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THE IMPACT OF ICT ON NEWS PROCESSING: A STUDY OF AIT AND

NTA

IFEANYI ADIGWE
LAGOS STATE UNIVERSITY, SCHOOL OF COMMUNICATION

ABSTRACT
Information and communication has swept the world with powerful
force affecting the society. Supported in its entirety by the
communication technology, information spread vastly become faster
and cheaper. The media through which information is disseminated also
gets varied in types, further revolutionizing the information era. In the
past, there is a significant time lag separating the point when an event
took place and the time when the news may be publicly available. This
study attempts to investigate the impact of information and
communication in news process; a study of AIT and NTA. It is presumed
that the radical changes brought in the realm of information through
Information and Communication Technology (ICT) revolution has
affected immensely the broadcast more than any other industry. In the
same way, the level of adoption and absorption of Information and
Communication Technology are being carried out in broadcast industry
by bringing efficiencies in all the functional wings including production,
editorial and marketing so as to gain competitive advantage. We cannot
but say that ICT facilitates the creation, storage, management and
dissemination of information by electronic means. This study uncovered
some of the numerous benefits and challenges associated with the use
of ICT in news processing in broadcast industry. This study employs
diffusion of innovation theory and technological determinism theory as
the theoretical framework. This study concludes that ICT has created
opportunities for widespread electronic delivery of news. Furthermore,
the Internet can be viewed as both an opportunity and a threat to the
news industry. However, not only are there technology barriers that
news organizations need to overcome to deliver news electronically, but
there are also problems of employee attitudes toward new technologies
and resistance to change, and above all, the implication of this in the
society will lead to an overall shrink in the need for human
correspondents

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CHAPTER ONE

1.1 Background to the study

Before we explore the impact of ICT on news process let’s look at the

words of Silverstone (2000) as he pointed out Media are changing, have

changed, radically. Our century has seen the telephone, film, radio,

television become both objects of mass consumption and essential tools

for the conduct of everyday life. We are now confronted by the spectre

of a further intensification of mediated culture, through the global

growth of the Internet and the promise (some might say the threat) of

an interactive world in which nothing and no one cannot be accessed,

instantly. Much of contemporary debate draws on a sense of the speed

of these various changes and developments, but mistakes the speed of

technological change, or indeed of commodity change, for the speed of

social and cultural change. There is a constant tension between the

technological, the commercial and the social, a tension that must be

addressed if we are to recognize media as indeed a process of

mediation. Silverstone (2000)

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To a large extent, it is believed that Information is the primary input as

well as the final output of a broadcast industry. It collects raw

information and converts it into categorized, defined and useful pieces

of information. Therefore it will not be an exaggeration to say that the

radical changes brought in the realm of information through Information

and Communication Technology (ICT) revolution are bound to affect the

broadcast industry more than any other industry. The adoption and

absorption of Information and Communication Technology are being

carried out in broadcast industry by bringing efficiencies in all the

functional wings including production, editorial and marketing so as to

gain competitive advantage. Gester (2003) points out that ICT facilitates

the creation, storage, management and dissemination of information by

electronic means.

Operationally ICTs comprise digital devices either notifies the hard

wares, or softwares for transferring information. It includes low cost

means of communication like radio, GSM/mobile phones and digital

television.

In the same vein, Adekomi in Soforowa 2009 see ICT as the integration

and utilization of computer technologies for the purpose of

disseminating information to a target destination or consumer without

the constraint of time and space

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Information and Communication technology in broadcast news gathering

in on the increase by reporters and editors. Its benefits are being

recognized at every point of the entire supply chain of news. Technology

development and absorption in broadcast industry has improved the

packaging of news. The profuse use of online content and facilities has

led to high productivity and efficiency at a reduce cost. (Lapham, 1995)

The wide range of recording of news with high sophistication, editing

database, photo imaging, and mixing software provided cutting-edge

facilities to broadcast industry. The use of telefax, websites, online

database, and web based information sites, and online readers and

newsmakers, made the cumbersome job of information collection and

reporting easier than ever before. It would not be wrong to postulate

that whole nature of editorial job has changed under the influence of IT.

Information and communication technologies (ICT) is an umbrella term

that covers all technical means for processing and communicating

information. The term has gained popularity partially due to the

convergence of information technology (IT) and telecom technology. ICT

defines a broad range of technologies, including methods for

communication (communication protocols, transmission techniques,

communications equipment, media communication), as well as

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techniques for storing and processing information (computing, data

storage, etc.)

Also, Information and communication technologies (ICT) are often

associated with high-tech devices, such as computers and software, but

ICT also encompasses more “conventional” technologies such as radio,

television and telephone technology.

The term, information and communication technology (ICT) refers to

forms of technology that are used to transmit, store, create, share or

exchange information. This broad definition of ICT includes such

technologies as: radio, television, video, DVD, telephone (both fixed line

and mobile phones), satellite systems, computer and network hardware

and software; as well as the equipment and services associated with

these technologies, such as videoconferencing and electronic mail.

(Wikepedia,2009).

Rogers in Berniger (2005:2), states that communication technology is

the hardware equipment, organizational structures, and social values by

which individuals collect, process, and exchange information with other

individuals.

In the same way, high technology approaches to news processing have

set in motion an evolution in strategies of news gathering in the first half

of this decade. Central to these new approaches is the use of personal


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computer, Williams and Sawyer (2003:3) pointed out that a computer is

“ a programmable, multiuse machine that accept data –raw fact and

figures, manipulate and process it into information that we can use, such

as summaries, totals or reports” its purpose is to speed up problem

solving and increase productivity.

Communication technologies are the nervous system of contemporary

society, transmitting and distributing sensory and control information,

and interconnectivity a myriad of interdependent units (Rogers cited

Berniger 2005:4). One of the hallmarks of industrial revolution was the

introduction of new communication technologies as mechanisms of

control that played an important role in almost every area of the

production and the distribution of manufactured goods. (Rogers cited

Berniger 2005:4)

Collins (2003: 65), argues that the number of transistors on a chip as

crude measure of the computing power, doubles approximately every 18

months since 1967, because of this steady advancement in hardware, it

is feasible for computers to solve very complex problems in a relative

short time. In addition to this increase in processing, there has been an

increase in the amount of storage available and the amount of

information that can be transmitted over data communication network.

The adoption of personal computers as a news reporting tool is a two-

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prong approach to news processing commonly known as computer-

assisted reporting. Computer-assisted reporting (CAR), includes both (a)

online-based newsgathering that uses specialized commercial services

and Internet-based services, such as the World Wide Web, and (b)

database-oriented analysis using existing and originally created

databases from both the public and private sectors (Garrison, 1995).

As personal computers became less expensive in the past decade, the

devices began to appear in newsrooms around the nation and their uses

in newsgathering began to expand. At the same time, the computing

power and speed of desktop computers have also increased, permitting

reporters to attempt many of the same tasks for which they would have

used larger mainframe or mid-range computer systems just a few years

earlier.

Between 1994 and 1996, computer-assisted reporting has moved

toward a second stage in its development. Instead of being limited to

special investigative teams or to desks whose reporters work exclusively

on such reporting, some newsrooms have begun to move toward total

integration in newsrooms. This has been facilitated by the conversion in

some newsrooms of dedicated word-processing computer systems

devoted solely to production to PC-based local area networks capable of

production and to enhance broadcast news, but also capable of all other

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PC-type functions, such as online connections and data processing or

analysis (Garrison, 1996).

In the past few decades information and communication technology has

transformed the world in all spheres of life. It’s potential for reducing

manual operations and fostering growth in the media has increased

rapidly. According to Okoye (2000:195), computer technology has

enhanced news processing and news reporting. With the Internet,

journalist can now click on relevant sites to source for foreign or even

local news for subsequent broadcast news, this will likely lead to an

overall shrink in the need for human correspondents.

The importance of computer technology as a tool for news processing

cannot be overemphasized. The adoption of computer technology in

broadcast industry has revolutionized and enhanced news processing.

Access to information is fundamental to empowerment, recognizing the

impact of increasing digital convergence on media has created an

enabling environment to ensuring people’s access to information

through the adoption of this technology.

1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

It could be argued that the employment of computer technology in the

newsroom and in news processing will increase cost, as money would

have to be invested into acquiring both hardware and software creating


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or building websites, include remunerations for personnel that would

man and constantly maintain them. However, going by global trends,

which foretell an increase in the employment and the deployment of

computer technology in news processing, in order to achieve better

efficiency, accuracy, and speed up operations of news processing,

Gester (2003) points out that ICT facilitates the creation, storage,

management and dissemination of information by electronic means.

Abiahenu (2006) pointed that ICT facilitates communication and

processing of information, saves time and reduce cost.

