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B73

37T
7Th
heo
ory
ry
Manu
Ma
ua
al

Bo
oein
ng 737N
7 7NG
S stem
Sys
ms
s
Revis
Re
sion
n dat
te
05
5-08
8-15

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Forew
word:

Thisboo
okletdescribeessystemsp
publishedino
ourFaceboo
okpages:

About
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nityandhasN
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NTENTSHALLLNOTBEUSEDFORACTUALOPERATTIONOFTHEAIRCRAFT.

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ministratorhaasNORESPO
ONSIBILITYto
othecontentwrittenonthesepagess.

Descripttion
Administtrators: FerdiColijn:
B737
7NGTypeRated

B
BertdeJong:
InstructorFlightEngineerP3
3LockheedO
Orion
B737
7NGGroundSchoolInstructor

B737Theory

ThegoallofthisFBpageistoexp
pandB737th
heoreticalknowledgeam
mongstusersandwetrytto
achievethatbyexpaandingtheam
mountofvisitorsaimingforinteraction.

Therereestnocopyrigghtonoursttoriesbutweeratherseeyourecomm
mendinguso
onyourprivaateFB
pagesiso
osharingtheeposts.

Alsofeellfreeto"don
nate"youreexperiencesaandstorieso
onB737Theo
oryanddropusalinebysending
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ou

INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK

Contents:

Foreword:................................................................................................................................................2
APU..........................................................................................................................................................8
AutoSlatSystem......................................................................................................................................9
EngineElectronicControl(EEC).............................................................................................................10
Whenthingsgowrongandbeyondbasicsystemsknowledge.............................................................11
Enginefiredetection.............................................................................................................................13
FeelDifferential.....................................................................................................................................14
FuelScavengeJetPump........................................................................................................................15
Fuelvalves.............................................................................................................................................16
ACGenerator.........................................................................................................................................17
Isolationvalve........................................................................................................................................19
Manualgearextension..........................................................................................................................20
Mechanicalpressurereliefvalves.........................................................................................................21
NitrogenGeneratingSystem.................................................................................................................22
Outflowvalve........................................................................................................................................23
FlightControlBreakawayDevices......................................................................................................24
Pack&packcontrol...............................................................................................................................25
Recirculationfans..................................................................................................................................26
HydraulicReservoirs..............................................................................................................................27
TheAPUStarter/Generator...................................................................................................................28
LandingGearTransferValve.................................................................................................................29
PTU........................................................................................................................................................30
WingThermalAntiIce(WTAI)...............................................................................................................31
B737Yawdamping................................................................................................................................32
Zonetemperaturecontrol.....................................................................................................................33
Lavatoryfireprotection.....................................................................................................................34
Centertankboostpumps......................................................................................................................35
Antiskid..................................................................................................................................................36
LeadingEdgeFlaps................................................................................................................................37
ThrustReverser.....................................................................................................................................39
TailSkid..................................................................................................................................................41
Vortexgenerators..................................................................................................................................42
Windowheating....................................................................................................................................43
Wing&BodyOverheat...........................................................................................................................44
HorizontalStabilizerTrim......................................................................................................................45

DisplayElectronicUnits.........................................................................................................................46
ProximitySwitchElectronicUnit...........................................................................................................47
Nosewheelsteeringlockout.................................................................................................................48
Weatherradar.......................................................................................................................................49
Dissolvedair..........................................................................................................................................51
Frangiblefittings....................................................................................................................................52
Rudder(verticalstabilizer)loadreduction.............................................................................................53
RejectedTakeoffspeedbrakesrelation.............................................................................................54
ElectricalBus(bar).................................................................................................................................55
Crewoxygensystem..............................................................................................................................56
Mainsystemhydraulicpumps,(corrected)...........................................................................................57
CockpitVoiceRecorderSystem.............................................................................................................58
Pressurecontrol....................................................................................................................................59
RunwayAwarenessandAdvisorySystem(RAAS).................................................................................61
ElectroMotorDrivenPumpsOverheat.................................................................................................63
Cockpitpanel+symbols.....................................................................................................................64
Overhead(P5)paneldrains...................................................................................................................65
Closedcrossfeedvalveontakeoffandlandings?.................................................................................66
AmberAUTOBRAKEDISARMLight.......................................................................................................67
B737Fireprotection..............................................................................................................................68
Startswitchfunctions............................................................................................................................69
Fuelnozzlecoking..............................................................................................................................71
Dualbleedlight.....................................................................................................................................72
AirCycleMachineoperation.................................................................................................................73
Airstair...................................................................................................................................................74
EquipmentCooling................................................................................................................................75
OverboardExhaustValve......................................................................................................................76
Thermalelectricalprotections..............................................................................................................77
Fueltemperatureindication.................................................................................................................78
IntegratedDriveGenerator(IDG)..........................................................................................................79
ElectricalLoadShedding........................................................................................................................81
CommonDisplaySystem(CDS)malfunctions.......................................................................................82
CargoCompartmentsair.......................................................................................................................83
NiCadBatteryoperation........................................................................................................................84
ClimbThrustReduction.........................................................................................................................86
Thewhitebug....................................................................................................................................87
StandbyHydraulicSystemoperation....................................................................................................88
TransformerRectifierUnits.(TRU)........................................................................................................90
5

RAMAIRDUCTdoors............................................................................................................................91
StandbyPower......................................................................................................................................92
Fuelingpanel.........................................................................................................................................93
Brakeaccumulator................................................................................................................................95
Controlcolumnshaker..........................................................................................................................96
Wheelthermalfuseplugs.....................................................................................................................98
Batterybusses.......................................................................................................................................99
Electricalschematic.............................................................................................................................100
Fuelschematic.....................................................................................................................................101
Hydraulicschematic............................................................................................................................102
Bleedschematic..................................................................................................................................103
Airconditionschematic.......................................................................................................................104
Engineoil&fuelschematic.................................................................................................................105
FlightModeAnnunciations(FMA)......................................................................................................106
PowerSources(NG)............................................................................................................................108

INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK

APU
The APU
U is a constant speed ( 49.000 RP
PM) gas turbine engine that can su
upply AC po
ower and
pressurizzedair.Theestarter/gen
neratorispo
oweredfrom
meitherdirecctlythemainbattery(28VDC)or
transfer bus1(115V
VAC)whereeeithersourceeisconverte
edinto270V
VDCforstarteroperation
n.At95%
startero
operationrevversestoa9
90KVAgeneerator,indicaatedbythe blueAPUOFFFBUSlight..(90KVA
until 32..000 ft. and 66 KVA unttil 41.000 ftt.) Starter se
equence is automatically
a
y determine
ed by the
ElectronicControlUnit(ECU)thaatneedsthebatteryswittchtobeinttheONpositiiontoenergize.

TheAPU
Ucanbeuseedforairand
dACpower until10.000
0ft.,justairto17.000fft.andjustA
ACpower
until41..000ft.Thattisalsothe maximumsttartingaltitu
udealthough
hrecommen
ndedat25.000ft.Air
takes th
he biggest performance from the APU
A
as it takes air from
m the load ccompressor which is
mounted
donacomm
monshaftwiiththecomb
bustioncomp
pressor.Themoreairtakenin,thelowerthe
performance of the APU. That is why theree is a restricction in altittude use, especially with
h air and
dbyIGVstow
wardtheloaadcompresso
or.When
whenthedemandisslarge(highEGT),airuseeissqueezed
onsuctio
onfeedthe APUdrawsffuelfromtank#1andw
whenoperatingforanexxtendedtime
eselecta
fuelpum
mptopressurefeedwhicchextendsth
helifetimeofftheAPU.

TheECU
UprotectstheAPUandsshutsdownw
withalowoilpressure,o
overspeedorwhenaFA
AULTlight
illuminattes. The lattter represen
nts more thaan just the foregoing, including ECU failure, lo
oss of DC
power,A
APUfire,oveertemp(duringstart),hiighoiltemp andmanym
more.Thestartlimitis2
2minutes
andaFA
AULTlightilluminateswh
henthestartisaborted throughap
protectionorrwhentheggenerator
malfuncttions. A bluee MAINT ligght illuminates when oil quantity is low or a geenerator malfunction
occurred
d,theAPUissstillallowed
dtooperate..

APU com
mpartment and oil cooling is accom
mplished byy exhaust air used as aan educator to draw
outsideaairintotheccompartmen
ntfromaninletjustabovvetheexhaust.
When th
he APU is sttopped by placing
p
the switch
s
to OFFF, the ECU determines a cooling cycle of 1
minuteb
beforetheA
APUactually stops.Theccoolingcycle
eclosestheA
APUBAVandtripstheggenerator
OFFline.Bydoingso
oitreliefstheAPUfromloadanddecreasestheEGTpreventtingsocalled
dcooking
oftheno
ozzles.(resid
dualfuelform
mscarbonon
nthehotnozzzleswhichccanaffecttheflamepatttern)
Delaysw
witchingthe BatterytoO
OFFto2min
nutesafterse
electingthe APUtoOFF,,thisallows theinlet
door to close. The door closes when the APU
A
decelerrates to 30% to preveent the inlett duct to
uteisbypasssedwhentheAPUshutsdownthrou
ughamalfunction,theFireSwitch
collapse.The1minu
isactivattedorwhentheBatterySwitchissellectedtoOFF.

Auto Slat System


The Auto Slat system operates the LE slats automatically in flight when youre approaching a stall
undercertainconditionsjustbeforethestickshakerbecomesactive.

Theseconditionsarewhentheflapsareatposition15andhydraulicpressureisavailablethrough:
HydraulicsystemB
PTU(extend&retract)
Standbyhydraulicsystem(extendonly)

*WithalternateFlapuse,theAutoSlatfunctionisnotavailable.
*WithashortfieldperformanceconfigurationtheAutoSlatoperateswithflapselections125.

At the flap position 1 5 the LE slats are in the intermediate (extend) position and the LE flaps at
their only extended position . . . FULL. When the aircraft approaches the stall angle/speed region
determinedbytheStallManagementandYawDamper(SMYD)computer,theFlaps/SlatsElectronic
Unit(FSEU)commandtheLEslatstotheFULLextendpositiontoprevententeringastallcondition.
Another action by the FSEU is to delay the transit lights to operate for 12 seconds thereby
preventingtheLEdevicestransitlightstoilluminate.
Whenthrustisincreased/stickforcerelaxedandtheaircraftfliesoutofthiscondition(higherspeed,
lowerAOA)theAutoSlatsystemdrivestheLEslatsbacktotheintermediateextendposition.Also
herethetransitlightswillnotilluminate.

When the Auto Slat systems fails to operate or is not available by any cause, the AUTOSLAT FAIL
indication illuminates on the flight control panel. When 1 SMYD computer fails the other will
automatically take over and would go unnoticed unless you press RECAL during an Auto Slat
condition.

Engine Electronic Control (EEC)


TheEECismountedontherighttopsideofthefanductandexistsoftwocomputers(channel1&2),
whereoneisactiveandtheotherstandbyalthoughtheyrebothoperatingandcrosslinkedduring
normal operation. The EEC receives numerous environmental and engine input signals to calculate
fuel and control outputs to operate the engine and identifies the engines thrust rating by a pre
selectedidentificationplug.Doingsoitheatsupandneedstobecooledwhichisachievedbytapping
off,anddirectingfanairtotheEEC.

NormalpowersourceoftheEECisanalternatormountedonfrontoftheenginegearboxbutisonly
validwhenthegearbox(N2)reaches15%.Before15%N2,theEECispoweredbyTransferBus1or2
(Eng.1or2)ifavailable,andbecomesenergizedwhentheStartSwitchisplacedtoGRDorCONTor,
when the Start Lever is moved to IDLE. A deenergized EEC is indicated by blank engine indication
boxesontheupperandlowerDUsevenwhentheEECbuttonilluminatesawhiteON,justindicating
thattheEECisselectedtothenormalmode.Inthiscasetheonlyindicationvisibledirectlyfromthe
sensors are N1, N2, Oil quantity and the vibration indicator, all others are blank. So . . . during a
battery start (emergency power), indications of EGT, fuel flow, oil pressure and oil temperature
remainblankuntilthealternatorreaches15%.

OntheaftoverheadenginepaneltherearethetwoguardedEECcontrolbuttonstoselecttheEECto
the NORMAL mode of operation (white ON light), or the manual HARD ALTERNATE mode of
operation(amberALTlight).AnundispatchablefailingEECisindicatedalsoontheenginepanelbya
ENG CONTROL light and will only illuminate when on the ground and the engine N2 >50%.
Alittleteaser....thelastindicationontheenginepanelaretwoREVERSERlights...whenandhow
longdotheyilluminateamberduringnormaloperation?

10

When things go wrong and beyond basic systems


knowledge
Thenextpostisanactualsituationthathappened,losingaTransferBusinflight.Ivetriedtosimplify
the explanation but in fact its just an indicator of what CAN happen. At this point Non Normal
Procedures,CRMandcommonsenseisneededtoflyoutofthesesituations.

It started with a MASTER CAUTION and a right SOURCE OFF, indicating that XFR bus 2 was not
powered by its last selected source but by Transfer Bus 1. QRH tells us to select the GEN switch
(affectedside)ONwhatthistimecausedaTRANSFERBUS2OFFtoilluminatewithadditionalrelated
indications. (DEU 2 and others, (check the power source booklet to find out) Next the APU was
startedandwhenattemptedtoconnectthegenerator,aBATTERYDISCHARGEilluminatedindicating
an excessive discharge of a battery, with multiple additional indications. The crew decided to stop
furtherproceduresandinvestigationandusedthesystemasis.Togiveyouanidea,theIndications
involved:batterydischarge,mastercaution,righthandsourceoff,righthandtransferbusoff,Mach
trimfail,autoslatfail,fuelpump2fwd.,fuelpump1aft,electricalhydraulicpump#2,probeheatB,
engineEECalternate,zonetemperature.

Afterthisordealthecrewmanagedtolandsafelywiththisreducedelectricalpowerconditionand
multiplecautionindications.

What actually has happened was that the Generator Control Unit (GCU) 2 had received an erratic
signalthroughtheLineCurrentTransformer(LCT)thatIDG2wasconnectedtothetransferbus.This
signal is then transferred to the Bus Power Control Unit (BPCU) who arranges switching in the
electricalACsystemtoprovideinthetwomajorrules:
NoparallelingofACsources
AnACsourceconnectingtoaTransferBusdisconnectstheprevioussource(lookatthefirst
rule)

ThiserroneoussignallockedoutthepossibilitytoconnecttheAPUorotherACsourceslikeTransfer
Bus1toTransferBus2.However,asIDG2infactwasnotconnected,transferbus2lostpower.The
erroneous indication must have originated at the GCB 2 (unit connecting IDG 2 to bus 2) itself,
indicatingtheswitchhadclosedalthoughithadnotmoved.

11

TheBATTTERYDISCHA
ARGEisprob
bablycaused
dbythea(exxcessive)mainbatterydiischargebyp
powering
theBattteryBusasaalsotheDC2
2system(TR
R2&TR3) werenotpo
oweredanym
moreandillu
uminates
whenab
batteryoutp
putcondition
nsexistsof:
Currentdraw
C
wismorethaan5ampsfo
or95seconds
Currentdraw
C
wismorethaan15ampsffor25seconds
Currentdraw
C
wismorethaan100ampssfor1.2seco
onds.
Mindyo
ou,normally whenTranssferBus2is deenergize
edtheTransffer3Relayw
wouldswitch
hTR3to
TransferrBus1which
hobviouslyd
didnthappen.

12

Engine fire detection


Theenginefiredetectionsystemconsistofafire,andanoverheatdetectioninsidethenacellewhich
areonlyactivewhentheengineisoperating.Temperaturesareguardedby2(A&B)detectorloops
whichoperatebyexpandinggaspressureinsidetheloopelementstherebyactivatinganOVERHEAT,
aFIREoraFAULT(leakinglooptube)contact.Theengineareascoveredbytheloopsareinsidethe
nacellesaroundthefan,andthecorehotsectionso...atorch(seeimage)wouldgoundetected
asitoccursinsidetheengine.

OVERHEATdetectionisindicatedbyanOVHT/DET,2MASTERCAUTIONandrespectiveENG
OVERHEATindication.(170Caroundthefansectionand340Caroundthehotsection)
FIREdetectionwouldbeindicatedby2MASTERFIREWARNING,therespectiveFIRESWITCH,
anOVHT/DET,2MASTERCAUTIONandanaudioFIREBELLwarning.(300Caroundthefan
and450Caroundthehotsection)

Wheneitheroftheforegoingoccursthefireswitchunlockstoallowittobepulledup.

Afireoroverheatisdetectedwhenbothloopsexceedthementionedlimitsandwhenoneloopfails,
itll go unnoticed and the detection system automatically switches to a single loop operation. One
failingloopwillonlyilluminateaFAULTduringatest(alsonotonRECALL)andwhenbothloopsfail,
theFAULTlightilluminatesbutNOTtheMASTERCAUTION.

Thedetectiontestsonpreflightare:
TheOVHT/FIREtestwhichcheckstheoperationoftheengine&APUfiredetectioncontrol
modulelocatedintheE&Ebayandnottoforgettheindicationsontheflightdeck.
A FAULT/INOP test checks the FAULT detection circuits (loops and elements) and the flight
deckindicationsbysimulatingadualloopfailure.

NotethattheAPUfiredetectionalsooperatesduringtheFIREtestandisvisible/audibleintheright
mainwheelwellontheAPUGroundControlPanelduringpreflight.

13

Feel D
Differen
ntial
TheFEELLDIFFPRESSSindicationo
ontheflightcontrolpane
elcanillumin
nateinthefo
ollowingcase
es.

s
aactual feel forces
f
at the
t
control column fro
om the hydraulically
(The feeel system simulates
supporteedelevatorp
panels)

1. The fiirst one is reelated to a differential


d
o A & B hyd
of
draulic presssure to the eelevator feel system.
When either hydrau
ulic system pressure
p
dro
ops > 25% re
elated to thee higher preessure, the FEEL
F
DIFF
ol panel witth a 30 seco
ond delay. TThe 30 second delay
PRESS light illuminaates on the flight contro
preventssthelightfromflickerin
ngwhenprressuredrop
psineithersystembyah
highdemand
dsuchas
gearseleection.

2.Theseecondisrelaatedtothedynamicairp
pressuresupplytotheEleevatorFeelC
Computer.Ittreceives
dynamiccpressurefrromthetwopitottubesmountedoneithersideeofthevertticalstabilize
er.When
the com
mputer receiives an erraatic signal itd be the same as th
he pressure drop and the light
illuminattes.(failedp
probeheaterandicingco
onditions)

3. The third is relateed to the Stall Managem


ment and Yaaw Damper (SMYD),
(
and
d a so called Elevator
Feel Shiift module (EFS),
(
which
h creates a 4 times higher
h
forwaard control column force when
approachingthestalllregion.ThisforceusesareducedsyystemApresssureandwh
henthisredu
ucerfails,
openingprematurelyyprovidingaahigherthan
nnormalAsystempressuretothefeeelactuator,theFEEL
DIFFPREESSalsoillum
minatesafterr30seconds.

n the last syystem, its inhibited


i
<1
100 ft. RA and
a
AP selected, and w
when the EFFS is not
Note on
operatio
onal.

14

Fuel Scaveng
ge Jet Pu
ump
Defuelsscavengejetpumpscaveengesresiduaaltrappedfu
uelfromthecentertanktotank#1.

ppedand
Evenat 0Kgsindicaationthereissstillsome residualfuelinthecenttertank.Thisfuelistrap
cannot be
b sucked up by the scaavenge line of
o the cente
er tank boosst pumps because of its elevated
position.Tobeabletousethislaastbitoffueel,acenterttankscavenggesystemis provided.To
oactivate
the systeem, next co
onditions neeed to be meet; the LEFT FWD pump operating aand tank #1 quantity
lowerth
hanhalffull.(<1990Kgss)Whentheefloattypesshutoffvalveeopens,itaallowsLEFTFFWDfuel
pump flo
ow to create a negativee pressure in
n the (nonrrotating partts) eductor ttype scavenge pump
whichin
nturndrawssfuelfromthecentertaankrelieving itintank#1.Ofcourseethiswillcre
eateover
time(thepumpcapacityis100200Kgs/hr..(AMM))arrelativelysm
mallimbalanccebetween themain
tanks.Th
hebooksaysthatthesyystemcontin
nuestorunffortheremaainderoftheeflight(canttbeshut
off)but whenyoull removetheecontrolledccondition(LEEFTFWDfueelpump)alsothejetpum
mpstops
ng.Whentheecentertankisdepleted
d,thescavengepumpd
drawsairfromthecente
ertankto
operatin
tank#1w
whichobviouslydoesno
oharmtoenggine#1operration.

Note:thedissolvedairstoryofffuel.Whenonsuctionffeedwithah
highfueltem
mperaturean
ndarapid
decreasingpressure overthefuel,airbubbles(aeration)appearintthefuelpossiblycausinggengines
torunerrraticorevenflameoutw
whensucked
dupthoughthebypassvvalve.

Note: when both ceenter tank fu


uel pumps are
a inoperative, fuel will be trapped
d in the cen
nter tank.
Thereis nobypassvvalveprovisio
onforsuctio
onfeed,also
otheleftmaintankquan
ntityhastob
bebelow
halffull toevenstarrtthescaven
ngejetpump
p.Evenso,th
hescavenge rateisinsuffficienttobe
eusedfor
emptyingthecenterrtank.Underthesecond
ditionsyoullusemaintaankfuelbefo
orethecente
ertankis
atrequirredsafeleveelsandapossibleoverstrressofthew
wingrootsarises.

(>453,th
hemaintankkshavetobeefulland>72
26,CONFIG)

15

Fuel valves
Letslookatthemostimportantvalvesinthefuelsystem,theSparFuelValveandtheEngineFuel
Valveabitfurtherthanneededbutstillatanacceptablelevel.Itwillclarifywhatactuallyhappens
specificallywiththeEngineValve.ByallmeansjustremembertheeasywayastheFCOMexplains.

The#1mostimportantfuelvalveistheSparFuelValve.This28VDCvalveismountedinthefront
wall spar of the main fuel tank supplying fuel to the fuel feed line of the engine. The DC power
comesfromtheHotBatteryBusandthevalveevenhasanownrechargingBatteryPowerPacktobe
able to positively close the valve in case of an emergency such as a separated engine. The valve
openswhentheStartLeverisplacedintheIDLEpositionandclosesbyCUTOFFofthatStartLever,or
bypullingitsFireSwitch.WhenthevalveiscloseditshowsadimbluelightevenwiththeStartLever
inCUTOFFasIalwaysexplainthatanybluelightisanotstandardflightconditionlight,knowing
thatthebooksaysitsastatuslight.

TheEngineFuelValveisactuallytheHighPressureShutOffValve(HPSOV)andisintegralwiththe
Hydro Mechanical Unit (HMU) on the accessory gearbox. The valve opens and closes by the same
controlsastheSparFuel Valvebutitsactualopeningisabit morecomplicated.Itrelies ontheso
calledFuel MeteringValve(FMV)whichisundercontroloftheEEC.So,whenconditionsmeetthe
requirements to open the HPSOV, the EEC signals the FMV to open up the HPSOV by servo fuel
pressure.

On the other hand the closing of the HPSOV is achieved by the Start Lever or Fire Switch, the EEC
energizes the CLOSED SOLONOID of the HPSOV which uses 28VDC from the Battery Bus. During
enginestartthisFMViscontrolledbytheEECandwhenconditionsdictatetheHPSOV(EngineFuel
Valve) to close, the EEC commands the FMV and thereby the HPSOV to close in the following
conditions:
AHotStartoccurs(>725C)ontheground(exceedanceprotection)
Iftheenginedecaysafteridlespeedduringstartbelow50%N2speedandEGTexceedsthe
startlimit
TheEECsensesawetstartmeaningnoEGTrisewithin15secondsaftertheStartLeveris
atIdle(YOUarethestartlimitfortheEGTrisewhichis10seconds!!!)

AlloftheseconditionswillbeindicatedbyabrightENGVALVECLOSEDlight.

NotethatwithanupdatedEECsoftware(7.B.Qandlater)theEECalsoprovidesaprotectionwhen
approachingaHotStartmeaningarapidincreaseinEGT.
The115/200VAC,400Hz,90KVAIntegratedDriveGenerator.

