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EN 13445-1

May 2002

ICS 23.020.30



English version






Unfired pressure vessels .. Part 1: General

Recipients SOllS pression non soumis a la flamme - Partie 1: Generalites

Unbefeuerte Druckbehalter - Teil 1: AUgemeines


This European Standard was approved by CEN on 23 May 2002.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Intemal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the Management Centre or to any CEN member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the Management Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom.



Management Centre: rue de Stassart, 36 8-1050 Brussels

© 2002 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved worldwide for CEN national Members.

Ret No. EN 13445-1:2002 E


13445,,;1:2002 (E) Issue 1 (2002-05)


Foreword 3

Introduction 4

1 Scope 7

1.1 Generai 7

1.2 Exclusions 7

2 Normative references 8

3 Terms and deflnltions 8


Quantities, symbols and units ~.-.~ : ·10

ANNEX ZA(lnformative) Clauses of this European Standard addressing essential requirements or other

provisions of EU Directives ·12

Bibliography .' , 13

EN 13445-1 :2002 (E) Issue 1 (2002-05)













This document (EN 13445-1 :2002) has been prepared by Technical Committee CENfTC 54 "Unfired pressure vessels", the secretariat of which is held by BSI.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by November 2002, and conflicting national standards shall be withdrawn at the latest by November 2002.

This document has been prepared under a mandate given to CEN by the European Commission and the European Free Trade Association, and supports essential requirements of EU Directive(s).

For,relationship with EU Directive(s), see informative annex ZA, which is an integral part of this document. T-ris European Standard concerning "Unfired pressure vessels" comprises the following Parts:

Part 1: General.

Part 2: Materials.

Part 3: Design.

Part 4: Fabrication.

Part 5: Inspection and testing.

Part 6: Requirements for the design and fabrication of pressure vessels and pressure parts constructed from spheroidal graphite cast iron.

CR 13445-7, Unfired pressure vessels - Part 7: Guidance on the use of conformity assessment procedures.

Although these Parts may be obtained separately, it should be recognised that the Parts ~re inter-dependant. As such the manufacture of unfired pressure vessels requires the application of all the relevant Parts in order for the requirements of the Standard to be satisfactorily fulfilled.

N ': If any matter of interpretation or doubt arises as to the meaning or effect of any normative part of this European Standard, or as to whether anything should be done or has been omitted to be done, in order that this European Standard should be complied with in full, the matter shall be referred to the CENfrC54 Committee.

Accordlnq to the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom.

EN-13445-1':2002: (E) Issue 1 (2002-05)


EN 13445 specifies the requirements for design, construction, inspection and testing of unfired pressure vessels. It defines terms, definitions and symbols applicable to unfired pressure vessels.

NOTE In EN 13445 the term pressure vessel includes the welded attachments up to and including the nozzle flanges, screwed or welded connections, or the edge to be welded at the first circumferential weld at connecting piping or other elements. The term unfired excludes vessels that are subject to direct generated heat or flame impingement from a fired process. This does not exclude vessels subject to electrical heating or heated process streams.

In Parts 1 to 5 only pressure vessels manufactured from steels and steel castings as detailed in Part 2 of this standard are covered. Part 6 specifically deals with spheroidal graphite cast iron and special considerations apply.

Part 1"

This Part outlines the basic principles underpinning the standard. The manufacturer is required to declare that the technical design specification and the supporting documentation are in compliance with the requirements of this standard.

Unforeseen factors may arise that require design modifications and/or manufacturing concessions. These need to be handled with the same rigour as the original design.

Part 2

This Part deals with the general philosophy on materials, material grouping and low temperature behaviour in relation to Room Temperature performance. It is limited to steel with sufficient ductility and excludes at present materials operating in the creep range. Part 2 provides the general requirements for establishing technical delivery conditions.

Furthermore Part 2 includes the requirements for marking. Four annexes give further details. The normative Annex A includes the material grouping system, which is in accordance with CR ISO 15608:2000. This system is

'\ used throughout the whole standard. Furthermore Annex A adds a list of all those material grades based upon European base material standards which are accepted to be used for unfired pressure vessels made to this standard The normative Annex B gives the necessary information on the requirements for the prevention of brittle fracture in the base material and the welds. Two methods based upon a code of practice developed from fracture mechanics are covered. The informative Annex C gives information on technical delivery conditions for clad products. Annex D gives an informative survey on European base material and component standards and their systematic nomenclature.

