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Toa_do_trong_khong_gian

Toa_do_trong_khong_gian

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04/24/2014

PHAN HUY KHAI

HINH HOC

KHONG GIAN

, _ J _

DANH CHO HQC SINH ON THI TOT NGHI~P THPT

,- ~ ~

VA LUYEN THI VAO DAI HOC, CAO DANG

. ..

NH..\. XUAT BAN GIAO Dl}C

Phan 1

HINH HOC GIAI llCH KHONG GIAN

Chuang 1

PHEP TINH TO~ DO TRONG KHONG GIAN

1. TOM TAT LI THUYET

Toa df) dilm trong khong gian

• Trong khong gian, moi diem M nrong irng voi duy nhat bo ba s6 (x ; y ; z) va bo ba s6 do duoc goi la toa do ella diem M, kf hieu la

M(x ; y ; z) hoac M = (x ; y ; z).

• Cho hai diem M I (x I ; Y I ; ZI) va M2(X2 ; Y2 ; z2)' Kf hieu I la trung diem cua MN thi toa do (x ; Y ; z) ella I ducc xac dinh boi cong thirc

xl + x2

x = --=---=-

2

Y = YI + Y2 2

zl + z2

z=~-=

2

Cong thirc nay thuong duoc goi ten la H~ thirc Sac lo,

I I I I I I

r-----

,.

,.

• Cho tam giac ABC voi A = (XI; YI ; ZI); B = (X2; Y2; Z2); C = (X3 ; Y3 ; z3)' Khi do trong tam G ella tam giac co toado diroc xac dinh nhu sau

G = (Xl + x2 + x3 . Yl + Y2 + Y3 . zl + z2 + Z3)

3 ' 3 ' 3

4

• Cho tu dien ABeD. Diem G goi la trong tam cua tu dien khi va chi khi

....

GA + GB + GC + GD = O.

Neu A = (xj ; Yl ; Zl) ; B = ('X2 ; Y2 ; Z2) ; C = (X3 ; Y3 ; Z3) ; D = (X4 ; Y4 ; Z4) thi trong tam G cua nr dien co toa d¢ diroc xac dinh nhir sau

G = (Xl + x2 + x3 + x4 . YI + Y2 + Y3 + Y4 . zl + z2 + z3 + Z4).

4 ' 4 ' 4

Vectu trong khong gian

• Trong khong gian cho vecto MN voi

thl

• Ta hay kf hieu vecto boi cac chir cai U, v, w, ...

• Cac phep tinh ve vecto trong khong gian cung nrong tv nhir cac phep tinh ve vecto trong mat phang toa do.

• Gift si.'r U = (u. ; u2 ; u3); v = (VI ;V2 ; V3)' Khi do ta co

{UI = vI

.... ....

U = v ~ u2 =.v2

. u3 = Y3

U + v = (u , + vI ; u2 + v2 ; u3 + v3), U - v :;:: (u, - vI ; u2 - v2 ; u3 - v3),

AU = (AUI ; AU2 ; AU3), 0 day AE R

• D¢ dai lui cua vecto ii (u I ; U2 ; U3) duoc xac dinh nhu sau :

'ul = ~uf + u~ + u~· .

• Cho hai vecto U, V. Tfch vo huang cua hai vecto U, v la mot s6 thirc, kf hieu la u.v va no duoc xac dinh nhu sau :

..... ~ , .... , , .... , ( ........ )

u. v = u . v .cos u,v .

5

• Bieu thirc giai tich cua tfch vo hirong :

Giii sir

• ii .L V <=> ii.v = 0

<=> uivi + u2v2 + u3v3 = o.

Tich co huang clla hai vecta

Cho hai vecta ii = (uj, u2' u3) V = (VI, v2, v3)·

Tich c6 hirong cua ii , V la mot vecta, kf hieu la [ii, v] va no diroc xac dinh bang cong thirc sau day

[ii, v] = (u2 u3 , u3 ul ,u1 u2 J.

v2 v3 V3 vI vI v2

Tich c6 huang cua hai vecta ii va V c6 cue tinh chat co ban sau :

1) I[u, v]1 = iui.ivl.sin(u, v).

2) [ii, v] = 6 <=> ii, v la hai vecta cung phuong.

3) Vecto [ii, v] vuong g6c v6i hai vecto ii, v, do d6 [ii, v] . ii = [ii, v]. v = o. lip dung tich vo huong va tich co huang clla hai vecta ta co cac kit qua sau : 1) Ba vecta ii , v, W dong phang (nrc la ba phuong cua ba vecta nay nam

tren ba mat phang song song) khi va chi khi [ii, v] . w = 0 (ta thuong goi

[ii, v] . w la tfch h6n tap cua ba vecta khac nhau).

2) Di¢n tfc~u~nh binh hanh ABCD lit ~;"----~----"7C

SABCD = I[ AB, AD JI· A ....... L_-------(

6

3) Tht tich hinh hop ABCD.A'B'C'D' Hi V ABCD.A'B'CD' = r~B, ADJ ·M'I·

4) Cho hmh tu dien ABCD. a) Tht tich ttl dien Hi

1 1[--> ----->J ---->1

V ABCD = (; AB, AC .AD.

_ 1[Ai3, mJ.sDI b) d(AB, CD) - 1[-----> ----->JI

AB,CD

6 day d(AB, CD) Hi khoang each gitra hai duong cheo nhau AB va CD.

CHi DAN VE L!CH SLr

Michel Chasles (Saclo) (1793 - 1880) la nha roan hoc ngiroi Phap. Ong la mot nha hinh hoc tong hop n6i tieng. Cong trmh chinh cua ong "Khai quat ve Itch sir ngu6n g6c va su phat trien cac phuong phap trong hinh hoc" cho den nay van con la mot cong trinh co chat hrong ve Iich su.

2. cAc DANG ToAN co BAN

I I I I 1

01

r-----

...-

x

A

o

c

Michel Chasles (1793 - 1880)

Cac bai toan eo ban sir dung phep tinh vecto trong khong gian Thi du 1. (De thi tuyen sinh Dai hoc, Cao dang kh6i A - 2004).

Trong khong gian voi he true toa d¢ Oxyz cho hinh chop S.ABCD co day ABCD la hlnh thoi, AC cat BD tai g6c toa do. Biet A(2 ; 0 ; 0) ; B(O ; I ; 0),

S(O ; 0; 2.J2). GQi M Ia trung diem cua canh sc.

1) Tinh goc va khoang each gitra hai dirong thang SA, BM.

7

2) Gia sir mat phang (ABM) cat duong thang SD tai N. Tfnh the tich kh6i chop S.ABMN.

ou,

z

1) Do ABeD Hl hlnh thoi co tam la 0 nen til gia thiet ta co

y

c = (-2 ; 0 ; 0) ; D = (0 ; -1 ; 0).

Til do do M la trung diem cua SC nen

M = (-1 ; 0; Ji).

Ta co SA = (2; 0; - 2Ji)

i3M = (-1 ; - 1 ; Ji).

x

GQi a la goc gifta hai duong thang SA, MB, ta co

ISA·13M1 1-2 - 41 6 J3

cosa= = =-=-

ISAI.Ii3M1 J4+8 . .Jl + 2 + 1 4J3 2·

Vay a = 60°

De tfnh khoang each gitra hai duong thAng cheo nhau SA, BM, ta sir dung cong thirc

I[SA, i3MJ.AIiI d(SA, BM) = 1[- ~]I

SA,BM

(1)

Theo cong thirc xac dinh toa d<;> cua vecto [SA, 13M] , ta co

[- ~] [0 - 2Ji - 2J2 2 ; 2 0 J

SA BM = .

, -1 Ji ' Ji - 1 -1-1

= (-2Ji; 0; - 2) ~ I[ SA, BM JI = Ji2

AB=(-2;1;0)

~ [SA,i3MJ.AIi = 4./2 .

8

Thay vao (1), va c6

d(SA, BM) = 4Ji = 216 .