16

AC Generator
I recently received a request from one of our followers to explain the operation of a brushless
generator.IvesendtheexplanationandthoughtonsharingthisgenericACpowergenerationinfoof
an aircraft AC brushless generator. Ive used the AC generator Im familiar with and adjusted the
imagetowardthatgenericexplanationandaddedthe737protectioncircuitsintheGCU.

TheACGeneratorisanassemblyofthreegenerators:

PermanentMagnetGenerator(PMG)

ExciterGenerator

MainGenerator

ThemostimportantRotorcomponentsoftheACGeneratorare:

PermanentMagnetGeneratorrotor

ExciterGeneratorRotor;whichincludesalsotheRotatingRectifiers(3)andresistors(3)

MainGeneratorRotor

ThemostimportantStatorcomponentsoftheACGeneratorare:

PMGStationaryArmature;output:39VAC,1,600Hz

ExciterGeneratorStationaryField;input:28VDCpulsating,1,200Hz

MainGeneratorStationaryField;output:115/200VAC,3,400Hz

Oncetheenginegearbox(N2)onwhichthegeneratorhasbeeninstalledhascomeonspeed,voltage
isexcitedinthePMG.Thiswillbea39VAC,600Hz,1,at100%revolutionsoftheIDG(12,000
RPM of the generator). This voltage is fed to the voltage regulator in the Generator Control Unit
(GCU)throughaDCPowerSupplywhereitisconvertedintoapulsatingdirectvoltageof28VDC,
1.200Hz.

TheoutputofthevoltageregulatorislinkedthroughtheclosedGeneratorControlRelay(GCR)tothe
StatoroftheExciterGeneratorwhichexcitesa3ACvoltageintheRotor.ThisACvoltageisthan
rectifiedbythreerotatingrectifiersandsubsequentlysuppliedtotheRotoroftheMainGenerator.

ThelaststepisthattheMainGeneratorrotorfieldexcitestherequired115/200VAC,400Hz,inthe
MainGeneratorStator.The115VACisthevoltagetakenfromonephaseandgroundandthe200
VACisthevoltagebetweentwophases(115x3)whichexplainsthera ngofwhatthegenerator
cangenerate(115/200VAC).

The above shows that there is no need an external voltage source to ensure the generator is in
operation,thatswhythesystemisalsoreferredtoasbeing"Selfsupported".

OK the easy way is that the Permanent Magnet Generator (PMG) rotates by the IDG on the same
shaft as the exciter, and Main rotors. The generated (39 VAC) is rectified to a pulsating DC in the
controlunitandsendtotheexciterstator.ThisDCpowercreatesanalternatecurrentintheexciter
rotorandisrectifiedbytherotatingrectifierswhereafteritfinallycreatesanalternatecurrentinthe
threemaingeneratorstator.Thisisthe115VAC/400Hzoutputofthegeneratorandismonitoredby
thecurrenttransformersthatrelaxesorintensifiestheDCpowertowardtheexcitergeneratortothe
requestedloadoftheelectricalsystem.

17

Theinth
heimageshownprotecttionsinthe CDUwilldeenergizetheGCRthereebydeenerggizingthe
exciter field,
f
which
h deenergizes the geneerator. This deenergizing GCR alsso occurs when
w
the
generato
orswitchissselectedOFFF.

18

Isolation vallve

Theisolaationvalveseeparatestheeleft,fromth
herightside
eofthebleed
dmanifold.Itispowered
dfrom
ACTranssferBus1bu
utalsocanbeemanuallyo
opened/close
edbyacontrollever,acccessibleinth
heleftair
conditionbay.Becau
useitsACpo
ower*itwillfailinthese
electedpositionwhenpo
owerisremo
oved.
Whenth
heIsolationsswitchisinth
heAUTOpossitionthevalveopeningreliesontheesocalledccorner
switchpositions.Th
heyaretheP
PackandBleeedswitches, whenalltheeseswitchessareNOTinttheOFF
positiontheisolation
nvalveisclo
osed.OntheotherhandiifanycornerrswitchisseelectedtoOFFFthe
Isolation
nvalveopenssintheAUTO
Oselection.
WhenaPackswitchisOFF,theIssolationvalvveopenstoccreateequalperformancceoftheengines.
oallowairfrromeithersiideofthemaanifold
WhenaBleedisseleectedOFFtheeIsolationvaalveopensto
tobeuseedfortheofffsideWTAI..
Notetheeisolationvaalvelogicisrrelatedtosw
witchposition
nsoatripped
dpackorbleeedwillnoto
openthe
Isolation
nValvewhen
ninAUTO.AffterflighttheIsolationvalveshouldb
beselectedO
OPENjustincase
youneed
dtobatterystartengineswhenthereisnoAPUo
orexternaleelectricalpow
weravailable
e.The
groundaairconnectio
onislocatedontherighttsideofthem
manifoldclo
osetoenginee#2.WhenN
N2>20%
thereisnopersonneelallowedinthevicinityo
oftheturnin
ngenginesowehavetosstartengine#1first.
Whenth
hiswouldbeabatterystaartyoullneeedtheisolationvalvetobeopen,sowhenyoure
emoved
ACpoweerwiththeissolationvalveswitchOPEEN,thevalve
eisstillintheeopenposittion.

*Ageneeralruleforeelectricalpow
weris;ACliies,DCdies.
Thisisanicethingto
oknowalsofforanalogin
nstruments,aanACpowerredinstrumeentstayswhe
ereit
lostpow
werandaDCpoweredinsstrumentwilldropoffto
ozero.

19

Manu
ual gearr extenssion.
LetshavvealookattthisNonNorrmalprocedu
ureanditsco
omponents.

hegearisUP
PandtheLGleverintheO
OFFposition
n,hydraulicssystemApreessureisremoved
Whenth
fromtheeuplinestottheactuatorswhichcaussesthethree
estrutstoh
hangintheirrrespectiveuplock.
ThisisallsotheprefeerredpositionoftheLGleeverduringaamanualexttensionattemptbecause
eofthe
depressu
urizedhydrauliclines.

hegear(allorany)doesn
notextendaafteradownselection,fo
ollowtheQR
RHprocedure
einan
Whenth
attempttolowertheegear.Manu
ualextension
nofthegearrisaccomplisshedbypulliingthethree
eT
AccessDoorjustbehindtheFOseatonthe
handles,,accessibletthroughtheManualGearExtensionA
cockpitffloor.

dforthisNo
onNormalprrocedurecou
uldbecaused
dby:
Theneed
DisruptedelectricalsignaaltotheLGsselectorvalvve
Ahydraulicpressureavailable
NosystemA
LGleverstucckintheUPorOFFposition

Whenop
peningtheM
ManualGearExtensionA
AccessDoor,adooropenmicroswiitchcomman
ndsthe
LGselecttorvalveeleectricallydow
wnregardlessoftheLGh
handleposition.ThisactionactivatestheLG
selectorbypassvalveewhichconn
nectsthehyd
drauliclinestoreturnsothemanualdownselecttiondoes
nothydrraulicallyrestricts(locks)theactuatorsdowncap
pability.

Thisalso
opreventsth
heLGtoretraactwhentheedoorisnotflushclosed
daftertakeo
offandselecctedUP.
ThisproccedureiscovveredintheQRHbytheLGdisagreeprocedurew
withtheLGh
handleUPan
ndallred
andgreeenindicatorlightsillumin
nated,tellinggyouthegeaarisdownan
ndlockedbu
utnotintheselected
position.

Whenyo
oudpullanyy(orall)Th
handleitsim
mplyreleasesstheuplockbycableactiionwhereaffterthe
respectivvegearfreefallsdown,ssupportedbygravity(we
eight)andairflowtotheextendposittion.
Whenth
hegearisfullydown,theedownlockbungeesprringswillhold
dthedownlo
ockstrutsinanover
centered
dlockedposition.Normaallythisisacccomplishedbyadownlockactuatorb
butwiththeabsence
ofsystem
mApressuree,thespringssenforceam
mechanicald
downlockwh
hichisindicattedby(6)do
ownand
lockedgreenlights.

Bythew
way,thereare6greenligghtsasaredu
undantindication.NeitheergearisvisibleontheN
NGand
thedoub
blegreenligh
htsforeachstrutwillgivveabackupfforthedown
nindication.

20

Mech
hanical p
pressurre relieff valves.
Therearrethreemecchanicaladjustedpressurrereliefvalvesonthe737.
Positivesafetypressurereliefisaaccomplisheedby2mech
hanicaladjusttedpressureereliefvalves,
oneachsideeoftheoutflowvalve.Th
heyaretotallyindependeentoftheprressurizationsystem
locatedo
andprevventtheinsid
de/outsidep
pressuretoeexceed+9.1P
PSIDintheeeventofapreessurization
system/o
outflowvalvvemalfunctio
on.(stuckclo
osedoutflow
wvalve)
Thefuseelageairfram
mestructureccannotwithsstandlargen
negativepresssuresandissprotectedfforthat
ataveryylowvalue.TThenegativeepressurereeliefvalveisllocatedatth
herightloweersideofthe
e
fuselageejustfwd.oftheoutflow
wvalve.Thissspringloadeddoorisalsonotdependingonthe
pressurizzationsystem
mandadjusttedatjusta1.0PSIDvaalue.Thiswillpreventtheeaircrafttoccollapse
whentheinside/outsidepressurrebecomesn
negativeforexampledurringa(very)fastdescentt.

21

Nitro
ogen Gen
neratin
ng System
m
Followin
ngtwoBoeing737CLexplosioninvesttigationsinA
Asia(andoth
hersincludinggtheB747TTWA800
midairexplosion),aprotectionw
wasdevelopeedbyBoeinggtominimizeeexplosivevvaporsinthecenter
tank.Thee737explossionswerecaausedbytrappedfuelhigghtemperatturesduetoradiantheattfrom
thePackksunderthetankwhichfformedhighlyexplosivevapors.Thefuelwasignitedbytheccenter
tankfuelpumpswhichwerestillrunningwithanemptycentertank.Earlydayscentertankfu
uel
pumpsd
didnothadaanautomaticcshutoffwitthLOWPRESSSUREastheenewermod
difiedonesth
hatshut
downaftter15seco
ondsofLOWPRESSURE.TThisisalsoth
hereasonthatsomeonehastobeon
nthe
flightdeckwhenaceentertankpumpisrunniingasbythe
eFCOM,thebookdoesn
notcoverexp
plicit
modificaationstoeachaircraft.

Thisprottectivedevicce(NGS)dividesNitrogen
nfromOxyge
enbyaseparationmodu
uleandleave
es
Nitrogen
nenrichedaiir(NEA)inth
hecentertan
nktoalevelw
whichwillno
otsupportco
ombustion.TThe
oxygenlevelisdecreeasedbytheNGSto12%
%whichissu
ufficienttop
preventignitiion.

TheNGSShasonlyanindicationaavailableinth
herightmain
nwheelwelllnexttotheAPUfirecon
ntrol
panel,so
oithasnovisibleclewfo
orcrewsofittsoperationduringflightt.

onsare:
Indicatio
OPERATIONA
O
AL(green)
DEGRADED((blue)
INOPERATIV
VE(amber)

Thenitro
ogengenerationsystemgetsbleedaairfromtheleftsideofth
hepneumaticmanifoldw
where
afteritscooled,driveenthroughttheseparatio
onmoduleanddirectedttoaflowvalveintotheccenter
tank.TheeNGSoperaatesautomatticallyonlyin
nflightandsshutsdowninthenextco
onditions:
Eitherengineeisshutdow
wninflight
partment
Fireorsmokkedetectioninanycomp
LeftPackoveerheat

22

Outfllow valv
ve.
Tostayinlinewiththepreviouspost,letusllookatthisp
pressurizationcomponen
ntofthe73.

Theoutfflowvalvereestricts/regullatestheflow
wofconditio
onedairoverrboard,thereebycreatingga
pressurizzedenvironm
mentintheaaircraft.Thevalveislocaatedattheafftlowersideeofthefuselageand
hasrakeededgesfornoisereducttionpurposees.

Thevalveismovedb
byacommon
nactuatorw
whichcanbeoperatedbyyeitherofthethreeoutflow
valveeleectromotorss.Twomotorrsareoperattedbytheprressuresysteemcontrolleersandoneissdirectly
operated
dbyaswitch
hwheninMaanualoperattion.

Automatticcontrolisaccomplisheedbymeanssof2CabinP
PressureCon
ntrollers(CPC
Cs)whichalter
controleeachflightorrwhenamaalfunctionoccursontheo
operatingco
ontroller.Ath
hirdwayof
controllingtheoutflo
owvalveisb
byamanualttoggleswitch
honthepressurizationp
panel.Thesw
witchis
springlo
oadedtoneu
utralandhasthreepositions,CLOSE
NeutralO
OPEN.

Theoutfflowvalveindicatorshow
wstheactuallpositionoftheoutflowvalveinallm
modesofope
eration
provided
dtheBatteryyBusispoweeredthrough
hthePRESSC
CONTINDC//B.

Electricaalpowertothethreeelectromotorsisprovidedb
by:

1electricalpowertotheeautoelectrromotor1isssuppliedbyythe28VDCBus1
A
AUTOmode
t
throughCPC
C1.(PRESSCONTAUTO1
1C/B)
AUTOmode
A
2electricalpowertotheeautoelectrromotor2isssuppliedbyythe28VDCBus2
t
throughCPC
C2.(PRESSCONTAUTO2
2C/B)
MANUALmo
odeelectricaalpowertothemanuale
electromotorissupplieddirectlybytthe28
V
VDCBattery
Bus.(PRESSCONTMANC/B)

Amodeselectorisusedtodeterrminetheop
perationofth
heoutflowvaalve,eitherA
AUTO,ALT(e
ernate)
orMAN((ual).

Theoutfflowvalvereeceivesaclossedsignalwh
henthecabinaltitudereaches14.500feetintheAUTO
modeoffoperationsoitisnotafffectedthrou
ughtheMAN
NUALmode.

deandapresssureloss,yo
oudhaveto
oclosetheou
utflow
Justfortthemindseetwhenataahighaltitud
valvetoincreasepreessureintheaircraftwhichresultsinloweringcabinaltitude.
Aircraftccontroloverrridedevices.

23

Flight Control Breakaway Devices


Therearetwodevicesthatallowyoutocontroltheaircraftincaseofamalfunctioningorjammed
controlsystem.

Oneconcernsrollcontrol.Whenoneoftheyokecables(oraileronPCU/spoilers)becomesjammed
ormovesfreely,theoppositecontrolisstillavailabletorolltheaircraft.Thetwoyokesare
interconnectedatthebaseofthecopilotscontrolcolumnbytheAileronTransferMechanism
throughtorsionspringfrictionandalostmotiondevice.IftheFOcontroljams,thespringforcecan
beovercomebytheCaptaintherebycontrollingtheaileronPCUthroughcables.IftheCaptain
controljams,theFOcancontrolrollbyuseoftheflightspoilers.Notethatthisonlyhappenswhen
theyokehasbeenturned12whichengagesasocalledlostmotiondevicewhichinturn
operatestheflightspoilers.

Thesecondisrelatedtopitchcontrol.Whenoneofthecontrolcolumnsbecomesjammed,thecrew
canoverride(breakout)thefailingcontrol.Thecontrolcolumnsareinterconnectedbelowthe
cockpitfloorbyatorquetubewithadevicethatenablesthecontrolstobeseparatedfromeach
other.TheElevatorBreakoutMechanismconnectsbothcontrolcolumnsbytwospringswhichwill
separatethecolumnswhen30Lbf/13Kgfisusedtoovercomethem.Whenapplied,thecontrol
columnsaremechanicallyseparatedfromeachother.Notethatdeflectionoftheelevatorsis
significantlyreducedandahigherforceisneededtomovetheelevators.(evenhigherthanwith
manualreversion)

24

Pack & pack


k contro
ol
TherearretwoPacksactivatedbyyanAUTO/H
HIGHselectio
onthatindiviiduallyhastw
woairflow
direction
ns,onethatggoesthrough
hathreestaagecoolingcycle(2airto
oairheatexcchangersand
dan
expansio
onturbine)aandonethatbypassesthecoolingmaachineandittscomponen
nts.Thetwoflow
direction
nsaremixedattheoutputoftheexp
pansionturbineoftheco
oolingmachine.Airthate
enters
thePackksthroughth
hePackFlow
wControland
dShutoffvalvveisat212
2Candisco
onditionedan
nd
cooledtoamixedminimumPackkoutputof18Cassetthelowesto
onthezonetemperature
econtrol
selectorss.(autozoneetemperaturrerangeis18C30C)W
WhenthesesselectorsareeallintheOFF
position,,theleftPacckputsoutafixed24CaandtherighttPack18C.

TherearretwocombinedZone/Packcontrolleersthatconttroltherequiredoutputtemperature
eofeach
Pack.ThesetwoPackControllersshaveanautoonside,,andastand
dbyoffsidecontrol,thelatter
takesovverifanauto
ocontrollerfaails.InthisccaseaPACKOFFlightillu
uminatesonrecalltogeth
herwith
aMasterCautionlight.Whenbo
othPackConttrollersfail,aaPackOFFliightilluminateswithaM
Master
Cautionlight,thepackswillstillo
operateuntilatemperattureexceedaanceoccur.

WhenaPackbecomesoverloadeedbythedemandofcoo
olair,aPACK
Ktripofflighttilluminatesswitha
MasterC
CautionlighttandthePacckFlowConttrolandShuttoffvalveclo
osesshuttinggdownthatP
Pack.
Whenth
hePackcoolssdownandtthelightextinguishes,thePackcanb
beresetbyth
heresetbutttonon
theBleedpanel.Top
preventthisconditionfro
omreoccurringselectahighertemp
peraturetounload
thatPackbydemand
dinglesscold
dairfromthecoolingmaachinebypasssingit.

APackautomaticallyyprovidesahighairflowwhentheottherPackissselectedtoO
OFFprovided
dthe
aircraftiisintheairw
withflapsup.Theothercconditionsre
equireengineeperforman
nceandinhib
bitsthe
automattichighflow..

Note:theimageisju
ustasimplifieedflowandpackcomponent,andco
ontrollerimaagetoillustraatethe
flowthro
oughthepacckandtheco
omponentsinbothcontrrollers.

25

Recirrculatio
on fans
Therecirrculationfan
nsarelocated
dunderthecabinflooro
ontheforwardcargocom
mpartmentssaft
bulkhead
d.Thepurpo
oseoftheseffansistoreuseairdraw
wnfromtheccabinanddisstribution
comparttmentbackintothemixmanifold.Do
oingsothere
eisnoneedfforairfromtthePacks,th
hereby
relievinggthePacksfrromproducingcondition
ned(cool)airrimprovingeengineperfo
ormance.The
eleft
recirculaationfancircculatesairbaackintothem
mixmanifold
dfromthediistributionco
ompartmentt
underneeaththecabinfloor(mixmanifold/fanarea),therightrecirculationfanfro
omthepasse
enger
comparttment.
Whenahigheramou
untoffreshaairisneeded
dfromthepaacks,therecirculationfansareautom
matically
shutdow
wnundersevveralconditionswiththeerecirculatio
onfansselecttedtoAUTO
O,andtheiso
olation
valvesellectedtoAUTOorOPEN:

Ontheggroundusinggenginebleeedair:
LeftRECIRCFANshutsdownwheenbothPackksareselecte
edtohighflo
ow

OntheggroundusinggAPUbleedaair:
LeftRECIRCFANshutsdownregaardlessofPaackselection

Inflightusingengineebleedair:
LeftRECIRCFANshutsdownwheeneitherPacckisselected
dtohighflow
w
BothREC
CIRCFANSsh
hutdownwh
henbothPaccksareselectedtohighfflow

InflightusingAPUbleedair:
BothREC
CIRCFANSsh
hutdownreggardlessofP
Packselection

Readingthefirstparrtitmakesseensethattheeleftfan(disstributionco
ompartment))shutsdown
nfirstas
thisareaaheatsupbyytheseveraloperatingcomponents.(mypersonaalpointofviiew)

26

Hydrraulic Re
eservoirs
The3hyydraulicfluidreservoirsaarelocatedin
nthefrontofthemainw
wheelwell.Theyarepresssurized
fromtheebleedmaniifoldtosupp
plypositivefluidtothepu
umps,preventingcavitattionandfoam
ming.
Thestan
ndbysystemreservoirisp
pressurizedtthroughtheBreservoir.Thesepressures(4550
0PSI)
canonlyybecheckedon2gagesm
mountedontheforward
dmainwheelwellbulkheead.Quantityyofthe
A&Breservoirsisdiisplayeddireectlythrough
hgagesonth
hereservoirb
byafloattyp
petransmitterwhich
alsosend
dsasignalto
otheDEUsffordisplayonthelowerDU.Thestan
ndbysystemreservoiron
nlyhasa
lowquan
ntityswitch,whichdisplaaystheSTAN
NDBYHYDLO
OWQUANTITTYlightonth
heflightconttrol
panelwh
hen<50%.

pipetopreseervefluidtotheEMDPw
whenaleako
occursattheEDP.
TheAreeservoirhasaa20%standp
TheEDPismorelikelytomalfunctionbecausseoftheengginegearboxxmountedheeavydesignand
highercaapacityitputsout.(4x)

TheBreservoirhasaacommonsttandpipeforbothsystem
mBpumpsso
owhenaleaakoccurs,fluidwill
draintheeentireBreservoiruntila0%indicattion.InthisccasetheBsyystemcannottbepressuriized
anymoreebuttherem
maining1.3U
USGcanbeu
usedforthePTUtooperatetheLElifftdevices.Asecond
standpip
peat72%preeservesfluid
dtothislevelforbothBssystempump
poperation,incasealeaakoccurs
whileusingthestand
dbyhydraulicsystem.
Minimum
mquantityfo
ortheA&Breservoirsiss76%whichtriggersawhiteRF(refill)indicationonthe
lowerDU
Uwhenonth
hegroundan
ndTEflapsaareup,orno enginesareoperating.

Besidestthat,wheneequippedwitthanupdateepinfunction
ntotheloweerDUonsysstems,therecanalso
beareddialindicationwhenAo
orBquantitieesdecreasetto0%,orinccreasesto10
06%.

Thepum
mpsheated(ccasedrain)ccoolingfluidreturntothe
ereservoirs,isroutedthroughoiltofuel
heatexcchangersmountedontheebottomofthemaintan
nks.Toachieeveenoughccoolingforonthe
groundo
operation,th
hereshouldb
beatleast760Kgoffuellinthetanksseach.

27

The A
APU Sta
arter/Ge
enerato
or.
TheAPU
Uisstartedth
hroughastarter/generattorandwhen
nonspeedtransferstoaanACgeneraator.
Thestarttsequenceo
oftheAPUsttarter/generratorisdeterrminedbyth
heGeneratorrControlUniit(GCU)
whichreeceivespoweerfromtheSSwitchedHottBatteryBuss.ThatistheereasonwhyytheBatteryySwitch
mustbeintheONpo
osition(switchedhotbattterybusene
ergized)too
operatetheA
APU.Whensswitched
OFF,theeSwitchedHotBatteryBusandECUb
becomedee
energizedwh
hichinturnsshutsdownttheAPU
immediaatelywithoutttheregularr1minuteco
oolingcycle.(tripsthegeeneratoroffllineandclosesthe
APUbleeedvalvetou
unload/coolttheAPUprio
orshutdown)
Strangelyenoughpo
owertothesstarterispro
ovidedbyeith
hertheBatteery(28VDC)),orTransferrBus1
(115VAC
C).Bothvoltagesarefirstchanged/boostedtoaw
whopping27
70VDCbyth
heStartPowerUnit
(SPU),w
whereafteraStartConverterUnit(SC
CU)createsthe270VACw
whichisneeededtodrive
ethe
starter/ggeneratorinthestartmo
ode.Thissign
nallastsuntiil70%RPMw
wheretheSP
PUbecomesde
energizeedandtheAP
PUbecomessselfsustainingandacce
eleratesfurth
hertoitsopeeratingRPM.
Whenth
heAPURPMreaches95
5%theECUccommandsth
heblueAPUGENOFFBU
USlighttoillu
uminate
asasign
nalthattheA
APUgenerato
orcanassum
metheelectrricalload.
TheACggeneratorco
onsistsoftheesamepartsastheregu
ularACgeneeratorasdesscribedinanearlier
postand
dcansupply90KVAbelo
ow32,000feetand66KV
VAat41,000becauseofA
APUloadcap
pabilities
withlow
wairdensities.

