeveragesare

acidic.ThisisduetothefactthatallofthepHvaluesarewithintherangeof0

and7onthepHscale(Anderson).Itshouldbenotedthattheweightlossin

MountainDewismuchgreaterthanthatoftheothersodascomparatively.

However,theacidityofMountainDewisnotmoreextremethantheothersodas.

Thereasonforthisis,aspreviouslystated,thevariousuniqueingredientsinboth

regularandDietMountainDew,suchasthehighamountofcaffeineinboth

sodas(CaffeineContentofDrinks,Ipatenco).Additionally,DietMountainDewis

knowntocontainaspartame(CaffeineContentofDrinks).Aspartameisaknown

sugarsubstitute(SugarSubstitutes|Aspartame).

Whenteethareexposedtoacids,sugarsandothersubstancesthatcan

furthererodetheirstructure,theyshowidentifiablevisualandphysicalsigns.The

teethwilloftenshowyellowdiscolorationduetotheexpositionoftheunderlying

dentine("AcidAttack!").Asmoreerosionandacidicdissolutionofthetooth

occurs,moredentineisexposedandyellowdiscolorationwouldincrease. Also,

transparencycanbeevidentinthebitingedgesoferodedteeth. Thecracksand

wearingawayaswellasdentsandcuppingintheteetharethemosteasily

identifiableastheyarerelatedtomasslossinthetooth(Lloyd).Theexperiment

usedmassloss,asitisthemostanalyticaloftheaforementionedsigns.Assuch,

masslossandpercentmasslosswereusedintheexperiment.Theothersigns

wererecordedintheobservationstablehowever.

Thecitricacidinthesodasmayhaveaneffectonthemasslossofthe

eggshells.Thecitratewillworktoerodethecalciumcompoundsandresultin

deteriorationandmassloss(Pearson).Thecitrussodas;DietMountainDewand

Diet7­Up,containlargeramountsofcitricacidthanthecola,DietPepsi.

Furthermore,DietMountainDewcontains54mgofcaffeineper12fl.oz

can,whileDietPepsicontains35mgandDiet7­Upcontainsnocaffeine

(CaffeineContentofDrinks).Drinkingcaffeinatedbeveragesstainsteethand

erodestoothenamel(Ipatenco).Thereisacorrelationbetweentheamountof

caffeineintakeandtheamountoftootherosionandstainingpresent(Ipatenco).

Thestainingcomesmostlyfromthereactionbetweenthesodaandasubstance

inthetooth’splaque,andisadentalhealthconcern(TheCaffeine/DentalHealth

Connection:1800Dentist.com). Artificialsweetenersnegateanypossiblehealth

benefitsgainedfromcaffeine,andcaffeinewillincreasetherateatwhichthe

processoferosionandbreakingdownofcalciumcompoundswilltakeplace(The

Caffeine/DentalHealthConnection:1800Dentist.com,Fesler).

Theeffectsofacidicdrinkscanbeverydrastic.Ithasbeenshownthat

excessiveandcarelessconsumptionofthesedrinkscanyieldresultssimilarto

thatofamethamphetamineuser(Bassiouny).Figure3showsanorthopedic

x­rayoftheerodedanddamageddentineofadietsodadrinker.

x­rayoftheerodedanddamageddentineofadietsodadrinker. Figure3. DietSodaX­Ray

Figure3. DietSodaX­Ray

Figure3. DietSodaX­Ray InFigure3aboveanx­rayoftheteethfromanexcessivedietsodauser

InFigure3aboveanx­rayoftheteethfromanexcessivedietsodauser

areshown(Bassiouny).

Discolorationisnotevidentfromthex­raybuttheerosionofthedentine

andouterenamelareveryclear.Also,sugarscancauselargeamountsof

plaquetoformonthetoothenamel,asseenabove(Bassiouny).

plaquetoformonthetoothenamel,asseenabove(Bassiouny). Figure4. MethamphetamineUserX­Ray
plaquetoformonthetoothenamel,asseenabove(Bassiouny). Figure4. MethamphetamineUserX­Ray

Figure4. MethamphetamineUserX­Ray

Figure4aboveshowsanorthopedicx­rayofamethamphetamineuser;

thesimilaritiesbetweenthesodauserandmethamphetamineuserareevident.

Thedamageddentineanderodedenamelisverysevereinbothcases

(Bassiouny).

Figure5.HealthyTeethX­Ray Figure5aboveshowsanx­rayofhealthyhumanteeth(Boerner).The

Figure5.HealthyTeethX­Ray

Figure5aboveshowsanx­rayofhealthyhumanteeth(Boerner).The

teethareallintactandnodeteriorationorerosionoftheteethisevident.

Thestudyconductedonthesimilaritiesbetweenmethamphetamine,

cocaine,anddietsoda’seffectsonteethshowedthatdietsodacausestooth

decay.Thesubjectusedtoobservetheeffectsofdietsodaontoothdecay

reportedthatshehadnothadanydentalhealthservicesfortwodecades.She

additionallyreportedthatshedrank2litersofdietsodaeverydayforthreetofive

years,andthatshechosedietsodabecauseshefearedtoothdecaycausedby

sugarinregularsodas.However,anoralexaminationshowedthatdietsoda

erodedherteeth.Therewasadark,yellowishdiscolorationofthedentinonher

teeth(Bassiouny).Thisinformationshowsthatdietsodasdoindeedcausetooth

decay,whichallowedtheuseofdietsodasintheexperiment.

Eggshellsmakeapracticalalternativetoenamelduetotheirsimilarities,

andhavebeenusedinotherexperimentsasanalternative(Garcia).Bothare

composedofcalciumcompounds(Jacobson).Botheggshellsandtoothenamel

losemineralsinthepresenceofacids.Thisisbecausetheacidiccompounds

reactwiththecalciumcompoundsresultingintheformationofnewcompounds

andthereleaseofcalciumions,whichweakensbothenamelandeggshells

(Jacobson).Therearesomenotabledifferencesbetweentoothenameland

eggshells.Onemajordifferenceisthattoothenamelismainlycomposedof

calciumphosphate(Ca3 (PO4 )2 )whileeggshellsarecomposedofcalcium

carbonate(CaCO3 ).Despitebeingmadeoftwodifferentcalciumcompounds,

botheggshellsandtoothenamelreactsimilarlyinthepresenceofacid,which

makesthisdifferenceinsignificanttotheresearch(Jacobson).Thechemical

equationsforthesetwocompoundsreactingwithphosphoricacid(H3 PO4 )are

shownbelow.

ReactionofCalciumPhosphateandPhosphoricAcid:

HPO

3

4

+C

a(PO)

3

4 2

Ca

2+ +

H(PO)

6

4 2

ReactionofCalciumCarbonateandPhosphoricAcid:

HPO

3

4

+C

aCO

3

HCa

2+ +(

PO)(CO)

4 2

3 3

Whentheacidsreactwitheggshells,thecalciumcarbonateformscalcium

ionsandcarbondioxide.Whentheacidsreactwithenamel,hydrogenions

combinewithcarbonateionsorphosphateions,resultinginthereleaseof

calciumions(Jacobson).Thisdoesnotsignificantlyaffecttheresearchbecause

thereactionsbothresultinthelossofcalciumandtheitembeingmeasuredand

analyzedisthemasslossasaresultofthereactionofeggshellswithacidsfound

indietsodas.

Anumberofdifferentexperimentsexisttotesttheeffectsofsodaontooth

enamel.Suchexperimentsuseeggshellsastheyarefarmoreattainable.Placing

hardboiledeggsintodifferentsodasorevenotherdrinksallowsinformationto

begatheredonhowthesedrinkscanerodeorstainteeth(Braun).The

experimentconductedcomparedsodaswithdifferentpHlevelsandother

properties.Thepercentofmasslossoftheeggshellsfrombeingsoakedinsoda

willbemeasuredingrams,ratherthananobservationonthestainingsodahas

ontheeggshells.