Jl23

2) Vi AB II mp(SDC) nen MN II DC. Suy ra N Hi trung diem cua SD

~ N= (o;-k;Ji}

De thay

VS.ABMN = VS.ABN + VS.BMN

Ta co

. = *1[SA,SBlSNI + *I[SS,SM].SNI· SA = (2 ·0· - 2 '2) . SN = (0 . - _!_ . - '2J

" "\/L, , 2' '\/L ,

SS=(0;1;-2Ji); SM=(-l;O;-Ji).

r- -~J (0 - 2Ji. -2Ji 2 2 OJ

SA SB = . .

, 1 - 2Ji ' -2'J2 0 '0 1

= (2Ji ; 4.Ji ; 2),

[-~ -~J - (1 - 2Ji . -2.Ji O. 0 01 J

SB,SM - , ,

o - Ji -Ji - 1 -1

= (-Ji ; 2Ji ; 1).

Thay vao (2), di den

V S.ABMN = *(1-2Ji - 2Jil + I-Ji - Jil) = Ji .

Chu y:

1. Cach giai n6i tren Hi dira vao phep tinh toa dQ trong khong gian.

(2)

9

2. Xet each giai khac sau day. Ta co

V S.ABMN = V S.ABN + V S.BMN

III

= "2 VS.ABO + "2. "2VS.OBC

1 V 1 V

= - -+--

2·2 4·2

3V

=

s '

<1 day v = VS.ABCO. Ta co

Tu day

SABCD = .!..AC.BD = 4.2 = 4.

2 2

V = .!..4.2J2 = sJ2 .

3 3

Tir do

VS.ABMN = %. s~ = J2.

S

(*)

Ta thu lai ket qua tren voi each giai khac - phirong phap cua hinh hoc khong gian thuan tuy !

Thi du 2 (De thi tuyen sinh Dai hoc, Cao dang khoi A - 2003)

Trong khong gian voi h~ toa do Oxyz cho hlnh hop chir nhat ABCD.A'B'C'D'

co A trung vci g6c cua he toa do, B(a; 0; 0), D(O; a; 0), A'(O; 0 ; b) (a> 0, b > 0).

GQi M la trung diem cua CC'.

1) TIm th~ tfch kh6i ttl dien BDA'M theo a, b.

2) Xac dinh ti s6 ~ d~ hai mat phang (A'BD) va (MBD) vuong goc voi nhau.

10

cui

1) re gia thiet ta co: C(a; a; 0); C(a; a; b), D'(O; a; b), B'(a; 0; b). VI M Hi trung diem cua CC, nen M = (a; a ; ~).

Ta co

y

BD = (-a; a ; 0)

BA' = (-a ; ° ; b)

---+ ( b)

BM = 0; a; 2" .

VI the

-a

-a

2 = (ab, ab, a ).

x

Vay VBDA'M =

2) GQi K la trung diem cua BD. Do A'B = A'D => A' K j_ BD. Lai co MB = MD => MK .L BD. Vay A:K:M = 90°.

<=> A'KMK = O.

Ta co K = (~ . ~ . 0) do do

2 ' 2' ,

A'K = (~ . ~ . - b) . MK = (-~ . - ~ . - ~.).

2'2" 2' 2' 2

a2 a2 b2 2 2 a

(l)<=>-4-4+T=0<=>b =a <=> b =1(doa>O,b>O)

VI the (A 'BD) .L (MBD) <=> ~ = 1.

b .

o

(1)

11

Thf dlf 3 (De thi tuyen sinh Dai hoc, Cao dang khoi D - 2004)

Trong khong gian voi he toa do Oxyz cho hinh lang true dirng ABC.AlBICI. Bict A(a; 0; 0), B(-a; 0; 0), C(O; 1 ;0), B1(-a; 0; b) voi a> 0, b c- O.

1) Tim khoang each giii'a hai dtrong thang BI C va ACI theo a, b.

2) Cho a, b thay d6i nhung luon thoa man a + b = 4. Tim a, b d~ khoang

each gitra BIC va AC1 la Ian nhat.

Gidi

nen ta co ngay AI = (a ; 0 ; h)

C1 = (0; 1 ; b).

Theo cong thtrc tinh khoang each gitra hai dirong thang ta co

AC = (-a· 1 . b)

) , , ,

Ta co

CC) = (0 ; 0 ; b).

[ ____, -____' ] ( 1

B)C,AC) = 1

y

x

(1)

~ b . -b a . a 11) = (2b ; 0 ; 2a). b ' b - a ' -a

T~ay vao (1) va co

12abl ab

d(B1C, AC1) = ~/r===='== =

\f4b2 + 4a2 ~a2 + b2 .

2) Ap dung bat dang tlnrc Cosi ta co

ab ab 1 rr 1 a + b t:

d(BIc'ACI)~r ~ .~= ~"ab~ ~--=,,2(doa+b=4).

a2 + b2 ,,2ab ,,2 ,,2 2

12

Vay gia tri Ian nhat cua khoang each gitra BIC, ACI la Ji. Gia tri nay dat duoc khi va chi khi a = b= 2.

Thi du 4 (D~ thi tuyen sinh Dai h9C, Cao dang - khoi A 2006)

Trong khong gian voi he toa do Oxyz cho hinh lap phuong ABCD.A'B'CD' voi A(O ; 0 ; 0) ; B(l ; 0 ; 0), D(O ; 1 ; 0), A'(O ; 0 ; 1). G9i M va N Ian luot la trung diem cua AB va CD.

Tfnh khoang each gifra hai duong thang A'C va MN. cu.

I

Ta co ngay toa do cua cac dinh con lai nhu sau :

fro; 0; 1); CO ; 1; 1); CO; 1 ; 0), D'(O; 1 ; 1).

Vi M, N tuong ung la trung diem cua AB, CD nen ta co

z

Theo cong thirc v~ khoang each ta co

A'A- -----,,0'

, , . I[A'C,MN].CNI

d(A c, MN) = I[ ]1'

A'C,MN

(1)

I'

I ,

I '

8' f----+--''r----{c

I ,

I ,

I ,

I ,

I ,

O)-~---\:..

M~ ~, __

~/ ,

8 '

I C

o

Ta co

A'C =(1'1'-1)' MN =(0'1'0)'

", , , ,

--+ (1 )

CN = --' O' 0

2' ,

[----+ -~J (I - 1 1'-1

A'C MN == .

, 10' 0

x

1 1 1 J = (1 . O' 1) o '0 1 ".

Thay vao (I) va co

d(A'C, MN) ~ til ~ .fi .

,,2 4

Nhdn xet . Ta giai lai bai toan tren bang each thuan tuy sir dung hinh h9C khong gian nhir sau :

Ta co BC II MN => MN II (A'BC)

Mat phang (~'BC) chua A'C va song song song voi MN, nen d(A'C, MN) = d(MN, (A'BC» == d(M, (A'BC».

13

Ta co AB' .L A' B (hien nhien VI ABB'A' la hinh vuong).

Do -BC j_ (BAA' B ') => BC j_ AB'. V~y AB' j_ (A'BC), nen AH j_ (A'BC) va AH la khoang each tir A toi (A'BC), (AB' (\ A'B = H).

Trong tam giac A'AB, ke MK II AH, thi MK j_ (A'BC) va

d(M, (A'BC» = MK.

Do MK = _!_ AH = _!_ AB' = J2 , ta thu lai ket qua tren.

244 .

\ I

\ I

\ I \ I

It:

I \ I

" \ I

KI \ I

I \IA

I\~ ... l! _

" ).e. _

...

B

D

6 day thuan tuy dung phirong phap hinh hoc tong hop (phuong phap hinh hoc khong gian thuan tuy !).

Thi du 5 (De thi tuyen sinh Dai hoc, Cao dang kh6i B - 2002) Cho hinh lap phirong ABCD.AIBICIDI co canh being a.

1) Tfnh theo a khoang each gitra hai dirong thang AlB, va BID.