However, when information technology is discussed, it puts people out

of jobs. The reverse is often the case. This technology takes over

mechanical assignment and frees individuals for more intellectual

productive work Similarly, if this technology will achieve its overall

objective, there is need for faster and more accurate means of solving

manual operations of data processing and better storage devices for

information and data as provided by the computer system, the

complexities of modern technology have produced great mathematical,

scientific, and engineering problem and hence, enhanced news

processing. The Nigerian broadcast and print media like other facet of

life and human endeavour in the country have embraced information

and communication technology to some extent.

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In this vein, this study tends to investigate the challenges facing media

organization with a view of finding out the effect of the use of

information and communication technology in news processing. Also, we

will identify the constraints to the use of information technology in news

processing.

1.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY

1. To ascertain the impact of information and communication

technology (ICT) in news processing in Nigeria.

2. To investigate the constraints to the use of information and

communication technology in news processing in Nigeria.

3. To identify the various ways ICT enhances news processing

in Nigeria .

1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS

 What is the impact of information and communication

technology (ICT) in news processing in Nigeria?

 What are the constraints to the use of information and

communication technology in news processing in Nigeria?

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 In what ways can ICT enhance news processing in Nigeria?

1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

According to the Wikipedia encyclopedia “Information technology (IT) or

Information and communication(s) technology (ICT) is a broad subject

concerned with technology and other aspects of managing and

processing information, especially in large organizations.” This draws

attention to the fact that ICT involves technology that can be used to

communicate or rather to convey messages.

ICT has had several effects on news men, with some of them seen as

advantages while others as disadvantages, the computer and the

modem, along with many other ICT hardware and software innovations

and services, have placed a high point of a very significant stage of

development in the history of human communication, often called, ‘the

information society’, and have transformed the way many men and

women work in the media and entertainment industries”. It is believed

that ICT has brought about significant changes in the job. ICT has led to

the generation of more and well researched news. With the coming of

mobile phones, you can call your news sources at anytime and get news

and moreover well-balanced and researched news. When it comes to the

Internet, news and program backgrounders are always available. Think

of any topic you are working, from health, education, lifestyle, to

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environment, you cannot fail to get information to help you enrich your

story especially with those hard to get facts coupled with pictures. The

Internet has surely transformed the newsroom to greater heights. It is

important to note that this comes as a result of globalization and it is

also a cause of globalization in one way. As a matter of fact, information

and communication technology (ICT) has bridged the gap of distance

and solve the problem of transportation, journalists can now file in their

story from any part of the country, where an Internet access is available.

Recognizing the fact the Internet offers greater editorial freedom and

the ability to publish breaking news. More so, Internet skills help to

provide media professionals with the tools they need to develop

alternative news outlets.

Ultimately, the adoption of these technologies have tremendously

revolutionalized the media house towards profitability. This technology

has enhanced cost of production, improved quality of product; however,

the effect of this technology would result to reduction in staff as most of

the operations would be done by information and communication

personnel.

Carlsson (2005:204), argues that, “The development of innovative

information technologies and the ongoing processes of deregulation and

concentration of ownership, have spurred the pace of globalization

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especially communications satellites and digitalization-not least the

Internet-have had an enormous impact”. ICT has helped to bring closer

communicators and receivers to the extent that feedback is swift. This in

turn makes communication process participatory, useful and

development focused as it centers on the audience. Servaes and

Malikhao (2005;91), argue that, “Participatory, which necessitates

reasoning and moreover trust will help reduce the social distance

between communicators and receivers, between teachers and learners,

between leaders and followers as well as facilitate a more equitable

exchange of ideals” this draws attention to the fact that ICT has made

exchange of ideas between communicators and receivers easy hence

making the communication process people centered. In the same way,

considering the fact that the use of information and communication

technology has reduced stress and cost implication in the tedious

operations in the media industry. Its adoption in Nigeria will increase

profitability and ease the stress associated with paperwork. Besides,

promoting open Internet inter-news uses information and

communication technologies (ICT) in innovative ways to strength local

and independent media.

Students are not left out, as they will be abreast with the various forms

of information and communication technology (ICT) tools employ in

news processing and reporting, the constraints to the use of this


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technology in news processing in Nigeria. Better still, this study provide

a clearer view of the challenges faced with the information and

communication technology personnel as regard this technology, in order

for them to upgrade and to move with the trend in information and

communication technology so as not to fade out in this ever changing

technology.

1.6 SCOPE OF STUDY

This study focuses mainly on AIT and NTA, Lagos Nigeria. AIT and NTA

was adopted to investigate the impact of information and

communication technology (ICT) in news processing because of the high

influx of ICT gadgets in its news operations, also, the computer and the

internet would be the major concern of the use of ICT in news process in

AIT and NTA.

1.7 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY.

This research is subjected to a number of known limitations. One of the

limitations is the fact that this study would have adopted more ICTs to

verify the impact in news process; be that as it may it only employs the

computer and the internet out of all the ICTs. Another known limitation

was that more stations would have been preferred to investigate the

impact of ICT on news process, but time and money are the major

constraints to choosing only two Television stations.


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1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS

1. NEWS PROCESSING: it involves the overall procedures that

Culminate in making news available to the readers.

2. INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY (ICT):

refers to forms of technology that are used to transmit, store, create,

share or exchange information, the computer and the internet shall

be our focus.

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CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK

The information era has swept the world with powerful force affecting

the society. Supported in its entirety by the communication technology,

information spread vastly become faster and cheaper. The media

through which information is disseminated also gets varied in types,

further revolutionizing the information era. In the past, there is a

significant time lag separating the point when an event took place and

the time when the news may be publicly available. The advancement of

radio and television allows for the real time coverage of an event. In its

time, the existence of radio broadcasting audio-based news was

considered revolutionary in information dissemination. The birth of

television upgrades the information era to the level where visualization

is part of the necessities. Still, the impact of those past inventions is

nowhere to match the recent phenomenon: the internet. The


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advancement in internet connection, supported by wide spreading

telephone lines (both fixed and wireless), have opened up further the

new information era and redefined the necessity in information. Various

kinds of information exist out there and the limit to the amount of

information one can get is determined more by the person rather than

by the publicly available sources.

The development and use of information and communication technology

(hereafter, ICT) differ in many dimensions: between countries

(developed vs. Developing) and within countries (high vs. low socio-

economic status, etc).

Such differences are mainly due to differences in the quality of human

resources –especially in skills, knowledge and education. ICT application

depends on several factors. Firstly, it depends on the existence of ICT

infrastructure. For example, internet technology would first require good

telephone infrastructure, before later one may start considering wireless

Internet connection. Secondly, the ICT application also depends on the

people’s skill and knowledge. The application is not a matter of being

imported and used. Instead, it requires a specific level of knowledge and

skills before one would be able to operate the equipment properly. The

proliferation of technology especially that of the ICT has significantly

changed the social order and interpersonal relationship. Yet, the

flexibility and advance of this technology has proved its role as the
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supportive measures in human’s life activities in the quest to promote

productivity. Mugo (2006)

The Oxford Advanced Learners’ Dictionary of Current English defines

technology as the “systematic application of knowledge to practical

tasks in industry”. And through this application therefore, technology

improves the quality of life. Therefore it will not be an overstatement to

say that the far-reaching changes brought in the realm of information

through Information and Communication Technology (ICT) revolution are

bound to affect broadcast industry more than any other industry

because of the timeliness and immediacy of information. The computer

system is unique in that writers, editors, and others with a news

background designed it and are now responsible for its management

and development. The successful integration of electronic technology

into the manual world of the newsroom cannot be over-emphasized

It could be argued that the media are changing, have changed, radically.

Our century has seen the telephone, film, radio, television become both

object of mass consumption and essential tools for the conduct of

everyday life.

This changing, or reality, to some extent, is enabled and equipped by

the development of information communication technology (ICT), which

is operationalized by a variety of medium formats, from mass

communication facilities, such as radio and TV stations, to personal

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communication devices, such as personal computers, personal data

assistant, and mobile phones. Similar to other communication

technologies that have contributed their quota to human society along

our history, ICT has brought some consequences to society, both known

and unknown to us.

The adoption of computer technology in broadcast industry could be

said to have revolutionized and enhanced news processing. Access to

information is fundamental to empowerment, recognizing the impact of

increasing digital convergence on media has created an enabling

environment to ensuring people’s access to information through the

adoption of this technology.