ProblemStatement:

ProblemStatement

Howdodifferentdietsodaswithdifferentpropertiesbreakdowntooth

enamelandcausemasslossofthetooth?

Hypothesis:

WheneggshellsaresoakedinDietPepsiforapproximately48hours,the

masslossingramsandpercentmasslosswillbethegreatestwhencomparedto

Diet7­UpandDietMountainDew.

DataMeasured:

TheindependentvariableoftheexperimentistheaveragepHleveltaken

duringtheexperimentevery24hoursforeachsampleofsoda.Theconstants

werethetypeofsodausedandthetypeofeggshellsused.Thedependent

variableoftheexperimentisthemasslossoftheeggshellsingrams.Thisis

measuredbymeasuringthemassoftheeggshellingramsbeforetheeggshellis

soakedinsoda.Aftertheeggshellhasbeensoakedforapproximately48hours,

theeggshell’smassismeasuredagainingrams.Thedifferencebetweenthe

initialmassoftheeggshellandthefinalmassoftheeggshellisthemasslossin

grams.Threematchedpairst­testswillbeusedtocomparethemassofthe

eggshellsbeforebeingsoakedinsodatothemassoftheeggshellsafterbeing

soakedinthesodaforeachtypeofsoda’seggshells.

ExperimentalDesign

Materials:

3LDietPepsi

3WeighBoats

3LDietMountainDew

93Eggshells

3LDiet7­Up

93266mLPlasticCups

300mLDistilledWater

93StickyNotes

250mLBeaker

100mLGraduatedCylinder

AnalyticalBalance(0.0001gprecision)

Procedure:

2.

Placetheeggshellintoaneggcartonandallowtheeggshelltodryfor24

hours.

3. Measureout100mLofthedesignateddietsodaordistilledwaterina250

mLbeakerusingthe100mLgraduatedcylinder.

4. Transferthesodaintoaplasticcupandlabelwhattypeofsodaitcontains

onastickynoteplacedonthecup.

5. RepeatSteps3­4withoutwashingthegraduatedcylinderorbeakerif

pouringthesamesodainsuccession.Ifpouringadifferentsoda,washout thegraduatedcylinderandbeakerwithtapwaterandthenrepeatSteps

3­4.

6. RandomizethecupsofsodaandtrialsusingthemethodseeninAppendix

2.

7. RecordthepHlevelsofthesodasasseeninAppendix3usingthe

randomizationmethodseeninAppendix2.

8. Placeaneggshellontoaweighboat.

9. Recordthemassoftheeggshellusingananalyticalbalanceto0.0001g

precisiononaplasticcup’sstickynoteandinadatatable.

10. Placetheeggshellintotheplasticcupwiththestickynotecorresponding

tothemassoftheeggshellbeingplacedintheplasticcup.

11. Repeatsteps8­10foralleggshells.

12. Lettheeggshellssoakforaperiodofapproximately24hours.

13. RepeatSteps6­7after24hoursoflettingtheeggshellssitinthesodaand

distilledwaterforallcups.

14. Afterthe48hourperiod,repeatSteps6­7againforallcups.

15. Removealleggshellsandplacetheeggshellsbackintothecartonsand

labelonthecartonswhattrialtheeggshellis,washingtheeggshellsout

withtapwateroverasink.

16. Allowtheeggshellstositanddryfor24hoursinthecarton.

18.

Usetheanalyticalbalance(0.0001gprecision)tomasstheegg.

19. Recordthemassoftheeggshellusingananalyticalbalanceto0.0001g

precisionaftersoakingonthesamestickynoteandinadatatable.

20. Calculateandrecordinadatatablethemasslossusingthepresoaking

andpostsoakingmassesasseeninAppendix4.

21. Repeatsteps17­20until30trialshavebeenconductedforeachsodaand

3trialshavebeenconductedfordistilledwater.

22. Cleanupworkareaandallmaterialsappropriately.

Diagram:

Figure6.Materials Figure6aboveshowstheuncommonanduniquematerialsusedinthe

Figure6.Materials

Figure6aboveshowstheuncommonanduniquematerialsusedinthe

experiment.Thethreesodasthatwereusedintheexperimentareshown,along

withthecupsusedandaneggused.

DataandObservations

Table2

DietPepsiTrialAveragepHLevelsandMasses

         

Percent

Trial

Average

pH

Initial

Mass(g)

FinalMass

(g)

MassLost

(g)

MassLost

(%)

 

1 6.29

6.4094

5.9645

0.445

6.94%

 

2 6.24

6.8906

6.4481

0.443

6.42%

 

3 6.21

6.7835

6.0847

0.699

10.3%

 

4 6.17

6.4209

5.4253

1.00

15.5%

 

5 6.24

6.5183

5.5521

0.966

14.8%

 

6 6.27

6.4609

6.0701

0.391

6.05%

 

7 6.24

6.8936

6.6478

0.246

3.57%

 

8 6.16

6.7271

6.3767

0.350

5.21%

 

9 6.28

6.9500

6.7942

0.156

2.24%

 

10 6.28

5.9784

5.5191

0.459

7.68%

 

11 5.72

7.7406

5.9393

1.80

23.3%

 

12 5.75

5.7523

5.1184

0.634

11.0%

 

13 5.74

6.3297

5.5811

0.749

11.8%

 

14 5.71

6.3531

5.5593

0.794

12.5%

 

15 5.76

6.5780

5.6392

0.939

14.3%

 

16 5.69

7.1860

6.4146

0.771

10.7%

 

17 5.69

5.8177

5.3062

0.512

8.79%

 

18 5.71

5.6578

4.9207

0.737

13.0%

 

19 5.66

6.1955

5.5996

0.596

9.62%

 

20 5.65

6.3706

5.7987

0.572

8.98%

 

21 5.98

6.6327

6.0119

0.621

9.36%

 

22 6.10

5.0771

4.2099

0.867

17.1%

 

23 6.22

6.1730

5.5375

0.636

10.3%

 

24 5.93

6.7766

5.6646

1.11

16.4%

 

25 5.87

6.3059

5.5120

0.794

12.6%

 

26 5.86

6.9234

5.8548

1.07

15.4%

 

27 5.92

6.2389

5.3264

0.913

14.6%

 

28 6.13

6.2370

5.3737

0.863

13.8%

 

29 5.91

6.4518

6.0740

0.378

5.86%

 

30 5.81

6.2358

5.3283

0.908

14.6%

Averag

 

6.4355

5.7218

 

11.1%

e

5.97

0.714

Table2aboveshowstheaveragepHleveloftheDietPepsitrialsoverthe

48 hourperiodtheeggshellsweresoakinginthesoda,alongwiththemassof

theeggshellsbeforesoakingandthemassoftheeggshellsaftersoaking.The

masslostandpercentmasslostwerethencalculatedforeachtrial.Thetrialsare

inorderofthefirstDietPepsitrialtothelastDietPepsitrial.Thesearemerely

themeasurementsfortheDietPepsitrialsonly.