28

Land
ding Gea
ar Transsfer Valv
ve
TheLand
dingGearTraansferValveehastwowaysofoperation.
Thesimp
plestistotraansfertheno
osewheelsteeeringoperaationfromitssnormalhyd
draulicsystemA,to
thealterrnatehydrau
ulicsystemBonthegrou
und(only),byyaswitchon
ntheleftfront(Capt)pan
nel.
Theseco
ondwayofo
operation(inflight)isabitmorecomplexasithas3condition
nsthatneedsstobe
metbefo
oretheLGtrransfervalveemovesfrom
mitsnormalhydraulicsysstemAoperaationforgeaar
retractio
ontothealteernatehydraaulicsystemB.

N2below50%
%
1. Engine#1,N
2. LandingGearHandleinU
UP
A
OTintheUPaandlockedp
position
3. AnygearNO
ThePSEU
Uistriggered
dbythoseco
onditionsandmovesthe
eLGtransfervalvetosystemB.Note thatthe
PSEUlightisinhibiteedfromT/Otthrustuntil3
30secondsaafterlandingbutDOESgu
uardandope
eratethe
737ssysstems.Losingengine#1stopstheED
DP(hydrauliccsystemA)o
outputsotheeonlywayto
o
pressurizzetheAsysttemisbymeeansoftheElectricHydraaulicPumpw
whichputsou
ut4timesless
volumetthantheEDP
P.Thiswould
dresultin4ttimesslowerrmovementofitscompo
onentsinclud
dinga
gearretrractionwhichisanunwaantedsituatio
onjustaftertakeofforo
onagoaroun
ndwithN1
conditionswhenyou
uneedtocleeanthatconffigurationasfastaspossibletodecreeasethemasssive
dragbyaanyextendedgear.InthatcasetherretractionistransferredffromtheA,ttotheBsysttemsoa
normalffastretractio
onofthegeaarisachieved
d.
ThePow
werTransferUnit(PTU)issabackupto
otheLEliftd
devicesifthehydraulicsyystemBEDPfailsor
haslowoutput.Itsu
upportstheB
Bsystemelecctrichydraulicpumptoo
operatethelliftdevicesin
na
highersp
peedasitwo
ouldbe4tim
messlowerw
withjusttheEMDP.TheP
PTUcanalsooperatethe
elift
devicesw
whensystem
mBfluidislo
osttoa0%in
ndication,stillholding1
1.3USGresid
dualfluidintthe
reservoirtobeusedbythePTU.


29

PTU
ThePTUoperateswhenthenexttconditionsaremet:
1.
A
Airborneand
d,
2.
S
SystemBED
ow(<2350P
PSI)and,
Ppressurelo
3.
T
TEflapsless
than15buttnotUP.

IfthisocccursthePTU
Ucontrolvalveopens,allowingsystemApressuretooperateethePTUhyd
draulic
motor.TThemotordrrivesahydraaulicpumpth
hroughacom
mmonshaftandusesthee1.3USGfro
om
belowth
hestandpipeeonthebotttomoftheBreservoirtooperatetheeselectedlifttdevices.Ofcourse
thereareereturnlineesbacktotheeBreservoirrfromthePTTUhydromo
otorandused
ddeviceswh
hichare
notvisib
bleoncommonsimplified
d(FCOM)sch
hematics.

NotethaatthePTUdo
oesNOTtran
nsferfluidfro
omAtoB,andthatthesselecteddevvicescanbee
extended
ANDretrractedbyuseofthePTU
Ubutwillopeerateaccordingtheusedpumps.(EM
MDP+PTUorrPTU
only)

Teaser....howCAN
NyoutransfeerhydraulicffluidfromA
BorBA???

AB
1.
EMDP'sOFF.
2.
Releaseparkkingbrakes,depleteaccu
umulator(<1
1800PSI)
3.
EMDPA,ON
Nandapplyp
parkingbrakees.
4.
EMDPA,OFFanddepresssurizebyco
ontrolcolumnmovementt.
5.
EMDPB,ONandreleaseeparkingbrakes.(SendstthefluidbaccktosystemB)

AB
1.
EMDP'sON.
2.
EMDPB,OFFFanddepresssurizebyco
ontrolcolumnmovementt.
3.
EMDPA,ON
Nandapplyp
parkingbrakees.(UsesfluidfromsysteemA)
4.
EMDPB,ONandreleaseeparkingbrakes.(SendstthefluidbaccktosystemB)

BA
1.
EMDP'sOFF
2.
EitherFLTCO
ONTROLtoSSTBYRUD.
3.
No1thrustreverserOUTT(usesstand
dbyhydsys)
4.
FLTCONTRO
OLtoON.
5.
EMDPA,ON
N.
6.
S
StowNo1th
hrustreverseer(usingsysA)


30

Wing
g Therm
mal Anti Ice (WT
TAI)
WingantiiceisprovvidedfortheinnerthreeLEslatsonlyyandisprefeerablyusedaasaDEicer.ANTI
icewouldconstantlyyheatuptheeLEtherebymeltingtheicecrystalsimmediately,creatingwaater
runbackkoverthew
wingandposssiblyfreezin
nguponfligh
htcontrols.B
Besidesthatitwouldhavvea
negativeeeffectonen
ngineperformanceandffuelconsump
ption.
NotethaatuseaboveFL350maycauseadualbleedtripo
offbythereq
questoftheamountofaairalso
notethaat(ENG)antiiceisnotreequiredwhen
n<40CSATT.

notdeicedb
becausethen
narrowouterslatcannottholdthehaardwareneed
dedsuch
Theouteerslatsaren
as,ableedmanifold,,telescopicttubeandsprraytubes.Th
hewingisacttuallynotpro
oducingmucchliftin
meiceaccretiononthatp
partofthewingwouldno
othurt
thatareaaanywayandtheyrealizzedthatsom
toomuch.Eventuallyysomedragandincreaseinstallspe
eedoccurs,nottoforgetthatincaseyouuse
WTAIthestallwarningcomputerremainssetwithincreaasedspeedlo
ogic.

WherethereislittlecoolingairflowovertheLEonthegrround,theyaareprotectedagainst
overheating.Firsttheenginebleeedairisextrracooledthrroughtheprecoolerwhiichallowstappedoff
fanairto
oextracoolttheengineb
bleedairform
maximumLEEcoolingontheground.Secondtherreisan
overheatsensor(1
125C)which
hclosesboth
hWTAIvalve
eswhenexceeededandop
peningupaggainata
predeterrminedvaluee.

Duringthedesign/teestphaseitturnedoutth
haticedoesnotaccumulateontheeempennage,mainly
duetoittspositionin
nrelationtottheenginescausinghotairfromtheenginesstrikingtheemp
pennage.
Although
hsomeicecanbuildupiinthatarea,itdoesnthaaveanyadveerseconsequ
uences(thesstabilizer
regularlyychangestheAOAandeeventuallysh
heddingiceu
underthenew
wconditionss).

ThemilittaryversionoftheBoein
ng737,theP8Poseidon,doeshaveasocalledeleectromechaanical
expulsiondeicingsyystems(EMEEDS)installed
donthelead
dingedgesofftherakedw
wingtips,horizontal
andvertticalstabilizeers.Thesysteemisspeciallydesignedffortheaggreessiveslowaandlowlevellcold
weatherrmissionassignmentsofthisaircraftanddoesbaasicallythesaameasadeicingbootb
but
deformsstheLEselfb
byusinglowelectricalcu
urrent(28VDCand25Am
mps).


31

B737 Yaw damping


AirplaneswithcontinuedDutchRolltendenciesusuallyareequippedwithgyrostabilizedyaw
dampers.TheBoeing737hastwoyawdampers,aprimaryandastandbyyawdamperthatkeeps
theairplanestablearoundtheverticalaxiswhenselectedONandwiththerespectivehydraulic
systempressurizedthroughminimumSMYDgeneratedrudderinputs.

WhenengagedinNORMALOPERATION,theprimaryyawdamperprovidesinputtothemainRudder
PowerControlUnit(PCU)solenoidvalveandiscontrolledbytheStallManagementandYawDamper
Computer1(SMYD1).TheinputsolenoidvalveuseshydraulicsystemBtomovetheyawdamper
actuatorwhichadsinthemechanicalrudderinput.Theyawdamperitselfdoesnotfeedbackmotion
backtotherudderpedals.Theyawdamperinputtoruddermovementislimitedto2withflapsup,
and3withflapsdown.

Toengagetheprimaryyawdamperselect:
HydraulicsystemBON,
FLTCONTROLBswitchONand
YAWDAMPERswitchON
o Engagelightextinguishes

WhenengagedduringMANUALREVERSION,thestandbyyawdamperusesthestandbyRudderPCU
andiscontrolledbySMYD2whichoperateswithstandbyhydraulicsystempressure.

DuringmanualreversionthesocalledWheelToRudderInterconnectSystem(WTRIS)supports
standbyrudderoperationthroughSMYD2whichreceivesaninputsignalfromtheCaptainscontrol
wheelforcoordinatedturnsduringmanualreversion.

ToengageWTRISandstandbyyawdampingselect:
BothFLTCONTROLswitchesOFF
AtleastoneFLTCONTROLswitchtoSTBYRUD
YAWDAMPERswitchON
o Engagelightextinguishes

BothFLTCONTROLAandBswitchesmustbeOFFtoenableSMYD2,andoneorbothswitchesmust
thenbeintheSTBYRUDpositiontoprovidestandbyhydraulicpressure.WTRISonlyoperatesat<M
0.4andyawdamperinputtothestandbyrudderPCUmovementsarelimitedto2withflapsup,and
2.5withflapsdown.

BothyawdampersystemsareselectedbyacommonengageswitchontheFlightControlpanel.
WhenselectedONandtheYAWDAMPERlightextinguished,itonlytellsyoutherespectiveyaw
damperisengagedregardlessofoperatingbyhydraulicpressure.Duringpreflighttheswitchholds
andthelightextinguishesevenwithouthydraulicsystemBpressure.Theotherway,ifyoudlose
systemBpressure,theswitchstillholdswithnolightilluminatedbutprimaryyawdampingislost.
TheswitchonlykicksOFFwhentheFLTCONTROLBswitchisdeselectedfromtheONposition.To
regainyawdampingyouwouldhavetotransfertomanualreversiontooperatethestandbyyaw
damperwiththestandbyhydraulicsystemwhichyou(ofcourse)willnotdo.

32

Zone temperrature ccontrol


Temperaaturecontrolisachieved
dbymixingcoolPackairw
withhotPacckbypassair.Thenormaal
temperaaturerangesselectionisfrrom18C3
30Cthrough
hmixingcold
dairfromtheePackswithtrimair
foreachindividualco
ompartmentt.TheleftPaackprovides20%totheC
ControlCabinand80%to
othemix
manifold
dwheretherightPackprrovides100%
%tothemixmanifold.Th
heZone/Packcontrollersshold
thevario
ouscontroleelectronicsfo
ortheContC
CabinandPaassengerzones.TheConttCabinhastw
wo
controlleers,aprimarryandabackkupwhereth
hePassengerrCabinhaso
onlyonecontrollerforeaacharea
fromeitherZone/Packcontrollerr.(seeprevio
ousimage)IffbothContC
Cabincontro
ollersfailyou
udgeta
binZONEtem
mplightwith
haMasterCaution,ifonefailstheyilluminateon
nrecall.Ifa
ContCab
PassengeerCabinCon
ntrollerfailsttheZONEtemperatureliightandMassterCautionilluminatesonrecall
andthetwocabinreequirementw
willbeaveraged.AZONEEtemperaturrelightalsoiilluminatew
when
thereisaanexceedan
nceofductteemperature,,therespectivetrimvalvvewillclosew
whichcanbe
ereset
bythereesetbuttonw
whencooled
ddown.(seleectcolderon
nthatarea)

Intheno
ormalmodethePacksprroduceatem
mperatureacccordingtheselectionofthelowest
temperaature,therem
mainingzoneesusetrim(hot)airrequ
uiredfortheirselectedteemperature.

Unbalancedmode(C
ControlCabin
ntrimairmaalfunction)
TheleftPackproduccestheselecttedControlC
Cabintempe
eratureandttherightPacckputsoutth
he
lowestP
PassengerCabinselected
dtemperaturre,thePasse
engerzonetrrimvalvesstiilloperate.

Unbalancedaverageemode(anyPassengerCabintrimairrmalfunction
n)
TheleftPackproduccestheselecttedtemperaaturebutthe
etrimairvalvvestilloperaatesandtheright
Packputtsoutanaveerageofboth
hPassengerC
Cabinselecte
edtemperattures.

SinglePaackoperationandTrimO
ONresultsinnormaltem
mpcontrol,w
withTrimswittchOFFalltrrim
valvescloseandthePackaveraggesthethreeecompartme
entrequirem
ments.

TrimswiitchOFF,allttrimmodulaatingvalvesaarecloseand
dtheleftpacckproducesttheselectedControl
Cabintemperaturew
wheretherigghtpackproducesanave
erageofthePassengerC
Cabinselecte
ed
temperaatures.

outputfromtheleftand18Cfromth
herightPackk.
TempseelectorsOFFwillcreateafixed24Co

33

Lavattory firre prote


ection.
InotedaalsoB737cabincrewLikkestoourFFBpage,soIlltrytoaimacoupleofssubjectsinth
hat
direction
n,ofcourseaalsoneedto
oknowsforrflightcrewss.

LetsstartwithBoein
ngsapproacchoffirepro
otection,offcoursewerediscussinggfiredetection&
extinguisshingNOTprotection;)

Thelavatorysmoked
detectionsyystemneeds28VDCfrom
mDCBus#1tooperate.

Thelavatoryisequip
ppedwithassmokedetecctionsystemandafireexxtinguishingsystem.Inso
ome73s
youstillfindaSMO
OKEannunciatorlightattheP5forwardoverheadpanelbutmostlythere
eisno
indicatio
ononthefligghtdeck.

hthenextco
omponents:
Inthecaabinwefindsmokedetecctionindicationsthrough

1. SmokeDete
S
ctorUnit
Asthenamesays,itsasmokedeetectionand
dtheunitism
mountedagaainsttheceillingofthelavatory.It
hasagreeen(power)lightandarred(smoked
detected)ligh
ht,alsoanalarmhornwiillsoundwhe
en
smokeissevidentfor>8secondss.

2. LavatoryCallLight
LocatedabovethelaavatoryandiisaCall/ReseetLightthatflashesamb
berwhensmokeisdetectted.

3. MasterLavatoryCallLigh
ht
AteachEXITlocatorlightthereaarethreeindicatorlightswhereaflasshingamberMasterCallLight
indicatessthereissm
mokedetectedinthelavaatoryinthatrespectivearea(fwd.oraft).

A
ontrolPanels(fwd.&aft))
4. AttendantCo
Ontheseepanelstherrearemoreoptionsthan
njustsmokedetectionasyoucantesstthesystem
mhere
anddeteectFAULTS.W
Whensmokeeisdetected
daredlightfflashestogettherwithafllashinglocatterlight
thatiden
ntifiesthearreawherethesmokeisd
detectedand
danintermittenthornissoundthrou
ughthe
panel.Th
heswitchesandlightson
nthepanelaareselfexplaanatory,wheenaFAULTissdetectedduringa
testthefailingdetecctorisindicattedthroughthelocation
nindicator.

5. PassengerAddress(PA)ssystem
ThePAssoundsarepetitivehighcchimewhensmokeisde
etected.

34

Center tank boost pumps


Therearetwoboostpumpslocatedinthecentertankthatfeedfuelintotheenginesupplyfuel
manifoldatarateof10.000Kgsperhour.Thevalvesaremountedoneithersideofthecrossfeed
valvesowithaclosedcrossfeedvalvethepumpsprovidepressurizedfueltotheirrespectiveside,
theleftcenterboostpumpisthanneededtosupplypositivefuelfeedtotheAPU.Electricalpowerto
operatethepumpsareleft,ACtransferBus1andright,ACTransferBus2.

Thedesignissuchthatthereisnobackflowpossiblethroughthepumps,meaningacheckvalve
preventsfueltransferthroughtheenginefeedmanifold.Thesepumpsalsodonothaveabypass
valvewhichisneededforsuctionfeedaswiththemaintankfuelpumpsso,fuelinthecentertankis
trappedwhenbothcentertankpumpsareOFForproducingnopressure.(thefuelscavengejet
pump(100200Kgs/hr.)isnotconsideredatransferflow)

Thecentertankboostpumpsareofahigherpressurethenthemaintankpumpstherebycausingthe
centertanktoemptyfirsttopreventwingrootstresswhenthiswouldnotbethecase.TheFCOM
limitstatesthatthewingtankshavetobefullwhenthereismorethan453Kgsoffuelinthecenter
tank.Thesecondlimitisrelatedtothat,i.e.whenthereismorethan453Kgsinthecentertankthe
boostpumpsmustbeON.

IpostedtheC130videowherewingrootstresscausedthewingstoshearoff,thewingtankswere
notfullandtheaircraftuploadedwaterandchemicalsinahugetankinsidetheaircrafteverytimeto
fightforestfires.Aboutthesamehappenswhenthe453limitisnothonoredwithapossible
exceedanceoftheMZFW.

ThereareupdatedcentertankboostpumpsthatautomaticallyswitchOFFwhenLOWPRESSURE
(<22PSI)isdetectedfor>15seconds.Asthesenewertypepumpsmodificationsarenotcoveredby
theFCOMtheNOTEstillexiststobeontheflightdeckwhenacentertankpumpisoperating.

The2LOWPRESSlightsonthefuelpanelareextinguishedwhenthepumpsareOFFwherethemain
tankpumpsshowLOWPRESSwiththeirswitchOFF.IcallthatRecallLogicasthiswouldbea
normalconditionwhenthecentertankisemptyandthepumpsOFF,preventingtheMCSto
illuminateFUELattheCaptainsideAnnunciatorPanel(Recall)whenpushedwiththecentertank
emptyandtheswitchesselectedOFF.TheLOWPRESScircuitischeckedwhenthepumpsare
selectedONforashortmomentuntilthe22PSIisreached.

35

Antisskid
The73issequippedw
withasystem
mthatpreventwheelsfro
omskidding(deceleratin
ng),thereby
optimizingbrakingcapabilitiesonanyrunwaaysurfacecondition.

Anantiskidcondition
nreleasesbrrakepressureetotheaffectedwheel(ss)whichstop
pstheskidco
ondition
when:
Uncommand
ddeceleratio
on.(Antiskidprotection)
Wheel(s)sto
W
opsinstantan
neously.(Locckedwheelp
protection)
Landingwith
h(parking)brakesON.(TTouchdownp
protection)
Hydroplaning

Todetecctawheelun
ncommandeddeceleratio
on,anelectrricalsocalled
dtransducerrismounted
d
underneeaththehubccapofeachw
wheelandissmonitoredbytheAntiskid/AutobrakeControlU
Unit
(AACU).Thissignalisscomparedttoinformatio
onfromboth
hAir Data Inertial Refere
ence Units (ADIRUs)
A
andisalsousedforaautobrakesyystemwheelspeedfunctions.

TheAAC
CUcontrolstheantiskidsystemandmonitorsforrmalfunction
nswhichareeindicatedonthe
flightdeckbyanAnttiskidInoperaativeLight.A
Anadditionalsignaltoth
heAACUcom
mesfromtheparking
ns(releases)hydraulicflu
uidthroughthe
brakesyystembecaussethenormaalantiskidsyystemreturn
parkingbrakevalve.Whentheparkingbrakeevalvehasadisagreewitththelever(switch)theantiskid
inoperattivelightalso
oilluminatess.

Antiskidisprovidedduringoperaatingnormall(systemB),alternate(syystemA),an
ndoperationofthe
brakesw
withresidualaccumulatorpressure.W
Wheninnorm
maloperatio
on,antiskidissprovidedth
hrough4
antiskidvalvesforeaachwheelseeparatelyand
dduringalte
ernateoremergency(acccumulator)o
operation
through2antiskidvaalveswhereb
bythewheelsareprotecctedinpairs.

Toallow
wretractbrakkestooperatte(Alternateebrakepresssure,systemA)theantisskidsystemissde
energizeedwhenthegearretracts.

Beawarethatthean
ntiskidsystem
mreleasesb
brakepressurre,alsodurin
ngemergenccy(accumulaator)
operatio
onwhichwou
uldreduceeemergencybrrakeapplicattionswhenssteppingontthebrakesto
oohard.

36

Leading Edge Flaps


Highliftdevicesoneachwingare2LEKruegerTypeFlapPanelsand4LESlats.TheLEflapshave1
extendposition,FullExtendwheretheLESlatshave2positions,ExtendandFullExtend,indicatedon
theaftoverheadpanel.Onthecenterinstrumentpaneljustbelowthe(TE)FlapsIndicatorthereis
alsoanamberLEFLAPSTRANSIT,andagreenLEFLAPEXTENDlight.

InNORMALoperation,theLEFlapsmovebysystemBpressuretoextendwhentheTEFlapstravel
awayfromtheUPposition.TheymoveinsequenceaftertheTEFlapstraveltotheirselectedposition
ascommandedmechanicallybyafollowupcablesystemoftheTEFlapssystem.Theextendtime
fromUPtoEXTENDtakes7secondsandfromEXTENDtoUP7.5seconds.WhentheBsystem
pressureislow,asocalledpriorityvalvegivesoperationprioritytotheLEFlapsovertheTEFlaps.It
reducestheflowratetotheTEFlaps,sotheLEFlapsmoverelativelyfastertotheirextendposition.

WhentheBsystemEDPpressureislow,thePTUsupportsLEFlapextend&retractmovement.Refer
forPTUoperationelsewhereonthisB737TheoryFBpage.

InALTERNATEoperation,theLEFlapsusesstandbyhydraulicpressureandcanonlyextendtheLE
Flaps.(Redguardedswitchindicatesanirreversibleaction)Inthiscasethecommandiselectrically
throughtheAlternateFlapswitchesontheFlightControlPanelandtheextendtimefromUPto
EXTENDis32seconds.

Duringcruise,pressureisremovedfromtheLEFlaphydraulicsystemwhichcreatesahydrauliclock
oftheLEFlaps.ThispreventsLEFlapextensionathighspeeds/altitudeswhichisaccomplishedby
commandoftheFlapsandSlatsElectronicUnit(FSEU).
Thisconditionexistswhenthenextconditionismetfor>5seconds:
Airborn,
FlapLeverUP,
LEFlaps(andSlats)UP

TheLEuncommandedmotion(UCM)detectionfunctionstopstheLEnormaloperationiftwoor
moreLEflaps(orslats)moveawayfromtheircommandedposition.

DifferentthantheLESlats,theLEFlapsdonothaveaninternalactuatorlockingdevicesowhen
residualsystemBpressurehasleakedawayduringextendedparking,thepanelscandroopoffby
theirweightandgravityforces.ThiswilldeactivatetheStallWarningTestcapability.
Rudder(verticalstabilizer)loadreduction
Asonmostlargeaircrafttheverticalstabilizerisoneofthemostfragilestructuralparts.Itcannot
withstandlargeloadscausedbyfullrudderdeflectionathigherspeedsandthereforeisprotected
againstthosehighforces.The737ruddermainPCUreceivesinputfromthepedalsthroughinput
leversandafeelandcenteringunitwhichmovestherudderpanelbyhydraulicsystemA&B
pressure.Pressureswillbeatnormalvalues(3000PSI)whenflying<137Kts,above137Ktsaload
limiterreducessystemApressureto1450PSIresultingina25%reductionofthetotalloadonthe
rudder.Theresultofthisreductionprotectstheverticalstabilizeragainsthighforcesatahigher
speed,leavingfullpressureanddeflectionavailablewhenneeded,attakeoffsandlandingsfor
directionalcontrol.

Anexampleoftheverticalstabilizerweakpointisanattemptin2001torecoveranA300after
beingstruckbywaketurbulenceandaggressivemaximumrudderinputswhichshearedofthe
verticalstabilizer.AlsonotethattheverticalstabilizerwastheonlyintactpartoftheAirFrance447
incidentovertheAtlantic.
37


InthepaastofmyfieeldofexperienceIsawaverticalstaabilizerofaP
P3Oriontotaallybeingsheared
offlikeittwasremovedwithachainsawwheenitstruckawashrackw
whentheairccrafthasbee
en
swapped
daroundbyatwisteratNASJackson
nvilleandwh
henaP3hitsapowercab
bleatPagoPago
Hawaii.