In this vein, Amamize (2003:2), defined computer “as a machine, which

accepts data as input, based on its internal instruction, processes these

data and produced information as output”. The computers are regarded

as general-purpose machines because it can perform different

operations simultaneously as a very high speed. Similarly,

communication technology consists of electromagnetic devices and

systems for communicating over a long distances. The principal

examples are telephones, radio, broadcast television and cable

television (Williams and Sawyer, 2003:3)

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More recently, there has been the addition of communications of

computers or other information device, connected through a network, to

access information and services from another computer or information

device (Williams and Sawyer, (2003:3). Information and communication

technology also involves other equipments and information transmission

system such as electronic mails, facsimile, cable television, teletext,

electronic telephone exchange, satellite communication. Adigun

(2005:15) described information and communication technology “as the

electronic acquisition, storage and dissemination of vocal, pictorial,

textual and numerical information”

The most obvious aspect of communication technology is the hardware

in the physical equipment related to the technology. The hardware is the

most tangible part of a technology system, and new technologies

typically spring from development in hardware. It is just as important to

understand the messages communicated through the technology

system. These messages will be referred to in this study as the

“Software”

According to Rogers, computer software includes information

manipulated by the computer (such as text, a spreadsheet, or any other

stream of data manipulated or stored by the computer) as well as the

instruction used by the computer to manipulate the data. In the same

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way, Olamilokun (1999) in Amamize (2003:37) observed that the

computer would not be able to function without the software, and the

software is the written instruction that powers on the computer, and

assist the computer in carrying out its operations, manipulate stream of

data and support the computer in understanding the various complex

tasks that it performs.

Gester in Mugo (2006) remarked that ICTs may be looked at as

technologies that “facilitate the creation, storage, management and

dissemination (communication) of information by electronic means.” In

terms of improvement of life, these technologies achieve this by

facilitating communication and processing of information through their

interactivity, permanent availability and reduced costs. Abiahenu in

Mugo (2006)

While journalism is the art of writing, recording, editing news, events,

various accounts, their transmission among others, ICT has greatly

influenced Broadcast industry and may be thought of from two

perspectives. First, as the utilization of various ICT tools like the radio,

fixed telephone, computers, the internet, mobile phones and others and

secondly, as the kind of journalism in which the journalist has ICTs as

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the subject for his or her trade, that is generates stories on and about

ICTs.

2.1.1 IMPACT OF ICT ON NEWS PROCESSING

One of the challenging features of ICT in news processing is that news is

Timely and immediate since the emergent of computer technology. It is

evident that ICTs have had a tremendous impact on how fast content

reaches the target. Unlike in the past when audience would largely rely

on newspapers and broadcasters to present information or news the

following day and through special editions (in newspapers) and at the

slotted “news hour”, ICTs have made it even easier to publish

information in real time, updating breaking news and events as they

happen (Muga,2006).

Muga (2006) observed that the telephone has shorted the time between

the reporter and the source, reporter and editor, saving costs such as

travel logistics. Now with the advent of the mobile telephone, The

Standard as well as other media groups have ensured that reporters on

the ground, correspondents, stringers are only a call away and they took

a similarly close to sources who are physically miles away.

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Therefore, editors can call report writers direct on their mobiles for

clarification. Further, reporters do not necessarily have to carry the

stories to the newsrooms. They may as well prepare their stories in

cybercafés

2.1.2 COST

One of the immediate impacts of the evolution of ICT is the cost

element. Technology comes with an economic cost attached to it. More

importantly, the investment in new technology costs money. This is one

of the decisions that organizations have had to make. Despite the

eventual returns- in terms of more wealth generation, time saved and

2overall profits on investment,- there is the challenge of the cost

element for implementation of any new technology.

For example, installing computers, faxes, internet is a monumental cost

for all media outlets. Funds have had to be set aside for installations and

subsequent networking. The same with the rising telephone costs-

whether fixed lines or mobile lines, companies had to funds these new

initiatives which was quite an uphill tasks. Though the final returns are

there to be seen, there was this important financial hurdle to jump. Still

the organizations have to keep budgeting for the cost of using the new

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technology especially more so in Africa where such communication

infrastructure (ICTs) is prohibitive.

In addition to improving the delivery of news, computer and

telecommunications technology can improve the research and news

gathering processes of broadcast industry. Lapham (1995) established

that "The computer is a perfect complement to the broadcast industry . .

. . It enables the existing news industry to deliver its product in real

time. It hugely increases the quantity of information that can be made

available, including archives, maps, charts and other supporting

material. It opens the way to upgrading the news with full screen

photography and videos, while hugely enhancing the richness and

timeliness of the news.

2.2 THEORECTICAL FRAMEWORK

2.2.1 DIFFUSION OF INNOVATION THEORY

The application of diffusion theory to media technology is useful for

examining how media literacy proponents can apply the diffusion of

innovations theory to increase the adoption of media technology to

facilitates news processing.

Before elaborating on diffusion theory of innovation it is important to

understand the tenets of general diffusion theory. Everett M. Rogers

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(1995) is the best- known scholar in the area of diffusion research. His

book, Diffusion of Innovations , is the most often cited work dealing with

diffusion. As Rogers points out, diffusion is not a single, all-

encompassing theory. It is several theoretical perspectives that relate to

the overall concept of diffusion; it is a meta-theory.

Diffusion is the process by which an innovation is adopted by members

of a certain community. There are four factors that influence adoption of

an innovation. These include 1) the innovation itself, 2) the

communication channels used to spread information about the

innovation, 3) time, and 4) the nature of the society to whom it is

introduced (Rogers, 1995). The application of diffusion theory to media

technology is useful for examining the adoption of media technology to

facilitating news processing.

2.2.2 TECHNOLOGICAL DETERMINISM THEORY

The term is believed to have been coined by Thorstein Veblen (1857-

1929), an American sociologist. Veblin's contemporary, popular historian

Charles Beard, provided this apt determinist image, "Technology

marches in seven-league boots from one ruthless, revolutionary

conquest to another, tearing down old factories and industries, flinging

up new processes with terrifying rapidity."

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Technological determinism has been summarized as 'The belief in

technology as a key governing force in society ...' (Merritt Roe Smith in

Wikipedia 2009) . 'The idea that technological development determines

social change ...' (Bruce Bimber in Wikipedia 2009). It changes the way

people think and how they interact with others and can be described as

'...a three-word logical proposition: "Technology determines history"'

(Rosalind Williams in Wikipedia 2009) . It is, '... the belief that social

progress is driven by technological innovation, which in turn follows an

"inevitable" course.' (Smith in Wikipedia 2009). This 'idea of progress' or

'doctrine of progress' is centralized around the idea that social problems

can be solved by technological advancement, and this is the way that

society moves forward. Technological determinists believe that "'You

can't stop progress', implying that we are unable to control technology"

(Green Wikipedia in 2009). This suggests that we are somewhat

powerless and society allows technology to drive social changes

because, "societies fail to be aware of the alternatives to the values

embedded in it technology" ( Smith in Wikipedia 2009).

Technological determinism has been defined as an approach that

identifies technology, or technological advances, as the central causal

element in processes of social change (Croteau and Hoynes, in

Wikipedia 2009). As a technology is stabilized, its design tends to dictate

users' behaviors, consequently diminishing human agency. This stance

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however ignores the social and cultural circumstances in which the

technology was developed. Sociologist Fischer in Wikipedia 2009

characterized the most prominent forms of technological determinism as

"billiard ball" approaches, in which technology is seen as an external

force introduced into a social situation, producing a series of ricochet

effects.

Rather than acknowledging that a society or culture interacts with and

even shapes the technologies that are used, a technological determinist

view holds that "the uses made of technology are largely determined by

the structure of the technology itself, that is, that its functions follow

from its form" (Neil Postman, Wikipedia 2009). However, this is not to be

confused with the inevitability thesis (Daniel Chandler), which states

that once a technology is introduced into a culture that what follows is

the inevitable development of that technology.

Marshall McLuhan's belief that print helped produce the nation state.

This moved society on from an oral culture to a literate culture but also

introduced a capitalist society where there was clear class distinction

and individualism. As Postman maintains “the printing press, the

computer, and television are not therefore simply machines which

convey information. They are metaphors through which we

conceptualize reality in one way or another. They will classify the world

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for us, sequence it, frame it, enlarge it, reduce it, and argue a case for

what it is like. Through these media metaphors, we do not see the world

as it is. We see it as our coding systems are. Such is the power of the

form of information”. (Wikipedia, 2009)

2.3 EMPIRICAL STUDIES

We cannot but say that information and communication technology, ICT

plays an important role in the broadcast media more than any other

sector. One of the key areas of this impact is news immediacy and

timeliness. It could be argued that the internet has made news

immediate and timely, be that as it may, the internet could be said to

have played an emergent role in news gathering, the role of the internet

as a news source has been growing both for general news and for news

about politics and public affairs. The pew Research Institute In March

2000 conducted a survey on the impact of the internet on news process,

it was discovered that 30 million Americans had gotten news about

politics using the internet, and 51 million had gotten news of any kind.