Table3

DietMountainDewTrialsAveragepHLevelsandMasses

         

Percent

Trial

Average

pH

Initial

Mass(g)

FinalMass

(g)

MassLost

(g)

MassLost

(%)

31

5.24

6.2864

5.7239

0.563

8.90%

32

5.53

6.5543

5.7360

0.818

12.5%

33

5.67

6.0574

5.2183

0.839

13.9%

34

5.54

6.3787

5.3749

1.00

15.7%

35

5.54

5.7298

5.3518

0.378

6.60%

36

5.43

6.1307

5.4866

0.644

10.5%

37

5.58

7.1541

5.7624

1.39

19.5%

38

5.66

7.5140

6.8489

0.665

8.90%

39

5.84

7.4635

6.0141

1.45

19.4%

40

5.72

5.8723

5.1309

0.741

12.6%

41

5.96

6.9497

6.0316

0.918

13.2%

42

5.91

6.7334

5.9962

0.737

10.9%

43

6.07

6.7501

5.9937

0.756

11.2%

44

6.14

6.4987

5.7712

0.728

11.2%

45

6.22

5.7623

5.1278

0.635

11.0%

46

5.79

6.8402

6.4698

0.370

5.40%

47

5.96

7.2398

6.5572

0.683

9.40%

48

6.11

6.2483

5.5905

0.658

10.5%

49

5.93

6.3871

5.6103

0.777

12.2%

50

6.09

6.3877

5.4390

0.949

14.9%

51

5.90

6.0242

5.1884

0.836

13.9%

52

6.03

6.8570

5.9918

0.865

12.6%

53

6.10

6.1615

5.1883

0.973

15.8%

54

5.99

6.2565

5.4631

0.793

12.7%

 

55 6.01

6.3032

5.7691

0.534

8.50%

 

56 5.72

6.4687

5.6037

0.865

13.4%

         

Percent

Trial

Average

pH

Initial

Mass(g)

FinalMass

(g)

MassLost

(g)

MassLost

(%)

 

57 5.95

5.7290

4.8837

0.845

14.8%

 

58 5.92

6.6242

5.8016

0.823

12.4%

 

59 6.03

6.2270

5.6359

0.591

9.50%

 

60 6.07

6.3563

5.8648

0.492

7.70%

Averag

 

6.4649

5.6875

 

12.0%

e

5.85

0.777

Table3aboveshowstheaveragepHleveloftheDietMountainDewtrials

overthe48 hourperiodtheeggshellsweresoakinginthesoda,alongwiththe

massoftheeggshellsbeforesoakingandthemassoftheeggshellsafter

soaking.Themasslostandpercentmasslostwerethencalculatedforeachtrial.

ThetrialsareinorderofthefirstDietMountainDewtrialtothelastDietMountain

Dewtrial.ThesearemerelythemeasurementsfortheDietMountainDewtrials

only.

Table4

Diet7­UpTrialAveragepHLevelsandMasses

         

Percent

Trial

Average

pH

Initial

Mass(g)

FinalMass

(g)

MassLost

(g)

MassLost

(%)

61

6.41

5.8341

4.9908

0.843

14.5%

62

6.34

6.1790

5.3491

0.830

13.4%

63

6.51

6.0421

5.2248

0.817

13.5%

64

6.38

6.6561

5.6356

1.02

15.3%

65

6.57

6.3541

5.5277

0.826

13.0%

66

6.47

6.5568

5.8877

0.669

10.2%

67

6.54

6.7901

5.9747

0.815

12.0%

68

6.53

6.3690

5.0613

1.31

20.5%

69

6.51

6.7801

6.0696

0.711

10.5%

70

6.55

7.0193

5.4026

1.62

23.0%

71

6.57

5.7430

4.8404

0.903

15.7%

72

6.62

5.8784

5.0049

0.874

14.9%

73

6.53

6.4559

5.7261

0.730

11.3%

         

Percent

Trial

Average

pH

Initial

Mass(g)

FinalMass

(g)

MassLost

(g)

MassLost

(%)

 

74 6.43

6.1682

5.5978

0.570

9.20%

 

75 6.20

5.8189

5.3690

0.450

7.70%

 

76 6.61

6.7530

6.1663

0.587

8.70%

 

77 6.37

6.3505

5.8761

0.474

7.50%

 

78 6.40

6.2945

5.8634

0.431

6.80%

 

79 6.48

6.4272

6.0900

0.337

5.20%

 

80 6.54

6.0353

5.3541

0.681

11.3%

 

81 6.30

6.8437

6.3842

0.460

6.70%

 

82 6.29

6.5045

6.0355

0.469

7.20%

 

83 6.13

5.8802

5.5400

0.340

5.80%

 

84 6.31

6.8780

5.1800

1.70

24.7%

 

85 6.28

6.1925

5.5700

0.623

10.1%

 

86 6.19

6.4973

5.7700

0.727

11.2%

 

87 6.32

6.3949

5.7900

0.605

9.50%

 

88 6.16

6.6331

6.0200

0.613

9.20%

 

89 6.02

6.2859

5.7300

0.556

8.80%

 

90 6.29

6.5414

6.0900

0.451

6.90%

Averag

 

6.3719

5.6374

 

11.5%

e

6.39

0.735

Table4aboveshowstheaveragepHleveloftheDiet7­Uptrialsoverthe

48 hourperiodtheeggshellsweresoakinginthesoda,alongwiththemassof

theeggshellsbeforesoakingandthemassoftheeggshellsaftersoaking.The

masslostandpercentmasslostwerethencalculatedforeachtrial.Thetrialsare

inorderofthefirstDiet7­UptrialtothelastDiet7­Uptrial.Thesearemerelythe

measurementsfortheDiet7­Uptrialsonly.

Table5

DistilledWaterControlTrialsAveragepHLevelsandMasses

         

Percent

Trial

Average

pH

Initial

Mass(g)

FinalMass

(g)

MassLost

(g)

MassLost

(%)

91

6.72

5.5122

5.1923

0.320

5.80%

92

6.54

6.6571

6.0411

0.616

9.25%

         

Percent

Trial

Average

pH

Initial

Mass(g)

FinalMass

(g)

MassLost

(g)

MassLost

(%)

93

7.05

4.6357

4.5413

0.0944

2.04%

Averag

 

5.6017

5.2582

   

e

6.77

0.343

5.70%

Table5showstheaveragepHlevelofthedistilledwatertrialsoverthe48

hourperiodtheeggshellsweresoakinginthesoda,alongwiththemassofthe

eggshellsbeforesoakingandthemassoftheeggshellsaftersoaking.Themass

lostandpercentmasslostwerethencalculatedforeachtrial.Thetrialsarein

orderofthefirstdistilledwatertrialtothelastdistilledwatertrial.Theseare

merelythemeasurementsforthedistilledwatertrialsonly.Thecalculationsfor

masslossandpercentmasslossforalltrialscanbeseeninAppendix4.

Table6

ObservationsofAllTrials

Trial

Observations

1

Procedureexecutedwithoutsignificanterror

2

Procedureexecutedwithoutsignificanterror

3

Procedureexecutedwithoutsignificanterror

4

Procedureexecutedwithoutsignificanterror

5

Procedureexecutedwithoutsignificanterror

6

Procedureexecutedwithoutsignificanterror

7

Procedureexecutedwithoutsignificanterror

8

Procedureexecutedwithoutsignificanterror

9

Procedureexecutedwithoutsignificanterror

10

Procedureexecutedwithoutsignificanterror

11

Procedureexecutedwithoutsignificanterror

12

Procedureexecutedwithoutsignificanterror

13

Procedureexecutedwithoutsignificanterror

14

Procedureexecutedwithoutsignificanterror

15

Procedureexecutedwithoutsignificanterror

16

Procedureexecutedwithoutsignificanterror

17

Egghadalargeamountofcracking.