Part 3

This Part of this standard gives the rules to be used for design and calculation under internal and/or external pressure (as applicable) of pressure bearing components of Pressure Vessels, such as shells of various shapes, flat wails, flanges, heat exchanger tubesheets, including the calculation of reinforcement of openings. Rules are also given for components subjectto local loads actions.other than pressure.


._ .. _-==, .... == ......... ----

EN 13445-1 :2002 (E) Issue 1 (2002-05)

For all these components the DBF (Design by Formulae) method is generally followed, i.e. appropriate formulae are given in order to find stresses which have to be limited to safe values. These formulae are generaily intended for predominantly non-cyclic loads, which means for a number of full pressure cycles not exceeding 500.

However general prescriptions are also given for DBA (Design by Analysis) which can be used either to evaluate component designs or loading situations for which a DBF method is not provided, or, more generally, as an alternative to DBF.

Methods are also given where a fatigue evaluation is required, due to a number of load cycles being greater than 500. There are two alternative methods: a simplified method based on DBF (valid only in case of pressure variations) and a more sophisticated method based on a detailed determination of total stresses using, for example, FEM or experimental methods. This can be used also in the case of variable loads other than pressure.

For certain components (such as flanges and tubesheets) also an alternative DBF method (based on limit analysis) has been provided; the choice of which method has to be used in each particular case is lett to the Designer.

For the time being, the scope of Part 3 is limited to steel components working at temperatures lower than the creep vange of the specific material concerned.

·~··drt 4

The philosophy in Part 4 is based on existing good practice in current European Standards, manufacturing and sub-contracting, material traceability, tolerances, welding procedures and qualification, production testing, forming, post weld heat treatment and repairs for steel constructions. Part 4 is not applicable for Part 6 which has separate and different requirements regarding manufacturing.

Part 5

This Part covers all those inspection and testing activities associated with the verification of the pressure vessel for compliance with the standard.

Inspection activities include design review by the manufacturer and supporting technical documentation .. Numerous inspection activities, in addition to the Non Destructive Testing (NOT) are described including document control, material traceability, joint preparation and welding.

The requirements for testing are predominantly related to individually designed single vessels. However, Annex A provides a procedure for serially produced pressure vessels.

) level of testing is driven by the selection of the vessel testing group. Basically, the testing group determines the level of NOT and the joint coefficient used in the design. There are four testing groups which are designed to give the same safety by a combination of several factors. Testing groups take into consideration manufacturing difficulties associated with different groups of steels, maximum permitted thickness, welding processes, service temperature range and the thickness by means of the joint coefficient of the governing joint. (Le. the full penetration butt joint that, as a result of the weld joint coefficient, governs the thickness of the component).


EN~13445-1 :2002 (E) Issuet (2002,,05)

The testing groups are numbered from 1 to 4 in decreasing levels of NOT. However, it was necessary to subdivide testing groups 1, 2 and 3 into subgroups 1 a, 1 b, 2a, 2b, 3a, and 3b in order to reflect the better behaviour to crack sensitivity of easy to weld steels of groups 1.1 , 1.2 and 8.1.

A single testing group is normally applied to the entire vessel. However, provided specific requirements are met, a combination of testing groups is permitted.

In terms of NOT, the overall philosophy has been the general adoption of ISO/DIS 5817:2000 quality level 'C' for predominantly non-cyclic loaded vessels and level 'B' for vessels subject to cyclic loadings.

Part 6



This Part specifies that the manufacturer shall select a testing factor of 0,8 (visual inspection only) or 0,9 (NOT inspection) when a cast pressure vessel or cast part is designed for pressure up to 50 bar and a maximum temperature of 300 "C, For component the OBf method is generally followed. Appropriate formulae are given in order that the stresses be limited to safe values. These formulae are generally intended for predominantly static loads, which means for a number of load cycles not exceeding 200 000 in the case of spheroidal graphite cast iron. Calculation of minimum wall thickness is dealt with by Part 3 except for design stresses which are given in Part 6. A method for design by experiment up to 6 000 bar-l without calculation is given. Material requirements are as in Part 2 except for the tables in Part 6. Inspection and testing requirements are as in Part 5 except requirements for castings and test pressure. Interaction between good design and good workmanship is so important for cast vessels that special requirements are laid down in this Part. Annex A is informative for the determination of burst pressure and wall thickness minimum requirements.