By the middle of 2004, these numbers had grown to 63 million and 92

million respectively. In the same vein, there is another possibility;

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though running counter to the potential of an internet-aided information

balkanization is the notion that the internet may improve the quality of

democratic deliberation as people have a new and easy-to-use resource

to become informed about civic issues. To explore these cross currents,

the Pew Internet & American Life Project and the University of Michigan

School of Information conducted a survey in June 2004 to examine

people’s newsgathering patterns in the election season. The survey

sought to examine the degree to which individuals encounter

information that is at odds with their positions on issues or candidates.

To the extent that healthy democratic discourse relies on collisions –

people (actively or not) being exposed to information that informs and

challenges their views, with the result being better-informed electoral

choices – our purpose is to see whether the internet contributes to, or

inhibits, such collisions, it was revealed that 65% of internet users say

the internet was important in giving them information that helped them

decide their vote. And 35% say internet information made a difference

in their voting decision.

Conversely, One in five of those who used the internet to get campaign

news (20%) in 2004 identified CNN.com as the single source they used

the most. Some 10% said they relied most on AOL; 10% said MSN; 8%

said Yahoo; 5% said MSNBC’s Web site; 5% said Fox News’s Web site;

29
4% said local media; 3% said the New York Times; 3% said Google news;

and 1% said Drudge Report

The adoption of personal computers as a news reporting tool is a two-

prong approach to news processing commonly known as computer-

assisted reporting. Computer-assisted reporting (CAR), includes both (a)

online-based newsgathering that uses specialized commercial services

and Internet-based services, such as the World Wide Web, and (b)

database-oriented analysis using existing and originally created

databases from both the public and private sectors (Garrison, 1995).

Computer-assisted news reporting refers to anything that uses

computers to aid in the newsgathering process (Garrison, 1999). The

introduction of computers in the newsroom has been a gradually

developing process that must be traced back to early computing

devices. Later advances included inventions by John Napier, Blaise

Pascal, and Charles Babbage. A breakthrough in computing was the

invention of Herman Hollerith's Tabulator and Sorter. Soon after Howard

Aiken developed the Mark I computer.

The concept of computer-assisted reporting (CAR) is a broad one. It

encompasses, as Garrison (1998) explains, anything that uses

computers to aid in the news-gathering process. It can involve online

30
research and database journalism. It is sometimes called computer-

assisted journalism.

Garrison reports a study of leading problems in using the Internet for

Newsgathering that were identified by daily newspaper journalists.

Respondents to 1997 and 1998 national censuses listed their

perceptions of flaws in the Web as a newsgathering source. A total of

226 newspapers in 1997 and 185 in 1998, with a daily circulation of

20,000 or greater each year, participated in the study. Data from similar

national censuses conducted in 1994, 1995, and 1996 are also reported

for some variables. The study found growing use of online resources,

such as the Web and commercial services, during all five years. Among

the leading problems named by journalists were those common to other

forms of news reporting that had little to do with the Web itself. These

concerns included verification, unreliable information, badly sourced

information, and lack of Web site credibility. Technical problems were

not perceived to be as severe. Outdated links and slow loading times

were among the problems cited that related to the medium itself.

Without “access to information through the source, the reporter cannot

function,” wrote Columbia University newsgathering expert Melvin

Mencher (1997, p.309).

While new technologies, as they develop, help to overcome some of the

obstacles, they do not always seem to be the solution. They can,

31
sometimes, add to existing problems. However, journalists have used

telephones, short-wave radio, fax machines, and other new information-

gathering technologies to improve their work and to resolve some of the

difficulties of gathering information that have emerged during the past

century. Technology-based resources, for instance, help increase speed

and, sometimes, the accuracy of information being reported.

Technologies, of course, have their shortcomings. Sources on the

telephone, for instance, may not be who they say they are supposed to

be. Human sources have been known to be unreliable, to lie, and even

to engage in elaborate hoaxes. New technologies, such as cellular

telephones, often provide poor connections and radio communications is

susceptible to interference. Furthermore, third parties may monitor

wireless devices. Faxes, widely used in newsrooms during the past two

decades, can be garbled or reproduced so poorly as to be unreadable

(Mencher, 1997)

The latest information technology, centered on the worldwide network of

computer systems known as the Internet, has been an asset to most

journalists who have embraced it. Growing numbers of journalists use

the World Wide Web as a reporting tool with considerable enthusiasm

(Kaye & Medoff, 1999) Among the most appealing reasons for use of this

new resource is its scope and depth of information as well as the speed

at which the information may be retrieved. “Before personal computers

32
and fax machines, journalists relied on other tools to do their jobs:

telephones, telegraphs and typewriters were at the top of the list…. Add

a modem to a computer with a news library researcher skilled in online

database searching, and reporters discover information resources

unrivaled in scope. With expanded access into electronic files of

government data, and by analyzing that data, reporters really become

power journalists,” wrote University of North Carolina professor and

librarian Barbara Semonche (1993, p. 267).

The value of online resources to journalists is well established in the

literature of newsgathering and mass communication technology (Ross

& Middleberg, Garrison in Garrison, 1999) For example, Journalists use

online resources for background for interviews or other purposes, to find

or identify sources, to check or verify facts, to read their competition, to

become informed about current events, and to identify story ideas

(Garrison, 1999). Just as these advantages have been documented,

there is growing alarm about the problems associated with use of online

resources. When online resources first appeared in newsrooms in the

late 1970s and early 1980s, much concern focused on the cost of the

services (Garrison, 1999). Contemporary journalists often seek

innovative approaches to their newsgathering and news processing and

their jobs often require polished analytical skills and overall higher levels

of computer literacy (Stepp in Garrison 1999). Other concerns focused

33
on learning to use complicated and cumbersome computer systems that

were not very user-friendly. While online fees have been reduced, the

amount and depth of information have increased. Furthermore, use of

these online resources has become much easier in the past decade.

However, other issues remain. One such concern is judging and,

ultimately, trusting the quality of the content of online databases, Web

sites, and other resources (Schlossberg in Garrison 1999).

While the Internet and World Wide Web are valuable newsgathering

tools, finding information is a barrier for all users, especially journalists

on deadline (Callahan, 1997). Even if the act of locating information

were enough trouble, technophobia has been determined to be another

concern (Singer in Garrison, 1999)).

Researchers have identified anonymity and online accountability as

major problems with online newsgathering (Singer in Garrison 1999).

Accuracy and verification issues arise when discussing online news

sources such as Web publications that are often themselves sources for

journalists (Reddick & King in Garrison 1999).

The Internet, one author recently noted with some concern, has changed

the way Internet users assess trustworthiness. Schlossberg (1999)

argued that traditional standards, such as familiar voices or established

reputations, are being discarded in favor of technological features, such

as availability of useful links to other sites.

34
Authoritativeness of sources on the Web is identified as a factor in using

online sources (Evans in Garrison). The timeliness, or freshness, of the

information offered is a concern of many journalists (McGuire, et al,

1997). Ethics problems are also the focus of those scholars studying the

Web as an information source. Carleton (1994) noted that the fluid

nature of the Internet is troublesome because of information found one

day may not appear the next. Andrews (1996) said the new technology

is to blame for still another problem—surveillance in cyberspace.

Reporters using newsgroups and other online resources to find sources,

he explained, often are vulnerable to spying by competitors or corporate

public relations people.

Steady growth in use of ICT in news reporting underlines the importance

of identifying and analyzing problems associated with online information

services and the Internet. The dominance of the Internet and its World

Wide Web as the leading online tool places focus on the Web and

suggests that additional research should be conducted. In fact, serious

thought should be given to development of a Web news research

agenda.

35
CHAPTER THREE

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1 INTRODUCTION

This chapter focuses on the research method, design, population

sample, Area of study, sampling techniques, Instrument for data

collection, sources of data, data collection procedure, validity of the

36
instrument, Reliability of the instrument method of data analysis. The

research method of this study is survey.

The survey method according to Osuala in Tejumaye (2003) focuses on

people, the vital facts of people, their beliefs, opinions attitudes,

motivation and behaviour.

Wimmer and Dominick in Tejumaye (2003) indicated that the descriptive

survey method attempts to picture or document current conditions or

attitudes-i.e to describe what exists at the moment. This method is

adopted, employing the questionnaire because of this quality, which

makes it most relevant and most appropriate for conducting a study that

involve asking some questions from a large respondents.