18

Procedureexecutedwithoutsignificanterror

Trial

Observations

19

Procedureexecutedwithoutsignificanterror

20

Procedureexecutedwithoutsignificanterror

21

Eggwascracked,portiondidn'tgetsoaked

22

Eggwascracked,portiondidn'tgetsoaked

23

Procedureexecutedwithoutsignificanterror

24

Procedureexecutedwithoutsignificanterror

25

Smallamountofcrackingoneggshell

26

Couldnotbesubmergedagain,filledextrasoda

27

Procedureexecutedwithoutsignificanterror

28

Submergedagainafterfloatingtothesurface

29

Procedureexecutedwithoutsignificanterror

30

Procedureexecutedwithoutsignificanterror

31

Extrasodawasaddedtofullysubmergeegg

32

Procedureexecutedwithoutsignificanterror

33

Egghadtobesubmergedagain

34

Procedureexecutedwithoutsignificanterror

35

Procedureexecutedwithoutsignificanterror

36

Procedureexecutedwithoutsignificanterror

37

Procedureexecutedwithoutsignificanterror

38

Procedureexecutedwithoutsignificanterror

39

Procedureexecutedwithoutsignificanterror

40

Extrasodawasaddedtofullysubmergeegg

41

Procedureexecutedwithoutsignificanterror

42

Procedureexecutedwithoutsignificanterror

43

Procedureexecutedwithoutsignificanterror

44

Procedureexecutedwithoutsignificanterror

45

Significantlycracked

46

Procedureexecutedwithoutsignificanterror

47

Procedureexecutedwithoutsignificanterror

48

Procedureexecutedwithoutsignificanterror

49

Procedureexecutedwithoutsignificanterror

50

Procedureexecutedwithoutsignificanterror

51

Moresodawasaddedtofullysubmergeegg

52

Procedureexecutedwithoutsignificanterror

53

Eggcrackedasitwasbeingsubmergedagain

54

Procedureexecutedwithoutsignificanterror

55

Procedureexecutedwithoutsignificanterror

56

Procedureexecutedwithoutsignificanterror

Trial

Observations

57

Procedureexecutedwithoutsignificanterror

58

Procedureexecutedwithoutsignificanterror

59

Procedureexecutedwithoutsignificanterror

60

Procedureexecutedwithoutsignificanterror

61

Eggshellwascrackedslightly

62

Procedureexecutedwithoutsignificanterror

63

Procedureexecutedwithoutsignificanterror

64

Procedureexecutedwithoutsignificanterror

65

Procedureexecutedwithoutsignificanterror

66

Procedureexecutedwithoutsignificanterror

67

Procedureexecutedwithoutsignificanterror

68

Procedureexecutedwithoutsignificanterror

69

Procedureexecutedwithoutsignificanterror

70

Procedureexecutedwithoutsignificanterror

71

Procedureexecutedwithoutsignificanterror

72

Procedureexecutedwithoutsignificanterror

73

Procedureexecutedwithoutsignificanterror

74

Procedureexecutedwithoutsignificanterror

75

Procedureexecutedwithoutsignificanterror

76

Procedureexecutedwithoutsignificanterror

77

Procedureexecutedwithoutsignificanterror

78

Procedureexecutedwithoutsignificanterror

79

Smallamountofcrackingineggshell

80

Procedureexecutedwithoutsignificanterror

81

Procedureexecutedwithoutsignificanterror

82

Procedureexecutedwithoutsignificanterror

83

Procedureexecutedwithoutsignificanterror

84

Couldnotbecompletelysubmerged

85

Eggwassubmergedagainafterfloatingtosurface

86

Procedureexecutedwithoutsignificanterror

87

Procedureexecutedwithoutsignificanterror

88

Procedureexecutedwithoutsignificanterror

89

Egghadtobepushedbackdowntosubmergeitagain

90

Procedureexecutedwithoutsignificanterror

91

Procedureexecutedwithoutsignificanterror

92

Procedureexecutedwithoutsignificanterror

93

Procedureexecutedwithoutsignificanterror

Table6showstheobservationsmadeforalltrialsintheexperiment.

Table6showstheobservationsmadeforalltrialsintheexperiment. Figure7.EggshellColorsafterSoaking

Figure7.EggshellColorsafterSoaking

Figure7aboveshowsthecolorsthattheeggshellsturnedafterbeing

soakedintheirrespectivesodaorwater.Intheupperlefthandcornerarethe

Diet7­Upeggshells,whichdidn’tchangecolor.Inthelowerlefthandcornerare

theDietPepsieggshells,whichchangedtoabrownishcolor.Intheupperright

handcorneraretheDietMountainDeweggshells,whichturnedbrightgreen.

Andfinallythedistilledwatercontroleggshellsinthelowerrighthandcorner

didn’tchangecoloreither.

DataAnalysisandInterpretation

Datacollectionfortheexperimentwasrelativelysimple.Alleggshellswere

sortedonacartwithfourlevels.Eachlevelwasdesignatedtoatypeofsoda,

andthetoplevelheldthedistilledwatercontrolsandsupplies.Thirtycupsper

sodawereplacedontheircorrespondinglevelonthecartandseparatedinto

groupsoften.Thethreecontrolsweretreatedasthreeseparategroups.

RandomizationoccurredwhiletakingtheinitialmassandpHlevelseveryhours.

Eachsetoftenandeachcontrolweregivenavalueonethroughthreeandthe

randomintegerfunctionontheTI­NSpirewasusedtoassignthesetstoeach

researcher.Afteranyprocedureontheeggswasdone,theeggswereputback

intheiroriginalcupstoensurereplicationwouldbeeasy.Therandomization

contributedtoavoidinganybiasinthedata.Equipmentwasalsocleaned

properlytoensureprevioustrialsdidnotaffectlaterones.Thecontrols,

randomization,andreplicationallworkedtokeepthedataaccurateandvalid.

Eachcuponthecartwasgivenastickynotetowriteallinformationon,

includingobservations.Duringthefirstdatacollection,thepHofthesodaand

initialmassofalleggshellswastaken.Twenty­fourhourslaterthepHofall

sodaswastakenagain.Twenty­fourhourslaterthepHofallsodaswastaken

againandtheeggscleaned.Twenty­fourhourslaterthefinalmasswastaken.

Becauseallstickynotesandeggshellswereputbackonthesamecup,

replicationwasmucheasieraseverythingwasorganized.Thedatawasthen

testedandanalyzedusingtheMatchedPairst­testoneachsoda.Thistestwas

appropriateforthisexperimentbecauseitcanbeusedtoanalyzeandcomparea

samplebeforeandafteratreatment.Inthisinstance,beforeandaftersoaking

theeggshellsinthedifferentsodaswerethetwocategories.Theconditionsfor

thistestarethatitisasimplerandomsampleandthatthedataisrelatively

normalorthesamplesizeisgreaterthanthirty.Also,descriptivestatisticswere

usedonthedata.Thedatawasputintographs,chartsandspreadsheetsand

thenanalyzedtoidentifytrends,skewness,andoutliersinthedata.

AboxplotwasusedtoobservethemasslossvaluesoftheDietPepsi

trials.

trials. Figure8.BoxPlotoftheMassLostValuesofDietPepsi

Figure8.BoxPlotoftheMassLostValuesofDietPepsi

Figure8aboveshowsaboxplotofthevaluesformasslossfortheDiet

Pepsi.Theplotshowsthatthedatafellbetween0.1558gand1.112g,disclosing

outliers.Thisgivesthedataarangeof0.9562g.Thedataappearstobeslightly

leftskewed,withanoutlieronthehigherendofthedataset.Thisoutlierhadan

averagepHof5.72,whichislowerthantheaveragepHforalltrialsat5.97;

however,othertrialshadaloweraveragepHthan5.72andstillhadnormalmass

loss.Thiseggshellmayhavejustbeenveryweakandmoresusceptibletothe

acidsintheDietPepsi.Thedatameetstheaforementionedrequirementsof

havingthirtytrialsandhavingalltrialsbeingrandomlysampledwithequal

likelihood.ThehypothesesfortheMatchedpairst­testareshownbelow.

H

o

H

a

:

:

μ

μ

=0

>0

Figure9.NullandAlternativeHypothesesforDietPepsiMassLoss

Figure9showsthenullandalternativehypothesisforthematchedpairs

t­testonthemasslossforDietPepsi.Thesymbol“μ”ismu,whichrepresents

themeanmasslossoftheDietPepsitrials.Thenullhypothesisstatesthatthere

isnomassloss,asthedifferencebetweentheinitialmassandfinalmassis

comparedtozero.Thealternativehypothesisstatesthattheinitialmassis

greaterthatthefinalmass.Thet­testresultsarebelow.Theactualequationsfor

amatchedpairst­testcanbeseeninAppendix5.

greaterthatthefinalmass.Thet­testresultsarebelow.Theactualequationsfor amatchedpairst­testcanbeseeninAppendix5.

Figure10.t­testCalculatorPageandp­graphforDietPepsiMassLoss

Figure10abovedisplaysap­graphandcalculatorpageforthematched

pairst­testconductedonthemasslossdataforDietPepsiusingtheTI­NSpire

StudentSoftware,alongwiththeresultsofthematchedpairst­test.