2) GQi M, N, Plan hrot la trung diem cua cac canh BIB, CD, AIDI. Tfnh goc giiia hai dirong thang MP va C IN.

cuu

Dung he true toa de nhu hlnh ve. Trong he true nay ta co

A == 0(0 ; 0 ; 0).

B == (a ; 0; 0) ; C = (a ; a; 0), D = (0 ; a; 0), AI = (0 ; 0 ; a), BI = (a; 0; a),

CI = (a ; a; a), DI = (0 ; a; a). 1) Ta co

_1[1Q3,~J.BDI d(AIB, BID) - I[----t ----tJI

AIB,BID

14

z

B ,I

I " I I 'I, I I ......

I I ..........

I I ~ -,

I I .........

I I ...

" 'O=A - ...... ,

~------ ---~--~

" -: D

,.

c

y

(1)

"

De thay AlB = (a; 0; -a); BID = (-a; a; -a) BD = (-a; a; 0)

[A;B,B;D] = (~

- a -a a

,

- a -a - a

222 = (a ; 2a ; a ).

2) Vi M, N, P nrong irng Ia trung diem cua B)B, CD va A)D) nen ta co

M= (a;o;%) ;N= (%;a;o) ;P= (o;%;a).

-----+ --+ a 2 a 2

Nhu vay MP.CIN = - -- = 0 2 2

=> MP j_ C)N.

Vay goc gifra hai duong thang MP va C)N bang 90°, vi hai duong thang nay vuong goc voi nhau.

Nhdn xet. Xet each giai khac cua thf du tren.

Ta co AD j_ (BAA)B)

=> AD j_ BA) rna BAI L AB) => BA) j_ (BIAD»

=> BA) L B)D.

Tuang nr DD) .L (A)B)C)D) => DD) .L AIC)

Lai co A)C) .L B)D) => A)C) .L (B)DD),

(2)

D

B

(3)

15

Tir(2)va(3)coB)D .t. (A)BC).

Trong (ADC)B) tht B)D (\ C)HI = G (6 day H) la tam cua mat ABB)A), khid6

Trong hinh chir nhat AB,C)D, do H) la trung diem cua AB) nen ta co

GBI = GHI = B,H1 = 1 GD GC, C,D 2

Vi A)BC) Hl tam giac deu co canh bang a.J2. Vay GH, = 1c,H, = 1. (a~)J3

aJ6

=

6

B

Chu Y VI GH) la doan vuong goc chung cua A]B, B]D nen ta co

Ta thu lai ket qua tren.

Xet each clnrng minh khac cho phan 2) cua bai toan.

Goi K Iii trung diem cua CC). Ta co

MK _l (CDD]C,). => MK .L C]N.

(4)

C)N _l KD).

Tir do C]N _l (MKD]P) => C]N _l MP.

Ta thulai ket qua tren,

Binlt ludn. Cac ban hay so sanh hai each giai tren !

(5)

16

Al P

....---Il----=/'--it----:a D I / / /

B1 r------r/~/-_< /1 / I // I

/ I

/ I

D

M IA

/1..: _

/

"

"

/

/

B

Thi du 6 (Dethi tuyen sinh Dai hoc, Cao dang khoi D - 2008)

Cho lang tru dirng ABC.A'B'C' day la tam giac vuong co BA = BC = a, canh ben AA' = a-J2. GQi M la trung diem Be. Tfnh khoang each gitra hai dirong thang AM va sc

Gidi

UlY B la g6c va dung he true toa d(> Bxyz (x em hinh ve), Trong he true toa do nay ta co

Do vay

AM = (~ . - a . 0)

2 ' ,

B'C = (a; 0; - a-J2).

( -c) I[AM, B'elAB'1

dAM, B C = 1[--- -JI

AM,B'C

B = (0; 0; 0)

A = (0; a; 0)

C = (a; 0; 0)

B'=(O;O;a-J2)

M=(~;O;O).

B

Taco

(1)

[- -J [ -a 0 0 a a -oa J

AM, B' C = t: ; 2 ; 2

o -a'J2 -a-J2 a a

= (a2J2 . a2J2 . a2)

, 2 '

=> I[AM, S'c]1 ~ a2 FF ~ aJl.

Lai co [AM, B'C lAB' (0 day AB' = (0; - a; a-J2»

= ~a3-J2 + a3-J2 = a3-J2.

2 2

(2)

(3)

2-HHKG-A

17

Thay (2) va (3) vao (1) va co d(AM, B'C) = aft. 7

Nhdn xet : Xet each giai khac thuan tuy htnh h9C khong gian nhu sau :

G9i E l?t trung diem cua BB', ta co EM il B'C A'~---___,.,

=> B'C II (AEM).

Do AM E (AEM), nen

d(B'C, AM) = d(B'C, (AEM»

= d(C, (AEM» (do B'C II (AEM» = d(B, (AEM» (vi MB = MC).

Do ABC la tam giac vuong tai B, nen B.AEM la hinh

chop dinh B co BA, BE, BM doi mot vuong goc v6i nhau. B

G9i BH la dirong cao hinh chop B.AEM, thl BH .1 (AEM)

va H la tnrc tam flAEM, ta co

1 1 1 1

--=--+--+--

BH2 BA 2 BE2 BM2

1 1 1

~ a' + (a~)' + (~)'

aJ7 => BH = --_

7

=> d(AM, B'C) = aft. 7

Ta thu lai ket qua tren.

Binh ludn : Ve tinh hieu qua cua cac phirong phap, xin danh cho ban d9C.

Thi du 7 (De thi t6t nghiep THPT - 2003)

Trong khong gian Oxyz cho b6n diem A, B, C, D trong do

A = (2; 4 ; -1); OB = 1 + 41- k ; C = (2; 4 ; 3) ; 013 = 21 + 21- k.

1) Chung minh AB 1. AC, AC 1. AD, AD 1. AB.

2) TIm th6 tich nr dien ABCD.

18

2-HHKG-8

Gidi

_, _, _,

1) Tir OB = i + 4 j - k => B = (1 ; 4 ; -1) ;

_, _, _,

OD = 2i + 2j - k => D = 2; 2; -1).

Ta co

AB = (-1 . 0 . 0) . AC = (0 . 0 . 4)' AD = (0 . -2 . 0)

, " , " ".

De thay AB . AC = AB. AD = AC . AD = 0, suy ra AB j_ AC, AB j_ AD, AC j_ AD => dpcm !

2) Ta co

Y ABCD = l-r~B, ACJ.A6I· (1)
[---'] (0 0 0 ~1 -1 ~ ) ; (0 ; 4 ; 0).
Ta co AB, AC = 4'4 0'
0 0 Thay vao (1) di den

1 4

Y ABCD = -1-81 = - (dvtt).

6 3

cn« Y

1) Vi AB, AC, AD doi mot vuong goc nen BA j_ (ACD). Khi do BA chinh la dirong cao cua hinh chop B.ACD.

Do do Y ABCD = YB.ACD = kAB.SACD

A

1

= -AB.AC.AD 6

1 4

= - .1.4.2 = - (dvtt).

6 3

Do la each giai khac cho cau 2) .

C

2) Neu bai roan doi hoi them : Tinh chieu cao ke tir A cua It! dien ABCD.

Ta lam nhu sau :

Y ABCD = .! .AH. SBCD' Theo phan 2) ta co 3

4 1 4

- = - .AH. SBCD => AH = -- .

3 3 SBCD

(2)

19

De rhay

SSCD = kl[oc, OOJI·

BC = (1 ; 0; 4); BD = (1 ; -2 ; 0), do vay

[--~~~. ~J (0 4 4 1 1 0 J

BC BD = . .

, -2 0' 0 1 ' 1 - 2

.= (8 ; 4 ; -2).

SSCD = .!."'64 + 16 + 4 = ffi. 2

(3)

Ta co

Vi vay

Thay (3) vao (2), ta co AH = ~ = 4ffi .

v21 21

Thi du 8 (D~ thi tot nghiep THPT - 2004).