The appropriateness of survey method to this study is further confirmed

by Babbie in Tejumaye (2003) when he observed that survey method is

good for descriptive research design which in fact is what this study

intends.

This research work was carried out as a field survey using AIT and NTA,

Lagos as its population. This location was chosen by the researcher to

investigate the impact of computer technology in news process because

of the high influx of ICT sophistication in AIT and NTA.

37
3.2 RESEARCH DESIGN

The survey method was adopted by the researcher to investigate: the

impact of ICT in news process: a study of AIT and NTA. Usually, survey

method does not only enable the researcher to make predictions but

also the behaviour of a great body of people requiring measurement

along a broad spectrum of opinions, attitude, feelings beliefs, ideas,

information and understanding, in view of this, the survey has been

considered the best method for this study.

3.3 AREA OF STUDY

The target of study looks at the impact of ICT in news process, taking a

simple-cross section of the perception of reporters in AIT and NTA, Lagos

3.4 POPULATION OF THE STUDY

The research population of this study is reporters in AIT and NTA,

Lagos, Nigeria. 100 copies of questionnaires will be administered during

the conduct of the study

3.5 SAMPLING TECHNIQUE

38
A sample size of 100 respondents is chosen using random sampling.

Random sampling is a method of selecting a population such that all

members of the population have equal chance of being selected for the

study, and the sampling of each case from the pool of cases is

independent of the sampling of another case. One of the ways the

researcher employed in administering the questionnaire to it

respondents was the use of convenient sampling technique., which was

administered across 6 departments out of all the departments in AIT and

NTA.

3.6 INSTRUMENT FOR DATA COLLECTION

The data collection instrument for this study is questionnaire. The

questionnaire will be both open and close-ended questions to seek

response, opinions and perceptions of the impact of ICT in news process.

The Questionnaire gives the researcher opportunity to establish rapport

with the respondents, which could make the respondents to open-up

and supply all the required information. It also gives an opportunity to

explain the meaning of items that are not clear and may not be

understood by the respondents. It guarantees as much as possible, the

uniformity of response from the response from the respondents and

enhances data processing.

3.7 VALIDITY OF THE INSTRUMENT

39
In the course of the pilot study to investigate the impact of ICT in news

process, a pre-test of the questions in the questionnaire was used to

measure the dependent variables, on this note, it could be inferred that

the research instrument (Questionnaire) was designed to specifically

measure respondents Perceptions, opinions and beliefs in order to

provide answers to research questions, which would in turn provide

solution to the problem of study. The questionnaire was designed in

such a way to generate responses that would directly address research

questions in an attempt to give specific answers to the research

questions.

3.8 RELIABILITY OF THE INSTRUMENT

The study adopted precision and accuracy in its measurement i.e

measuring carefully what is set out to measure and will therefore

consistently yield very similar responses to questions drafted in the

research instrument to address research questions, also when the

research is carried out again and again adopting similar technique and

population of study.

The capacity of the research design as well as research instrument to

yield the same responses and ultimately similar conclusions, when the

same procedure, technique and population of study is adopted gives this

study its reliability.

3.9 METHOD OF DATA ANALYSIS

40
Descriptive type of analysis is employed since it gives an overview of

the description of observed phenomena with the use of frequency,

percentages and measurement of central tendency. This type of analysis

is suitable for summarizing sets of numerical data such as scores on

perception, scales and questionnaires. This type of data analysis is

suitable for only research questions and not useful for testing

hypothesis.

CHAPTER FOUR

4.1 INTRODUCTION

This chapter deals extensively with the analysis and the interpretation of

data obtained on “the impact of information and communication

technology on news processing: a study of AIT and NTA.

The interpretation of these responses was judiciously used to address

the research questions asserted in chapter one of this study. The data

were presented in tables and percentage distribution of the frequency

counted and the mean was used as the subject of analysis. Also, the

questionnaire was both open and closed ended questionnaires; the

opened responses sought the views of journalist on the impact of

information and communication technology in news processing.

41
For the purpose of data collection, a total of 100 copies of

questionnaires were distributed to respondents in AIT and NTA, after

distribution and collection of the result 90 copies of the questionnaires

was retrieved leaving a deficit of 10 copies of the questionnaires either

void or was not returned. We can infer that 83% of the total

questionnaires distributed were analyzed and interpreted in the tables

below.

The findings of this study shall be presented in tabular analysis and

simple percentage of data will be employed. The first part analysis on

demography, while the section B deals with the subjective open and

closed ended questionnaires.

It was analyzed freely based on congruence of thoughts, relevance

and /or divergence of opinion of respondents. While the second part will

be dealing with the research questions with the presentation and

discussion of findings.

4.2 DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION

TABLE 1: DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS ON AGE

AGE BRACKET RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE (%)


20-30 YEARS 38 42
31-40 YEARS 33 37
41-50 YEARS 16 18
51 AND ABOVE 3 3
TOTAL 90 100

42
It was discovered from table 1 that 42% of the respondents are of the

age bracket 20-30 years, 37% of the respondents fall within the age

bracket 41-50 years, 18% of the respondents are of the age bracket 41-

50 years while 3% of the respondents claimed that they are of the age

51 and above. From the above we could deduce that 20-30 years of the

respondents have the highest number of distribution in this study.

TABLE 2: DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS ON EDUCATION

QUALIFICATION

ALTERNATIVE RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE (%)


GCE/WAEC/NECO 0
0
NCE/OND 25 28
HND/BSC 45 50
MSC/MA/PHD 9 10
PROFESSIONAL 11 12

QUALIFICATION
TOTAL 90 100

It is evident in table 2 that 28% of the respondents are NCE/OND

graduate, 50% of the respondents are HND/BSC graduate, while 12% of

respondents of this study holds professional qualification.

43
TABLE 3: DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS ON WORK

EXPERIENCE

ALTERNATIVE RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE (%)


0-5 18 20
6-10 43 48
11-15 11 12
16 AND ABOVE 8 9
TOTAL 90 100

It is apparent from table 3 that 20% of the respondents have a working

experience of 0-5, 48% of the respondents have a working experience of

6-10, 12% of the respondents have a working experience 11-15, 9% of

the respondents have a working experience of 16 and above.

TABLE 4: DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS ON SEX

ALTERNATIVE RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE (%)


MALE 41 46
FEMALE 49 54
TOTAL 90 100

Table 4 revealed that 46% of the respondents are male, 54% of the

respondent of this study are female.

TABLE 5: DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS ON COMPUTER

LITERACY

ALTERNATIVE RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE (%)


YES 90 100
NO 0 0
TOTAL 90 100

44
It is evident from table 5 that 100% of respondents are computer

literate. This indicates to a large extent that the respondents are familiar

with a computer.

TABLE 6: DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS ON THE VARIOUS

FORMS OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY

TOOLS EMPLOY IN NEWS PROCESSING

ALTERNATIVE RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE (%)


COMPUTER 90 100
DIGITAL CAMERA 74 67
INTERNET 87 97
SCANNER 66 73
FIXED TELEPHONE 50 55
TOTAL 90 100

It is very apparent from the table above that the respondents asserted

that the computer is one of most common ICT tools that facilities news

processing with a percentage of 100%, this signifies that, the computer

to a large extent facilitate the process and enhance news process in

Nigeria, . Also the respondents affirmed that digital camera is also

another news processing tools as it facilitates the captures of pictures

with 67% of the respondents in news processing , be that as it may , the

respondents said that the internet is next common after the computer in

news processes because it facilitates news gathering by reporters with a

percentage of 97%, the scanner is also another ICT tools employ in news

processes with a percentage of 73%, phones are also ICT tools as

45
claimed by the respondents as it facilitate the process of news gathering

with a percentage of 55%, most of the respondents did say that the

numerous impact of ICT news processes have forever revolutionized the

news processes in Nigeria. Most the respondents said that ICT is an

asset that enables journalists to compare views and situations about

issues, others pointed out that ICT quickens the pace of news

gathering/writing.

Be that as it may, some of the respondents attributed that ICT has

improve news processes in term of timeliness, cost effective, wider news

distribution.

TABLE 7: DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS ON WHETHER ICT


REDUCES STAFF STRENGHT
ALTERNATIVE RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE (%)
STRONGLY AGREE 52 58
AGREE 28 31
UNDECIDED 0 0
DISAGREE 6 7
STRONGLY DISAGREE 4 4
TOTAL 90 100
46
It is apparent from the table above that 58% of the respondents

stressed that with the employment of ICT in news room it has help

facilitate news processing but have reduce staff strength, as virtually

everything in the news room is digitalized and executed by the use of

computer or perhaps ICT tools which have been highlighted in the

course of the study, 31% of the respondents are in agreement with the

above assertion the noted that to a large extent the computer has

taken the order of the day as every operations in the news room is

executed by the computer within a twinkle of an eye, this has

predominantly pose a challenge in the society in the sense that

computer knowledge is needed in the news room. However 7% of the

respondents contend that the computer have not in any way reduce

staff strength in the news room, 4% of the respondent also agree with

the above statement. From the above we can deduce that with the

advent of computer couple with ICT tools news has been timely and

immediate. Although, since the knowledge of computer is not static but

dynamic it will pose a lot of challenges in manning newer technology

because technology changes very rapidly and swiftly.