Unfortunately,thep­valuewassosmallitwasnotvisibleonthegraph.The

t­valueis12.1827,whichmeansthattheaveragemasslossforDietPepsitrials

is12.1827standarddeviationsawayfromzero.Thep­valueis3.13554*10­13and

thet­valueis12.1827.Thep­valueisbelowthealphalevelof0.05soHo was

rejected.Thereisevidencetosupportthatthereissignificantmasslossbetween

theinitialmassoftheeggshellsandthefinalmassoftheeggshells.Thereisonly

a3.13554*10­13%thatmasslossthisextremewouldhaveoccurredbychance

alone.

ThecontrolforDietPepsihadamasslossof0.3199g,whichisabitlarger

thanexpectedofthecontrol.Thecontrolswereexpectedtolosevirtuallyno

mass,around0.1g.Thismasslossisnonethelesssignificantlylessthanthe

meanmasslossforDietPepsiat0.714g,andassuchcanstillbeconsidered

abletoprovethatthetreatmentofDietPepsihadasignificanteffect.Itcan

thereforebeconcludedthatDietPepsicausesmasslossofeggshells.

AboxplotwasusedtoobservethemasslossvaluesoftheDietMountain

Dewtrials.

Dewtrials. Figure11.BoxPlotoftheMassLostValuesofDietMountainDew

Figure11.BoxPlotoftheMassLostValuesofDietMountainDew

Figure11showsaboxplotofthevaluesformasslossfortheDiet

MountainDew.Theplotshowsthatthedatafellbetween0.3704gand1.0038g,

disclosingoutliers.Thisgivesthedataarangeof0.6334g.Thedataappearsto

beslightlyleftskewed,withtwooutliersonthehigherendofthedataset.The

twooutliersbothhaveloweraveragepHlevelsthanthemeanpHlevelforall

DietMountainDewtrials.Theaverageforalltrialsis5.855,theoutlierat1.3917g

hadanaveragepHof5.58,andtheoutlierof1.4494ghadanaveragepHof

5.84.ThefirstoutliermentioneddidhaveasomewhatloweraveragepHthanthe

meanforallDietMountainDewtrials,butthesecondmentionedoutlierhasapH

veryclosetothemeanforallDietMountainDewtrials.Theseeggshellsmay

havebeenveryweak,orwhiletheeggshellswerebeingwashedasmallpieceof

eggshellmayhavebrokenapartandfallendownthedrain.Thedatastillmeets

thet­testassumptions,however.Thedatawasrandomlysampledandthere

werethirtytrialsconducted.ThehypothesesfortheMatchedpairst­testare

shownbelow.

H

o

H

a

:

:

μ

μ

=0

>0

Figure12.NullandAlternativeHypothesesforDietMountainDewMassLoss

Figure12showsthenullandalternativehypothesisforthematchedpairs

t­testonthemasslossforMountainDew.Thesymbol“μ”ismu,which

representsthemeanmasslossoftheDietMountainDewtrials.Themassloss

dataisthedifferencebetweentheinitialmassoftheeggshellsandthefinalmass

oftheeggshells.Thenullhypothesisstatesthatthereisnomassloss,asthe

masslossdataiscomparedto0.Thealternativehypothesisstatesthattheinitial

massisgreaterthatthefinalmass.TheTI­NSpirespreadsheetandp­graphused

forthet­testisseenbelow.Theactualequationsforamatchedpairst­testcan

beseeninAppendix5.

beseeninAppendix5.

Figure13.t­testCalculatorPageandp­graphforDietMountainDewMassLoss

Figure13displaysaTI­Nspirecalculatorpageofthematchedpairst­test

conductedwithTI­NSpireStudentSoftwareforDietMountainDewmassloss

results,alongwiththep­graphofthet­valueforthet­test.Unfortunately,the

p­valuewassosmallitwasnotvisibleonthep­graph.Thep­valueis1.4289*10­17

andthet­valueis17.9851.Thet­valueindicatesthattheaveragemasslossfor

DietMountainDewis17.9851standarddeviationsawayfromzero.Thep­value

isbelowthealphalevelof0.05soHo wasrejected.Thereisevidencetosupport

thatthereissignificantmasslossbetweentheinitialmassoftheeggshellsand

thefinalmassoftheeggshellsforDietMountainDewtrials.Thereisonlya

1.4289*10­17%thatsuchextrememasslosswouldhaveoccurredbychance

alone.

ThecontrolforDietMountainDewhadamasslossof0.616g,whichis

considerablylargerthanexpectedoftheDietMountainDewcontroltrial,which

shouldhavebeenaround0.1g.Thismasslossislessthanthemeanmassloss

forDietMountainDewat0.7774g,butitishighenoughtoshowthattheremay

havebeensomethingwrongwiththeDietMountainDewcontrol.ThepHforthis

controlwaslowestofallthecontrolsat6.54,sotheremayhavebeenan

unintentionaltransferofsodaintothecup,causingextramassloss.Thisis

otherwiseunusualasthedistilledwaterforallcontrolscamefromthesamejug.

ThisstillmeansthatitcanbeconcludedthatDietMountainDewcausesmass

lossofeggshells.However,becausetheDietMountainDewcontrolisveryclose

totheaveragefortheDietMountainDewtrials,tosaythatDietMountainDew

causesmasslossofaneggshellisincorrect,andforthisparticularsetofdatait

wasnotconcludedthattheMountainDewalonecausedmassloss.However,the

totalofallcontrolsyieldedanaveragemasslossof0.343g,whichisconsiderably

smallerthantheDietMountainDewtrialsaveragemasslossof0.7774g.And

giventhattheDietMountainDewcontrolhasalowerpHlevelthananyother

trial;itissafetoassumethattheDietMountainDewtreatmentiswhatcaused

themasslossoftheeggshells.

AboxplotwasusedtoobservetheDiet7­UptrialsMassloss.

themasslossoftheeggshells. AboxplotwasusedtoobservetheDiet7­UptrialsMassloss.

Figure14.BoxPlotoftheMassLostValuesofDiet7­Up

Figure14showsaboxplotofthevaluesformasslostfortheDiet7­Up.

Theplotshowsthatthedatafellbetween0.3372gand1.3077g.Thisgivesthe

dataarangeof0.9705g.Thedataappearstoberightskewed,withtwooutliers

onthehigherendofthedataset.Theoutlierof1.6167ghadanaveragepHof

6.55,andtheoutlierof1.6980ghadanaveragepHof6.31.TheaveragepHfor

all7­Uptrialsis6.39,meaningthattheoutliershadrelativelynormalpHlevels

whencomparedtotheaverageforall7­Uptrials.Thetwooutliersmaytherefore

beenbrokeneggshellsthatlostsomeoftheireggshellpieceswhilebeing

washed.Otherwise,theeggshellsfortheseoutlierscouldhavebeenveryweak,

andthusbrokedownmorethanothereggshellsinthepresenceofDiet7­Up.

Theassumptionsforthematchedpairst­testweremetfortheDiet7­Uptrials.

Thetrialswererandomlysampledwithequallikelihood,andthirtyDiet7­Uptrials

wererun.Thehypothesesforthematchedpairst­testareshownbelow.

H

o

H

a

:

:

μ

μ

=0

>0

Figure15.NullandAlternativeHypothesesforDiet7­UpMassLost

Figure15showsthenullandalternativehypothesisforthematchedpairs

t­testonthemasslossforDiet7­Up.Theμinthesehypothesisisthedifference

betweentheinitialmassoftheeggshellsandthefinalmassoftheeggshells,

knownasmassloss.ThenullhypothesiscomparesthemasslossforDiet7­Up

tozero,meaningthatiftheDiet7­Uptreatmenthadnoeffecttherewouldbeno

masslossoftheeggshells.Thealternativehypothesisstatesthattheinitialmass

oftheeggshellsisgreaterthanthatofthefinalmassoftheeggshellsforDiet

7­Uptrials,meaningthattheDiet7­Uptreatmentcausedsignificantmassloss.