Beawareofthestructuraldesign
nofyourairccraft!!

38

Thrust Reverser
Eachengineisequippedwithathrustreversersystemthatreducesstoppingdistanceandbrakedisc
wear.TheT/Rsreversethefanairflowforwardthroughblockerdoors,cascadesandtranslating
sleeves

TheleftT/RuseshydraulicsystemAandtheright,systemBwheretheybothareabletoreceive
standbyhydraulicpressurewhentheirrespectivehydraulicsystemisunserviceable.NotethatT/R
usewithstandbypressureisofalesserrateso,losingonemainhydraulicsystemwilloperatethat
sideslowerthanwithmainsystempressurecreatingapossibleswerveduringreverseraction.

TheT/RsarecontrolledbytheT/Rleversonthethrustleversandoperatewhen<10ft.RAoronthe
ground.TheT/RoperateswhenthethrustleverisattheIdlepositionandtheT/Rhandleisliftedto
theinterlockpositionwhentheisolationvalvepositionstodeploythetranslatingsleeves.The
EECsdeterminethroughaLinearvariabledifferentialtransformer(LVDT)a60%openingofthetwo
sleevesoneachT/R,whereafterthemechanicalinterlockreleasesandtheleverscanbelifted
furthertotheDetent1,2orMAXposition.

Whenthesleevesmove,theCDSshowsthenextmessageontheUpperDU.
AmberREVwhendeployingorstowing
GreenREVwhenfullydeployed

WhenstowingtheT/Rs,thestowcommandisinitiatedbypassingthe1Detentpositionwhich
commandstheT/Rsleevestostow.WhentheT/Rleverisfulldownandthesleevesatthe0%
(closed)position,theisolationvalveclosesandthelocksengage.

DuringnormaloperationtheamberREVERSERlightontheenginecontrolpanelilluminatesfor10
secondswithoutaMASTERCAUTIONduringaT/Rstowoperationandextinguisheswhenthelocks
areengaged.ThelightwillstayilluminatediftheT/Rdoesnotstowin10seconds,indicatinga
malfunction.

Whenthelightilluminatesformorethan12secondsamalfunctionisdetectedandtheENG
annunciatorandMASTERCAUTIONlightilluminates.

WhenthedownmotionoftheT/Rleversisdelayedformorethan18seconds,theENGannunciator
andMASTERCAUTIONlightilluminateandthelockswillengage,preventingfurthermovementofthe
sleeves.Toclearthissituationyoucancycletheleverstotheinterlockpositionandbackdown.

WhenaseriousmalfunctionordisagreeexistsbetweentheLVDTs,theENGINECONTROLlight
illuminatesontheenginecontrolpaneltogetherwithaMASTERCAUTION.Whenilluminated,it
couldmeanaseriousengine(EEC)malfunctionoranLVDTmalfunction/disagree,whenilluminated
donotdispatchtheaircraft.

39

Each T/R
R translating sleeve has two deactiva
ation points, installing
i
two
o pins at thesse points pre
events
T/R deplloyment. Follow the thru
ust reverser deactivation
d
for
f flight disp
patch proced
dure from the
e current
(AMM) manual
m
to operate the aircraft with deactivated T/R
Rs.

Anautorestowcircuitcomparesactualreveersersleevep
positiontothecommand
dedposition.When
itdeterm
minesaninco
ompletestow
wageorunco
ommandmo
ovementoftthesleevestothedeployyed
position,,thecircuitccommandstostowtheTT/R.Whenacctivated,theisolationvalveremainsopen
andthecontrolvalveeisheldinth
hestowedpositionuntilthethrustreeverserisco
ommandedto
odeploy.

40

Tail S
Skid
Toproteecttheaftlow
werfuselageefromoverrrotationdam
magethe737
7NGisequipp
pedwithaTTailSkid.
Itconsisttsofasorto
ofshockabso
orbercartrid
dge,askidfairingandaskidshoe,w
wherethelasttwo
partsareeoutsidetheefuselagewh
hereallotheerpartsareinside.

Alightto
ouchtotherrunwaycausestheshoetowearoff,indicatedbyy4dimpleso
ontheshoe
indicatin
ngtheamoun
ntofwearan
ndisanindiccationwhentheshoeneeedstobereplaced.

heshoehitsaanobjectoranunevenp
partoftheru
unwayduringgtheskid,th
helowerpartofthe
Whenth
shoesheearsoffason
ntheleftimaagetoindicaateataildraggbutdoesnotdamagetheskidfairin
ng.

Afirmto
ouchcrushessthecartridggepushingth
heskidfairin
nginsidetheaftfuselage.Thehigherthe
forcetheefurthertheeskiddisappearsindicateedbycolored
ddecals.Ifth
hegreendeccalisstillvisiiblethe
skidissttillserviceab
blebutifthegreendecaaldisappearsinsidetheffuselage,theereddecalin
ndicates
thattheskidmustbeereplaced.

Whenth
hekisstoth
herunwayissmorethanfirm,theskiddisappearsstotallyinsid
detheaftfusselage
andasafetypin(fusepin)allowssthecartridggetopivotin
nside(othertthancrushin
ng)thereby
ngtheaircraaftstructureagainstmassiveloads.
protectin

Thereisalsoanoptio
onforaretraactabletailsskidthatexte
endsontakeeoffsandlan
ndingswhich
hisunder
controlo
oftheSuppleementalProxximitySensin
ngElectroniccUnit(SPSEU
U)andoperaateswithhyd
draulic
systemA
Apressure.

TheSPSEEUcommand
dsthetailskkidtoextendif:
Intheairforr2minutesaand,
LandinggearrleverisDNand,
Eitherengineeisrunning

TheSPSEEUcommand
dsthetailskkidtoretractif:
Onthegroun
O
nd5secondssor,
LandinggearrleverisnottDNor,
Noengineso
operating

41

Vorte
ex generrators.
The737isequippedwithseveralboundarylaayercontroldevicesor,vvortexgenerrators(VGs).
Theyareemountedonthenextlo
ocations:
thewings
t
thetailcone
t
e
ginenacelle
theinneren
t
thenose
t
theAPUinle
t
etdoor

Thevorttexcreatedb
bytheVGafffectsthebou
undarylayerontherespeectivesurfaccebehindthe
edevice
bypullingairfromoutside,intotheboundarylayer.Itcreatesanairswirlthatdrawsairfro
om
aboveth
heboundarylayerintoth
hislayerintensifyingitan
ndmakingitmorecompaact.VGsare
e
mounted
dtoslow,co
ontrolorevenpreventbo
oundarylaye
erseparation
n.

VGsareeusedonthee737wingsttoimproveh
highMachpitchcharacteeristicsbeyon
ndinitialbufffetand
tolowerrstallspeedssinthelandingconfiguraation.The(backswept)w
wingdesignccreatesarelaative
weakbo
oundarylayerwheretheoutboardwiingsaremorresensitivetoinitialflow
wseparation.The
purposeofthewingVGsistostrengthentheeboundaryllayer(especiiallywithhigghAOAs)and
ddirect
theairflo
owonthesu
urfacecontro
ols.

Onthetailcone,VGsaremounttedtoseparaatetheflowfieldfromth
hehorizontaltailtherebyy
reducinggdrag,impro
ovingperform
manceandreducingelevvatorvibratio
ons.

AVortexxControlDevvice(ornaceellechine)isinstalledontheinboardsideofthen
nacelles.The
eengines
aremountedrelativeelyclosetotthewingwhiichresultsin
nairdisturbanceathighaanglesofattack.To
controlttheairflowaathighAOAsandslowspeed,aBoeiinginventedVCDismountedontheinner
sideoftheenginenaacelle.Thecrreatednacellevortexisd
delayedwith
hhighAOAstosupporttthe
airflowo
overthewingg,increasinggliftinthoseeconditions.

TherearreanumberofVGsmou
untedonthenoseoftheaircraftjustbeforethew
windows.The
generalpurposeisto
oreduceairfflownoisebyy34Dbss.onthefligh
htdeck,direcctingtheairfflow
omsharpedggesandcorn
nersofthew
windows.
awayfro

OntheA
APUinletdoo
or,thereisaVGinstalled
dtoimprove
ehighaltitudestartingofftheAPU.W
Whenthe
inletdoo
orisopenedduringflightt,theVGimp
provesinletramrecoveryandthereb
bythepressu
ure
differencceacrosstheeAPUeventtoassist(electrical)starting.

42

Wind
dow hea
ating
Window
wheatisprovvidedtoimproveimpactresistance(b
birdhit),icebuildupanddefoggingaand
shouldb
beselectedO
ONatleast10
0minutesbeeforetakeofff.Eachfrontalwindow((L&RSIDE&
&FWD)
haveanownWindow
wHeatControlUnit(WH
HCU)whichrreceivepoweerfromtheirrrespective1
115VAC
TransferrBus.

Thisheatingisaccom
mplishedbyllaminatedglassandvinyylwindowlayyerswithinb
betweena
conductivelayerthatallowselecctricalcurren
nttoflowthrroughitwheenheatingisselected.Th
his
graduallincreasingcurrentflow
wcreatesheaatbyresistanceinthelayertowardsatarget
temperaatureof43C.TheWHCUadjustsheeatingcurren
ntinitsoperaatingrangettopreventathermal
shockan
ndreducesth
hecurrentflowathigherrrangestop
preventanovvertemperatture.Window
wheat
becomessactivewhenselectedto
oONandtheewindowtemperatureiss<37C,indicatedbyaggreenON
light(orextinguished
dOFFlight)m
meaningtheereiscurrenttflowthrougghthecondu
uctivelayer.W
When
dowreachesthetargetteemperaturetheWHCUinterruptseleectricalpoweerandextingguishes
thewind
theONlight(orillum
minatestheO
OFFlight)wh
hichcouldalrreadybetheecasewhenparkedintothesun
onahottday.

Tomakeesurethesysstemoperateswhenneeeded,thereisaPOWERTTESTswitchtthatbypasse
esthe
thermisttorandsendselectricalccurrentthrou
ughthewind
dows.Beawaarethisactio
onwillbypasssthe
controlu
unittemperaatureregulattionsowhen
nactivatedto
oolongitcouldcausean
novertempccondition
inthatw
window.

Anotherrtestfunctio
onistheOVH
HTTESTswitchthatsimu
ulatesanoveerheatcondittionwiththe
ewindow
heatswiitchesinON,,indicatedbyyamberOVH
HTlightsonthecontrolp
panelandexxtinguishedO
ONlights
(orillum
minatedOFFlights).Thesimulatedoverheatmustberesetbyselectingtheewindowhe
eat
switchesstoOFFthan
nbacktoON
N.

Whenawindowovertempsatvalueshigheerthan62C,theWHCUinterruptspowertotheaffected
windshieeldandillum
minatesanOV
VERHEATind
dicationtoge
etherwithan
nextinguisheedONlight(or
IlluminattedOFFlightt).Thisconditioncanberesetbysele
ectingtheaffectedwindo
owtoOFFan
ndback
toONwhenallowed
dsufficientco
oolingfirst(2
25minutesaccordingttheQRH).

Whenw
windowheatisinoperativvepreventsp
peedsabove250Ktsataltitudesbelo
ow10.000ft.to
minimizeetheeffectw
whenabirdstrikeoccurssonthewindow.

43

Wing
g& Body
y Overhe
eat
OntheP
P5overheadbleedpanel,,thereare3cautionligh
htsmountedthatwarnsyyouforanovverheat
conditioninthebleeedsystem.Tw
woofthemaareINSIDEth
hemanifoldandconsideredsafeassthey
naftertheoverheatcond
ditioniscorrrected,theB
BLEEDTRIPO
OFFandPACK
Klight.
haveareesetfunction
Thethird
dlightistheWINGBODYYOVERHEATTlightthatin
ndicatesano
overtemperaatureOUTSID
DEthe
manifold
dandisconssiderednotsafe.Thisin
ndicationdeterminesanoverheatintheareawh
herethe
ductislo
ocatedindicaatingaductleakorworsse,aductrup
pture.

dicationare:
Theareaascoveredbyytheleftind
Leftenginesstrut(154C))
Leftinnerleaadingedge(154C)
Leftaircond
ditioncompartment(124
4C)
Keelbeamarea(124C)
APUbleedd
uctarea(124C)
A

Therighttindicationccoverstheenginestrut,leadingedge
eandaircon
nditionontherightside.

ondition(leaak)exists,use
ethecurrentQRHtodetterminethelocation
Whenawing&bodyyoverheatco
andisolaatetheleakb
byselectingacombinatio
onofpneum
maticsystemrelatedswittchestoOFF.When
locatedaandisolated,thetemperraturedropsandextingu
uishestheind
dicationknow
wingthatthe
overheathasdisappearedbutno
otthecauseoftheindicaation.

Whenth
hecorrectQR
RHprocedurrewasfollow
wedtheoverheadconditiionshouldclearastheso
ource
hasbeen
nremovedso
omewhered
duringtheprrocedure.Ifn
not...theQ
QRHdoesntsuggestsste
eps
beyondttheproceduresousecommonsenseetoflyoutofthisconditiion.

P5bleedpan
neltotestth
hecontinuityyofthesensing
ThesystemhasatesstswitchlocaatedontheP
loops.Th
heteststartsswhentheb
buttonispusshed>5seco
ondsandindicatesthesaameasinan
overheatconditionb
bythenextaamberindications:
W
YOVERHEAT
WINGBODY
AIRCONDan
A
nnunciator
MASTERCAU
UTION

44

Horizzontal S
Stabilize
er Trim
m.
Oneoftheimportan
ntfeaturesreelatedtopitcchandloadb
balancingistthemovableehorizontalsstabilizer
trimcon
ntrol(stabtrim).Acontro
oljackscrewmovesthele
eadingedgeofthehorizo
ontalstabilizzerasa
trimino
ordertoachieevethisgoallandcanbeoperated:
Manuallybyytwotrimwh
heelswhicho
operatethestabilizersgeearboxandjjackscrewthrough
c
cablesandc
abledrums.
ElectricallyeeitherthrougghyoketrimswitchesorAutoPilotco
ommandtotthestabilizer
e
electricaltrim
mactuator.
o ACp
powerACTTransferBus2
o DCccontrolDCBus2

Electricaalmovementtofthetrimactuatorbyeithertheyo
okeswitcho
ortheAutoP
Pilotwillbacckdrive
thetrimwheelsonthecontrolsttand.Whenthehandleo
onthewheellsareextend
dedduringelectrical
operatio
on,thiscanin
njuretheopeeratorsleg/kknee.

2.9.Indicatio
oninUnitsis
ExtremeeUPoftheleeadingedgeisrestrictedat4.2,andDOWNat12
mechaniicallyprovideedontheco
ontrolstandtthroughafle
exiblecabletthatisdriven
noffthetrim
mcontrol
mechaniismunderneeaththefligh
htdeckfloor..Asreferencce,the0neu
utralposition
nequals4un
nitson
thetrimpositionscaale.

StabilizeerTrimCutou
utswitchesaarelocatedo
onthecontro
olstandinorrdertointerrrupteitherccontrol
columnsswitch,orA
APelectricalpowertowaardthetrimm
motorwhenanuncomm
mandedmove
ementor
runawaaytrimoccu
urs.

AStabilizerTrimOveerrideswitch
hislocatedo
ontheaftele
ectronicpaneelincaseacountermove
ementof
thetrimisrequiredo
oppositeoftthecontrolccolumnmove
ement.WhennotinOVEERRIDE,ame
echanical
controlccolumnactuaatedstabilizeertrimcutou
utswitchwilllinterruptelectricpoweertothetrim
mmotor
whenatttemptingtotrimoppositteofcontrolcolumnorA
APcommand
dedforce.(co
olumnnoseDOWN
vs.trimUPorvv)

Theoverrrideswitchcanalsobeu
usedtobyp
passtheconttrolcolumnaactuatedstab
bilizertrimccutout
switchessintheeventboth(yokeeswitchorAP)failintheopenpositio
on,tobeabletooperate
ethe
stabtrim
m.

Electricaalmovementtbytheyokeeswitchescaanvarybetw
weenhighspeeed(0.4unitt/sec)whenttheflaps
areNOTTUPandlowspeed(0.2u
unit/sec)whentheflapsarefullyUP..WhenthetrimisunderAP
controlh
highspeediss0.27unit/seecwhilelow
wspeedwiththeflapsUP
Pis0.09unit//sec.

45

Displlay Elecctronic U
Units.
TherearretwoDEUssintheComm
monDisplaySystem(CDSS)whicharelocatedinth
heE&Ebayythat
received
datafromtheB737sairccraftsystemsandavioniccs.Thisdataisconverted
dintoavideo
osignal
thatisseendtothesixDisplayUnits(DUs)on
ntheflightde
eck.BothDEEUsprovidedatatoward
dallsix
DUsbuttaredifferen
ntlypowered
d.DEU1ispoweredthro
oughthe28V
VDCStandbyyBusandDEEU2
throughthe28VDCBus2.Theybothhaveaholduppo
owerfromtheHotBatteeryBuswhichisused
tosupplyypowertotheDEUsduringpowerssurgesofmaaximum2seccondsorelseetheDEUpo
owers
down.BothDEUsccrosstalktocomparecriiticaldataan
ndwhentherreisadiffereence,thiscould
createanamberCDSSFAULTindicationasdesscribedbelow.

Thesamesplitism
madeforpow
weringtheco
omponentstthatdistinguishDUoperaationwhenp
powering
uptheaircraft.ImeaanwhentheBatterySwitchisselecte
edON,DEU1ispowered
dthroughtheDC
StandbyBusbutalso
obothCaptains,andUp
pperDUs,asswellastheCaptainsEFIIScontrolpanel.
Notethaatittakes9
90secondstogetdisplayybecausetheDEUhasto
obecomeop
perational.W
Whenthe
DCBus2
2becomespoweredthesameappliesfortheFirsstOfficerssid
de.

An(undiispatchable)amberCDSFAULTdisplaaysonbothP
PFDswhentthereisaDEEUoperation
nalfailure
onthegroundando
oneengineoperating.Wh
henbothengginesareopeeratingorwhenintheaiirthe
ULTmessageisreplacedb
byaDISPLAYYSOURCEme
essage.TheDISPLAYSOU
URCEalsosh
hows
CDSFAU
whenon
neDEUisselected(ALLO
ON1or2)toprovideallssixDUswithdata.

Note:Sw
witchingtoofastbetweenSOURCEseelectionscan
ncreateapo
ossibleincorrrectdatadisp
play,use
a12secondintervvalwhenswitchingbetweentheSOU
URCES.

A(dispattchable)whiteCDSMAIN
NTindication
ntellsusthattthereisap
partialdatain
nputmalfunctionon
aDEUw
whenontheggroundando
oneenginesisnotoperating.

46

Proximity Switch Electronic Unit


ThePSEUislocatedontherightsideintheE&Ebayandreceivesinputfromthesixstrut
compressionsensors(2oneachstrut).Theseground/airsignalsareusedbythePSEUforseveral
aircraftsystemsand/orindicationssuchas:

Landinggeartransfervalve
Landinggearpositionindicatingandwarning
Speedbrakedeployedindication
Takeoffwarning
Doorwarning
Air/groundrelays
Seeimage...

ThePSEUalsoservesasaFAULTdetectionregardingseveralaircraftsystemswhenontheground
andthethrustlevers<53,orafterlandingwhenonthegroundfor>30secondsandthethrustlevers
<53.

Generallyspeaking,thePSEUlightisinhibitedinflightbutitdoesmonitorsystemsandrecordsany
FAULTtobeannunciated30secondsafterlanding.

WhenasystemstatusFAULTisdetectedoranoverwingexitflightlockfailsbeforetakeoff,thePSEU
lightilluminatestogetherwiththeOVERHEADannunciatorandaMASTERCAUTIONlight.

AnundispatchableFAULTisevidentwhenthePSEUlightilluminatesafterlandingwhenonthe
ground>30secondsandthethrustlevers<53,inthiscasethelightcanonlyberesetbyaBITEcheck
ofthePSEUorwhentheFAULTiscorrectedbymaintenance.

AdispatchableFAULTexistswhenthePSEUlightilluminatesafterlandingwhenonthegroundfor
longerthan30secondsandthethrustlevers<53andthelightextinguisheswhentheparkingbrake
issetortheenginesareshutdown.AdispatchfaultwillnotcausearecalloftheMasterCaution
annunciatorlightbutjustilluminatesthePSEUindication.

Adispatchable(simple)FAULToccursifthePSEUlightilluminateswhenpressingRECALLandresets
bypressingMASTERCAUTION.

TheSPSEUlightorSupplementalProximitySensorElectronicUnitisprovidedthatusestheLanding
GearDOWNsignaltoextendthetwopositiontailskidand/ortodetermineafailureoftheflight
locksontheadditional2midexits.(900s)

Notethatsomeindicationsareonlyvalidforcertainmodels/serials.

47

Nose wheel ssteering


g lockou
ut
YesterdaayIansweredaquestion
ntooneofou
urfollowersandwantto
osharethis(o
obvious)info
o.

owingorpushingtheairccraftwithattugandtowbar,systemA
Apressureh
hastoberem
moved
Whento
fromtheenosewheelsteeringsysstem.Itprevventsunwan
nteddangero
ousmovemeentsoftheto
owbar
injuringpeopleordaamagingthenosewheelsteeringsysttem.
ItisdoneeeitherbyswitchingbotthApumpsttoOFForbyuseoftheto
owingleveraandlockoutpinto
depressu
urizethenossewheelsteeringsystem
m.
Movingtthelevertothetowing(fwd.)positio
onmovesthe
etowingshu
utoffvalveto
osuchaposittionthat
itshutso
offAhydraulicpressurettothesteeringvalveand
dconnectsbothsidesofthesteeringvalveto
eachoth
her,andretu
urn.Thisallow
wsthenosegeartorotatefreelytoaamaximumo
of78indicaatedby
redstrip
pesonthelow
wersideoftthefuselage..Movingthe
enosewheelbeyondthestripesrequ
uires
disconneectingtheto
orsionlinksoreventhetaaxilightwirin
ng.

MostcompanieswantsyoutoalwaysswitchtheApump
psOFFeveniifthelockoutpinisinstalledasa
safetym
measure.Thissisdonetop
preventmisccommunicationwiththe multiculturalgroundob
bservers
relatedttopininstallaation.

nkingabouttthesystemasanengineeer.....reme
embertheN
NOSEWHEELLSTEERINGsw
witch.
Justthin
WhenitisselectedinAlternateo
onthegroun
nd,itmovestheLandingGearTransfervalvetoselectB
systemp
pressureton
nosewheelssteering!!!

48

Weather radar
Theonboardweatherradarcanprovidethefollowinginformation:
Weather
Windshear
Terrain

TheWXRswitchoneitherEFISpanelactivatestheweatherradaranddisplaystheweatherradardata
ontheNDintheMAP,MAPCTR,VOR&APPmodes.(notintheplanmode)Theradarcovers180in
frontoftheaircraftbyreceivingtransmittedradiofrequencyechopulsesontheNDs.Whenselected
ontheEFIScontrolpanelinacorrectdisplaymode,theDEUssendananalogdiscretetotheweather
radarcontrolpanelwhichsendsittotheweatherradartransceiverandswitchesitON.

Whentheaircraftisequippedwithapredictivewindshearsystem(PWS),itllbeavailablebelow
2300ft.TheweatherradardoesnotneedtobeswitchedONforthePWStowork,itswitchesON
automaticallywhentakeoffthrust(PL>53)isset.PWSinformationisavailableaftertheWXR
switchoneitherEFIScontrolpanelispushedanda12secwarmupperiod,whereafterAlerts
becomeavailable.

AlertactivationregionsforTAKEOFFare:
WarningsandCautionsareenabledfrom0knotsuntiltheaircraftreaches80knots.
From80knotsuntiltheaircraftpasses400feet,onlyWarningsareenabled.
From400feetthrough1,200feet,WarningsandCautionsareenabled.
Allalertsaredisabledfromthetimetheaircraftpasses100knotsuntilitreaches50feet.

AlertactivationregionsforAPPROACHare:
PWSswitchesautomaticallyONwhentheairplanedescendsbelow2300feetRA.
PWSswitchesautomaticallyOFFwhenoneofthenextconditionsoccur:
o Aircraftspeedislessthan60knots.
o Aircraftclimbsabove2300feetRA.