RESEARCH QUESTION ONE: WHAT IS THE IMPACT OF

INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY ON NEWS

PROCESSING IN NIGERIA

47
TABLE 8: DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENT ON WHETHER

COMPUTER TECHNOLOGY ENHANCES NEWS PROCESSING.

ALTERNATIVE RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE (%)

AIT NTA

YES 48 42 100

NO 0 0 0

UNDECIDED 0 0 0

TOTAL 90 100

It is apparent from table 8 that 100% of the respondents asserted that

the computer technology facilitates, enhance and has improved the

processes involved in news. We can say to a large extent, with the

advent of computer technology, the tedious work inherent in news

processing in news room is a thing of the past, as news processing

takes just a few minutes with the aid of information and communication

technology.

TABLE 9: DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS ON THE RELEVANCY

OF COMPUTERIZATION TO NEWS PROCESSES.

ALTERNATIVE RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE (%)


48
VERY RELEVANT 56 62
RELEVANT 34 38
NOT RELEVANT 0 0
TOTAL 90 100

Indeed, it was exposed from table 9 that 62% of the respondents

claimed that computerization is very relevant in the news processing, 38

% of the respondents affirmed that the computer is relevant to news

processing, while none of the respondent said that the use of computer

in news processing is not relevant. We can therefore say that to a large

ICT is indispensable in news processing in Nigeria as it facilitates,

enhances and improves news processing.

TABLE 10: DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS ON WHETHER ICT

IMPROVES NEW PROCESSES

ALTERNATIVE RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE (%)


STRONGLY AGREE 40 44
AGREE 24 22
UNDECIDED 0 0
DISAGREE 5 6
STRONGLY DISAGREE 10 11
TOTAL 90 100

It was revealed from table 10 that ICT improves news processing with

44% of the respondents strongly agree to the assertion, 22% of the

49
respondents also complement that ICT has a great impact on news

processing. 6% of the respondents were ambivalent to the impact of ICT

on news processing assertion. 11% of the respondents contend with the

impact of ICT in news processing, this could be as a result of none

familiarity of the role of ICT in news processing, in corroboration to the

above statement, the impact of ICT is not readily apparent perhaps

palpable We can therefore say that with the high responses of the

respondents to a large extent ICT improves the processes involved in

news making.

RESARCH QUESTION TWO: WHAT ARE THE CONSTRAINTS TO THE

USE OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY IN

NEWS PROCESSING IN NIGERIA?

TABLE 11: DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS ON WHETHER


INADEQUATE MAN POWER CAN MAR THE OPERATION OF
COMPUTER IN THE NEWS PROCESSING

ALTERNATIVE RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE (%)


STRONGLY AGREE 43 48
AGREE 18 20
UNDECIDED 5 6
DISAGREE 13 14
STRONGLY DISAGREE 15 17
TOTAL 90 100
50
From table 11, it is evident that 48% of the respondents affirmed that

one of the constraints that could be identified with the use of

information and communication technology is inadequate manpower as

a key factor. Be that as it may, 20% of the respondents corroborate the

above statement that insufficient manpower could be seen as one of the

constraints that can affect news processing in Nigeria. Nevertheless, 6%

of the respondents cannot deduce the constraint that could affect news

processing in Nigeria this could be as a result of none familiar with ICT in

news processing. Moreover, 14% of the respondents disputed that

manpower might not a key constraints affecting news processing in

broadcasting station in Nigeria. In line with this disagreement, 17% of

the respondents predominantly justified that manpower might not

interrupt the news making process. In as much as we cannot dispense

the role of ICT in new processing in Nigeria, it could justified to a great

extent that insufficient manpower could be seen as a constraint that

could affect the process of news making in Nigeria.

Before ICT could be more effective in enhancing news processes in

Nigeria, the constraints to news processing should not be neglected if

broadcast industry must thrive or perhaps compete with its international

counterpart. Some of the respondents did say that inadequate man

51
power is one of constraints to the use of ICT in news processing in

Nigeria, others did say that epileptic power, maintenance, poverty,

infrastructural underdevelopment, be that as it may, cost of acquiring

technology is very high, above all lack of IT personnel have contributed

to a large extent to the drawbacks of the use of ICT in news processing

in Nigeria AIT and NTA in particular.

TABLE 12: DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS ON WHETHER


INADEQUATE COMPUTER TECHNOLOGY IN NEWSROOM CAN
HINDER THE NEWS PROCESSING.

ALTERNATIVE RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE (%)


STRONGLY AGREE 43 53
AGREE 18 19
UNDECIDED 5 10
DISAGREE 13 11
STRONGLY DISAGREE 15 7
TOTAL 90 100

More so it was revealed from table 12 that 53% of the respondents

claimed that insufficient computer in news room could hinder the

operation of new processing in the same vein, 19% of the respondents

also claimed that the computer as a medium could adversely affect the

operation of news processing. However, 10% of the respondent believed

that the insufficient computer does not make any difference in news

52
processing, but 11% of the respondents contend that insufficient ICT

equipment may not hinder the operation in news processing, this is

corroborating 7% of the that strongly affirm the ICT does not have an

immense impact as regards news processing in Nigeria. It can be argued

that most of the respondent that claimed that the impact of ICT is not

palpable in broadcasting as it concerns news processing in Nigeria may

be as a result of the respondent not being able to explore the blessings

of ICT on news process or perhaps is a novice in the matters of the

impact of ICT and it importance in news processing. In as much as we

cannot dispute that the relevancy of ICT in this 21st century is more

prevalent because it makes reporting timely and immediate.

RESEARCH QUESTION 3: IN WHAT WAYS CAN ICT ENHANCE

NEWS PROCESSING IN NIGERIA?

TABLE 13: DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS ON THE EXTENT ICT

IMPROVES NEWS PROCESSING IN TERM OF NEWS TIMELINESS.

ALTERNATIVE RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE (%)


GREAT EXTENT 80 89
LITTLE EXTENT 10 11
NO EXTENT 0 0
TOTAL 90 100

53
We cannot dispute the fact that ICT has immensely and tremendously

influence news processing, it was affirmed from the table above that one

of the ways ICT impacts on news processing is noticed in news

timeliness. Without the employment of ICT in news processing one could

not have achieved news timeliness, 89% of the respondents greatly

justified the importance of ICT in news processing, be that as it may,

most of the respondents stated affirmatively that ICT has enhance live

broadcasting from the scene, and breaking news is made possible in

television broadcasting.

TABLE 14: DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS ON THE EXTENT ICT

IMPROVES NEWS PROCESSING IN TERM OF NEWS IMMEDIACY.

ALTERNATIVE RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE (%)


GREAT EXTENT 66 73
LITTLE EXTENT 20 22
NO EXTENT 4 5
TOTAL 90 100

Table 14 reveals that 73% of the respondents agree to the assertion that

one the ways ICT impacts on news processing is evident in news

immediacy, 22% of the respondents complement the above statement

that news immediacy as been made possible as a result of the

employment of news processing in news room.

54
4.3 FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION

Information and communication technology (ICT) plays an important role

in today’s society. The structural transformation in the economy, society

and culture tend to work faster in this era of information. Different

mediums facilitate the spread of information. In the news we cannot but

say that ICT is the fulcrum that determines the pace of news processing,

It was discovered from the findings of the study that 42% of the

respondents are of the age bracket 20-30 years, 37% of the respondents

fall within the age bracket 41-50 years, 18% of the respondents are of

the age bracket 41-50 years while 3% of the respondents claimed that

they are of the age 51 and above. From the above we could deduce that

20-30 years of the respondents have the highest number of distribution

in this study.

The study proves that 28% of the respondents are NCE/OND graduate,

50% of the respondents are HND/BSC graduate, while 12% of

respondents of this study holds professional qualification.

Indeed, It is apparent from the study that 20% of the respondents

have a working experience of 0-5, 48% of the respondents have a

working experience of 6-10, 12% of the respondents have a working

experience 11-15, 9% of the respondents have a working experience of

16 and above.