TheTI­NSpirespreadsheetusedforthet­testisseeninFigure16.Theactual

equationsforamatchedpairst­testcanbeseeninAppendix5.

equationsforamatchedpairst­testcanbeseeninAppendix5.

Figure16.t­testCalculatorPageandp­graphforDiet7­UpMassLoss

Figure16abovedisplaysaTI­Nspirecalculatorpageandp­graphofthe

matchedpairst­testconductedfortheDiet7­UpmasslossusingtheTI­NSpire

StudentSoftware.Unfortunately,thep­valuewassosmallitwasnotvisibleon

thep­graph.Thep­valueis2.6591*10­13andthet­valueis12.2652.Thet­value

indicatesthattheaveragemasslossforDiet7­Uptrialswas12.2652standard

deviationsfromzero.Thep­valueisbelowthealphalevelof0.05soHo was

rejected.Thereisevidencetosupportthatthereissignificantmasslossbetween

theinitialmassoftheeggshellsandthefinalmassoftheeggshellsforDiet7­Up

trials.Thereisonlya2.6591*10­13%thatmasslossthisextremewouldhave

occurredbychancealone.

ThecontrolforDiet7­Uphadamasslossof0.094g,whichisaboutwhat

wasexpectedofacontrolasthecontrolsshouldhavehadaminimummassloss

aroundabout0.1g.ThismasslossisratherminutewhencomparedtotheDiet

7­Up’saveragemasslossof0.73451g.Thismakesadifferenceof0.64051g

betweentheDiet7­UptrialsaveragemasslossandthecontrolforDiet7­Up.It

canthereforebeconcludedthatDiet7­Upcausesmasslossofeggshellsasthe

distilledwatercontrolshowedveryminimalmasslosswhencomparedtothe

averageDiet7­Uptrialsmassloss.

ThedatacollectedfromtheMatchedPairst­testsprovidesveryuseful

information.Furthermore,graphsandchartscanbeillustratedbasedoffthedata.

Inobservingthesegraphsandchartstrendsinthedatacanbeseen.For

example,allthesoda’srespectivetrialshadoutlierswithhighmasslossvalues

andnotverylowmasslossvalues.Theoutlierswillpulltheaveragemassloss

towardsthem,causingthemeantobelargerthanthemedian.Forexample,the

medianoftheDietPepsidatais0.766600g,whilethemeanis0.777353g.Both

ofthesevaluesareessentiallymeanttobethecenterofthedata,howeverthe

meanispulledbytheoutliersandthemedianisresistanttothiseffect.

Inordertoensurethedata’svaliditycontroltrialswereconducted.These

controlsuseddistilledwaterratherthansoda.Thiswillshowifthesodaistruly

whatcausesthemasslossoftheeggshell.Acontroltrialwasdoneforeachof

thethreesodas.However,theirvalueswerenotveryconsistent.Theonlycontrol

toprovidedataaswasexpectedwastheDiet7­Upcontrol,withamasslossof

0.094g.Theothertwocontrolswerelargerthanpredicted,losing0.3199gand

0.616gforDietPepsiandDietMountainDewrespectively.Lookingatthe

averagepHlevelsforeachcontrol,theDietPepsicontrolhadanaveragepHof

6.72,theDietMountainDewcontrolhadanaveragepHof6.54,andtheDiet

7­UpcontrolhadanaveragepHof7.05.ThesepHvaluesdirectlycorrelateto

themasslossvaluesfortheirrespectivetrial.TheDietMountainDewcontrolhad

thelowestpHandthegreatestmassloss.TheDietPepsicontrolhadapHlevel

andamasslossvaluebetweentheDietMountainDewControlandDiet7­Up

control.TheDiet7­UpcontrolhadthehighestpHandtheleastmassloss.

Whilethemasslossvaluesforthecontrolswerenotallwhatwas

expected,thepHlevelsoftheDietPepsiandMountainDewcontrolscorrelateto

theirrespectivemasslossvalueswhenthecontrolswerecomparedto

one­another.Additionally,sincethepHandmasslossvaluesforthecontrols

correlatetoeachother,itmakessensethattheDietPepsiandMountainDew

controlslostthemassthattheydid.ThetwocontrolshadlowerpHlevelsthan

Diet7­Up.Thisallowstheconclusionthatthesodascausedthemasslossofthe

eggshellstobeaccepted,asthereisavalidreasonastowhytheDietPepsiand

MountainDewtrialsbehavedthewaytheydid.

Theinconsistencyofthecontrolswouldhinttowardapoorprocedureand

executionofthetrials.However,theaverageofthecontrols,0.3433g,ismuch

smallerthanthegrandaverageofallsodatrials,0.741882g.Additionally,the

averagepercentmasslossforthecontrolswas5.698%.Thepercentmassloss

forDietPepsi,DietMountainDew,andDiet7­Upwere11.094%,11.988%,and

11.483%respectively.Becausethereisaclearaveragedifferencebetweensoda

anddistilledwater,thetreatmentisacceptedasavalidwaytostatethattheDiet

sodatreatmentshadaneffectontheeggshells.

ThesodathatcausedthemostmasslossoftheeggshellswasDiet

MountainDewwiththehighestaveragemasslossof0.7774gandthelowest

p­valueof1.4289*10­17.

Conclusion

Insocietytoday,sodasareverypopular.However,peopledonot

understandtheeffectsofsodaontheirdentalhealth.Theproblemofthis

researchwashowdodifferentdietsodaswithdifferentpropertiesbreakdown

toothenamelandcausemasslossofthetooth.Itwashypothesizedthatwhen

teetharesoakedinDietPepsiforapproximately24hours,themasslossin

gramswillbethegreatestwhencomparedtoDiet7­UpandDietMountainDew.

Thecontrolsfortheexperimentyieldedunexpectedresults.TheDiet

PepsicontrolhadanaveragepHof6.72andamasslossof0.320g.TheDiet

MountainDewcontrolhadanaveragepHof6.54andamasslossof0.616g.

TheDiet7­UpcontrolhadanaveragepHof7.05andamasslossof0.094.

Lookingattheseresults,theaveragepHofthecontrolsandthemasslossare

inverselyproportional.ThelowerthepHlevelisthemoremasslossofthe

eggshellforthecontrol.ThisisbecausepHlevelslowerthan7areconsidered

acidic,andeggshellslosemassandcalciuminthepresenceofacid(Anderson,

Jacobson).Thecontrolsweresetupwiththeassumptionthattheywouldallhave

apHof7.BecausethispHisconsideredneutralandnotacidic,nomasslossof

theeggshellsinthecontrolswasexpected(Anderson).However,sincethe

averagepHlevelsoftheDietPepsiandDietMountainDewcontrolswerelower

than7,theeggshellsforthoselostmassproportionaltohowmuchlowerthe

averagepHlevelwasfrom7.SincethecontrolwithanaveragepHcloseto7lost

virtuallynomasswhiletheothercontrolslostmassproportionaltotheiraverage

pHlevels,thecontrolswerestillacceptedasproofthatthesodatreatmentsin

theothertrialswerewhatcausedthemasslossoftheeggshells.

Thehypothesiswasrejectedbecauseitwasnotsupportedbythedata.

TheaveragemasslossoftheeggshellssoakedinDietMountainDewwas

7­Uptheaveragemasslosswas0.735g.Additionally,thematchedpairst­tests

conductedoneachtypeofsoda’smasslossdataindicatedthatDietMountain

Dewhadthegreatestmassloss.Thet­valuefortheDietMountainDewtrials

wassignificantlyhigherthanthoseofothersodas,andthep­valuewasthe

lowestwhencomparedtotheothersodatrials.DietMountainDewalsohadthe

lowestaveragepHat5.855.Thisseemsodd,asthepHchartfromaprevious

studythatwasutilizedtomakethehypothesisstatedthatDietPepsishouldhave

alowerpHthanDietMountainDew(vonFraunhofer).However,interestingly,the

chartalsoindicatesthatDietMountainDewthananyothersodausedinthe

otherstudy(vonFraunhofer).Colas,whilehavingveryacidicpHlevels,donot

causeagreatermasslossoftoothenameloreggshellsthanothersodas

(Lloyd).