IfPWSisONandWXRisnotselectedontheEFISpanel,allantennasweepssearchforwindshear.If
WXRisselected,theantennausesonesweeptosearchforwindshearandtheothersweeptosearch
fornormalweatherreturns.PWSoperationdoesnotaffecttheWXRmodeorrangeselectedbythe
flightcrew.

AlertactivationregionsforLANDINGare:
WarningsandCautionsareenabledfromthetimetheaircraftpasses1,200feetuntil400
feet.
From400feetuntil50feet,onlyWarningsareenabled.
From50feetuntiltouchdown(0feet),allalertsaredisabled.
NodisplayWindshearalertsareactiveinthecockpitbelow1,200feetAGL.

49

Theweaatherradaractuallyenterrsthewindsshearscanningmodeat2
2,300feetAG
GLtoprovidetime
forthessystemtopowerup(ifneecessary)and
dupdatethe
edisplaysbeforetheairccraftreachessthe
1,200feetAGLlevel..

TEST
Duringthetest:
TheR/Ttran
T
nsmitsafewpulsestoletttheBITEmo
onitorforcorrectoperation
TheR/Tmak
T
kesatestpattternandsen
ndsittotheDEUtoshow
wontheNDs
TheR/Tsend
T
dstestmessages,mode,gainandtilttinformation
ntotheDEUstoshowon
nthe
NDs
WXRtestpa
W
tternshowsonNDs.
Thetestpatt
T
ternshowsu
untilanotherrmodeonth
heWXRpaneelorEFISpan
nelisselecte
ed.

50

Disso
olved air
Afuelph
henomenaw
withinhighalltitudeaviatiioniscalleddissolvedaiiroraeratiion.

onoffuelcau
usedbyrapid
dlydecreasin
ngtankpresssure
Itisaressultfromtheehighlyaeratedconditio
duringclimb,allowin
ngentrapped
dairinthefu
ueltoexpand
d.Reducedaairpressureabovethefu
uel
surfacep
promotesthereleaseofdissolvedairrfromthefu
uel.Airreleassedfromtheefuelcanhave
degradin
ngeffectson
ntheperform
manceandsaafeoperation
nofafuelsyystem.

mpLOWPREESSUREsdurringrapidclim
mboutcancausethrustd
deterioration
nor
2Mainttankfuelpum
evenanengineflameoutontheaffectedenggineathighe
eraltitudes(>>13,000feeet).
UELPUMPLO
OWPRESSUR
RE)
(QRH,FU
Thisaltittudevariesw
withtheprevvailingfuelteemperatureinthetank(thehigherth
hefueltemp
perature,
theloweerthealtitud
deatwhichthegradualp
powerlossocccurs).

Oncepreessurehassttabilizedand
dexcessairh
hasescapedffromthefueel,lossofbotthfuelboosttpumps
hasnoeeffectonenggineoperatio
onwithmaximumpowersettingsataaltitudesupttoabove30,,000
feet.Theetimerequirredtostabiliizethefuelfromthishigh
hlyaeratedcconditioncannotbedete
ermined
exactly,sinceitisaffunctionofb
bothrateofcclimbandfueltemperatu
ure.

Solutiontotheproblemislevelo
offandletth
heenginessttabilizeatalttitudeorpressurefeedth
he
enginesassuctionfeeedincreasestheaeratio
oneffectand
dadsinthep
possibilitytoingestaerattedfuel
intotheenginefeedline.

Fuelstab
bilizationsho
ouldoccuraffterafewminutesofstabilizedcruisiingoperationorbackon
n
pressureefeed.

51

Frang
gible fitttings
Frangibleefittingsareemountedin
ntherimoftthemainwheelwellstop
preventarotatingblown
ntireto
enterthewheelwelll.Ifitshears,,onlythatsidewillfreefallbackdow
wnbyrelievin
ngLandingGear
Actuatorruppressureeoverboard.(4greenan
ndtworedin
ndications)
Notethaatwedohavveretractbraakesthrough
hthealternatebrakesysttem(hydrau
ulicsystemA)but
whenattireblowsth
hereisagood
dchancethaatthebrakelineswillbesubstantiallyydamagedcausing
theretraactbrakesno
ottowork.

Retractb
brakes(andnosewheelssnubbers)arremountedttostopthew
wheelsfromrotating,hangingin
theirupllocks.Ahighspeedrotattingwheelw
wouldcausettremendousprecessionfforcestothe
structureeduringatu
urnthatswh
hytheyaresttoppedafterrretraction.

52

Rudd
der(verttical sta
abilizer)) load reductio
on
Asonmo
ostlargeairccraftthevertticalstabilizeerisoneofthemostfraggilestructuraalparts.Itcaannot
withstan
ndlargeload
dscausedbyfullrudderd
deflectionathigherspeedsandthereeforeisprote
ected
againsttthosehighfo
orces.The73
37ruddermaainPCUrece
eivesinputfrromthepedaalsthroughinput
leversan
ndafeeland
dcenteringu
unitwhichmovestherud
dderpanelbyyhydraulicssystemA&B
B
pressuree.Pressuresw
willbeatnormalvalues(3000PSI)whenflying<137Kts,above137Ktssaload
limiterreeducessysteemApressurreto1450PSSIresultingin
na25%reductionofth
hetotalloadonthe
rudder.TTheresultoffthisreductiionprotectstheverticalstabilizeragaainsthighfo
orcesatahigher
speed,leeavingfullprressureandd
deflectionavvailablewhenneeded,atttakeoffsan
ndlandingsfo
or
direction
nalcontrol.

Anexam
mpleoftheveerticalstabilizerweakp
pointisanattemptin20
001torecoveeranA300aafter
beingstrruckbywakeeturbulenceeandaggresssivemaximumrudderinp
putswhichsshearedofth
he
verticalsstabilizer.Alssonotethattheverticalstabilizerwaastheonlyin
ntactpartofftheAirFran
nce447
incidentovertheAtllantic.

InthepaastofmyfieeldofexperienceIsawaverticalstaabilizerofaP
P3Oriontotaallybeingsheared
offlikeittwasremovedwithachainsawwheenitstruckawashrackw
whentheairccrafthasbee
en
swapped
daroundbyatwisteratNASJackson
nvilleandwh
henaP3hitsapowercab
bleatPagoPago
Hawaii.

Beawareofthestructuraldesign
nofyourairccraft!!

53

Rejeccted Tak
keoff sspeed b
brakes rrelation.

Letmesstarttotellth
hatthespeedbrakesalw
waysrefertoextensionofboth,groun
ndandflightt
spoilers.Asweallkn
now,whenlaanding,theggroundspoile
ersaretriggeeredbytherrightmainstrut
compresssionandtheeflightspoileerswhenanyystrutcomp
presses.

Duringtaakeoff,thesspeedbrakessdonotneed
dtobearme
edbutactuallytheyare....byasoccalled
"speedb
brakerefused
dtakeoff(RTO)switch".Theswitchisactivatedw
whenyoureejectthetake
eoffand
lifttheth
hrustreverseerleversupwiththethrustleversatIDLE.Inturn
ntheyllactivvatetheRTO
Oswitch
byareveersercamwhichwilldep
ploythespeeedbrakesthrroughanauttospeedbrakeactuator.

WhenacccordingtheQRHthespeeedbrakeleverisraisedbytheCaptaain,theRTO
Oswitch(auto
ospeed
brakeacctuator)doessn'toperateanymorebu
utthespeedbrakesaren
nowmanuallydeployed.

Everybodycanhelpmeoutwithtriggeringsu
ubjectsasSh
hrikantdoes,,andIinviteanybodytodoso.
Alsoexp
periencesou
utthefieldimprovestheknowledge
eofourFBpagefollowerrs.

54

Electtrical Bu
us (bar))

WeallhaveseencirccuitbreakerpanelsandkknowthereaareElectricalBussesbehindthembu
utwhat
aretheyy?

ABusBaarfunctionsaasacentraltterminalintheaircraftelectricalsysttemtoconneectmainelecctrical
systemp
powertovarriouselectriccalcomponents.Itsimplifiesthewirin
ngsysteman
ndprovidesaa
common
npointfromwhichvoltaggecanbedisstributedthrroughouttheesystem.AlssousingBus
Bars(com
mmonlylocatedintheflightstationo
orgalley)savvesweightassthecopperrwiringistakkenfrom
thatpoin
ntintheairccraftinsteadoffromthesourceforeachelectricaalcomponen
nt,whichwould
requireaamultitudeo
ofdistantwiiring....and
dweight.

ABusco
onsistscomm
monlyoutofhighcapacityCopperstrripstowhichtheseveralusersareco
onnected.
TheBusssesarepoweerfedfromttheirelectricalsources(G
Generator,Exxternalcart,Battery,TRorother
Busses)tthroughcurrrentlimitersthatprotecttthemandittsattachedssystemsforh
highcurrentssthatin
turncou
uldcauseafirehazardorrdamageequ
uipment.Fro
omtheBusittselfindividu
ualelectrical
componentsarecon
nnectedthroughathermalprotection
n,acircuitbreaker,whicchvaryincap
pacity
visibleontopofthem
m.

ThebuscomponentssidentifyinD
DC,andACbussesastheydifferinth
heamountoffcopperstrip
ps.The
DCbusb
barisformed
dbytwostrip
ps,the+,andthewherrethelatterconnectstotheaircraft
structureeorGroundBus.TheAC
Cbusbarisfo
ormedbythrreeCoppersstrips,3ACp
phaseswhich
hof
courseaareisolatedb
byTeflondivviders.Ontop
pofmostBu
ussesthereissanisolation
nstripmountedto
preventashorttoth
herespectiveeBuswouldsomethingcconductivesttrikesit.

55

Crew
w oxygen
n system
m

FirstofaallIlltellyou
uthatoxygen
nisdangerou
us!!Itcanno
otmixwithgreaseinanyw
waycausingan
explosion.ThatistheereasonwhenmaintaineerschargeO
O,theywearrwhitecoverrallstoseeiffthereis
anygreaasevisibleon
ntheirclothing.Oyeahso...doNOTTuselipchapstickswheenusingO!!

Agreenoxygencylin
nderismoun
ntedintheE&
&Ebayandccanbeeitherr114/115ftor76ft.Th
he
minimum
mchargeisccompanyrelaatedbutmostlyarounde
edupvalueregardingthehighest
temperaatureandmaaximumfligh
htdeckoccup
pation(seeyyourPIsectio
oninFCOM1
1).Maximum
m
allowedindicatedprressureis185
50PSIbutth
heoverboard
ddischargevvalveissetattawhoppingg2600
ndicatordiscclocatedjusttbehindtheE&Ebayacccessblowso
outeitherby
PSIwereethegreenin
overcharrgingorbythermalexpaansion.

ure,onedirecctreadinggaageonthebo
ottleandtheesecondiso
ontheaft
Therearre2indicatorrsforpressu
overheadpanelwhicchgetsanelectricalsignaalfromapickupinthem
manifoldand
dispoweredbythe
BatteryB
Bus.

Fromtheebottlethepressureisrreducedto6085PSIandhasaprrotectionat1
100PSItoprreventa
toohighpressuretowardthereggulators.

Thecrew
wregulatorshavethenextoptions:
Normalinthisposiitionyouhavvetoinhalettogetadiluttedoxygenflowmeaninggitisamixo
of
environm
mental(cockkpit)airando
oxygen.(now
wiseduringfumes/smokke)
100%yyoullinhale100%oxygen
nondemand
d.
EMERGEENCYinthisspositionyo
ougetpressu
urized100%oxygenthroughthemassk.

Thereisatestlevero
oneachregu
ulatortotestttheoxygensystemsepaarately.Thefirsttestisju
ustto
slidetheeRESET/TESTTleverbackw
wardswereitreleasesre
esidualpressureinthemaskwithash
hortrush
ofairandindicatingtheyellowX
Xflowindicattor.

Theseco
ondtestneed
dstobeperfformedinth
heEMERGENCYpositiono
oftheregulaatorwereyo
oufirst
havetoiidentifythecrewpressure(inthemaanifold)than
npushthebu
uttontotestandslide
simultan
neouslytheR
RESET/TESTleverbackwaardsfor5secconds.Thissshouldresulttinaconstan
ntflow
ofairwitththeXflow
windication.Thereshouldbenomorredecreasetthan100PSI,,asharpdro
opoffor
slowincreaseofpresssureontheeindicator.W
Whenanyoftheprevioussoccursthevalveonthe
ebottleis
eitherclosedornotcompletelyo
open.Aftertthisdontforrgettorotateethetestbu
uttonbackto
o100%.

Thetestcanbeperfo
ormedtogettherwiththeemaskmicro
ophonetest((SP1inFCOM
M1)through
h
selectinggMASK,FLTINTandSPK
KRontheaud
dioelectpan
nelsoyoullh
heartherush
hofairthrou
ughthe
cockpitsspeakerwheensimultaneouslypushin
ngtheINTsw
witchduringttheOtest.

Not all companies perform thiss test but


rememb
ber it is emeergency equiipment so
it can saafe your day during No
onNormal
proceduresasyouh
havetoestab
blishcrew
commun
nicationsom
mewhere!

56

Main
n system
m hydrau
ulic pum
mps, (co
orrected
d)
The737NGisequipp
pedwithtwo
oEngineDrivvenPumps(EEDP)mounteedonthegeaarboxesofth
he
engines,andtwoEleectricMotorDrivenPumps(EMDP)w
whicharelocatedinthem
mainwheelw
well.The
biggestN
NEEDTOKNO
OWbetween
ntheEDPan
ndtheEMDP
PisthattheEEDPsdeliverrhydraulicfluidata
6timeshighercapacitythanth
heEMDPs.TThismeansth
hatwhenanEDPdoesno
otturn,
everythingoperated
dthroughthaathydraulicssystem(AorrB)travels6timessloweer!!!withjusst
theEMD
DP.Boeingeq
quippedcerttainhydraulicoperatedssystemswith
habackuptoimproveth
heir
operatin
ngspeedasn
neededsuchasthePTUaandtheLGTU
U.
Thehydrraulicpumpssareaxialvaariabledisplaacementpum
mpsthatvaryythedemandbyanglinggaso
calledsw
washplate.W
Whenlittledemandneed
ded,theplateangleislow
wandwhenahighdemaandis
neededitishighdeliveringhighvolumeoffluid.Pressure
essuppliedb
bythepumpsdependon
nthe
demandwhereanom
minal3000P
PSIexistswittha2800minimumaspeerFCOMand
da3450PSI
maximum.
Pressureecontrolisaccomplished
dbyapressu
uremodulethatreceivesfluidfromth
heEDPandEEMDP
whereaffteritsuppliestherespeectivehydrau
ulicsystem,italsoholdsttheoverpresssureprotection.
SelectinggtheEMDPttoOFF,shutsoffACelecctricalpowerrtothepump
p,ACXFRBu
us1powerfo
orthe
systemB
BEMDP,and
dACXFRBus2powerforrthesystemAEMDP.ThisXpowerin
ngtheEMDPs
preventacompletemainhydrau
ulicsystemlo
ossintheeve
entofanengginefailurettogetherwithabus
transferproblemmaakingthesystemmorereedundant.
TheEMD
DPshaveanoverheatindicationifth
hepumpove
erheats,itdeependsontyypewhetheritisthe
coolingffluidortheeelectricmoto
orthatoverh
heats.Alsoitdependsontypeifthem
motorshutsdown
automattically,oronlythelightilluminatesw
whenanoverheatexistsrrequiringcrewactiontosshutthat
overheatedpumpdo
own.
pressurizatio
onsolenoidvvalvecloses,blockingtheeoutputpresssureto
WiththeeEDPswitchinOFFadep
therespectivesystem
m.Thissolen
noidremainssenergizedintheOFFpo
ositiondegraadingthelife
etimeof
thatsoleenoidgivingusthereaso
ontoleaveth
heEDPswitchintheONpositionuntilclosingbeccomes
necessarry.
Whenth
hefireswitch
hispulled,th
hefluidsupp
plyshutoffvaalvetothereespectiveED
DPisclosedandthe
LOWPRESSUREindiccationisdisaarmed.

Hydrauliicpumpoutputs:

36GPM
M
EDP
EMDP
5.7GPM
M
STDB
3.7GPM
M
PTU
11.6GP
PM

57

Cockp
pit Voicce Recorrder Sysstem

TheVoicceRecorderUnit(VRU)isswater,shocck,andheatp
proofandislocatedinth
heaftcargo
comparttment.TheC
CVRcontrolsareonthefw
wdoverhead
dpanel.

TheVRU
Ureceivespo
owerfromth
heACXFRBus2(VOICER
RCDRonP182)andisequippedwithan
UnderwaaterLocatorDevicewhicchactivates....submergedinwaterttoadepthof20.000ft.The
37.5khzz,onesecond
dpulsetoneisdetectableefor>30daayswithinarrangeofmaxximum3.5Km.

TheCVR
Rrecordsaud
diofromthethreeACPs,,andcockpittareaona4channelsolidstateconttinuous
loopdattatapefor12
20seconds,w
whereafterthetapeeraasesthefirstrecordingan
ndstoresthe
ecurrent
audio.

Thereco
ould(depend
dingontype))alsobeprovisionstosto
oreACARSdatalinkmesssagesorclocckinputs
fromeithertheCapttains,orFirsttOfficersclo
ockontheCV
VRtape.

Thecockkpitvoicereccordercontrrolswitchislocatedonth
heoverheadpanelandh
hasthenext
functions:
ControlsVRU
C
Uswitchingp
powerwhich
hcomesfrom
mDCBus2(V
VOICERCDRRELAYonP1
182).
ON,
O the CVR
R receives power for maaintenance or
o preflight testing,the switch automatically
positionstoAUTOwheneitherengin
nereachesid
dleRPM.
AUTO,theC
A
CVRreceivespowerwheeneitherengginereachessidleRPMandremains powered
until5minuttesaftertheelastenginehasbeenshutdown.

ereisAC
Oncertaain737stheCVRbecomesactivatedanytimethe
powerontheaircrafftsothereisnocontrolsswitchonthe
eovhd
panel.(cc/bin)

OntheC
CVRrecorderrpanelarelo
ocated:
Areamicrop
A
hone
Channelmon
C
nitorindicatorand/orstaatusindicato
orlight
Testbutton
T
o Creaatesatestto
onetowardthe4channels(Captain,FFirstOfficer,Observeran
ndarea)
o Thessetonesare indicatedbyyadeflectionintothegrreenareaof thechannellmonitor
indiccator.Canbeeheardwhenpluggedin
ntothehead
dsetjack.
o Wheen a fault is detected, the
t audio to
one stops an
nd the indicaator stays in
n the red
areaa, or extingu
uishes the status light. When
W
no fau
ults are deteected the staatus light
illum
minatesmom
mentarily.
Erasebutton
n
o Canonlybeused
dwhenonth
heground(P
PSEUdeterminesthat)withtheparking
brakke.
o Activvateswhenh
holdingtheb
buttonfor>2seconds(aalsocanbe>>5seconds)
Headsetjackk
o Forttesttonetransmissionorrecordingp
playback.

TheCVR
Rcircuitbreakershouldb
beinallthetimeandcanbepulled(ccompanypolicy)whentim
me
allowsaffteranemerrgencyevacu
uationorwhentheCaptaaindeemsth
hisnecessaryywhenhewaantsto
savevalu
uableinform
mationoftheelast120min
nutespriorp
pullingthec//bafterflightt.

58

Presssure con
ntrol

Tosurvivveataltitudeethe737iseequippedwitthanautom
maticaltitudecontrolsysttembymean
nsof
pumpinggairin,andrrestrictingairout.Therearetwoiden
nticaldigitalCabinPressureControlle
ers(CPC)
thatalteereachflightt,andbackeachotherup
pintheeven
ntofafailinggCPC.

Pressurizzationstartw
withaninputontheoveerheadpressurizationcon
ntrolpanelo
ofacruise,aand
landingaaltitudewheereafterallp
pressureeventshappenaautomatically.Thisstartssbymovingthe
throttlessupuntilN1onbothengginesreaches60%>1.5sseconds,orN
N2reaches8
89%>1.5secconds.At
thatmom
menttheoutflowvalvem
movestowarrdsclose,briingingthecaabinaltitudeto200ftb
below
fieldelevvationbyraisingthedifferentialpresssureto0.1P
PSID.Thisprreventsunco
omfortablepressure
surgesw
whenrotation
ncreatesan
negativepresssureoutside
eoftheoutfflowvalvebyyitsposition.

mbmode,inccreasingthediff/pressto
owardthefirrstlimit
Afterlifttofftheconttrolchangesintotheclim
of7,45P
PSIDat28.00
00ftkeepinggthecabinattthedepartu
urefieldelevvationuntilaapproximate
ely
18.500ft.Afterclimb
bingthrough
h28.000ftth
hediff/presssincreasesto
o7.80PSIDu
until37.000fftwhere
afteritin
ncreasestotthemaximum
mautomaticclimit,8.35P
PSID.TheAM
MMalsomen
ntionsamaximum
diff/pressswhendeviiatingfromaaltitudeof8.45PSIDbutthisisnotbyyFCOMwheerethemaxim
mum
cabinalttitudeis8.00
00ft.Whenthecabinaltittudeexceeds10.000ft,aacabinALTITTUDEALERTsounds
togetherrwiththeillu
uminationoffCabinAltitu
udeWarningglightsonbo
othforwardp
panels.(whe
en
installed
d)Atacabinaltitudeof1
14.500fttheoutflowvalvvereceivesaaclosesignalloverridingttheCabin
PressureeController.

0.1PSID)is3
350fpmandcabinROCd
duringthecliimbis
ThemaxximumcabinRODduringtakeoff(to0
600fpm(canbe750
0fpm).

Whenap
pproachingtthesetFLTA
ALTby500ft(0.25PSI),th
hepressurecontrolleren
ntersthecru
uise
modeoffoperationaandmaintain
nsaconstanttcabinaltitude.Theotheerwayaroun
nd,whendesscending
furthertthan0.25PSIfromtheseetFLTALT,th
hecontrollerrchangesinttothedescen
ndmodeof
operatio
onandpressu
urizesthecaabinwith350
0fpm(canbe500fpmor750fpm).TThecontrolle
er
automatticallychangeestoahigheerpressurizin
ngrateof75
50fpmwhenacargofireisdetected.

59

Afterlandingthecontrollermaintainsadiff/pressof0.15PSIDequivalentto300ftbelowlanding
fieldelevationuntilbothenginesspooldowntoN1<50%,orN2<84%foratleast1.5seconds
whereaftertheoutflowvalveiscommandedopen.

AnOFFSCHEDDESCENTindicatestogetherwithaMasterCautionandanAIRCONDannunciator
whendescendingbeforethesetFLTALTisreached.Whenthisoccurs,theCPCresetsthelanding
altitudeautomaticallytothe(stored)departurefieldelevationsoyoudonthavetoresetwhenan
immediatereturntothatfieldisrequired.AnytimewhentheFLTALTischangedduringflight,the
destinationfieldelevationdataislost.

IfoneCPCfailsthebackupCPCtakesover,indicatedbyanamberAUTOFAIL(MastercautionandAIR
CONDannunciator)andagreenALTlightonthecontrolpanel.WhenALTisselectedonthemode
selector,theAUTOFAILlightextinguishesbuttheALTlightremainsilluminated.

IfbothCPCsfailitwillbeindicatedbyanAUTOFAILandMaterCautiontogetherwithFLT&LAND
ALTflashingdashesinthewindows.(noALTlightasthisfunctionisunavailable)

60

Runw
way Awa
areness and Ad
dvisory System (RAAS))

Sometim
mesreferredtoasSMAR
RTLANDINGFEATURE.
TheRAA
ASisanoptio
onontheBoeeing737NGtotheEGPW
WS,whichspeecifiesalertssornotifications
regardin
ngyourposition,andaru
unwaypositio
on.ItishighlySAimprovving,preventtingrunway
incursion
nsbyvisuallyy(ontheND
D)andverbalwarnings,iffanincorrecttaircraftpossitionversusrunway
exists.

ThesystemusestheaircraftsGP
PSpositionin
nconjunction
nwithEGPW
WSstoredairp
portandrun
nway
datawhicharecomp
pared,whereeafteranaleertispassedontothecockpitsystem
ms.
WhenRA
AASisenableedthesystemoperatesw
withoutanyactionoftheecrew.Theccalloutscanbe
stoppedbyselection
noftheRunw
wayInhibitSSwitchonthe
eEGPWScon
ntrolpanelin
ndicatedbytthe
RUNWAYYINOPlightt.Thelightalsoilluminateswheninputdata(GPSS,Airportdatta)totheRA
AAS
operatio
onisincorrecctornotavailable.