55
While the printing machine was considered a revolutionary event in the

past, its invention is nowhere to match impacts of the emergence of

internet in the last couple of decades. In response to this phenomenon,

it was observed from the findings of this study, ICT has immensely and

tremendously influence news processing, it was affirmed that one of the

ways ICT impacts on news processing is noticed in news timeliness, it

corroborates (Lapham, 1995), he submitted that Technology

development and absorption in broadcast industry has improved the

packaging of news. The profuse use of online content and facilities has

led to high productivity and efficiency at a reduce cost.

Essentially, it was exposed in this study that 46% of the respondents are

male, 54% of the respondent of this study are female.

It can be argued that the impact of ICT can only be felt if the right

machinery are in place this corroborate the findings of this study as it

revealed that 100% of respondents are computer literate, this could in

turn be felt in the impact of news processing

Research question one: seeks to examine the impact of information and

communication technology on news processing in Nigeria especially in

Nigeria. From the findings of the study, it is apparent that 100% of the

respondents asserted that the computer technology facilitates, enhance

and has improved the processes involved in news. We can say to a large

extent, with the advent of computer technology, the tedious operations

56
inherent in news processing is a thing of the past, as news processing

takes just a few minutes with the aid of information and communication

technology.

It is apparent, 62% of the respondents claimed that computerization to

news processing is very relevant in the news processing, 38 % of the

respondents affirmed that the computer is relevant to news processing,

while none of the respondent said that the use of computer in news

processing is not relevant. We can therefore say that to a large ICT is

indispensable in news processing in Nigeria as it facilitates, enhances

and improves news process.

It was revealed that ICT improves news processing with 44% of the

respondents strongly agree to the assertion, 22% of the respondents

also complement that ICT has a great impact on news processing. 6% of

the respondents were ambivalent to the impact of ICT on news

processing assertion. 11% of the respondents contend with the impact

of ICT in news processing, this could be as a result of none familiarity

with the role of ICT in news processing, in corroboration to the above

statement, the impact of ICT is not readily apparent or perhaps palpable

We can therefore say that with the high responses of the respondents to

a large extent ICT improves the processes involved in news making, this

findings uphold Gester (2003), he believed that the adoption and

absorption of Information and Communication Technology are being


57
carried out in broadcast industry by bringing efficiencies in all the

functional wings including production, editorial and marketing so as to

gain competitive advantage. The importance of computer technology as

a tool for news processing cannot be overemphasized. . The adoption of

computer technology in broadcast industry has revolutionized and

enhanced news processing. Access to information is fundamental to

empowerment, recognizing the impact of increasing digital convergence

on media has created an enabling environment to ensuring people’s

access to information through the adoption of this technology, Okoye

(2000) corroborates the findings of this study, when he noted that

computer technology has enhanced news processing and news

reporting, he further remarked that with the Internet, journalist can now

click on relevant sites to source for foreign or even local news for

subsequent broadcast news, and the implication of this in the society

will lead to an overall shrink in the need for human correspondents.

The findings of this study upholds Muga (2006) when he commented on

One of the challenging features of ICT in news processing is that news is

Timely and immediate since the emergent of computer technology, he

further declared that ICTs have had a tremendous impact on how fast

content reaches the target. Unlike in the past when audience would

largely rely on newspapers and broadcasters to present information or

news the following day and through special editions (in newspapers) and

58
at the slotted “news hour”, ICTs have made it even easier to publish

information in real time, updating breaking news and events as they

happen. Muga (2006)

The findings of this study refute technological determinism theory,

Rather than acknowledging that a society or culture interacts with and

even shapes the technologies that are used, a technological determinist

view holds that "the uses made of technology are largely determined by

the structure of the technology itself, that is, that its functions follow

from its form" . However, this is not to be confused with the inevitability

thesis (Daniel Chandler), which states that once a technology is

introduced into a culture that what follows is the inevitable development

of that technology. Be that as it may, the findings of this study uphold

diffusion of innovation theory as Diffusion is the process by which an

innovation is adopted by members of a certain community. There are

four factors that influence adoption of an innovation. These include 1)

the innovation itself, 2) the communication channels used to spread

information about the innovation, 3) time, and 4) the nature of the

society to whom it is introduced (Rogers, 1995). The application of

diffusion theory to media technology is useful for examining the

adoption of media technology to facilitating news processing.

59
Research question 2: what are the constraints to the use of information

and communication technology in news processing in Nigeria?

It was observed from the findings of the study, 48% of the respondents

affirmed that one of the constraints that could be identified with the use

of information and communication technology is inadequate manpower

as a key factor. Be that as it may, 20% of the respondents corroborate

the above statement that insufficient manpower could be seen as one of

the constraints that can affect news processing in Nigeria. Nevertheless,

6% of the respondents cannot deduce the constraint that could affect

news processing in Nigeria this could be as a result of none familiar with

ICT in news processing. Moreover, 14% of the respondents disputed that

manpower might not be a key constraints affecting news processing in

broadcasting station in Nigeria. In line with this disagreement, 17% of

the respondents predominantly justified that manpower might not

interrupt the news making process. In as much as we cannot dispense

the role of ICT in news processing in Nigeria, it could justified to a great

extent that insufficient manpower could be seen as a constraint that

could affect the process of news making in Nigeria.

Before ICT could be more effective in enhancing news processes in

Nigeria, the constraints to news processing should not be neglected if

broadcast industry must thrive or perhaps compete with its international

counterpart. Some of the respondents did say that inadequate man

60
power is one of constraints to the use of ICT in news processing in

Nigeria, others did say that epileptic power, maintenance, poverty,

infrastructural underdevelopment, be that as it may, cost of acquiring

technology is very high, above all lack of IT personnel have contributed

to a large extent to the drawbacks of the use of ICT in news processing

in Nigeria AIT and NTA in particular.

More so it was revealed from the findings of the study that 53% of the

respondents claimed that insufficient computer in news room could

hinder the operation of new processing in the same vein, 19% of the

respondents also claimed that the computer as a medium could

adversely affect the operation of news processing. However, 10% of the

respondent believed that the insufficient computer does not make any

difference in news processing, but 11% of the respondents contend that

insufficient ICT equipment may not hinder the operation in news

processing, this is corroborating 7% of the respondents strongly affirm

the ICT does not have an immense impact as regards news processing in

Nigeria. It can be argued that most of the respondent that claimed that

the impact of ICT is not palpable in broadcasting as it concerns news

processing in Nigeria may be as a result of the respondent not being

able to explore the blessings of ICT on news process or perhaps is a

novice in the matters of the impact of ICT and it importance in news

processing. In as much as we cannot dispute that the relevancy of ICT in

61
this 21st century is more prevalent because it makes reporting timely

and immediate.

One of the implication of the adoption and the absorption of ICT was

debated by Uche in Adaja (2008), which also in line with this study was

that the present explosion in communication technologies will in the

twenty-first century and beyond, pose some contradictions, challenges

and confusion to mankind, in his social, economic, and cultural spheres

of life.

Meanwhile, Quintana (1997) advocates that the ICT has created

opportunities for widespread electronic delivery of news. He further

remarked that the Internet can be viewed as both an opportunity and a

threat to the news industry. However, not only are there technology

barriers that news organizations need to overcome to deliver news

electronically, but there are also problems of employee attitudes toward

new technologies and resistance to change. In addition, the news

industry faces the problem of trying to meet the needs of a rapidly

changing target market.

It was also revealed that an ICT impact is more prevalent in the

newsroom as most of the respondent did say that ICT enhances news

immediacy and timeliness.

Research question 3: in what ways can ICT enhance news processing in

Nigeria? Indeed, ICT has immensely and tremendously influence news

62
processing, it was affirmed that one of the ways ICT impacts on news

processing is noticed in news timeliness. Without the employment of ICT

in news processing one could not have achieved news timeliness, 89%

of the respondents greatly justified the importance of ICT in news

processing, be that as it may, most of the respondents stated

affirmatively that ICT has enhance live broadcasting from the scene, and

breaking news is made possible in television broadcasting.

In the same vein, 73% of the respondents agree to the assertion that

one the ways ICT impacts on news processing is evident in news

immediacy, 22% of the respondents complement the above statement

that news immediacy as been made possible as a result of the

employment of news processing in news room.

It was also deduced from the findings of this study that most of the

respondent commented on one of the function of ICT is that is facilitate

research, and make news timely, and immediate, at any place and at

any time.

Interestingly, the information era has swept the world with powerful

force affecting the society. Supported in its entirety by the

communication technology, information spread vastly become faster

and cheaper. The media through which information is disseminated also

gets varied in types, further revolutionizing the information era. In the

63
past, there is a significant time lag separating the point when an event

took place and the time when the news may be publicly available

Therefore it could argued that the employment of information and

communication technology in the newsroom and in news processing will

increase cost, as money would have to be invested into acquiring both

hardware and software creating or building websites, include

remunerations for personnel that would man and constantly maintain

them. Going by global trends, which foretell an increase in the

employment and the deployment of computer technology in news

processing, in order to achieve better efficiency, accuracy, and speed up

operations of news processing. The adoption of computer technology in

newspaper industry has revolutionized and enhanced news processing.