Trong khong gian cho bon diem A(1 ; -1 ; 2), B(l ; 3 ; 2), C(4 ; 3 ; 2), 0(4; -1 ; 2).

Chung minh bon diem A, B, C, D dong phang. ci.n

. --t ----I> ---+

A, B, C, D dong phang <=> ba vecto AB, AC, AD dong phang.

'fa co

AB = (0 ; 4 ; 0) ; AC = (3 ; 4 ; 0) ; AD = (3 ; 0 ; 0), tir do

[~ _-<J (4 0 0 01 0 4 J

AB AC = . . = (0 . 0 . -12).

, 4 0' 0 31' 3 4 ."

[AS, ACJ. AD = 0.3 + 0.0 + (-12).0 = O.

Vay

Tu do suy ra AB, AC, AD dong phang => dpcm. CIIlI Y

Bai wan nay nrong duong voi bai roan dang sau :

Cho bon diem A(l ; 0; 0) ; B(O; 1 ; 0), C(O; 0; -1), D(-2 ; 1 ; -1). Chung minh rang A, B, C, D la bon dinh cua mot tu dien.

___,

A, B, C, D la bon dinh cua tu dien <=> ba vecto AB, AC, AD khong

dong phang.

Linn nrong ur nhu tren ta eo

[AS, ACJ . 'AD = 1 '* 0 => dpcm,

20

Thi du 9

Trong khong gian eho hinhhop chtr nhat ABCD.A'B'C'D' voi toa de) cac dinh nhu sau : A'(O ; 0 ; 0) ; B'(a ; 0 ; 0) ; D'(O ; b ; 0), A(O ; 0 ; c) ; trong <16 a, b, e > O. OQi P, Q, R, SHin hrot la trung diem cac canh AB, B'C', C'D', DD'. Tim moi lien he gitra a, b, e d~ PR .L QS.

Gidi

Co th~ thay ngay cac dinh D', B, C, D co toa d(> la :

C' = (a; b; 0); B = (a; 0; c); C = (a; b ; c); D = (0; b ; c)

Theo cong thirc tinh toa d(> trung diem, ta co

(a c) (b)

P= -'0'- 'Q= a'-'O .

2' '2' , 2' , ,

R = (~ . b . 0) . S = (0 . b . ~)

2'" "2 .

--+ ----+

. PR .L QS ~PR.QS = 0

t.

B'

Q

C'

x

b2 e2

~ - - - = 0 ~ b = e (do b > 0, e > 0). 2 2

Do chinh la dieu kien d~ PR _i QS.

Thi dlJIO

Trong khong gian eho hai tu dien ABCD, A,B,C,D" trong do A(5 ; 3 ; 1), B(4; -1 ; 3), C(-6·; 2 ; 4), D(2 ; 1 ; 7), A,(6 ; 3 ; -1), B1(0 ; 2 : -5), C1(3; 4; 1) diroc xac dinh.

TIm toa d(> cua dinh D, sao eho hai tu dien ABCD, A1B1C,D, eo cung trong tam.

Gidi

Gia su DI = (x , ; y, ; z,). GQi G va G, Ian hrot la trong tam cua nr dien ABCD va A, B, C, D,. Theo cong thirc tim trong tam cua tu dien ta eo :

5 + 4 - 6 + 2 5 6 + 0 + 3 + xl 9 + x,

xG = 4 = 4 ; xG1 = 4 = 4

21

3 - 1 + 2 + 1 5 ., 3 + 2 + 4 + Y I 9 + Yl

YG = 4 = "4 ; YG1 4 = A

1+3+4+7 15 -1-5+1+z1 -5+z1

zG = 4 = 4 ; zG1 = 4 = 4

{9 + xI = 5 {XI = -4

Vi the G == G1 <=> 9 + YI = 5 <=> YI = -4

-5 + zl = 15 zl = 20.

Tom lai hai ttl dien ABCD va A I B, CI DI c6 cung trong tam <=> DI = (-4 ; -4 ; 20).

Chuy

Ta co bai roan lien quan sau day: Cho hai ttl dien ABCD va AIBlClD. Hai ttl dien nay co cung trong tam khi va chi khi

~

AA, +BBI + CCI + DDI = O.

That vay neu goi G la trong tam cua ttl dien ABCD, thi

GA + GB + GC + GD = O. ~ Theo guy tile trir vecto thi

(1) <=> (GAl - CiA) + (~ -GB) + (GC7 - ac) + (GO;' - G13) = 0

<=> (GAl + GB, + GCI + GDl) - (CiA + GB + ac + G13) = O. (3)

Tu (2) va (3) co

(1)

(2)

_,

(1) <=> GAl + GBI + GCl + GDI = 0

<=> G == GJ. a day GIla trong tam cua ttl dien AlBlClDI.

Ap dung (1) c6 the giai Iai bai tap tren nhir sau :

Gia sir D, = (xj ; y, ; z.).

Ta c6

AA = (1 . O· -2) . BB = (-4 . 3 . -8) .

1 " ,I '"

CCI = (9 ; 2; -3) ; DDI = (x , - 2; Yl - 1 ; z) - 7).

22

· Hai nr dien ABCD vi A I BI CI DI e6 cung trong tam khi va chi khi (1) thoa

man, tire Iii khi va ehi khi ta e6

11 - 4 + 9 + (xI - 2) = 0 {XI = ~4

0+ 3. +_ 2 + (YI -- 1) = 0 ¢::> YI = -4 ¢::> DI = (-4 ; -4; 20).

l-2 - 8- 3 + (ZI - 7) = 0 zl = 20

Ta thu lai ket qua tren.

Thi dl;lll

Trong khong gian Oxyz eho b6n diem A(2; 4; -1); B(l ; 4; -1); C(2; 4; 3); D(2;2;-I).

1) Chung minh ABCD la mot nr dien.

2) Xac dinh toa dQ diem M trong khong gian de eho dai luong

MA2 + MB2 + MC2 + MD2

dat gia tri nho nhat va hay tinh gia tri ay.

cu:

1) Ta e6

AB =(-1 ;0;0); AC =(0;0;4); AD =(0;-2;0).

[----+ ---+] (0 0 0 - 1 -1 0)

AB AC =. . . = (0 . 4 . 0).

, . 0 4 '4 0' 0, 0 ."

Ta e6

V~Y [AS, AC]. AD = --8 *- 0, suy ra AS, AC, AD Ia ba vecto khong dong phang, nrc la ABCD Hi nr dien. .

2) GQi G la trong tam cua ur dien ABCD, nrc la diem tho a man he thirc

-.

GA + GB + GC + GD = 0

De thay toa do trong tam G diroc xac dinh nhir sau

G = (2 + 1 + 2 + 2 . 4 + 4 + 4 + 2 . -1-1 + 3 -1) = (2.2.0).

4 ' 4 '4 4'2'

Ta e6 theo quy tac ba diem

MA2 + MB2 + MC2 + MD2

= (Me} + GA)2 + (MG + em)2 + (MG + OC)2 + (MG + 05)2

= 4MG2 + (GA2 -+- GB2 + GC2 + GD2)+ 2MG(GA + em + GC + Gn)

= 4MG2 + ( GA 2 + GB2 + GC2 + GD2 ).

(1)

23

Tit (I) suy ra dai hrong MA 2 + MB2 + MC2 + MD2 nhan gia tri be nhat khi va chi khi MG = 0 ¢::> M == G.

V~y M = (~; ~ ; 0) la diem duy nhat cua khong gian tho a man yeu cau de ra.

Gia tri nho nhat S cua dai IUQ'ng MA 2 + MB2 + MC2 + MD2 la

S = GA 2 + GB2 + GC2 + GD2

~ [G - 2 r + G - 4 r + 12 ] + [G - 1 r + G - 4 r + I] +[(~-2r +G-4r ++[G-2Y +G-2r +1]~15!.