Giventhatthisexperiment’sdatasupportsthisfinding,thisindicatesthat

pHhaslessoveralleffectontheerosionofenamelthanexpected,andindicates

thatotherprocessesworkedtobreakdowntheeggshells,andthustooth

enamel.

DietMountainDewcontainsmorecaffeinethantheothertwosodasused

inthisexperiment.DietMountainDewcontains54mgofcaffeineper12fl.oz

can,whileDietPepsicontains35mgandDiet7­Upcontainsnocaffeine

(CaffeineContentofDrinks).Drinkingcaffeinatedbeveragesstainsteethand

erodestoothenamel(Ipatenco).Thereisacorrelationbetweentheamountof

caffeineintakeandtheamountoftootherosionandstainingpresent(Ipatenco).

Thestainingcomesmostlyfromthereactionbetweenthesodaandthetooth’s

plaque,andisadentalhealthconcern(TheCaffeine/DentalHealthConnection:

1800Dentist.com).Artificialsweetenersnegateanypossiblehealthbenefits

gainedfromcaffeine,andDietMountainDewisknowntocontainaspartame

(TheCaffeine/DentalHealthConnection:1800Dentist.com,CaffeineContentof

Drinks).Aspartameisaknownsugarsubstitute(SugarSubstitutes|Aspartame).

Whencaffeineispresentduringtheerosionprocess,caffeinehelpstospeedup

theseprocesses(Fesler).Thispairingofhighcaffeinelevelsandanartificial

sweetenerlikelyledtoafasterbreakdownofthecalciumcompoundsonthe

eggshell,whichmadetheDietMountainDewtrialslosethegreatestaverage

massoutofallthreesodasusedinthisexperiment.

Furthermore,DietPepsicontainsamuchlowerconcentrationofcitricacid

comparedtotheothersodas(Pearson).ThisisalargefactorastowhyDiet

Pepsiandcolasalikecauselesstoothdecayandmasslossdespitetheirmore

acidicpHlevels(vonFraunhofer,Lloyd).Citricacidisespeciallyharmfultoteeth

andcausesdeteriorationofcalciumcompounds(Pearson).

Diet7­Updidnothavesurprisinglyunexpecteddata.Whileitdidnothave

anycaffeine,thehighconcentrationofcitricacidcausedmasslossand

deterioration(Pearson).Citricacidworkstobreakdowntoothenamelanderode

thedentineofteeth(Pearson).ThiscausedDiet7­Uptoresultinagreatermass

lossthanDietPepsi.HoweverDietMountainDewhadthegreatestmassloss

duetotheconcentrationsofbothcitricacidandcaffeine,bothbreakingdown

calciumcompoundsovertimeandweakeningthestructureofeithertooth

enamel,eggshells,oranyothersubstanceswithsimilarmolecularmake­ups

exposedtothecitricacidorcaffeine(Pearson).

Thisexperimentisaccurateandgivesusefulinformationinseveralways.

Oneofthesewaysistheuseofeggshellstosimulatetoothenamel.Itmadethe

experimentmuchcheaperandeasierasgettingaholdofhumanteethcanbe

toughandexpensive.Anotherwaytheexperimentisaccurateisthatmanytrials

wererunforeachsoda.Thirtytrialspersodahelpedtoallowstatisticalteststo

beusedtoanalyzethedatabeyondbasiccalculationsdonewiththedata.This

followedalltheconditionsfortheanalyzingoftheexperimentaldata.Finally,the

organizationoftheexperimentwasefficient.Theuseofa4levelcartandsticky

noteshelpedtoaccuratelyandeasilyrunlargeamountsoftrialsinashortspan

oftime.

Thisexperimentisalsopoorinsomeways.Oneofthewaysthe

experimentisbadistheuseofthepooraccuracyofthepHsensors.Additionally,

thecontrolsfortheexperimentwereinconsistent.Toavoidtheissueswiththe

controlsfortheexperiment,threecontroltrialsshouldberunforeachsoda,and

theaveragemasslossandpHofeachcontrolsetcouldbecomparedtothe

averagemasslossandpHofeachrespectivesodatrials.

Oneoftheproblemsencounteredduringresearchwasthecrackingofthe

eggshellsused.Foramajorityoftheeggshellsused,therewaslittletono

cracking.However,someoftheeggshellshadminorcracking,andafew

eggshellshadmajorcracking.Noneoftheeggshellscrackedtothepointwhere

largeportionswerecompletelybrokenofformissing,soitmostlikelydidnot

haveasignificanteffectontheresults.However,thereisstillreasontobelieve

thecrackedeggswouldhavelessmassthanthewholeandunbrokenonesdue

tosmallpieceschippingofforbeingwashedoff.

Anotherproblemencounteredduringresearchwastheeggshellsfloating

tothetopofthecup.Althoughmosteggshellswerelodgedinthecuptowhere

theywerecompletelysubmerged,therewereafeweggshellsthatwerenot

completelysubmerged.Someeggshellsweretoobigtobecompletely

submerged,whilesomeeggshellsjustwouldnotstaylodgedinthecup.When

eggswerefoundtonotbecompletelysubmerged,attemptsweremadeto

resubmergetheeggshells.Bynotbeingcompletelysubmerged,lesssurface

areaisexposedtotheacidicsodaeacheggshellisplacedin.However,thesoda

stillcoveredmostofthesurfaceareaandwasinsidetheegg.Furthermore,the

eggsthatdidfloattothesurfacewerenotoutliersintheexperimentandwerenot

notablydifferentthanothertrials.Also,sincefeweggshellswerenotcompletely

submerged,thishadlittlesignificanteffectontheresults.

Asidefromfixingerrors,therewasonemajorthingthathadtobe

excludedfromtheexperiment;theuseofregularsodascontainingsugar.The

issuewithusingregularsodasisthatregularsodascontainsugar,whichwillbe

brokendownintoacidsinthemouthbysalivaandbacteria(Braun).Because

therewasnoaccesstomouthbacteriaorsalivaforthisexperiment,collecting

dataonhowmuchregularsodabreaksdownenamelwouldbeinaccurate,as

sugarwouldbeavariableunaccountedfor.Furtherresearchonthesubjectof

sodaerosionontoothenamelcouldfindawaytoaccuratelyexperimenton

regularsodasthatcontainsugarbysimulatingahumanmouthbycontaining

mouthbacteria.Thiswouldallowresearcherstofindoutwhatregularsodasare

themostdamagingtohumanteeth.

Furthermore,eggshellswereusedtorepresentteethintheexperiment.

Whilethecalciumcompoundsintheeggshellsandthecalciumcompoundsin

theteetharesimilar,theyarenotexactlyalike.Thesecompoundsarecalcium

phosphate(Ca3 (PO4 )2 )andcalciumcarbonate(CaCO3 )forteethandeggshells

respectively(Jacobson).Usingactualhumanteethintheexperimentwouldlikely

yieldmoreaccurateresultsinplaceoftheeggshells.Howevertheyarefairly

expensiveanddifficulttoacquire.Usingteethinthisexperimentcouldbedonein

furtherresearch.

Infurtherresearchitwouldbeessentialtochoosesodaswithamuch

largerrangeofpHtoaccuratelyidentifythepatternofmassloss.Thelarger

rangeofpHwillgivemoreconvincingresultsontheeffectofacidityandpHlevel.

Thesmallrangecausesthedatatoshowlessofapatternanddoesnotshow

much.Increasingtherangecouldgreatlyimprovetheexperimentasawhole

(Lloyd).PossiblesodastouseinfurtherresearchmaybeDietPepsi,DietSprite,

andDietA&WRootBeer,astherangepHinthesesodasisroughlytwiceas

largeasthatofthesodasusedintheexperiment(vonFraunhofer).