ROUTINEADVISORIEES
1. Approaching
A
gRunwaypro
ovidesinthe
eairawaren
nessofwhich
hrunwaytheeaircraftislinedup
w
withonappr
roach.
2. Approaching
A
gRunwayprrovidesonth
hegroundaw
warenessofapproximaterunwayed
dgebeing
a
approached
bytheaircraaftduringtaxioperations.
3. OnRunway
O
providesaw
warenessofw
whichrunwayytheaircrafttislinedupwith.
4. DistanceRem
mainingprovidesawarenessofaircraftalongtraackpositionrrelativetoth
he
runwayend..

61

NONRO
OUTINEADVISORIES
1. RunwayEnd
dimprovesawarenessofftheaircraftpositionrelaativetotherrunwayendduring
lowvisibilityyconditions.
2. Approaching
A
gShortRunw
wayprovidessintheairaawarenessoffwhichrunw
waytheaircrraftis
linedupwith
h,andthattherunwayleengthavailablemaybem
marginalfornormallanding
o
operations.
3. InsufficientRunwayLen
ngthprovidessonthegro
oundawaren
nessofwhich
hrunwaythe
eaircraft
islinedupw
with,andthatttherunwayylengthavaiilablefortakkeoffislessthanthedefined
minimumtakeoffrunwaylength.
oldingonRu
unwayadviso
oryprovidescrewawarenessofanexxtendedhold
ding
4. ExtendedHo
periodontherunway.
T
keOffprovid
desawarenessofexcessivetaxispeed
dsoraninad
dvertenttake
eoffon
5. TaxiwayTak
a
ataxiway.
6. RejectedTakkeoff/DistaanceRemain
ningprovidesspositionaw
warenessdurringaRejecte
edTake
O
Off(RTO).
7. TaxiwayLan
T
ndingprovideesawarenessthattheaircraftisnotlinedupwith
harunwayaatlow
a
altitudes.

62

Electtro Moto
or Drive
en Pump
ps Overrheat

Ireceiveedaquestion
nwhytheEM
MDPshaveaanOVHTprotectionandttheEDPsno
ot.

Lookingattheimageeitisselfexp
planatory,th
he(EMDP)hyydraulicpum
mpisoperateedbyanelecctro
motorth
hatcreatesh
heat,wherettheenginedrivenhydrau
ulicpumpisdirectlydriveenfromtheengine
gearboxx.Theimpellertypefirststagepump,,pumpscoolingfluidtotthecasingarroundtheelectro
motoran
ndprepresssurizesfluidttowardthen
ninepistonvvariabledispllacementpump.

TheEMD
DPshaveanoverheatindicationifth
hepumpove
erheats,itdeependsontyypewhetheritisthe
coolingffluid,ortheeelectricmoto
orthatoverh
heats.Alsoittdependson
ntypeifthemotorshutssdown
automattically,oronlythelightilluminatesw
whenanoverheatexistsrrequiringcrewactiontosshutthat
overheatedpumpdo
own.

TheelecctromotorteemperaturesswitchbringssONtheOVERHEATlightwhenthettemperature
eis113
Cormo
ore,andreseetsattemperraturesbetw
ween85Can
nd102C.

Theseco
ondpossibilittyisthatACpowerisrem
movedautom
maticallywhentheelectromotor
temperaaturereaches124Corm
morestoppin
ngtheEMDP
P,andresetsat60Cto7
71C.

Thecaseedrainfluid((alsofromth
heEDP)isroutedthrough
htheoiltoffuelheatexcchangersontthe
bottomo
ofthemainw
wingtanks,ttocooltheh
hydraulicfluidbeforereturningbackintotherese
ervoir.
Thisisdo
oneforcooliingpurposess(ofcourse)andtopreve
entfoaming.Rememberrthatforgro
ound
operatio
onsthereisaatleast760K
Kgsoffuelneeded,toacccomplishen
noughcoolingforsufficie
entheat
exchanger(cooling)operation.

Switchin
ngtheEDPto
oOFFonlyclosesthedep
pressurizatio
onsolenoidvvalvedownsttreamofthepump,
stoppinggtheoutputtothesystem.
TheEDPsupplyshutoffvalveupsstreamofthepumpstayysopenuntiltheFIRESW
WITCHispulle
ed.

63

Cockp
pit pane
el + sy
ymbols..

(redcircledontheim
mage)

Iusedto
olookaround
d,challenge(andbeingcchallenged)p
pilotsandfligghtengineerrsduringlon
nghaul
flights,ggainingknow
wledgeonsysstemsandfliightdecksurrroundingsnottoforgetsituational
awareneess.Didyoueeverwonderrwhattheraandom+syymbolsonth
hecockpit/avvionicspanels
represen
nt?Probablyynot,butherreistheshortexplanatio
ononthemaasanicetokknowsubjectt.

Underneeaththose++symbolsaarethewiringgconnectorss(Cannonplugs)locatedforbackligh
hting,or
electricaalcomponents(gauges)o
onthatpaneel.Ifanyofth
heelectricalcomponentss/backlightiingfailor
flickers,gentlytapth
hatlocationo
onthepaneltopossiblycorrecttheo
occurringproblem.Ofco
ourse,
afterlan
ndingcallouttmaintenanccetohaveacloserlookaandfixit.

64

Overh
head (P
P5) pane
el drain
ns.

Ivereceeivedaquesttionfromoneofourfollo
owersrelatedtotheprevviouspost,m
meaningwhaatisthe
purposeofspecific(andsometim
mesunnoticeed)compone
entsaroundyyouontheflightdeck.

Q:Whattisthepurpo
oseoftheveerticaltubesagainsteach
hsideofthefwd(1Land1R)window
wframes
comingffromtheoveerheadpanel?

hatit
Well....itappearsthatthefibeerglassinsulaationblankettsoftheoveerheadpanelaresuch,th
createsccondensationabovetheoverheadpaanels.Thevaariationofwarmcockpitairandcoldaircraft
skintem
mperaturepro
oducesamo
oistenvironm
mentbehindtheP5overh
headpanels,,whichcould
dcause
electricaalproblems.Boeingmountedaplastiicdrippantocollectth
hatcondensaationmoiste
erand
drainittthroughthossetubestotheaircraftsffuselagedrainsystem.

65

Close
ed crosssfeed va
alve on ttakeoff and lan
ndings?

ntheNGtoasssurethattheefuelcrossfee
edvalveisclossedfortakeofffsandlandinggs.Ive
Thereisaalimitationon
foundthiisruleinsomeeCompanyM
Manualsandtrrytogiveadecentanswerttothequestio
onofoneofour
followerss....WHY??

doNOTknowifthislimitstiillapplies
NotethattitisNOTinttheuptodateemanualsIhaaveinmypossessionso,Id
toyourcurrentCompaanyoperationso....becaareful.(althoughtherulecaandonoharm
mifallisnorm
mal)
urceforthecrrossfeedvalveeistheBatteryyBus.
Bythewaay,powersou

Original(older)AFMteext:
FuelLimitations:
FuelCrossfeedvalvemustbeclosedfortakeoffandlaanding.

hereasonsIcaanthinkof,isthatwhenyo
oureclosetoanimbalancecondition(45
53Kg/1000Lb
bs),you
Oneofth
couldend
dupwithanaactualimbalan
ncewhenthevalveisopen.

u,Boeingphilo
osophyinhibittedtheimbalaancewarningonthegroun
ndsoitsonlyactiveintheaair.Dont
Mindyou
askmew
why,justpayaattentiononth
hewingfuello
oadbeforeyo
ourotateprevventingunwan
ntedrollmove
ements
dependin
ngontheamo
ountofdiffereencebetweenthewingtanksfuelload.

er)deliveranequalpressurre,soapump
pwith
Furthereexplanationisthatthefuelpumpsdonottalways(neve
higherou
utputpressureewillfeedbotthengineswitthanopencro
ossfeedvalveresultinginaapossibleimb
balance
duringhigghthrustsetttings.Thiswou
uldbethecasseattakeoff,,orgoaround
dthrust,soexxactlythemom
ments
thatyourenotpayingattentiontotthefuelload.

WDpumppro
oducesthehigghestpressure
etherebyfeed
dingbothenggineswithfuelfrom
IntheimagetheleftFW
tank#1.

hamassivestrructuralprobllem(crash)th
hevalve
Anotherrreasoncouldbesafetywisee,ifanythinghappenswith
separatessbothsideso
ofthefuelman
nifoldreducin
nghazardouscconditions.

66

Ambe
er AUTO
O BRAK
KE DISAR
RM Ligh
ht

Thenextconditionsarerelatedtoth
heilluminatio
onoftheAUTO
OBRAKEDISA
ARMlight.

BRAKEDISARM
Mlightwillillu
uminate
FirstofalllitstartswheenRTOisselected(onthegground),theaamberAUTOB
for12sseconds,indicatingaselfteestofthesystemandwhen
nsuccessfulitwillextinguish.Ontheotherhand
whentheetestwasnotsuccessful,th
helightremainsilluminated
d.

2,3orMAX)issmadeforlandingandthesystemselfteestfails,theA
AUTO
Whenanyautobrakesselection(1,2
dautobrakinggisinhibited.
BRAKEDIISARMlightillluminatesand

nwasnotmanuallydeselecctedbeforelaanding,theAU
UTOBRAKEDIISARMlightw
will
WhenanRTOselection
1.4)aftertoucchdownsense
edthroughtheePSEU,andn
noautobrakeoccurs.
illuminatee2seconds(AMMsays1

OBRAKEDISA
ARMamberligghtcomesonwhenautobraakesareselecctedandanyo
ofthenextconditions
TheAUTO
occur:
amalfunction
a
ningautobrakeesystem
amalfunction
a
ning(normal)aantiskidsystem
m
manuallyoverridingtheau
utobrakesysteembysteppingonthebrakkes

nitiated,theA
AUTOBRAKED
DISARMlightillluminateswh
hen:
Whenafttertouchdown(orRTO)auttobrakingisin
movingthesp
peedbrakelevverdown/dettent
a
ethrustleverss(notwithin3
3secondsafte
ertouchdown
n)
advancingthe
manualbrakin
ngisapplied

depthtechnicalactivationo
ofthelightisrrelatedtothe
eHydraulicsysstemBpressu
uretothesysttemand
Moreind
causesth
helighttoillum
minatewhen:

RTOautobrakkeiscommand
dedtoapply,andtheautobrakesolenoidvalvepresssureislow
theautobrake
t
eselectorisin
ntheOFFpositionandthessolenoidvalveepressureincreasesmoretthan1000
PSI

ntrolunit(AAC
CU)fromtheA
ADIRU
Thelastccauseisaninvvalidinputtottheantiskid/aautobrakecon

ontforgetthelighttestan
ndpushingtheelight;)
Oyeahdo

67

B737
7 Fire prrotectio
on

GENERALLNOTES:
FIREEXTINGU
UISHINGispow
weredbytheHOTBATBUSS,sodischargeeispossibleevenwithallelectrical
powerOFF.
APU&ENGD
A
DETECTIONsysstemsarepow
weredbytheB
BATBUS.
WHEELWELL
W
FIREDETECTIIONsystemussesACpwr(A
ACtransferbuss1),sothisAC
Cbusmustbe
e
oroperationo
ofthissystem..
poweredbyaanyACsource(APUorEng.Gen,Extpwr)energizedfo
OVHT&FIRE
O
indicationsarreshownontheflightdeckkon;
o OVHT&FIREprotectionpanel
o Cargofirepanel
o Masttercautionpaanel.

ENGINES
Dualloopoveerheat/firedettectionsystem
m
o when
n1loopfails,therewillbeNOflightdeckindicationb
butthefaultdetectionsyste
em
automaticallydiscconnectsthed
defectiveloop
p).
orloopsontheesameengine
ehavefaults,theFAULTligghtwillillumin
nate.
o Ifboth(2)detecto
MASTERCAUTTION.
o TherrewillbeNOM
2Extinguishe
2
rbottlesfor2
2engines.
hcanbeusedforanonsid
de&offside enginefire.
o Both

APU
S
redetection.((nooverheat)
Singleloopfir
1Extinguisherbottle.(canalsobecontro
olledfromAP
PUgroundcon
ntrolpanel)
W
UFIREisdeteccted,theAPUwillautomatiicallyshutdow
wnbutNOTautomatically
WhenanAPU
e
extinguish.

COMPARTMEN
NT
CARGOC
Uses(dualloo
op)SMOKEdeetectionsystem
o 4dettectorsinFWDCARGOCOM
MP(all737NG
G's)
o 4dettectors(7376
600)
o 6dettectorsinAFTTCARGOCOM
MP(7377/8/900's)
o PoweeredbyDCBU
US1&2.
FireEXTINGUISHINGby;
GOCOMP(alll737NG's).
o 2nozzzles(HALON))intheceilingginFWDCARG
o 2(73
37600)or3(7
7377/8/900'ss)inAFTCARG
GOCOMP.
o (EXTINGUISHERS,sopoweredb
byHOTBATBU
US)

WHEELW
WELL
1LoopforFIR
REdetectionin
nmainlandinggearwheelwell
EXTINGUISHIN
NGbylowerin
ngthelandingggear(belowmaxLGexten
nsionspeed)

68

Startt switch functio


ons.

onsonthestaartswitchrepresentseveralimportantfu
unctionstowaardstartingen
nginesandpro
otecting
Allpositio
themighttyCFMsagainstunwanted
doruncommaandeddecayinN2,and/orflameouts.Thestartswitcch
positioniismonitoredb
bytheEEC(th
hroughtheDEEUs)toactivatetheseveralfunctionsandrelatedactionsof
theswitch,togetherw
withigniterselection.

OFF

GRD

CONT

Neitherigniteerisactivatedwhenthestaartleverisinthecutoffposition.
O
Onground,w
whenN2dropssbelow57%u
until50%,bothigniterswillactivatewheenthestartlevverisin
t
theIdlepositi
ion.
Inflightwhen
nN2dropsbelowFlightIdleeRPMuntil5%
%,bothigniteerswillactivatewhenthesttartlever
isatIdle.

TTheenginebleedvalve(solenoid)iscom
mmandedtoclosethevalvee.
T
Thestarterva
alveopens.
O
Onground,th
heselectedign
niter(s)willacctivate.
o PoweeredbyXfrbu
us1forenginee#1leftignite
er,ACstdbbu
usfortherightigniter.
o PoweeredbyXfrbu
us2forenginee#2leftignite
er,ACstdbbu
usfortherightigniter..
Inflight,bothigniterswillaactivate.
donotwantttobebothered
dbyafailedsselectedigniteerwhenyoun
needtostartaanengine
o Youd
inflight.Theremu
ustbeareaso
onwhyyouwaanttostartasshutdownen
nginelikeagre
eater
blemonthe(o
only)operatingengine.
prob
T
TheEECispow
weredfromittsXFRbus(1fforeng#1,2fforeng#2)beelow15%N2w
whereafteran
nAC
a
alternatormo
ountedontheegearboxtakesover;
o >15%
%N2(gearboxRPM)itllprroduceenoughACpowerto
ooperatetheeEEC.
o OnabatterystartyouwontseeEGT,FF,Oilpress&oilteempuntiltheEECbecomespowered
%N2.
afterrreaching15%
ECU(APU)recceivesasignaltoopentheAPUIGVs.
o Toprovidemaxim
mumaircapaciityandpressu
ureforstartingg.
A
At56%N2,th
hestarterswittchiscomman
ndedtomove
etotheOFFpo
osition.(AMM
Msays55%)
o ThisistheAUTOp
positionwithn
newerswitchfeatures.

Onground,acctivatestheseelectedigniter(s)whenthestartleverisatIdle.
O
Inflight,activvatebothignitterswhenN2dropsbelowidlealsowiththestartleveerattheIdlep
position.
S
Selected;
o Takeeoff.
o Land
ding.
o BeforeTAIisseleccted.

69

FLT

Activatebothigniters.
Selected;
o Adverseweather.

AUTO(wheninstalled)
IgnitionisOFF.
BothignitersactivatewhenenginestartleverisinIDLEand:
o AnuncommandedrapiddecreaseinN2occurs
o Onground,N2isbetween57%and50%or,
o Inflight,N2isbetweenidleand5%.

Activatesselectedigniterswhen:
o Below18000feetaltitudeandflapsextended.
o TAIisselected.

70

Fuel nozzle coking.

IdliketoemphasizeaprocedureintheFCOMtowardshuttingdowntheenginesrelatedtosomethingthats
knownascoking.

Firstofallwhatiscokebesidescola,itisfuelderivedfromrefinedpetroleumwithahighpercentageof
carbon.

NexttheproceduredescribedintheFCOM1sNormalProcedures;
Operatetheenginesatornearidlethrustforaminimumofthreeminutesbeforeshutdowntothermally
stabilizetheenginesandreduceundercowlsoakbacktemperatures.Routinecooldowntimesoflessthan
threeminutesbeforeengineshutdowncancauseenginedegradation.

Finallytheexplanationwhythese3minutesofcooldownbeforeshutdown;
Temperaturesinthecombustionchamberrunupto1700Cwhichgoesunnotedbytheaircrew,astheyget
theEGTintheexhaustpresentedontheUpperDU,generallyaround400CatIdle.Whenshuttingdownajet
engineathigherthanIdleRPM,thetemperatureinthecombustionchamberissubstantiallyhigherthanat
Idle.Thisresultsinahigherthannormalresidualfuelnozzletemperatureatshutdown,whichcausescarbonin
theresidualcombustionchamberfuelvaportosettle(coking)onthenozzles.Thissettledcarbononthe
nozzlescandisturbthenormalspraypatternofthefuelonsubsequentoperationoftheengineresultingina
disturbedflamepattern,negativelyaffectingengineperformanceand/ordamagethecombustionlinerasin
theimage.Alsothereisanexampleimage(notCFM56)ofcarbonsettledonajetenginefuelnozzle.

WhenIdleRPMisusedfor3minutes,thenozzletemperatureisthatlow,thatfuelnozzlecokingis
diminishedresultinginasafer,moreeconomic,longer,lessmaintenanceenginelifereducingcosts.

71

Dual bleed light

TheDUALBLEEDlightilluminateswhenthereisapossibilityoftwobleedsourcestotheleftsideofthebleed
manifoldwhereAPUbleedconnects.ThesetwosourcesarerelatedtooneoftheenginesandtheAPU,sonot
relatedtotwoenginesorexternalair.
ItaretheENGINEBLEEDVALVEswitchpositions,incombinationwiththeISOLATIONVALVE,togetherwithan
openAPUBLEEDVALVEthatmakesthelighttoilluminate.Soduringnonengineoperation(preflight)withthe
ENGINEBLEEDVALVEswitchesinONtogetherwithanoperatingAPUandtheAPUBLEEDVALVEopen,thelight
illuminates.TheAPUneedstooperatetoopentheAPUBLEEDVALVEbypressure,withtheswitchinONand
theAPUshutdown,thevalvecloses.

TheAPUputsoutanominalpressureof36PSItothebleedmanifoldwheretheenginesinIdle(9thstageair)
32PSI(or34PSIfromthe5thstage)whichmeansthattheAPUissupplyingairtothebleedmanifoldasthisis
higherpressure.Inthiscase,theENGINEBLEEDVALVE(andHIGHSTAGEVALVE)areclosedasitsensesahigher
downstream backpressure. When the DUAL BLEED light is illuminated according the above explanation, you
need to stayat Idle thrust to prevent apossible backpressure to theAPU as what the books say.When you
movethethrustleversuptoaboveIdle,bleedpressurefromthe5thstageincreasesabove34PSIclosingthe
HIGH STAGE VALVE and 36 PSI preventing the APU to supply pressure to the manifold, so the engine bleed
takesover.

Actually the books tells the crew that an engine (or engines) and the APU both supply pressure to the
pneumaticmanifoldatthesametimewhichshouldremindsyoutouseIdlethrustonly.Thisisjusttobesure,
thattheAPUBLEEDVALVEisclosedwhenthelightisextinguished.

Looking at the image it is mechanically impossible (except with a failing check valve) that the engine bleed
backpressures the APU because there is a check valve, preventing the APU BLEED VALVE receiving a higher
backpressure.

There are (a lot) more Boeing design related questions which I receive on a weekly bases which remain
questions,soisthislightandfailingcheckvalveissuebut...sticktotheprocedureandrestrictthrusttoIdle
whenthelightisilluminated.

72

Air Cycle Machine operation

The two air condition packs provide conditioned air (temp and moisture) to the air condition
system.Theyaresuppliedwithbleedairfromthebleedmanifold,normallyfromtheAPUorthehigh
pressure compressor of the engines. Hot air flowing into the packs has a temperature of 199
227C,controlledbytheengineBASOVandtheprecooler.Togettothenormaltemperaturerange
of1830CoftheACsystem,itneedstobecooledwhichisaccomplishedbythetwopacks.

Letslookattheflowofairthroughapackexplainingthecomponentstheairpasses.Airentersthe
packthroughthePACKFLOWCONTROLVALVEandcangointwodirections,intothecoolingcircuit
oritbypassesthesocalledACM(aircyclemachine)circuitry.

The cooling cycle starts at the primary (airtoair) heat exchangers that cools the air. The heat
exchanger works like car radiator but exchanges hot bleed air to the ram air duct airflow. On the
groundbytheway,ductairflowiscreatedbyafanwhichisdrivenofftheACM.Nexttheairhits
the compressor of the ACM which turns the compressor and turbine resulting in an increase of
pressureandtemperature.Anothersecondaryheatexchangercoolstheairagain,whereafterthe
followingcomponentsinthemanifoldaretocreateandextractwaterfromtheair.Asecondary
water extractor drains water from the manifold, a reheater pre cools the air before it enters the
condenserandwarmstheair(fromthe2ndwaterextractor)beforeitenterstheturbinetoincrease
efficiencyofthatturbineoperation.Thecondensercreateswaterdropletsintheairwhereafterthe
primarywaterextractorremoveswaterbycreatingaswirlingmotion,centrifugingthatwaterto
theoutercollectorwallwhereitiscollectedandrelievedintheramairductaddingincoolingatthe
heatexchangers.Thelastcomponentofthepackistheexpansionturbinewhichcancooltheairto
belowthefreezinglevelasafunctionofveryfastexpansion(extractingenergy)oftheair.Finallythe
airismixedwithbypassairrepresentingthepackcontrolrequestedoutputtemperature.

Thepackisprotectedagainstarequestofatoohighdemandofcoolair,therebyoverloadingthat
pack. This is accomplished by several temperature sensors detecting over temperatures in the
cooling cycle causing the pack to trip off line. If this happens, it closes the pack flow control valve
indicatedbythePACKOFFindicationonthebleedpaneltogetherwithaMASTERCAUTIONlight(AIR
COND).Thesolutiontothisproblemistoletthepackcooldownandselectingawarmertemperature
beforeresettingandunloadingthetrippedpackorelsetheoverload/overtempwilloccuragain.

Water is extracted from the air to protect the avionics in the aircraft against moisture, to prevent
moldtoformandagainstoxidationofmetalcomponents.

73

Airstair
The(optional)mostcommonairstairislocatedbelowtheleftforwardmainentryandiscontrolledfromthe
forwardattendantpanel,orfromoutsidetheaircraft.Anotheroptionisanairstairbelowtheleftaftentrydoor
whichisnotdiscussedinthispost.

Insidecontrol:
Theinteriorcontrolpanelhastwomodesofoperation,NORMALandSTANDBY.
NORMALoperationispoweredfromthe115VACstandbybus.
o eithertheextendorretractswitchesaredepressedmomentarilytooperatethestairs.
STANDBYoperationispoweredfromtheswitchedhotbatterybus,sotheBATTERYSWITCHmustbe
positionedON.
o both,thestandbyswitchANDtheretractorextendswitchmustbepushedandholdto
operatetheairstair.
Theforwardentrydoortohasbepartiallyopenbeforeelectricalpowerisavailabletooperatetheairstair.
Whenthestairsreachesfullextension,electricalpowerisautomaticallyshutofftothemotorandthetread
lightsareturnedon.(whenrotaryswitchisinAUTO)

NORMALoperationisinterlockedbyhandrailswitchestopreventthestairfrombeingretractedwiththe
handrailextendedbuttheSTANDBYsystembypassestheseswitchessocautionhastobeexercisedtoprevent
damage.