Chu y. Tit thf du tren ta suy ra ket qua sau :

Cho nr dien ABCD. V oi moi diem M trong khong gian, ta co

MA2 + MB2 + MC2 + MD2 = GA2 + GB2 + ac2 + GD2 + 4MG2, a day G la trong tam cua tU dien ABCD .

.

Ket qua nay thuong goi Hi "he thirc Lepnhit" trong khong gian. No gi6ng nhu "he thirc Lepnhit" trong hlnh hoc phang da bier :

Trong mat phang cho tam giac ABC. Khi do voi moi diem M trong mat phang, ta co h~ thtrc MA 2 + MB2 + MC2 = GA 2 + GB2 + GC2 + 3MG2, a day

G la trong tam cua tam giac ABC. '

CHI DAN VE L!CH SV

Leibniz G.W sinh a Leipzig nam 1646 la nha toan hQC thien tai ngiroi Due. Ong cung voi Newton I (nha toan hQC, vat If ngtroi Anh) phat minh ra phep tinh tich phan,

Cac tir toa do, hoanh do, tung do dung trong hlnh hoc ghii tich ngay nay la do Leibniz dong gop vao nam 1692.

HQc sinh phd thong quen biet den ong qua cong thirc kinh di~n Newton-Leibniz khi hoc ve tich ph an

24

Leibniz G.W (1646 - 1716)

Thi du 12

Xet nr dien ABCD dA xet trong thi du 10. Xac dinh diem I sao eho

--.

3IA - 2IB + IC + ID = 0 ,

sau do tim quy tfeh nhirng diem M sao eho

13MA - 2MB + Me + M6I = IMA -- MEl.

cu.

GQi 1= (xo ; Yo ; zo), ta co

IA =(xo-2;Yo-4;zo+ 1), IC =(xo-2;Yo-4;zo-3);

~

IB = (xo - I ; Yo - 4 ; Zo + 1), ro = (xo - 2 ; Yo - 2 ; Zo + 1).

Ta co

3IA - 2IB + IC + ID = (3xo - 8 ; 3yo - 10 ; 3zo - 1).

VI vay ta co he phuong trmh sau d~ xac dinh duoc diem I,

{3XO - 8 = 0

3yo = 1~ = 0 3zo 1 - O.

Tit do 1'= (~ . _!_Q. _!_)

3' 3 ' 3

la diem can tim . • Ta co

3MA - 2MB + MC + MD

= 3(Mi + iA) - 2(Mi + IS) + (Mi + iC) + (Mi + ill)

---> ---+

= 3MI (do 3IA-2IB+IC+ID = 0).

V~y 13MA - 2MB + Me + M6I ~~'IMB - MAl

~ 13Mil = 1A:B16 MI = 1AB.

(1)

T' (1) - ich " M -, hi h .' . 1(8 10 1) ba kf h

ir suy ra quy tIC eua fa In eau tam - ; - ; -, an In

333

R = _!_AB = _!_ (do AB = Jl2 + 02 + 02 = 1).

3 3

25

Chuong z

DUONG THANG vA M!T PHANG TRONG KHONG GIAN

1. TOM Tkr LI THUYET

A. Mijt phdng trong khong gian

• a va b la mot cap vecto chi phuong cua mat phang (P) neu chung khong cung phuong va gia cua cluing song song voi (P) hoac nam tren (P). Khi d6

Ii = [ a, bJ la mot vecto phap tuyen cua (P). • Phuong trinh tong quat cua (P)c6 dang

Ax + By + Cz + D = 0 (voi A 2 + B2 + C2 > 0).

Khi ay ii = (a ; b ; c) la mot vecto phap tuyen cua (P). • Mat phang di qua diem M(xo ; Yo ; zo), va

nhan ii = (a ; b; c) lam vecto phap tuyen c6 dang

A(x - xo) + B(y - Yo) + C(z - zo) = O.

• Mat phang thea doan chan

Mat phang di qua ba diem A(a; 0; 0); B(O; b; 0); C(O ;0 ; c) (abc *- 0) c6 dang

~+r+~ = 1. abc

Duoi dang nay ta n6i la mat phang c6 phuong trmh thea doan chan.

26

...

a -to

~b

/

-+

n

...

n

.M

x

B

y

• Chum mat phang

Cho hai mat phang (P) va (Q) cat nhau

(P) : A)x + Bjy + Cjz + D) = 0

(Q) : A2x + B2y + C2z + D2 = O.

Khi do mat phang di qua giao tuyen cua (P) va (Q) co dang

a(A1x + B1y + Cjz + D1) + ~(A2x + B2y + C2z + D2) = 0, (a2 + ~2 > 0). Ngiroi ta goi h~ thirc tren la phuong trmh ella chum mat phang sinh boi (P) va (Q).

B. Duong thling trong khong gian

• Phuong trinh t6ng quat cua duong thang d co dang

{AIX + B1y + C1z + n, = 0 d:

A2x + B2y + C2z + D2 = 0,

o day Af + Bf + Cf > 0, A~ + B~ + C~ > 0 va A) : B) : C) :t:. A2 : B2 : C2·

Khi do vecto ii = [ii,v] , a day ii = (A) ; B); C); v = (A2; B2; C2) la vecto chi phirong cua dirong thang d.

• Phuong trinh dirong thang d di qua diem M(xo ; Yo ; zo) va nhan vecto ii = (a ; b ; c), (a2 + b2 + c2 > 0) lam vecto chi plnrong co dang :

d: x - Xo = y - Yo = z - Zo (abc 7:- 0).

abc .

Dang nay thuong goi la dang chinh rae cua d. Neu abc = 0 thi duong thang khong co phuong trinh chfnh Hie.

• Phuong trlnh dirong thang d di qua diem M(xo ; Yo ; zo) va nhan vecto ii = (a ; b ; c), (a2 + b2 + c2 > 0) lam vecto chi phuong co dang : .

27

r x=xo+at

d : ~ y=yo+bt, t E !I{. lZ=Zo+ct,

Dang nay goi la dang tham s6 cua d.

C. Vi tri tuong doi giiia hai duong thdng

Cho duong thang dl qua diem MI(xl ; YI ; ZI) va nhan UI = (al ; bl ; CI) lam vecto chi plurong ; dirong thang d2 qua diem M2(x2 ; Y2 ; z2) va nhan u2 = (a2 ; b2 ; C2) la vecto chi phuong. Khi do :

D. Vi tri tuong dlJi giiia duang thdng va mat phdng

X, d' h " d x - Xo Y - Yo Z - Zo

et uong t ang d : = = --"-

abc

va mat phang (P) : Ax + By + Cz + D = o. Khi d6

• d cat (P) khi va chi khi Aa + Bb +'Cc =I:- o.

• d II (P) khi va chi khi

{Aa + Bb + Cz=O

Axo + Byo + CZo + D =I:- O.

• d nam trong (P) khi va chi khi

{Aa + Bb + Cz = 0

Axo + Byo + CZo + D = O.

28

E. V! tri tuang doi gina hai mat phdng ,

Cho hai mat phang (P) : A1x + Bjy + Clz + D) = ° (Q) : A2x + B2y + C2z + D2 = 0.

Khi d6

• (P) cat (Q) khi va chi khi Al : BI : C1 :I; A2 : B2 : C2

• (P) II (Q) khi va chi khi

{AI : BI : CI =A2 : B2 : C2

Al : BI : CI : DI :I; A2 : B2 : C2 : ~2

• (P) trung (''; I khi va chi khi

AI: BI : CI : D) = A2 : B2: C2 : D2 F. Cdc cong thuc ve' khodng each

• Khoang each h tir diem M(xo ; Yo ; zo) den mat phang (P): Ax + By + Cz + D = 0, duoc xac dinh nhir sau :

. IAxo + Byo + CZo + DI

h = d(M, (P» = ...- .

~A2 + B2 + c2

• Khoang each h tir diem N(x I; Y I ; Z I) den dirong thang

x - Xu y - Yo z - Zo

d : --- = = --_, diroc xac dinh nhir sau :

abc . .

h = deN d) = I[N"M, uJI

- ' lui

voi u = (a ; b ; c), va M = (xo ; Yo; zo).