EN ~;~1:2002 (E) lssue-t (2002-QS)-


,1 General

lis Part of this European Standard defines the terms, definitions, symbols and units that are used throughout the N 13445.

his Part of EN 13445 also gives guidelines on the principles on which each part of the standard has been based. his information is aimed to aid the user of the EN 13445. This European Standard applies to unfired pressure "sse Is subject to a maximum allowable pressure greater than 0,5 bar gauge but may be used for vessels Jerating at lower pressures, including vacuum.

his European Standard applies to maximum allowable temperatures for which creep effects need not be .msidered, i.e. for maximum allowable temperatures for which the corresponding maximum calculation .mperature renders a relevant proof strength smaller than the 100 000 h creep rupture strength. For ferritic steels re temperature limit corresponds to calculation temperatures below approximately 380 "C

I EN 13445-3:2002 two methods of Design by Analysis (DBA) are given in Annex B and Annex C respectively. oU1 of these are normative. However Parts 2, 4 and 5 of this edition of the standard do not include provision within leir' spective areas of responsibility for vessels designed using Design by Analysis - Direct Route (DBA) of N13445-3:2002, Annex B

aTE The selection, application and installation of safety related accessories intended to protect pressure vessels during

oeration are covered in prEN 764-7 .

. 2 Exclusions

his European Standard is not applicable to pressure equipment of the following types:

transportable pressure equipment;

items specifically designed for nuclear use, the failure of which may cause a release of radioactivity;

pressure equipment intended for the generation of steam or superheated water at temperatures higher than 110 °C;

"-ssels of riveted construction;

vessels of lamellar cast iron or any other materials not included in EN 13445-2 or EN 13445-6;

multilayered, autofrettaqed or pre-stressed vessels;

pipelines and industrial piping.



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EN 13445-1 :2002 (E) Issue 1 (2002-05)

2 Normative references

This European Standard incorporates, by dated or undated reference, provisions from other publications. These normative references are cited at the appropriate places in the text and the publications are listed hereafter. For dated references, subsequent amendments to or revistons of any of these publications apply to this European Standard only when incorporated in it by amendment or revision. For undated references the latest edition of the publication referred to applies (including amendments)

prEN 764-1 :2001, Pressure Equipment - Terminology - Part 1 :Pressure, temperature, volume, nominal size.

EN 764-2:2002, Pressure Equipment - Part 2: Quantities, symbols and units.

EN 764-3:2002, Pressure Equipment - Part 3: Definition of parties involved.



3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this European Standard, the terms and definitions given in prEN 764-1 :2001, EN 764-2:2002 and EN 764-3:2002 and the following apply.


main pressure bearing parts

parts which constitute the envelope under pressure, essential for the integrity of the equipment


pressure vessel

housing and its direct attachments up to the coupling point connecting it to other equipment, designed and built to contain fluids under pressure

NOTE A vessel may be composed of more than one chamber.

3.3 fluid

gas, liquid and vapour in their pure phase as well as mixtures thereof.

NOTE A fluid may contain a suspension of solids.

3.4 -piping

pipe or system of pipes, tubing, fittings, expansion joints, hoses or other pressure-bearing components, intended for the transport of fluid, connected together and integrated into a pressure system

3.5 assembly

several pieces of pressure equlprnent assembled by a manufacturer to constitute an integrated and functional whole

3.6- pipelines

piping or system of piping designed for the convsyanceot any fluid or SUbstance to or from an installation (onshore or offshore) starting from and including the first isolation device located within the installation and including all the annexed equipment designed specifioally for pipelines



EN 13445-1 :2002 (E) Issue 1 (2002-05)

naxlmurn allowable pressure (PS)

maximum pressure for which the pressure vessel is designed as specified by the manufacturer


naximum/minimum allowable temperature (TS)

naximum/minimum temperature for which the pressure vessel is designed as specified by the manufacturer


testing group

one of the four groups designed to specify the extent of non-destructive testing and destructive testing necessary in association with weld joint coefficient, material grouping, welding process, maximum thickness, service temperature range


The testing group of a vessel is not linked to the hazard category.


weld joint coefficient

reduction coefficient related to the testing group and which is applied to the nominal design stress '. \

\ 3.1"

rec, •• .red thickness

thickness excluding corrosion or any other allowances specified in EN 13445


hazard category

category of the pressure vessel taking into account the potential hazards


testing factor

a factor taking into account the amount of NOT testing in castings, applied on the nominal design stress


material manufacturer

individual or organization that produces material in the basic product fonn used in the manufacture of pressure equipment

3.15 manufacturer

individual or organization that is responsible for design, fabrication, testing, inspection, installation of pressure er Iment and assemblies where relevant

NOTE 1 The manufacturer may subcontract one or more of the above mentioned tasks under its responsibility.