Outsidecontrol:
Whenoperatingtheairstairfromtheoutside,theforwardentrydoordoesNOTtobeopenforairstair
operationastheexteriorcontrolswitchbypassesthedooropenrequirement.

ThepowerselectionswitchprovidesNORMALandSTANDBYoperationoftheairstairandisspringloadedto
NORMAL.InNORMAL,the115VACACstandbybuspowerstheairstairelectricalmotorsotheBATTERY
SWITCHneedstobeON.

TheSTANDBYpositionprovidesDCpowerfromthe28VDCswitchedhotbatterybusforairstairoperation
wherethis(externalSTANDBY)switchenergizestheswitchedhotbatterybusregardlessofBATTERYSWITCH
position.

BothNORMALandSTANDBYoperationareinterlockedbyhandrailswitchestopreventthestairfrombeing
retractedwiththehandrailextended.Cautionmustbeexercisedwhenusingthemaintenanceswitchlocated
undertheairstair.Iftheupperhandrailextensionsarenotproperlystowedbeforeretraction,damagetothe
airplanestructureordamagetotheairstairhandrailmayresult.

AnamberAIRSTAIRlight,locatedontheoverheaddoorcautionannunciatorpanel,illuminates(providedDC
bus1ispowered)whentheairstairpressuredoorisunlocked,alsoilluminatingtheAIRSTAIRlightandthe
DOORSannunciatorlighttogetherwiththeMASTERCAUTIONlights

74

Equipment Cooling
ElectronicandElectricequipmentheatsupsubstantiallywhenusedandrequirescoolingtooperatewithout
overheating.Theequipmentcoolingsystemconsistsofasupply,andanexhaustductwithrespectiveNORMAL
andALTERNATEfans.(4fans)Thetwoseparatesystemscooltheirownrespectiveelectroniccomponents
eitherbyapplyingcoolair,orremovingwarmair.Theresultofafailedorshutdownindividualsystem,affects
specificcomponentswhicharedescribednext;

ThesupplysystempushescoolairfromtheCabinCompartmentto,andaffecting:
CaptainsDUs
LowerDU
CaptainsCDU
Aftelectronicpanel
EquipmentracksintheE&Ecompartment

TheexhaustsystempullswarmairandrelievingitintotheFWDCargoCompartmentLinerthough,and
affecting:
FirstOfficersDUs
UpperDU
FirstOfficersCDU
P6circuitbreakerpanel
Overheadpanel
EquipmentracksintheE&Ecompartment.

Flowsensorsinthesupplyandexhaustductindicatealackofairflowwhichresultsintheilluminationofthe
relatedEQUIPMENTCOOLINGOFFlight,theOVERHEADannunciatorandaMASTERCAUTIONlight.Selecting
thealternatefanshouldrestoreairflowandextinguishtheOFFlightwithinapproximately5seconds.Ifan
overtemperatureoccursontheground,acrewcallhorninthenosewheelwellsounds.

Additionalcoolingflowiscreatedbytheopenoverboardexhaustvalveontheground,andatlowaltitudesas
thevalveclosesat1PSID.(3000ft).

Executinganinflightforwardcargosmokealarmprocedure,powertothenormalandalternateexhaustfansis
interruptedandtheexhaustlowflowdetectorisinhibitedfortheremainderoftheflight.(noindications)The
stoppedexhaustfan(s)preventsmokefromenteringtheoccupiedcompartments.

75

Overb
board E
Exhaustt Valve
ThepreviiouspostexpllainedEquipm
mentCooling,oneofthecomponentsmeentionedinth
hat(exhaust)ssystem
wastheO
OverboardExh
haustValve(O
OEV).Letstakkeacloserloo
okatthatvalvveonitspurpo
oseandoperaation.

ndElectricsCo
ompartmentandreliefsexhaustairoverrboardin
TheOEVislocatedinttheaftoftheEEquipmentan
openpossitionbehindttheE&Eaccessshatch.Thevvalvehastwofunctions,itccontrolsequip
pmentcoolinggexhaust
airthatflowsoverboarrd,andithasafunctionduringasmokeremovalproccedure.

mentcoolingeexhaustairovverboardwhentheairplaneeisonthegro
oundandatalower
TheOEVreliefsequipm
altitudettoimprovecooling.WhenttheOEVisclossedinflight,ttheEquipmentCoolingexhaustairisroutedinto
theforwaardcargocom
mpartmentlineerasameanssofheating.N
NotethattheC
CargoCompartmentsaren
not
suppliedwithfreshwaarmairduringgflightastheyyareclosedarreasforfireeextinguishingrreasonstome
eetClass
Ccomparrtmentrequirrements.

boardexhaustvalvehasthreemodesoffoperation.
Theoverb

Normal
0ft.Thenorm
malmodeapplieswith
TheOEVisopenontheegroundandcloseswhen1PSIDisreachedat3000
wingbleedpanelswitchpo
ositions:
thefollow
LeftandrightpackswitchAUTO/OFF
NswitchAUTTO
RRECIRCFAN

w
Highflow
Thehighflowmodeim
mprovesventillationbyanin
ncreasedairfllowanddependsonthedeegreeofopeningofthe
Valve(OFV)andthenextbleedpanelsw
witchselection
ns:
OutflowV
LorRPACKsw
witchHIGH
NswitchAUTTO
RRECIRCFAN
heOEViscom
mmandedopen
nwhentheOFV>3.5butremainscloseedwhentheO
OFV<2.
Inthisconfigurationth

Smokereemoval.
Thesmokkeremovalmo
odeopenstheeoverboardeexhaustvalve fromfullopento54open
n,toremovesmoke
fromtheflightdeckan
ndE/Ecompartment.Thesmokeremovaalmodeisactivatedwithth
hefollowingsw
witch
positionsonthebleedpanel:
LPACKorRPA
ACKswitchHIGH
NswitchOFFF
RRECIRCFAN

76

Thermal ele
ectrical protecttions.
Electricalandavionicsequipmentissprotectedwh
henoverloadingorshortinggduringoperaationbyseveral
mmonisthedirectaccessibleandresettablecircuitbreeaker(CB).Thelessknowand
devices,tthemostcom
hidden,aareunresettablecurrentlim
mitersandmeeltfuseswhichprotectheaavyusercomp
ponentsandth
hebus
bars.

Letsfocu
usonthecircu
uitbreakersasstheyaremeentionedinsevveralprocedu
uresanddirecctlyaccessibleonthe
flightdecckandingalleeys.

operationalinformation.
FirstNEEDTOKNOWo
onentbehindatrippedCBneedstobeecheckedfirsttbymaintenaance
Onthegrround,theeleectricalcompo
beforeitisallowedtoreset.

whytheCBtriippedandtheeriskispresen
ntthatyouinitiatea
Inflightittisdifferentaastheremustbeareasonw
firehazarrdbyresettinggwithoutkno
owingwhatcaausedittotrip
p.Thegenerall(QRH)ruleisstoallowacool
downtim
meofabout2
2minutesbefo
oreresettingbutbeawareWHATyoureeresetting.Iftthecomponentisnon
essentialforthesafetyyofflight,leavveitalone.Ifitis,ithastobecloselyloo
okedatastherearecasesin
nthepast
nresettingtheeCBonlyonceeso....sito
onyourhandssandthinkiffitisreallyne
ecessary
thatcaussedafireeven
topushtheCBbackin.Itisthesoun
ndjudgmento
ofthecrewwiththerespon
nsibilityoftheeCaptaintodetermine
mpletionofafllight.TheQRH
Halsoguidesttheflightcrew
wtoresetorp
pullCBs
ifaresetisneededforrthesafecom
onnormalpro
oceduresbutsspecialattenttionisneeded
dasdescribed.
duringno

neralruleinflightbearinginmindthato
oftenaDCCBonlyiscontro
ol(switching)p
power,
Ipersonaallyusedagen
andACissoperatingpo
owerasshown
nintheimagee.TherulewastoresetesseentialDCCBssonceafter2
minutesw
whenthatsysstemisreallyn
needed,butb
bespecificallycautiouswith
hACCBsandNEVERRESETTFUEL
RELATEDCBS.AlsoneeveruseaCBaasaswitchbeecausethatsn
notwheretheeyaredesigneedforandyou
ull
perationofthedevice.IveseenCBspop
ppingalmostwhenyouonllylookatthem
masin
degradetthecorrectop
our(P3LLockheedOrio
on)operationwehadCBspulledandpu
ushedeveryflightwhichweerelaterreplaacedby
switches..

onthissubjectt,circuitbreakersarefoundthroughouttheaircraftaandarenormaallyheat
Okenougghwarnedo
triggered.NewertypeCBsareelecttromechanicaaloperatedandareactualllyrelayswithacoil.Whentthe
ntactsoftherrelay,stoppinggVoltageflow
wtothatrespective
currentfllowbecomestoohightheccoilopenscon
electricalcomponent.

heatsupandcurvesup(asinthe
WiththerrmalCBs,inccaseofanoveerloadorshorrt,abimetalinthedeviceh
image)w
whichbyoverccenterspringfforceactionpopstheshaaftoutofitsbaseshowingaatypicalwhite
eshaft
underneaathitstop.ThisinterruptstthecontrolorrpowerVoltaggeflowthrougghtheCBtotthatcompone
ent,
protectin
ngitagainstitssmalfunctionandpossibleoverheatcon
ndition.

presentsthelo
oaditisprotectingon,inteermsofAmperes.The
Circuitbrreakershaveaanumberonttopwhichrep
highertheAmps,them
morecautioussyouneedtobetoresetth
heCBastheypresentheavyyloadequipm
mentwith
ahigherrriskoffirehazzard.

77

Fuel ttemperrature in
ndicatio
on.
YesterdayyaB737instrructormadem
mecuriousonwhyfueltem
mperatureism
measuredintaank1?
ItappearstobealefttoverfromB7
737200swheresystemAwashydrauliccallypressurizzedbytwoED
DPsand
Ps.Asexplain
nedinanearlierpost,theEMDPelectromotorsheatu
upsignificantllyandare
systemBbytwoEMDP
uid.Thisheateedup(casedrrain)fluidisro
outedthrough
hanoiltofueelheatexchan
ngeron
cooledbyyhydraulicflu
thebotto
omoftank2b
beforereturningtothereseervoir,increassingthefuelteemperaturein
nthattank.In
nthat
case,fuelintank1wouldbemuchccolderthanin
ntank2which
hlimits(43Cor3abovefreezingpoint))needto
bemonitoredmorethanwarmfuel(dissolvedairr).Itwasforthisdesignphiilosophythatfueltemperatturesare
dfromaFUELLTEMPERATU
UREBULBintaank1tostayinformedonth
hecoldestfueeltemperaturres.
measured

makeadifferen
nceasbothsyystemshavethesamepressurizationfeaatures(1
ThesedayysontheNGsitdoesntm
EDP&1EEMDP)sotem
mperatureswo
ouldbeneartthesamewhe
erecasedrainfluidgoesthrroughaoiltofuelheat
exchangeeronthebottomofbothtaanks.

MPINDICATOR
Rcomesfromthe28VACtransferbusso
oifitlosespowerthe
Bythewaay,powerfortheFUELTEM
indication
nfreezes(A
AClies,DCdiess)

78

Integrated Drive Generator (IDG)


IvealreadydiscussedtheoperationofanACgeneratorbutfocusnowonthedrivethatcreatesa
constantRPMoftheAccessoryGearBox(N2)mountedgenerator.

Tocreatethenominal400HzoftheACgenerator,itneedstoturnatasteady24.000RPMwhichis
donebyconvertingN2RPM.N2atIDLEis8.400RPM,whereitis15.183RPMatitsMAXallowed
operationalRPMof105%.

ThisconversionisachievedbyaConstantSpeedDrive(CSD)whichhydraulically/mechanically
transfersthe,bytheHPCdrivenAccessoryGearBox(AGB)RPMintotheneededGeneratoroperating
RPM.ThecomponentsneededforthisspeedadjustmentaretheFIXEDDISPLACEMENTHYDRAULIC
UNITandtheVARIABLEDISPLACEMENTHYDRAULICUNITintheIDG,usingoilasthename
alreadyexplains.TheCSDhasitsownoilsystemwhichiscooledbytappedoffFanair,throughan
oiltoairheatexchanger/coolerandbyfuelthroughanoiltofuelheatexchanger/coolerthereby
increasingthefueltemperatureonthelatter.

TheDRIVElightisactivatedbyanIDGoilpressureswitch,andilluminateswhenpressureisbelowits
limitof165PSIwherenormaloperatingpressureis240290PSI.
Thisisanytimewhen:
Engineisshutdown
IDGisdisconnected
IDGovertempoccurs(automaticat182C)
IDGoilpumpfailure
IDGoilloss
IDGunderfrequencyoccurswiththeenginerunning!!
IDGdriveshaftsheared.

Ifthelightilluminatesbyoneofthepreviouscauses,theQRHisdirectingyoutodisconnecttheIDG
fromtheAGBusingtheDISCONNECTswitchontheGENERATORDRIVEANDSTANDBYPOWER
PANEL.ThisswitchactivatestheDISCONNECTSOLENOIDwhentherespectiveSTARTLEVERisinthe
IDLEposition.Theswitchissafetywiredtothepaneltopreventinadvertentoperationandactivating
theswitchwithashutdownengine(preflight)doesntactivatethesolenoid.(STARTLEVERatCUT
OFF)DONTGOTHERE;)
WhentheIDGisdisconnected,theactionisirreversibleandtheIDGhastobemechanicallyreset
(reconnected)bymaintenance.Ifthisdisconnectedisduetoanovertemp,theIDGhastobe
replacedandisnotallowedtobejustresetbymaintenance.
TheIDGdrivesshaftsheardeviceshearsthedriveshaftincaseofanIDGmechanicalmalfunctionto
protecttheIDGgeartrainintheAGBagainstdamage.

79

Theoilleevelsightgagehasanind
dicatingsilverbandandisreliable>5
5minutesaffterengine
shutdow
wn.Whentheeoillevelisb
belowthesillverband,th
heIDGoillevvelislowand
dservicingis
required
d.When(cold
d)oilisabovvethesilverb
band,theIDGoillevelishighandoilhastobedrrained
off.With
hhotoil,aleevelaboveth
hesilverband
disacceptab
bleprovideditisbelowttheDRAINmark.
Beawarethattheleft,andrightenginesidegageoneachIDGreadsdifferentasaresultofbeing
mounted
donthesam
meleftsideo
oftheengineeandwingdiihedral.

80

Electtrical Lo
oad Shedding
Loadshed
ddingiscomm
mandedbytheeBusPowerC
ControlUnit(BPCU)toprevventasingleA
ACsourcefrom
m
overloadiingbydeeneergizingcertain
nelectricalbu
ussesinseque
enceofprioritty.

u,eachgeneraatorhasitsow
wnGeneratorControlUnit(GCU)thatho
oldindividualprotectionssu
uchas;
Mindyou
*Over,undervoltagee,
*Over,underfrequency,
urrent,
*Unbalancedphasecu
ure,
*Generatordiodefailu
*Phasessequence,
*Overcu
urrent,
*Differen
ntialfault,
*Undersspeedprotecttion,
*GCUfaiilsafe,

takingtheerespectiveggeneratorOFFF
LINE when any of the previouss
occur.

dshedding.
ENGINEggeneratorload

orloadsheddiingsequence;;
Singleenginegenerato
Rbus2
1st)GallleyandmainbussesonXFR
2nd)GalleyandmainbussesonXFR
Rbus1
3d)IFEbuses

hangestoaseecondoperatinggenerator,automaticloadrestoration
nofthemainbuses,
Whenconfigurationch
busesoccurs.Ifthisdoesntthappen,man
nualrestoratio
oncanbeatteemptedbymo
ovingthe
galleybussesandIFEb
nbackON.
CAB/UTILLPowerSwitchtoOFF,then

hedding
APUgeneeratorloadsh

Ground
APUGENattemptstocarryallelectricallloads.
AsingleA
Whenanoverloadocccurs,Galleyan
ndmainbusseesaredeenerrgizeduntiltheloadiswithinlimits.

Flight
PUGENautom
maticloadshed
ddingsequence;
SingleAP
1st)Gallleybusses.
2nd)Mainbusses.(seeexplanation
nbelow)
3d)IFEbusses.

UdetectsanEEGTriseaboveelimitswhichcanbecause
edbyelectricaalandair(engginestarts)demand,
IftheECU
theMainbussesdeen
nergizes.

ptedbyselectiingtheCAB/U
UTILPowerSw
witchtoOFF,tthenbackON..
Restoringgbuspowercanbeattemp

usedbyhighEEGTonthegrround,thebusssesautomatiicallyrestorew
whenEGTisw
withinlimits.
Whencau

81

Comm
mon Dissplay Sy
ystem (C
CDS) ma
alfunctiions.
Iveearlieerpostedan articleabouttheDEUsbu
utwanttoexxplaintheCDSS(malfunctions)alittlefurther.The
CDSdispllaysperformaance,navigatio
onandengineeinformationonthesixDissplayUnits(DUs).

omponents;
TheCDScconsistsoftheefollowingco
Displayseelectpanels
Enginedisplaycontrolpanel
EFISconttrolpanels
Displayso
ourceselectors
Displayelectronicsunits(DEUs)
Coaxcouplers
Displayunits(DUs)
nels
Brightnessscontrolpan
Remotelightsensors(RLSs).

CDSonthegro
oundonly
Ifafault occursinanycardintheC
he 2nd enginee start, it is presented as an
a amber
before th
CDSFAULLTindicationo
onbothPFDssbelowthesp
peedtapeorawhiteCDSM
MAINTmessage.Whenbotthengines
areoperaatingorintheeair,theundisspatchableCD
DSFAULTchan
ngestoanam
mberDISPLAYSSOURCE.

AULT/DISPLAYSOURCEindiccatesatotalD
DEUfailuretelllingyouthatacriticalcardintheCDShas
ACDSFA
failed.
nglecardmalfunctioninclud
de:
Thesesin
Input/outputcontroller
Powersupplyy
Processor.

ortwoDEUs.
Italsocouldindicateacombinationof(lessimportant)failingccardsinoneo
Multiplecardsalsoincclude:
G
rator
Graphicgene
Discreteinputt/output
A
/output
Analoginput/

ORisononeD
DEUsupplyinggdatatoall6DUs.
TheDISPLAYSOURCEaalsoindicateswhentheSOURCESELECTO
1/ALLON2)
(ALLON1

Note:
witchingbetweeensources,(ALLON1AU
UTOALLON
N2)leavetheswitch12ssecondsatthe
e
Whensw
intermed
diatepositionorelsethe2D
DEUscansho
owincorrectd
data.

Note:
OM2atFligh
htInstrumentts,Displaysh
howaDISPLAYYSOURCEaffeectsyourauto
omated
CheckyourcurrentFCO
flightrelaatedtoAPusee.

DSMAINTshow
wswhenoneoftheseSING
GLE(lessimpo
ortant)circuitcards
ThewhiteedispatchableemessageCD
failsineittherDEU:
Graphicgene
G
rator
Discreteinputt/output
A
/output
Analoginput/

82

Cargo Compartments air.


Thereissomeconfusionaboutthecargocompartmentsrelatedtoairinsidetheholds.Thecurrent
BoeingCBTsexplainthatairfromtheEquipmentCoolingSystemandfromtheRecirculationFans
enterthe(Fwd)CargoCompartmentwhatappearstorefreshairinsideandwarmthecompartment.
ThisisNOTtrueastheCargoCompartmentsare"ClassC"firecompartments,meaningtheyconfinea
fire.Sowhenthefireagentisrelievedinthecompartment,ittakesawaytheOwithoutfreshair
circulationtofeedthefire.

TheairfromtheRecirculationFansarediffusedinadoubleskinaroundtheCargoCompartments,
therebywarmingthecompartmentsupwithoutanyregulation.Thelinerthatcreatesthatdouble
skinisdesignedasafirebarriertoisolatethecompartmentsfromtherestoftheaircraft.

TheForwardCargoCompartmentalsoreceivesEquipmentCoolingairwhentheaircraftisabove
3.000feet(>1PSID),whentheOverboardExhaustValveisclosedandreliefsintotheliner.

TheAftCargoCompartmentonlyreceivesairfromtheRecirculationFansandfromtheCabinwhere
theOutflowValvecreatesanincreasedairflowthroughthelinerdependingondifferentialpressure
atthatmomentwarminguptheAftCompartment.

AlltogetherthisnormallyresultsinahighertemperatureintheForwardCompartmentcomparedto
theAftCompartment.

ThecompartmentsarepressurizedthroughanPressureEqualizationValve,soastheaircraftclimbs
ordescentsthereisaflowoutandintothecompartmentsforpressurization.Atlevelaltitudethe
compartmentsareclosedandthereisnoairflowinoroutcreatingthosefireconfiningareas.

Last,thecompartmentsareequippedwithBlowoutPanelstobackuptheEqualizationValvesincase
ofafastrateofchangeinpressurearoundthecompartmentsasinarapiddecompression.

83

NiCad Battery operation.


TheB737NGisequippedwitheither1,orcommonly2,aMainandAuxiliaryNiCadBatterylocatedin
theE&Ebay.ThepurposeoftheBatteriesistoprovideEmergencyPowerandtobeabletostartthe
APUfromtheMainBatterywhennoACPower(XFRbus#1)isavailable.

TheBatteryhasacapacityof48AmpereHourwhichcan,whenfullyloadedprovidenormal
EmergencyElectricalPoweroperationtotheelectricalsystemfor30minutes(each).Thestandard
Voltagerangeisfrom2230VDCaschargedtoitsmaximumBatterycapacitybytheirrespective
ChargerfromACGroundServicebus#2(Main),andACGSbus#1(Aux).
WhensupplyingEmergencyPower,theBatteriesareparalleledbytheRemoteCurrentCircuit
Breaker(RCCB)toequalizetheirdischargeandbasicallycanbeexplainedas,anytimewhenthe
EmergencyInverter(thatconvertsBatteryDCintoAC)powerstheACStandbybus,theRCCBis
closed.WhenstartingtheAPUfromtheBattery,thepowercomesfromtheMainBatteryONLYas
theRCCBiscommandedopen,mostlikelypreventingdrainingbothBatteriesinanattempttostart
theAPUwithalossofbothGeneratorsbutalsoapplieswhenstartingonthegroundwithoutAC
powerontheaircraft.

Emergencypowerisprovidedfor:(BatterySwitchON)
HotBatteryBus(alwaysconnectedtotheMainBattery)
SwitchedHotBatteryBus
BatteryBus
DCStandbyBus
ACStandbyBus(throughtheEmergencyInverter)

84

WhenselectingtheBatterySwitchtoON,thebatteriesaredischargedwhichcanbeseenonthe
ElectricalPowerModulePaneldisplayonthefwdoverheadpanelasselected.AnamberBAT
DISCHARGElightilluminateswhenthereisanexcessivedischargeload(Amps)ofaBatteryfor:
95secondsmorethan5amps
25secondsmorethan15amps
1.2seconds.morethan100amps
SoinitiallythereisnoDISCHARGElightuntiloneofthepreviousvalueshasbeenexceeded,ittakes
sometimetodeterminethattheInverterdrainstheBatteriesatahighercurrentrate.Ofcoursethe
lightisaccompaniedbyaMASTERCAUTIONandtheamberELECannunciator.TheBATDISCHARGE
doesNOTilluminatewhenthisloadistheresultofanAPUstartusingtheMainBattery.
WhenaBatterydischargeisdetectedontheground,ahornwillsound2minutesafterdetectionto
alertthegroundcrew,meaningtheBatterydischargeswithoutachargerprovidingpowertothe
Battery.

TheAPUstartattemptsarerestrictedbyusingtheAPUsStarterPowerUnit(SPU)andStarter
ControlUnit(SCU)thatconvert28VDCor115VACtotherequired270VACwhichheatsupthese
components.Therestrictionisthreeattempts,whereafter15minutescoolingisrequiredofthese
SPUandSCU.

HereismyapproachofhowtheBatteryisaffectedbyanAPUstartusingthemaxstartingtimeof
120secondswherethestarteriscutoffat70%meaning84secondsat400Amps.Oneattempt
wouldtake9.3Amp/hrfromtheBatteryleaving(489.3)38.7Amp/hrand20.1Amp/hrafterthree
attempts.ThisdischargewouldbeaffectedbythequalityoftheBattery,therateofdischarge,the
timethestarterisengagedandtemperature.