• Khoang each h giira hai dirong thang cheo nhau dl va d2.

d. : x - Xl _ Y - Yl = Z - ZI
al bl ci
d2 : X - x2 Y - Y2 = Z - Z2
-
a2 b2 C2
duoc xac dinh nhu sau : , 29

o day

UI = (aj ; bj ; c.), U2 '= (a2 ; b2 ; C2) M] = (XI; Yj ; Zj), M2 = (X2 ; Y2 ; Z2)·

G. Cong thuc tinh goc

• Goc cp (0° ~ cp ~ 90°) gifra hai dirong thang dj (co vecto chi phirong ul = (a, ; bj ; ej» va d2 (co vecto chi phtrong u2 = (a2 ; b2 ; c2», diroc xac dinh boi cong thirc

cos cp = IU1·u21 = la1a2 + b1b2 + clc21

IU111u21 )af + bf + cf ~a~ + b~ + c~ .

• Goc rp gifra dirong thang d va mat phang (P) dUQ'C tinh nhir sau

IAa + Bb + Cel 0 0

sino = I I ,(0 < cp ~ 90 )

\/A2 + B2 + C2.\/a2 + b2 + e2

o day ii = (A ; B ; C) la vecto phap tuyen cua (P), U = (a ; b ; e) la vecto chi phirong cua d. ,

• Goc cp giira hai mat phang (P) va (Q) diroc xac dinh boi cong thirc

cosrp = IA1A2 + BIB2 + c1c21 , (00 ~ cp ~ 900)

) A f + Bf + Cf ) A~ + B~ + C~

o day nl = (AI; B, ; Cj ) va n2 = (A2 ; B2 ; C2) Ian hrot la cac vecto phap tuyen cua (P) va (Q).

2. cAc D/\NG ToAN CO BAN

Loai 1. Cac bai toan thiet lap phirong trinh duong thang va mat phang Thi du 1. (D6 thi tuyen sinh Dai hoc, Cao dang khoi A - 20(8)

Trong khong gian voi he toa d¢ Oxyz, cho diem A(2 ; 5 ; 3) va duong thang

d·x-1=I=z-2

. 2 1 2·

30

1) TIm toa d<) hinh chieu vuong goccua diem A tren d.

2) Viet phirong trinh mat phang (a) chua d sao cho khoang each tir A den (a) Ian nhat.

GiJi

1) GQi MIa hinh chieu cua A tren d. Gia sir M (1 + 2t; t ; 2 + 2t) (do M Ed).

Khi do ta co AM = (21 - 1 ; t - 5 ; 2t - 1).

d co vecto chi phuong t.i.= (2 ; 1 ; 2), nen tir AM .1 u suy fa

AM.u = 0 <=> 2(2t -1) + (t - 5) + 2(2t - 1) = 0 <=> 9t - 9 = 0 <=> t = 1.

";~y M = (3 ; 1 ; 4).

2) Gia sir (P) Hi mat phang IUy y chua d, khi do M E (P). Ke Ail 1 (P). Ta luon co

AH::::AM.

Vay mat phang (c.) chua d sao cho khoang each tir A den (a) la Ian nhat chinh la mat phang chua d va vuong goc voi AM.

A

p

(d)

Ta co AM = (1 ; _ 4 ; 1). 00 do (a) co phirong trinh

1 (x _. 3) - 4(y - 1) + 1 (z _. 4) = 0

<=> x - 4y + z - 3 = O.

Nh(1Il xet .' Cau 2) co th~ giai bang cac each khac nira nhu sau :

Cdch 2. GQi Ax + Bx + Cy + 0 = 0 la mat phang (P) chua d 00 d E (P) nen ii = (A ; B ; C) .1 U, hay

2A + B + 2C= O.

Mat khac diem N(1 ; 0; 2) E d ~ N E (P), vay ta co A + 2C + 0 = O.

Tir (1), (2) suy fa A + 0 = 2A + B <=> 0 = A + B.

(1)

(2)

Tu (1) co

2A + B 2C = -2A - B ~ C = -.

2

31

v ay (P) co dang

2A +B

Ax + By - --_·_······-z·+ A + B = 0

2

<=> 2Ax + 2By - (2A + B)z + 2A + 2B= O.

• Neu B = 0, thi (P) co dang 2Ax - 2Az + 2A = 0

<=> x-z+ 1 =0

Khi do khoang each tir A den (P) Hi

h - 12 - 3 + 11 - 0

- J2 -.

(do A:;t: 0).

Loai kha nang nay, vi ta can tim (P) co khoang each h Ian nhat.

• Neu B:;t: O. Khi do co th~ chon B = 1, thay vao (3) thi (P) co dang 2Ax + 2y - (2A + l)z + 2A + 2 = O.

Luc nay khoang each tir A (2 ; 5 ; 3) den (P) la

h = 14A.+ 10 - 6A - 3 + 2A + 21 = . 9

)4A2+4+(2A+l)2 ~8A2+4A+5

re (5) suy ra

hmax <=>(8A2 + 4A + 5) dat gia tri nho nhat 1

<=> A = -_:.

4

Thay lai vao (4) va thay mat phang (a) can tim co phuong trinh

x 1 3

-- + 2y - -z + - = 0 <=> x - 4y + z - 3 = O.

2 2 2

Ta thu lai ket qua tren.

Cach 3. Viet lai d duoi dang

fx - 2y -1 = 0 d'

'l2y - z + 2 = O.

(P) chua d nen thuoc chum

a(x .- 2y - 1) + P(2y - z + 2) = 0, a2 + p2 > O.

32

(3)

(4)

(5)

• Neu a = 0, tht co the chon p = 1. Liic nay (P) co phtrong trinh (PI) : x - 2y - 1 = O. Khoang each til A den (PI) la

12 - 10 - 11 9

hI = J5 = J5.

• Tuong tu neu a = 1", P = 0, thi (P) co phuong trinh 2y - z + 2 = 0 va khoang each tir A den (P) la

h = 110 - 3 + 21 = _2_

2 J5 J5.

• Neu a, P deu "* O. Co the Hfy p = 1, hie nay (P) co dang (P): ax + 2y(l - a) - z + 2 - a = O· Khoang each h tir A den (P) Ia

h = 19 - 9al

~5a2 - 8a + 5 2

h2 = 81(1 - a) = f(a).

5a2 - 8a + 5

Ta co

Khi ay

2

f'(a) = 81 2a - 2 .

5a2 - 8a + 5

Do vay co bang bien thien sau :

a -00

-I

f '(x )

+ 0

o

+

f(x)

/I8~ /~l

81 0

5 .

Tir do suy ra V;;ty

maxf(a) = 18 <=> a =-1. hmax = ..J18 - <=> a = -1.

(Chu y ..J18 > 3s do J90 > 9)

3-fiHKG-A

33

Khi ex = -I, thi (P) : -x + 4y - z + 3 = 0 <=> x - 4y + z - 3 = 0 .

Do la mat phang (ex) can tim.

Biuh //1(111 : 0'1 nhien each gi~i 1 la hay nhat !

Thi du Z (D~ thi tuyen sinh Dai hoc Cao dang kh6i B - 2008)

Trong khong gian voi he toa d(> Oxyz cho ba diem A(O; 1 ; 2), B(2 ; __ 2 ; I), C(-2; 0; I).

I) Viet phuong trinh mat phang di qua A, B, C;

2) TIm toa d¢ cua diem M thuoc mat phang 2x + 2y + z - 3 sao cho MA=MB=MC.

cu.

1) GQi (P) la mat phang eli qua A, B, C. Mat phang (P) nhan cac vecto

..

AB = (2 ; - 3.; - 1), AC = (-2; - 1 ; - 1)

la cac vecto chi phuong, nen vecto phap ii cua no la :

[ .. _-- -_ .... - ] [ -3 -1 -1 2 2 - 3 J

ri = AB AC = . .