Additionally,animportantimprovementcanbemadeinthedesignofthe

experiment.Onlythreeoverallcontrolswereusedintheexperiment,onefor

eachdietsoda.However,thecontrolswerenotconsistent.Thecontroltrialsmay

havebeenmuchmoreaccurateiftherewerethreecontrolsconductedforeach

soda,ratherthanthreeoverall.Thesethreecontrolscanthenbeaveragedfor

accurateandlegitimatedata.Itisdifficulttoreferenceinaccuratedata.

Theinformationgainedfromthisexperimentcouldbeusedbroadly.The

datacouldbeusedindentistryandtorecommenddrinkingcertainsodasover

others.Also,itisveryusefulforthegeneralpublicandthoseconcernedfortheir

dentalhealth.Theyshouldunderstandthatdietsodas,astheonesusedinthis

experiment,deteriorateteethanddamagedentalhealth.Theexperimenthelpsto

breakthemisconceptionthatdietsodaissafefordentalhealth.Thegeneral

publiccouldalsolearnwhichdietsodaistheworstfortheirteeth,andwhatthey

mightwanttoavoid.

Appendix1:BlowingOutEggInnards

Materials:

93CountryBrookFarmsGradeALargeEggs

Nail

93Toothpicks

193Straws

Procedure:

1. Usethenailtocreatetwoholesonthetopandbottomofanegg.

2. Beginbreakingaparttheeggyolkinsidetheeggbystickingatoothpick

intobothholesoftheeggandmovingthetoothpickaroundtheinsideof

theegg.

3. Oncetheyolkisthoroughlybrokenapart,placeastrawontopofoneof

theholesintheeggandbeginblowingtheeggyolkoutoftheotherholein

theeggusingthestraw.Makesurethattheeggyolkfallsintoareceptacle

whilebeingblownout.

4. Washofftheinsideandoutsideoftheeggusingtapwateroverasink.

5. Useanotherstrawtoblowtheexcesswateroutoftheeggshell.

6. Repeatsteps1­5foreachegguntilalleggshavehadtheiryolksblown

out.Usedifferenttoothpicksandstrawsforeachegg.Keeptheegg

cartonstheeggscamein.

7. Thoroughlywashhandsoncedonehandlinganyeggyolksandshells.

Appendix2:RandomizationofTrials

Materials:

30CupsofDietPepsi

30CupsofDietMountainDew

30CupsofDiet7­Up

3Cupsofdistilledwater

TI­NSpireCalculator

Procedure:

1. Placethe30cupsofDietPepsiontothe2nd levelofthecart.

2. Placethe30cupsofDietMountainDewontothe3rdlevelofthecart.

3. Placethe30cupsofDiet7­Upontothe4thlevelofthecart.

4. Placethe3cupsofdistilledwaterontothe1stlevelofthecart.

5. Separateeachlevelinto3sections.Thelevelswithsodawillbeseparated

intothreegroupsof10andthedistilledwaterwillbeseparatedintothree

groupsof1.

6. Assign1toDietPepsi,2toDietMountainDew,and3toDiet7­Up.

7. UsetherandomintegerfunctionontheTI­NSpiretoprintoutarandom

integer1through3untileachintegerhasbeenprintedoffonce.

8. Markthetrialnumbersonthefirstsetof10cupsonthestickynoteson

thecups.Thefirstintegerthatwasrandomlyprintedoutwillcorrespondto

theassignedvalueforthesoda.Forexample,ifa1wasrandomlyprinted

offfirst,thenthefirst10trialswouldbethefirstsetof10DietPepsicups.

9. RepeatStep8untilthefirst10setofcupsforallthesodashavebeen

assignedtrials.

10. RepeatSteps6­9forthesecondandthirdsetsofcupsforeachsoda.

11. Assigntheintegers1,2,and3tothedistilledwatercups.

12. RepeatStep7forthedistilledwater.Whicheverdistilledwaterwas

randomlychosenfirstwillbethefirstdistilledwatertrialandthesecond

chosenwillbetheseconddistilledwatertrialandsoon.

Figure1.CartofRandomizedTrials Figure1showsavisualofhowallthetrialswereorganizedonthecart.

Figure1.CartofRandomizedTrials

Figure1showsavisualofhowallthetrialswereorganizedonthecart.

Theverytopofthecartcontainsthecontrolsandsomesupplies.The2nd levelof

thecarthastheDietPepsicups,the3rd levelhastheDietMountainDewcups,

andthe4th levelhasalltheDiet7­Upcups.

Appendix3:TakingthepHoftheSodas

Materials:

3pHMeters(0.01precision)

LabQuest

3250mLBeakers

300mlDistilledwater

TI­NSpireCalculator

Procedure:

1. SetuptheLabQuestbyplacingthethreepHmetersintotheproperspots

ontheLabQuest.

2. Place100mLofdistilledwaterintoeach250mLBeaker.

3. RandomizetheorderinwhichthepHofeachcupofsodawillbetaken

usingthemethodsseeninAppendix2.Exceptdonotlabeltheorderof

thetrialsonthestickynotesmorethanonce.Therandomizationdonefor

thecupsofsodathefirsttimeistheonlythingthatdeterminesthetrial

numberofthecups.

4. Taketheelectrodesoutofthestoragesolution.

5. Intheorderoftherandomization,takethepHofeachcupofsodaor

distilledwaterwithanelectrode,oneperperson,andrecorditonthe

stickynoteontherespectivecupandtheinadatatable.

Appendix4:MassLossFormulas

Appendix4:MassLossFormulas Theequationaboveshowstheformulausedtocalculatethemasslossof

Theequationaboveshowstheformulausedtocalculatethemasslossof

theeggshellsaftertheyweresoakedinthesodafora48hourperiod.An

applicationofthisformulaisseenbelow.

applicationofthisformulaisseenbelow. Figure1.MassLossApplication

Figure1.MassLossApplication

Figure1aboveshowsasimpleapplicationofthemasslossformula.The

numbers8and6representthemassbeforeandafterrespectivelyand2

representstheoverallmassloss.

representstheoverallmassloss. Theequationaboveshowstheformulausedtocalculatethemasslossof

Theequationaboveshowstheformulausedtocalculatethemasslossof

theeggsshellsaftertheyweresoakedinthesodafora48hourperiodasa

percentage.Anapplicationofthisformulaisseenbelow.

1

50%=1− 2

Figure2.PercentMassLossApplication

Figure2aboveshowsabasicapplicationofthepercentmassloss

formula.The1isusedtofindthemasslossaspercentwhentheratioofmass

beforeandafterissubtractedfromit.The1intheratiorepresentsmassafter

andthe2intheratiorepresentsthemassbefore.

Appendix5:StatisticalTestSampleCalculations

Thematchedpairsttestisusedforcomparingpropertiesbeforeandafter

atreatmentisimposedonthesamesubjects.Itusesthesameformulaasaone

samplet­testseeninFigure1below.However,insteadofcomparingthesample

meanx toapopulationmeanμ,thedifferencebetweenthesubjectsbefore

treatmentandthesubjectsaftertreatmentiscomparedtozero.

t=

(x−μ)

(

s

n

)

t=

(x−μ)

(

s

n

)

t=

(50g−0g)

(

)

42

81sodas

t=0.1323g

Figure1.OneSampletTestEquation

Figure1showstheequationofamatchedpairst­test.Thedifference

betweentheinitialmassofaneggshellandthefinalmassofthateggshellisx

grams.Thepopulationmeanisrepresentedbyμ,whichinthecaseofa

matchedpairst­testisalwayszero.Thestandarderrorisrepresentedby(s/√n),

wheresisthestandarddeviation,andnistheamountoftrials.Thisequation

solvesforthet­value,whichisthenumberofstandarddeviationsaboveorbelow

themeanofzerothatthedifferencex is.Thet­valueforthiscalculationis0.1323

grams.

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