85

Climb Thrust Reduction

Whenyouveselectedafixedderateand/orATRTthrustreductionfortakeoffontheN1LIMITpage,
theFMScomputesontopofthisselectionanadditionalthrustreductionduringclimb.This
recomputedvalueisautomatic,andisrequiredtoavoidaclimbN1valuegreaterthanthereduced
thrusttakeoffN1value.

TherearetwofixedclimbthrustreductionsavailableontheN1LIMITpage:
CLB1,whichgivesaclimbthrustlimitreductionof3%N1,andisanequivalentof10%thrust
reduction.
CLB2,whichgivesaclimbthrustlimitreductionof6%N1,andisanequivalentof20%thrust
reduction.

Normally,selectingTO1automaticallyarmsCLB1andselectingTO2automaticallyarmsCLB2but
alsocouldbetheoutcomeofacombinationwithATRTselection.AutomaticarmingofCLB1orCLB2
bytheFMSdependsonvariousadditionalconditionssuchasenvironmentalandaircraftandengine
configuration.

TheFMCautomaticallyselectsthehighestclimbthrustavailable(CLB,CLB1,CLB2)whichwouldnot
resultinathrustleverpush,whentheaircrafttransitionsfromtakeofftoclimb.<SEL>isdisplayed
inboardoftheselectedclimbN1limitandIfaCLB1orCLB2isselected,theN1%forCLBandthe
N1cursorsstilldisplayvaluesforfullratedclimb.

Climbthrustreductioninitiatesat1500ftAGLindicatedbytheN1rollingbacktherequired
percentage(3%or6%)whereafteritimmediatelystartstoslowlyincreasetothefull(fixed)rated
thrustselection.Thisfullratedthrustwillbereachedwhennotinterferedat15.000ft.

86

The white b
bug.

Ontakeo
offthewhiteebugisautomaticallysetttoV2+15aandonappro
oachtoVref+20.

Attakeo
offandspeed
dsabovewhiitebug,theaaircrafthasFFULLmaneuvverabilityandisprovided
dwhen
theairplanehasacceeleratedtotherecommeendedmaneuverspeedffortheselecttedflapposiition.
Thismeaansupto40AOB,i.e.25
5AOB+15overshootupset.Whenbelowwhiteebug,ithasLLIMITED
maneuveerabilityto3
30AOBi.e.1
15AOB+15
5overshoot.Thebugdisappearsattheinitialflap
ps
retractio
onaftertakeofforwhenVREFisselecctedintheC
CDU.

Onapproach,whenatnormallandingflapsaaresetandaaboveVref,theaircrafthasfull
G/A,andthe
eFlapsarereetractedto15,thefull
maneuveerability.HoweverintheeeventofaG
maneuveerability&limitedmaneuverabilityccriteriaapplyytothewhiteebugagain.Thisisbecau
useVref
30(&Vreef40+5)=V2F15,andth
husthewhittebugisV2FF15+15,and
dequalsthetakeoffcase
easifa
F15takeeoff.(ThisisaalsowhytheemagentaCM
MDspeedbu
ugautomaticcallymovesaabovethewhitebug
astheFlapsareretraactedtoF15fora2engin
neG/A).

Inthecaaseofasingleengineapp
proachVref15=V2F1.TThusintheG
G/AthesameelimitsonBaank
Angleap
pplyastheFllapsareretraactedfromFF15toF1.Inthiscasetheemagentasp
peedbugssttaysat
VflytogivebestRateeofClimbup
pto1000ft.((NotetheQR
RHsayingbaankanglelim
mitedto15ffora
singleen
ngineG/Aun
ntilatsafesp
peed)

87

Standby Hydraulic System operation.


ThestandbyhydraulicsystemisabackupsystemforthenormalhydraulicAand/orBsysteminthe
eventofafailure,forthenextcomponents:
Thrustreversers
Leadingedgeflaps
Leadingedgeslats
Rudder
o StandbyYawdamper

TheStandbyHydraulicSystemoperatesmanuallybyselectionof:
Leadingedgedevicesby:
o FLTCONTROLAorBswitchto:
StandbyRudder
o ALTERNATEFLAPSarmswitch
o ALTERNATEFLAPScontrolswitch
Thrustreversers
o Operatingthethrustreverserhandles
StandbyYawDamper
o FLTCONTROLAandBswitchto:
StandbyRudder

TheStandbyHydraulicSystemoperatesautomaticallyforthe:
RudderPCU
o BycommandoftheForceFightMonitor

AlsothestandbypumpoperatesautomaticallyifALLofthenextconditionsexist:
FLTCONTROLAorBswitchONand,
ALTERNATEFLAPSarmswitchOFFand,
Trailingedgeflapsnotupand,
Aircraftintheair,orwheelspeedmorethan60ktsand,
Lowflightcontrolhydraulicpressure.

Thepurposeoftheautomaticstandbyhydraulicsystemoperationistohaveenoughruddercontrol
duringtakeoff,approach,andlandingifeitherorbothofthemainhydraulicsystemsfail.

Whenthestandbyhydraulicsystemactivates,theamberSTBYRUDONlightilluminates.

88

Theforcefightmonitor(FFM)isinstalledonmodified(NG)73stodetectoppositepressuresonthe
A,andBhydraulicsystematthemainrudderPCUactuator.Thiscouldbeanindicationofeither
hydraulicsystem,inputrodorcontrolvalveexperiencesamalfunction.Whensuchaconditionsis
detected>5seconds,theFFMwillautomaticallyactivatethestandbyhydraulicpumpthereby
pressurizingthestandbyrudderPCU.

89

Transformer Rectifier Units. (TRU)


TherearethreeTRUslocatedintheE&Ebayracksthatconvert115VACinto28VDCwitha
maximumloadof75Ampswithsufficient(enforced)coolingor50Ampswithregularcooling.The
TRsoutputcanbeindividuallycheckedonthe(overhead)meteringpanel.

TRU1receivespowerfromACTransferBus1andfeedsDCBus1innormaloperation.
TRU2receivespowerfromACTransferBus2andfeedsDCBus2innormaloperation.
TRU3receivespowerfromACTransferBus2andfeedstheBatteryBusinnormaloperation.

TRU3receivespowerfromACTransferBus1intheeventofafailureofACTransferBus2through
theenergizedTR3TransferRelay(TR3XFRRLY).

DCBus1and2haveacrossredundancybytheCrossBusTieRelay(orDCBusTieRelay)ifaTRUfails
operationbutautomaticallyopens:
AtglideslopecaptureduringaflightdirectororautopilotILSapproach.
o ThisisolatesDCBus1fromDCBus2duringanapproachasaredundancy,toprevent
aDCBusmalfunction(suchasashort)fromaffectingbothnavigationreceiversand
flightcontrolcomputers.

Note:
WhenaDCBusexperiencesashort,theelectricitytriestofollowthepathofleastresistancethereby
possiblyaffectingtheoperationofthehealthyDCBus.

WhentheBusTransferSwitchispositionedtoOFF.
o Thisenablesthecrewtoisolatetheleft(1)DCsystemfromtheright(2)DCsystem
togetherwiththeleft(1)andright(2)ACsystemwhenneeded.

Whenontheground,anymalfunctioningTRUwillilluminatetheamberTRUNITOfflightonthe
MeteringPaneltogetherwiththeELECmastercautionannunciatorlight.

InflightthislightilluminateswheneitherTR1failsoracombinationofTR2&3.Thereasonofthese
combinationsistowarnthecrewthatatglideslopecaptureduringaflightdirectororautopilotILS
approachyoullloseeitherDCBus1(TR1)orDCBus2(TR2&3).

AnycombinationoftwoTRUsiscapableofpoweringthecompleteelectricalsystem.

ThediodeafterTR3allowsTR3toprovideabackupforTR2&3butpreventsforsome(tomeyet
unexplained)reasonTR2frompoweringtheBatteryBus.

90

RAM AIR DUCT doors.


TheRAMAIRDUCTsystemsuppliesandcontrolscoolingairtotheairtoairheatexchangersofthe
airconditionpacks.Astheworddescribesitusesramaircreatedbyforwardmotionoftheaircraft.
OnthegroundairflowiscreatedbyafanwhichisturnedbytheAIRCYCLEMACHINE(ACM).

Ontheground,aDEFLECTORDOORmountedattheinletoftheductextendstopreventdebrisfrom
enteringtheductwhentakingofforlandingonacontaminatedrunway.Thenosewheelsspurt
contaminationsidewaysandupinthedirectionoftheductswhereitbecomesdeflectedawayfrom
them,tominimizecloggingtheairtoairheatexchangersinsidetheducts.Whentheheat
exchangersclogup,itmightaffecttemperaturecontrolofthePACKpossiblycreatinganoverheat
andaPACKtrippingof.

InsidetheductaretheRAMAIRDOORS(RAMAIRMODULATIONPANELS)mountedthatmodulateto
accomplishaconstanttemperatureof110CmeasuredbetweentheACMcompressorandthe
secondaryairtoairheatexchanger.Asmostoftheairconditioncomponentsthisismeasuredand
controlledbytheAIRCONDITIONACCESSORYUNIT(ACAU)inconjunctionwiththePACK/ZONE
CONTROLLER.

Onground;
TheACAUcommandstheRAMAIRDOORStobecompletelyopenindicatedbytheRAMDOORFULL
OPENlight(s)toestablishthebestcoolingflowwithslowerandnoforwardmotionoftheaircraft.

Inflight:
TheACAUcommandstheRAMAIRDOORStomovefromtheopenposition,modulatingtosucha
positiontomaintainthat110Cducttemperature,mainlyatafairedpositiontoreducedrag.The
FCOMstatesthatthedoorswillbefullyopenindicatingtheRAMDOORFULLOPENinslowflightwith
theflapsnotfullyUP.Thisisaresultoflowairflowcausingtheairtemperaturetoreachthe110C
notbeingabletomaintainalowertemperaturewhichdrivesthedoortofullopen.IntheACAUand
PSCU(AIR/GND)systemsthatcontrolthedoorsarenospeedreferencesignalinputs.

OtherpossibilitiesofanilluminatedRAMDOORFULLOPENindicationbutwithflapsUPevenat
cruisealtitudescouldbe:
Theramairductcouldhaveanobstruction
Onorbothairtoairheatexchangersaredirtynotallowingenoughairflowthroughthem
Anelectricalfailurecausingahightemperaturesensingordoorfailsinopen

91

Standby Power.
TheStandbyPowerSystemisrequiredforsafeflightoperationtopowerthemostimportant
electricalcomponentsthatreceivepowerthroughtheStandby,andBatterybussesintheeventofa
partialortotalelectricalfailure.ItalsopowersthosebussesduringgroundoperationwithoutAC
electricityavailable.TheStandbyPowerSwitchcontrolspowertotheStandbybussesandcanbe
positionedtoBAT,OFFanditsnormal(guarddown)positionAUTO.

ThenextselectionsoftheStandbyPowerSwitchwillenergizetheirrespectivebusses;

AUTOposition,ACpowerdeenergizedandBATswitchON:
ACstandbybusfromthebatteriesthroughthestaticinverter
DCstandbybusfromthebatteries
Batterybusfromthebatteries

AUTOpositionwithACxfrbus1energizedandBATswitchON:
ACstandbybusfromACxfrbus1
DCstandbybusfromtheTRthatprovidesthehighestload
BatterybusfromTR3

OFFpositionandtheBATswitchON:(STANDBYPWROFFlightilluminated)
Batterybusfromthebatteries

BATpositionandtheBATswitchONorOFF:
ACstandbybusfromthebatteriesthroughthestaticinverter
DCstandbybusfromthebatteries
Batterybusfromthebatteries(SwitchedHotBatterybusdeenergizedwhenBATswitchisOFF)

TheamberSTANDBYPWROFFlightilluminatestogetherwiththemastercautionandELEC
annunciatorlightwhenlowvoltageisdetectedononeofthenextbusses.
ACstandbybus<100VAC>2seconds
DCstandbybus<17,5VDC>2seconds
Batterybus<17,5VDC>2seconds

TheSTANDBYPWROFFlightonlyilluminateswhentheBatterybushaslowpoweroutputwiththe
BATswitchintheONposition.

92

Fueling panel
Singlepointpressurefuelingordefueling(orgroundfueltransfer)isaccomplishedthroughthis
panelwhichisnormallynotacrewdutybutcertainlydoesntharmifknown.BythewaySP12in
FCOM1willguideyouwhenrefuelingortankfueltransferisneeded.
ForthisexplanationIuseKgswhereLbsisalsopossibleandIdontcovertheAuxTankversion
utilizedontheBBJ.

Whenrefueling,thecrewspresentknowledgeonlimitationsshouldbeusedtostaywithinlimits.
RefueltheMainTanksequally.(<453Kglimit)
RefueltheMainTankstofullifthereis>453KgfuelintheCenterTank.
Fueltrucknozzlepressureshouldnotexceed50PSI.(Placardstates55PSIMAX)

Iremembera7PSIminimumwhendefuelingorelsethehosecollapsesbutisntavaluewiththe
B737obviouslyandneverusedbyflightcrews.(exceptFlightEngineers)

Thefuelingpanelcontrolspressure,andmanualrefuelingofthetanksandusesHotBatteryBusDC
powerforoperationwhenthedoorisopened.
Refuelingispossiblewithoneofthenextelectricalpowersources:
Externalpowerconnectedwiththesystembusesenergized
Externalpowerconnectedbutnobusesenergized
APUgenerator
Batterypower(BatteryswitchON)

OpeningtheFuelingPanelDoorenergizestheRefuelingPowerControlRelaybyamagnetwhich
allowsHotBatteryBusPowertotheFuelingPanel.Ifthisdoesnothappen,theFuelIndicationTest
switchshouldbeusedtotheFuelDoorSwitchBypasspositiontoaccomplishthesame.
TheTankFuelingValvesarecontrolledbytheirrespectiveswitches,andalightwillilluminatewhen
thevalvereceivespower.WhenthereisalsoFuelPressurepresent!!,thevalvewillopensothey
openwhenthenextconditionsaremet:
PowerontheFuelingPanel
FuelingvalvecontrolswitchOPEN
Fuelingvalvesolenoidenergized
RefuelpressureontheFuelingValve
DefuelsuctionontheFuelingValve
FuelingValveFloatswitchnotinthefullposition
Preselectedvalue(ifapplicable)isnotreached

93

WhenthetankreachesFULL,theindicatorsstartflashingandpowerwillberemovedtotheFueling
Valvewhichwillclose.OnsomenewerFuelingPanels,thefuelloadcanbepreselectedandwillclose
theFuelingValvewhenthatlevelisreached.
WhentheFuelingValvesolenoidfails,thereisapossibilityofmanualoperationofthevalvebya
ManualOverridePlunger.BeawarethattheFULLprotectionisinoperativeduringthisaction

94

Brake accum
mulator
Whenbo
oththenorm
mal(Bsystem
m),andaltern
nate(Asyste
em)hydraulicbrakesareinoperative,youstill
have(wh
hencharged)residualbrakeaccumulatorpressurreavailablefforbraking.

Thebrakkeaccumulattorislocated
djustaftofttherightmaiinwheelwelll,accessiblethroughanaccess
panelun
nderneathth
hebellyoftheaircraftandhasadirecctreadinggaageattheafttwheelwellwall.It
isacylin
nderfreefloaatingpistonttypeaccumu
ulatorwithaNitrogenprechargeof1
1000PSIwhiichis
alsoindicatedattherightforwarrdpanelonttheflightdecck.Whenitindicates100
00PSI,there
eisno
orbrakingasthisisjustaaprechargeoftheaccum
mulator.Minimumindicaatedpre
pressureeavailablefo
chargep
pressureshouldbe1000PSItoenablethemaxim
mumpossibleeamountofeemergencyb
brake
applicatiionswithressidualpressu
ure,whenall(HydA&B))brakepresssuresupplyfails.

Theaccu
umulatoriscchargedbyBsystempresssureandroutesthrough
hthesameh
hydraulictub
bingas
thenorm
malbrakesysstemapplyin
ngbrakepresssurethrougghtheindivid
dualwheelantiskidvalve
es
towardtthebrakeun
nits.Afullych
hargedbrakeeaccumulato
oriscapableeofapplyingatleast6fullbrake
applicatiionsbutconsiderpreven
ntinghardbrrakingastheantiskidvallveswillrelieefpressureto
preventabrakelockkup,therebydiminishingtolessbrake
eapplication
ns.

Accumulatorpressurrecanalsob
beusedtoseettheparkinggbrakeswheenthereisnohydraulicssystem
operatin
ng.Whenfulllycharged,theaccumulaatorcanhold
dtheparkinggbrakesupttoapproximaately8
hours.

Abrakepressurereliefvalveisseetat3500PSSItopreventtdamagetotheaccumulatorwhichaalso
restrictsmaximump
pressurewhicch,whenopened,closessagainat310
00PSI.ThisisNOTthehyydraulic
systemp
pressurerelieefwhichareseparatesystemreliefvvalvessetat3500PSI.

95

Control column shaker


StallBuffetisidentifiedwhenthecriticalAngleOfAttackisapproachingaStallcondition,andStall
wherethatAOAisreacheddisturbingtheairflowoverthewinginsuchawaythatitdoesnot
producetherequiredLift.
TherearesystemstowarnthecrewonapproachingaStall(buffet)conditionbyanindicationonthe
PFDandaStickShakersystem,andtopreventStallbyahydraulicforwardforceontheControl
Column(ElevatorFeelShift)andtheAutoSlatSystem.
CentralofstallmanagementarethetwoStallManagementandYawDampercomputers(SMYD)
whichusesinputsonaircraftconfigurationsuchasGearandFlappositiontogetherwithAngleOf
AttackandMachnumberinputs.
ThePFDsshowtheminimumsafeoperatingspeed(Vmin)relatedtothecurrentconfigurationasred
blocksonablackbackgroundatthelowerinnerpartofthespeedtape,indicatingthespeedwhere
thestickshakeractivatesfornormalstallwarning.WhentheStickShakerhasfailed,theredblocks
nexttothespeedtapeareremovedandaSPDLIMflagappearsnexttothespeedtapeonthePFD.
(seerightimage)
AtfirstFlapretractionthereisalsoanamberbandvisibleabovetheredblocksthatindicates
minimumsafemaneuveringspeedVmvrwhereontheapproachtheamberbandisvisibleafterVref
isentered.
Note:VrefcalculatedbytheFMCthroughyourinputsarestandardVrefvaluesnotaffectedbyice
controlsystemssoyouhavetoaddthe10KtstoVrefwhendeterminingVrefice.
TheAutoSlatSystemcommandstheLESlatsfromtheExtendedpositiontotheFullExtended
positionwhentheFlapsareselectedatthe1,2,and5,(+10,15,25dependingonmodel)position,
andtheaircraftapproachestheStallregion.
WhenenteringtheStallregion,theStickShaker(s)areactivatedtowarnthecrewtheyare
dangerouslyclosetostallingtheaircraftswings.TheSMYDcomputeractivatesatVminandoperates
theStickShakerdevicesatthebackofeachControlColumnwheretheCaptainsStickShakeruses28
VDCStandbyBuspowerandtheFOsStickShaker28VDCBus2power.TheDCmotorsconsistof
unbalancedringsthatshaketheirrespectivecolumnwhenactivated,andofcoursealsotheother
columnastheyareinterconnectedunderneaththeflightdeckfloorboards.
WhenclosetoaStall,theSMYDcomputercommandstheElevatorFeelShiftmodule(andactuator)
toafourtimeshighernosedownforcetopreventfurthernoseupmotion(pullingontheColumn)
andtransitintoaStallcondition.

96


ThestallwarningcanbetestedontheAftOverheadPanelbyseparatetestswitcheswhichactivate
therespectiveStickShakermotors.Whenthesystemdoesnotoperate(systemsnotmalfunctioning)
itcouldbethatthetestisperformedwithin4minutesafterACpowerwasselectedastheSMYD
computersusesthistimeforaselftest.AnotherpossibilityisthatoneorbothLEFlappanelshave
droopedoffbythelackofBsystempressure.TheyhavenouplockastheSlatshaveandcanmove
fromtheuppositionbyweightandgravitywhenBsystempressurehasleakedawayfromthe
hydrauliclines.
Thetestshouldnotlast>20secondasyoumightdamagetotheDCmotor,andthestallwarningtest
isinhibitedwhentheaircraftisinflight.

97

Wheel thermal fuse plugs.


ThermalSensitiveInflationPressureReleaseDevicesfortubelessaircraftwheelsoreasierthermal
fuseplugspreventviolentexplosionofthetireswhenmaximumtemperaturesareexceeded.

Note;whenawheelexplodes(Maintirepressurecanbeashighas205PSI),itwillhappensideways
soNEVERapproachasuspectedoverheatedwheelfromtheside.

Fourthermalfuseplugsmountedineachinnerwheelhalf(notvisiblebecauseofthemountedbrake
units)preventtireexplosioncausedbyhotbrakes.Theplugsaredesignedtocompletelyreleasethe
containedinflationpressurefromatubelesstirewhenbrakegeneratedheatcausesthetireorwheel
toexceedasafetemperaturelevelandmelttoreleasetirepressureatapproximately177Cor192
Cdependingonmodel.

FCOM1SP16(adverseweather)talksaboutbrakeheatradiationanditsnegativeeffecton
temperaturelevelsthatmaymeltthe(thermal)fuseplug,deflatingtherespectivetire.

FCOM1PDsectionprovidesinQuickTurnAroundLimitWeighttablesthatindicatethemaximum
AircraftweightagainstOATandPAwhichalsoneedtobecorrectedforslopeandwind.Whenthis
limitweightisexceededyoushouldhonortherespectivecooldownperiodonthegrounddepending
onthecategorybrakesmountedontheaircraft,whereafteracheckhastobeperformedto
determineifthefuse(s)havenotmelted(deflatedtire)beforecommencingtakeoff.

WhenaBrakeTemperatureMonitoringSystem(BTMS)isinstallednotetheBrakeTemplight,when
illuminatedhonortherespectivetimeframeasaboveandcheckthefuse(tire)beforetakeoff.

FCOM1PIsectioncontainsaRecommendedBrakeCoolingScheduletodeterminetheAdjusted
BrakeEnergy(orindicatedbytheBTMS)whichindicateswhatactionisrequiredcoveringaNo
Action,aCautionandFuseMeltZonearea.

TheCautionandMeltzonesindicatedangerouslyheatedbrakesandrequiresafetyactionssuchas:
Cautiononground,delaytakeoff
Cautioninflight,delayraisingthegear
Meltzoneonground,vacaterunway,donotsetparkingbrakesandwheel/brakereplacement
couldbenecessary.
Meltzoneinflight,delayraisingthegear.

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Battery busses

The73hasthreeBatteryBusseswhichinorderofpriorityare:
HotBatteryBus
SwitchedHotBatteryBus
BatteryBus

TheHOTBATTERYBUSisthemostimportantDCBuswhichnormallyreceivespowerdirectlyfrom
theMainBatteryBusBarorcharger,innonnormalconditionsMainBatterypowerissupportedby
theAuxBatteryinparallel.ThisBusisthemainpowersupplyforallfireextinguishersandpowers
alsootherimportantDCcomponentsasshownintheimage.

TheSWITCHEDHOTBATTERYBUSbecomesenergizedbyselectionoftheBatterySwitchtoONand
receivespowerfromtheBatteryBusBar/charger.ThisBuspowerssomeinterestingcomponentslike
theAPUECU(APUshutsdownwhenECUbecomesdeenergized),Fwdairstair(STANDBYposition)
andtheL&RADIRUasanDCemergencypowersource.

TheBATTERYBUSreceivespowerfromtheMainBattery/chargerorfromTR3andisenergizedby
selectingtheBatterySwitchtoON,theStandbyPowerSwitchtoBAToriftheTR3hasnooutput.
TheBatteryBushasthemostandheaviestDCusersofallBatteryBusses.

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Electrical schematic

100

Fuel schematic

101

Hydraulic schematic

102

Bleed schematic

103

Air condition schematic

104

Engine oil & fuel schematic

105

Flight Mode Annunciations (FMA)

106

INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK

107

Power Sources (NG)

108

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110

111

112

113

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