Access to information is fundamental to empowerment, recognizing the

impact of increasing digital convergence on media has created an

enabling environment to ensuring people’s access to information

through the adoption of this technology.

64
CHAPTER FIVE

SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1 SUMMARY

From the study it can be affirmed that the radical changes brought in

the realm of information through Information and Communication

Technology (ICT) revolution has affected immensely the broadcast

industry more than any other industry. We cannot but say to a large

extent that the level of adoption and absorption of Information and

65
Communication Technology are being carried out in broadcast industry

by bringing efficiencies in all the functional wings including production,

editorial and marketing so as to gain competitive advantage. We did say

that ICT facilitates the creation, storage, management and

dissemination of information by electronic means. Information and

Communication technology is now used not just by press but

increasingly by reporters and editors also. As a matter of fact, we could

not forget the numerous benefits associated with the use of ICT in news

process are being recognized at every point of the entire supply chain of

broadcast stations.

We did mention the adoption of computer technology in broadcast

industry has revolutionized and enhanced news processing. Access to

information is fundamental to empowerment, recognizing the impact of

increasing digital convergence on media has created an enabling

environment to ensuring people’s access to information through the

adoption of this technology. The importance of computer technology as

a tool for news processing cannot be overemphasized. The adoption of

computer technology in broadcast industry has revolutionized and

enhanced news processing. Access to information is fundamental to

empowerment, recognizing the impact of increasing digital convergence

on media has created an enabling environment to ensuring people’s

access to information through the adoption of this technology.


66
CONCLUSION

We cannot but say that the employment of computer technology in the

newsroom and in news processing will increase cost, as money would

have to be invested into acquiring both hardware and software creating

or building websites, include remunerations for personnel that would

man and constantly maintain them. However, going by global trends,

which foretell an increase in the employment and the deployment of

computer technology in news processing, in order to achieve better

efficiency, accuracy, and speed up operations of news processing, it is

believed that ICT facilitates the creation, storage, management and

dissemination of information by electronic means. Also, ICT facilitates

communication and processing of information, saves time and reduce

cost.

Interestingly, the information era has swept the world with powerful

force affecting the society. Supported in its entirety by the

communication technology, information spread vastly become faster

and cheaper. The media through which information is disseminated also

gets varied in types, further revolutionizing the information era. In the

past, there is a significant time lag separating the point when an event

took place and the time when the news may be publicly available

67
Going by global trends, which foretell an increase in the employment

and the deployment of computer technology in news processing, in

order to achieve better efficiency, accuracy, and speed up operations of

news processing. The adoption of computer technology in broadcast

industry has revolutionized and enhanced news processing. Access to

information is fundamental to empowerment, recognizing the impact of

increasing digital convergence on media has created an enabling

environment to ensuring people’s access to information through the

adoption of this technology.

One of the implication of the adoption and the absorption of ICT was

debated by Uche in Adaja (2008), the present explosion in

communication technologies will in the twenty-first century and beyond,

pose some contradictions, challenges and confusion to mankind, in his

social, economic, and cultural spheres of life.

Meanwhile, Quintana (1997) advocates that the ICT has created

opportunities for widespread electronic delivery of news. Furthermore,

the Internet can be viewed as both an opportunity and a threat to the

news industry. However, not only are there technology barriers that

news organizations need to overcome to deliver news electronically, but

there are also problems of employee attitudes toward new technologies

and resistance to change, and above all, the implication of this in the

68
society will lead to an overall shrink in the need for human

correspondents.

RECOMMENDATION:

Before ICT could be more effective in enhancing news processes in

Nigeria, I therefore make the following recommendations:

1. The constraints as highlighted in this study to news processing

should not be neglected if broadcast industry must thrive or

perhaps compete with its international counterpart.

2. Broadcast industry should help train their IT personnel in order to

compete, and catch up with the rapidly and swiftly changes in

new technologies and resistance to change.

3. Nigerian government need to help stabilize power because it is a

key factor in actualizing the impact of ICT in news processing in

Nigeria AIT and NTA in particular.

SUGGESTION FOR FURTHER STUDY

The impact of ICT in news processing in broadcast station in Lagos

69
REFERENCES

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develop Ex-management staff profile in ASCON. An unpublished project

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partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of certificate in

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Carlsson, U. (2005). From NWICO to Global governance of the information

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Quintana. Y. (1997). News on the Internet: Technologies and Trends retrieved

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practical introduction to computers & communications 5th ed. New

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Grangvist, M. (2002) Assessing ICT in development: a critical practice

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rethinking communication for development (PP.285 – 296). Buenos

Aires Nordicom

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Campaign-2004/4-The-role-of-the-internet-in-2004/05 Mainstream-

sources-dominated-the-online-news-and-information-gathering-by-

online-Americans.aspx?r=1 Communication, Southeast Colloquium,

Lexington, retrieved 20th March, 2010.

Searvaes, J. and Malikhao, P. (2005). Participatory communications, the new

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rethinking communication for development (pp. 91 –103). Buenos

Aires Nordicom
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Silverstone .R.(2000). Why study media ? retrieved at

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2010

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2010

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Allen (ed): Culture and Global change (pp. 58-69) New York:

Routledge

QUESTIONNAIRE

I am NKECHI SANDRA ALALI, a final year student of the Department of


Broadcasting, Lagos State University School of Communication,
Surulere, Lagos.

73
I am conducting a research on “The Impact of Information and
Communication Technology (ICT) On News Processing: A Study
of AIT and NTA”.

You have been selected as one of the special respondent for the
research. Please, kindly answer the questions in this questionnaire as
candidly as possible.

Information supplied is meant strictly for Educational Study. It will not be


used in anyway for or against you as a person. Be assured also that
confidentiality is highly guaranteed.
Thanks for your cooperation.

INSTRUCTION

Please tick (√) only one option to the following questions in this section
1. Please indicate your age bracket
a. 20-30years [ ]
74
b. 31-40years [ ]
c. 41-50years [ ]
d. 51 and above [ ]

2. Highest Educational qualification


a. GCE/WAEC/NECO [ ]
b. NCE/OND/HND [ ]
c. BSC/MSC/PHD [ ]
d. Professional qualification [ ]
3. Working Experience
a. 0 -5 [ ]
b. 6 -10 [ ]
c. 11- 15 [ ]
d. 16 and above [ ]
4. Sex: Male [ ]
Female [ ]
5. Marital status
a. Single [ ]
b. Married [ ]
c. Widow [ ]
d. Divorced [ ]

6. Department/Section --------------------------------------------------------

SECTION B

7. Do you think that computer technology enhances news processing?


a. Yes
b. No
c. Undecided
8. How relevant is the computerization to news processing?

a. Very relevant
b. relevant
c. not relevant
9. Identify constraints in the use of ICT in news processing in Nigeria?
75
……………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………
10. Inadequate manpower can mar the operation of computer in the
news processing?
a. Strongly Agree
b. Agree
c. Undecided
d. Disagree
e. Strongly Disagree
11. Inadequate computer technology in newsroom can hinder the news
processing?
a. Strongly Agree
b. Agree
c. Undecided
d. Disagree
e. Strongly Disagree
12. In what ways can ICT enhance news processing in Nigeria?
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

13. ICT improves news processing?


a. Strongly Agree
b. Agree
c. Undecided
d. Disagree
e. Strongly Disagree
14. To what extent has ICT improves news processing in terms of news
timeliness?
a. Great extent
b. Little extent
c. No extent
15. To what extent has ICT improves news processing in terms of news
immediacy?
a. Great extent
b. Little extent
c. No extent
76
16. Please indicate the various forms of ICT tools employed in news
processing of your organization?
a. Computer
b. Digital camera
c. Internet
d. scanner
e. computer-assisted Reporting
f. Fixed telephone,
g. Mobile phones
h. Others ------------------------------------------------------
17.Enumerate the impact of ICT tools on news processing?
a.------------------------------------------------------
b.------------------------------------------------------
c.-------------------------------------------------------
d.------------------------------------------------------
e.-------------------------------------------------------
f.-------------------------------------------------------
18. In your view how can ICT enhance news processing in the
newsroom?
………………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………………

19. Employment of ICT has reduced staff strength in newsroom?

a. Strongly Agree
b. Agree
c. Undecided
d. Disagree
e. Strongly Disagree

77
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