, -1 -1' -1 -2' -2 -1

= (2 ; 4 ; -8) cung phirong voi vecto eo toa d¢ (l ; 2 ; -4).

Vay (P) co dang I(x - 0) + 2(y - 1) - 4(z - 2) = 0 ¢.:> x + 2y -- 4z + 6 = O.

2) De thay AB2 = 4 + 9 + 1 = 14

AC2 = 4 + 1 + 1 = 6.

Be = (-4 ; i ; 0) => BC2 = 16 + 4 = 20.

M

VI the do BC2 = AB2 + AC2, nen ABC la

tam giac vuong tai A.

VI MB = MA = MC, nen M nam tren dirong vuong goc voi (ABC) tai tam I dtrong tron ngoai tiep tam giac ABC.

De thay I Ia trung diem cua BC, va do do I = (0 ;-1 ; 1).

A

34

3-HHKG·8

Do :Mi cung phuong voi vecto phap iii = (1 ; 2 ; - 4) cua (ABC) (theo cau 1 », nen M nam tren dirong thang

(d) : {~ : ~ 1 + 2t

z = 1 - 4t.

Do M thuoc mat phang 2x + 2y + z - 3 = 0, nen ta co phuong trlnh 2t + 2(-1 + 2t) + 1 - 4t - 3 = 0

<=> 2t - 4 = 0 <=> t = 2.

VI the M(2 ; 3 ; -7) la diem can tim.

Thi du L. (D~ thi tuyen sinh Dai hoc, Cao dang khoi A - 2007) Trong khong gian voi he toa do Oxyz cho hai dirong thang

d] : ~ = y - 1 = z + 2

2 -1 1

{X=-1+2t d2: y: 1 + t

z - 3.

1) Clnrng minh d] va d2 cheo nhau.

2) Viet phirong trinh dirong thang d vuong goc voi mat phang (P) : 7x + y - 4z = 0 va cat eel d], d2.

Gidi

1) d] co vecto chi phirong iii = (2 ; -1 ; 1) va di qua diem M] = (0; 1 ; -2), d2 co vecto chi phuong ti2 == (2 ; 1 ; 0) va di qua diem M2 = (-1 ; 1 ; 3).

(-1 1 1 2 2 -IJ

Ta co [ti], ti2] = 1 0; 0 2' 2 1· = (-1 ; 2 ; 4)

M]M2 =(-1 ;0;5).

Vay [U],ti2]' M]M2 = 1 + 0 + 20 = 21 :;t O.

Nhir the d] va d2 cheo nhau => dpcm.

35

2) Goi (Q)Hl mat phang chua d, va vuong g6c voi (P). Nhu vay .(Q) la mat

phang di qua M, va nhan cap vecto iiI = (2 ; -1 ; I) va vecto phap ruyen n = (7 ; 1 ; -4) cua (P) lam cap vecto

chiphuang. p

~W- ~

Vecto (Q) co vecto phap tuyen nl xac dinh nhu sau :

~ [~~] ( -1 1 1 2 2 - 1 )

n - u n - . .

1- I, - 1-4'-47'7 1

= (3 ; 15 ; 9) cung phuong voi vecto (1 ; 5 ; 3).

Do d6 (Q) c6 dang

(x - 0) + 5(y - 1) + 3(z + 2) = 0 <=> x + 5y + 3z + 1 = o.

Goi (R) la mat phang di qua d2 va vuong g6c voi (P).

Tirong tu nhu tren, (R) co vecto phap tuyen ~ [~~] ( 1 0 0 2

n2 = u2' n = 1 _ 4 ; -4 7

~ \) = (-4; 8; -5).

Do do (R) c6 phuong trmh

-4(x + 1) + 8(y - 1) - 5(z - 3) = 0 <=> -4x + 8y - 5z + 3 = 0

<=> 4x - 8y + 5z - 3 = O.

VII: 5 : 3 *- 4 :-8 : 5 => (R) va (Q) la hai mat phang cat nhau. Gia sir (Q) n (R) = d => d .L (P).

Do do d c6 vecto chi phuong la (7 ; 1 ; -4).

Do 2 : -1 : 1 *- 7 : 1 : -4, nen trong cung (Q) tht d cat d.. Tirong tJ! trong (R), thi d cat d2.

{X + 5y + 3z + 1 = 0 "

d : la duong thang can tim.

4x- 8y + 5z - 3 = 0 ,

V~y

36

Chu y_ Xet each giai khac sau day-

Gia sir d (l dl" = A. Khi do A := (2i ; I - t ; -2 + t) d (l d2 = B. Khi do B = (-1 + 2s ; 1 + s ; 3).

V ~ Y AB = (-1 + 2s - 2 t ; s + t ; 5 - t).

--+ •

VI d .L (P), nen AB cung phuong ii = (7 ; 1 ; -4). Tir do ta co he phirong trinh

-1 + 2s - 2t s + t 5 - t

----= :=

7 -4

<=> {-I + 2s -_ 21 = 7s + 7t -4s - 4t := 5 - t

<=> {-5S - 9t := 1 <=> {s = ---2

--4s - 3t := 5 t = 1_

Do do d co vecto chi phirong AB = (-7 ; -1 ; 4) cung phuong voi vecto (7; 1 ; 4) va di qua A = (2; 0; -1), nen d co phirong trmh

x-2 y z+t-

d:--=-=-·

7 1 -4

Chu y ding : Theo each giai tren thi d co dang

{X + 5y + 3z + 1 = 0 d:

4x - 8y + 5z - 3 == O·

Nhung (1) va (2) chi la hai dang bieu dien cua d (duoi dang chinh tac (1) va diroi dang tong quat (2». That vay tir (2) suy ra d co vecto chi phuong

_, (5 3 3 1 1 5 J

u = -8 b; 5 4; 1 - 8

(1 )

(2)

= (49 ; 7 ; -28) cung phuong voi vecto (7 ; 1 ; -4).

Mat khac ro rang diem A = (2 ; 0 ; -1) tho a man (2).

Thi du 4. (De thi tuyen sinh Dai hoc, Cao dang khoi B - 2007)

Trong khong gian voi he toa do Oxyz cho hai diem A(l, 4,2) ; B(-I, 2, 4).

GQi G la trong tam tam giac OAB. Viet phuong trinh dirong thang d vuong goc voi mat phang (OAB) tai G.

37

Gidi

Theo cong thirc tinh trong tam ta co toa do G diroc xac dinh nhir sau

G = (1 - 1 + 0 . 4 + 2 + 0 . 2 + 4 + 0) = (0 . 2 . 2).

3 ' 3 '3 ' ,

Ta co OA = (1, 4, 2); OB = (-1, 2, 4).

V ~y mat phang OAB co vecto phap tuyen ii diroc xac dinh :

[----> ---->J (4 2 2 1 1 4 1

n = OA OB = . . )

.' 2 4' 4 - 1 '-1 2

= (12 ; -6 ; 6) cung phirong voi vectc (2 ; -1 ; 1).

Til do suy ra duong thang d vuong goc vm (OAB) tai G = (0 ; 2 ; 2) co dang

x y-2 z-2

= ==

2 ~1

Thi du S, (De thi tuyen sinh Dai hoc, Cao dang kh6i B - 2006)

Trong khong gian voi he toa do Oxyz cho diem A(O ; 1 ; 2) va hai dirong

~ x y _ 1 z + 3 {X = 1 + t

thangd): 2=-1-=--=1 ;d2: y=-1-2t

z=2+t.

Viet phuong trinh mat phang (P) qua A, dong thai song song voi d) va d2. Gidi

R5 rang iiI = (2 ; 1 ; -1), ii2 ::;:: (1 ; -2 ; 1) la hai vecto khong phuong (VI 2 : 1 : -1 :t:- 1 : -2 : 1) nen mat phang (P) nhan iiI' ii2 lam cap vecto ~hi phuong. Vecto phap tuyen n cua (P) xac dinh nhir sau :

--+ [--+ --+] ( 1 - 1 -I 2 2 1 J

n= uI,u2 = ; ; =(-1;-3;-5).