NOTE 2 In EU member states the manufacturer is responsible for compliance with the Pressure Equipment Directive

97i23/EC. For those manufacturers outside the EU their authorized representative inside the EU assumes this responsibility.




EN 13445-1 :2002 (E) . Issue 1 (2002-05)

4 Quantities, symbols and units

Quantities, symbols and units to be used for pressure equipment shall be in accordance with Tables 4.1 and 4,2 and EN 764-2:2002

NOTE 1 Other symbols used in specific parts of this European Standard are tabulated in the relevant part.

NOTE 2 The choice of the appropriate multiple (decimal multiple or sub-multiple) of a unit is governed by convenience, the multiple chosen for a particular application being one which should lead to numerical values within a practical range. Therefore when indicating quantities it is recommended that decimal multiple or sub-multiple quantities be chosen such that the resulting values are easy to handle, e.g. between 0,1 and 1 000. The non-S: units, bar for pressure and I for volume should be used on the nameplate.

Table 4-1 - Quantities for space and time

Quantity Symbol Unit
Time t s, min, h
Frequency f Hz
Dimension any latin letter' mm
Length I mm
Thickness e mm
Corrosion aJlowance c mm
Diameter d,D mm
_. - -- -.
Radius T, R mm
Area A,S rnrn"
Volume, capacity V mm3bC _I
-- f
Weight W N, kN
Density p kglmm3d
Second moment of area I mrn"
1-. --
Section modulus Z rnrn"
--- rn/s"
Acceleration y
Plane angle any Greek letter a rad;"
a Symbols may use any lower-case letter, except for those defined elsewhere in this table. I
b volume may also be given in m3 or I.
c litre "I" is a non-SI unit which may be used with SI units and their multiples. I
d Density may also be given in kg/m3. 10

EN 13445-1 :2002 (E) Issue 1 (2002-05)

Table 4-2 - Mechanical quantities




Quantity' Symbol b Unit
Force F N
Moment M Nrnrn
Pressure p, P bar c, MPa, N/mm2
Celsius temperature t °C
Thermodynamic temperature T K
Linear expansion coefficient a urn/rn=C
f------ MPa, N/mm2
Normal stress (J'
Shear stress -r MPa, N/mm2
Nom inal design stress f MPa, N/mm2
T ensile strength Rm MPa, N/mm2
Yield strength Re MPa, N/mm2
1 % proof strength Rp10% MPa, N/mm2
:>roof strength at temperature t Rp/t MPa, N/mm2
Upper yield strength RSH MPa, N/mm2
0,2 % proof strength RpQ,2 MPa, N/mm2
0,2 % proof strength at temperature t RpQ,2Jt MPa, N/mm2
Ultimate tensile strength at temperature t Rm/! MPa, N/mm2
_ .. MPa, N/mm2
Modulus of elasticity E
Shear modulus G MPa, N/mm2
Poisson's ratio v ..
Strain E- %
Elongation after rupture/fracture A %
Impact energy KV J
Hardness HB)-JV ..
Joint coefficient z ..
Safety factor 5 ..
a Quantities without a temperature index normally refer to room temperature. ..
b Some of these symbols, such as R, 1, are not part of ISO 31.
C "bar" is a non .. SI unit which may be used with SI units and their multiples .. The unit bar shall be used
on nameplates, certificates, drawings, pressure gauges and instrumentation and is always used as a
gauge pressure. This is in line with the requirements of the Pressure Equipment Directive 97/23/EC.
Note The use of symbols for temperature may be different from the PED. EN 13445-1 :2002 (E) Issue 1 (2002-05)

Annex ZA (lnformative)

Clauses of this European Standard addressing essentlal requirements or other provisions of EU Directives

This European standard has been prepared under a mandate given to CEN by the European Commission and the European Free Trade Association and supports essential requirements of the Pressure Equipment Directive 97/23/EC with regard to general requirements for unfired pressure vessels.

WARNING Other requirements and other EU Directives may be applicable to the products falling within the scope of this standard.

Compliance with the clauses of this standard given in Table ZA.1 provides one means of conforming to the specific essential safety requirements of the Directive concerned and associated EFTA regulations.

Table ZA.1 - Correspondence between this European Standard and Directive 97/23/EC

Essential requirements of Directive 97J23/EC, Annex l


Clauses oi this European Standard


All clauses



IrEN 764-7, Pressure equipment - Part 7: Safety systems for unfired pressure equipment.

SOIOIS 5817:2000, Welding _ Fusion-welded joints in steel, nickel, iitanium and their alloys (beam welding ~xcluded) - Quafif1; levels for imperfections