-2 1 1 1 1 - 2

VI (P) di qua A = (0 ; 1 ; 2), nen (P) co dang : -(x - 0) - 3(y - 1) - 5(z - 2) = 0 hay x+3y+5z-13=0.

38

Thi du 6. (De thi tuyen sinh Dai hoc, Cao dang khoi D - 2006)

Trong khong gian voi he toa d(> Oxyz, cho diem A(1 ; 2; 3) va hai duong thang

x--2 y+2 z-3

dj : --- = --- =--

2 -1 1

x-- 1 Y - 1 z + I

d2 : -- = -- == ---.

-1 2 1

Viet phuong trinh dirong thang ~ di qua A, vuong goc voi d I cat d2 •

CiJi

VI ~ di qua A va vuong goc voi d., nen ~ phai nam trong mat phang (P) vuong goc voi d I va qua A. Mat phang (P) nay di nhien nhan vecto chi phuong ul = (2 ;-1 ; I) cua d1 lam vecta phap tuyen. VI the (P) co dang

(P) : 2(x - 1) - (y - 2) + (z - 3) = 0 <=> 2x - y + z - 3 = O.

Ta tim giao diem N cua d2 voi (P).

(1)

Muon vay tnroc het viet d2 duoi dang tham so

{X = 1 -- t

Y = 1 + 2t z=-I+t.

Sau do xet phirong trtnh

2(1 - t) - (1 + 2t) + (-1 + t) - 3 70 <=> -3t-3=0<=>t=-1.

Vay N=(2;-I;-2).

Duong thang ~ noi A(1 ; '2; 3) va N(2 ; -1 ; -2) co vecto chi phuong u=(-1;3;5).

x-I y-2 z-3

= =

-1 3 5

39

en» y:

Ta co each giai khac sau day:

Gia sir ~ n d2 = B.

Khi do B = (l - t ; 1 + 2t ; -1 + t) Ta co AB = (-t, 2t - I, t - 4).

Do (ll) .1 iiI = (2 ; -1 ; 1), nen ta co

AS. iiI = 0 <=> -2t - 2t + 1 + t - 4 = 0 <=> -3t - 3 = 0

<=> t=-1.

Vay AB = (l ; -3; -5) cung phirong voi vecto (-1 ; 3; 5). Vay dirong thang can tim ~ co dang :

'x -1 y - 2 z - 3 ~: --=--=--.

-1 3 5

Ta thu lai ket qua tren.

Thi du 7. (De thi tuyen sinh D<;1i hoc, Cao dang khoi B - 2005)

Trong khong gian vci he toa d¢ Oxyz cho hinh lang tru dirng ABC.AIBICI

voi A(O; -3 ; 0), B(4 ; 0; 0), C(O; 3 ; 0), BI(4; 0; 4).

GQi M la trung diem cua A I B I'

1. Viet phtrong trinh mat phang (P) di qua A, M va song song voi BCI.

2) (P) cat AICI tai diem N. Tim do dai doan MN. ouu

1) Ta co Al = (0 ; -3 ; 4) va CI(O; 3 ; 4), Vi M la trung diem cua AIBI, nen ta co

M=(2;-%;4}'

re do AM = (2 ;.% ; 4) ; BCI = (-4 ; 3; 4).

40

Mat phang (P) qua A, M va song song BCI, nen no nhan AM va BCI lam cap vecto chi plurong, VI the vecta phap tuyen ii cua no xac dinh nhir sau :

z

= (-6 ; -24 ; 12) cung phuong voi vecta (-1 ; -4; 2).

x

4

M

n = [A~l,oc;J

~(L4;~_~,~tJ

A -3

(P) con di qua A, nen (P) co phuong trinh

-(x - 0) - 4(y + 3) + 2(z - 0) = 0 <=> -x - 4y + 2z - 12 = 0

<=> x + 4y - 2z + 12 ~ o.

2) Duong thang qua AI, CI co vecta chi phuong ii la

ii = (0 ; 6; 0) cung phuong voi vecta (0; 1; 0).

V ~y dirong thang qua A I, C I co dang tham so

{X = 0

y = -3 + t z=4

0+ 4(-3 + t() - 2.4 + 12 = 0 <=> 4t( - 8 = 0 <=> t( = 2.

Vay N = (0 ; -1 ; 4), VI the

MN~ 22+(l)2 d ~~m.

c

3

y

41

Thi du 8. (Dc thi tuycn sinh Dai hoc. Cao dang khoi A - 2005) Trong khong gian vci he toa do Oxyz, eho duong thang

d : x-I_ y+3 _ z-3

. -=t - -2- -- --I-

va mat phangH') : 2x + y - 2z + 9 = O .

.

cu.

G9i A la giao diem cua d voi (P). Viet phuong trinh tham so cua dirong thang ~ narn trong (P) biet ~ qua A va vuong g6e voi d.

, {X = 1 - t

d e6 dang tham so ~: -3+ 2t z-3+t.

VI the

A = (I - to ; -3 + 2to ; 3 + to)

Ta c6 phtrong trinh sau d6 xac dinh to.

2(1 - to) + (-3 + 2to) - 2(3 + to) + 9 = 0 <=> to = I.

Vay A = (0; -1 ; 4) la giao cua d voi (P).

Vi ~ di qua A E (P), nen ~ nam tron trong (P) khi va chi khi vecto chi plurong U cua ~ vuong g6c voi vecto phap tuyen ii = (2 ;1 ; -2) cua (P).

Dat ii = (a ; b; e). Ta e6

ii .L ii va li J_ v, a day v = (-1 ; 2 ; 1) la vecto chi phuong cua d khi va chi khi he sal! thoa man

_ {li.n = 0 {2a + b -2c = 0 {b = 0

_,_, <=> <=>

u. v = 0 -a + 2b + c = O. a = c.

Do a2 + b2 + e2 > 0, nen chon a = c = 1 => li = (1 ; 0 ; 1). Vay dirong thang ~ c6 dang tham s6 sau

r X = t

ly =-1

z=4+t.

42

Thi dLJ 9; (De thi tuyen sinh Dai h9C, Cao dang khoi D - 2005) Trong khong gian voi he toa d¢ Oxyz cho hai dirong thang

dj : x-__!_=)'+2 = z+l

3 -1 2

{X + Y - z - 2 = 0 d2 :

x + 3y - 12 = O.

1) Chung minh rang dl II d2 i

2) Viet phirong trinh mat phang (P). chua ca dl va d2· cu.

1) dl co vecto chi phuong iii = (3 ; -1 ; 2) va di qua diem M I (1 ; -2 ; ~ 1).

d2 co vecto chi phuong u2 duoc xac dinh nhu sau :

[1 -1 -1 1 I1J

ti2 = 3 0; 0 1 ; 1 3 = (3 ; -1 ; 2)

Nhir vay uJ = ti2. Mat khac diem MI(l ; -2; -1) ~ d2 (That vay vi ta co: 1 + (-2) - (-1) - 2 *- 0). Vi the dl II d2 => dpcm.

Bang each trong he phuong trinh xac dinh d2 cho y = 0, ta co x = 12, Z = 10 ;

V~yM2=(12;0; 10) E d2.

2) Mat phang (P) chua ca d.. d2 nhan u= uJ=u2 = (3; -I; 2) va MJ M2 = (11 ; 2 ; 11) lam cap vecto chi phuong, nen vecto phap tuyen ri cua no diroc xac dinh nhu sau :

n = [UI,M~M2J = [-~ I~' ~I 131':' -~J

= (-15 . -11 . 17)

, , .

Vi the (P) co phuong trtnh

-15(x - 1) - 11 (y + 2) + 17(z + 1) = O. <=> 15x + II Y - 17z - 10 = O.

4

n

p

43

Thi du 10. (De thi tuyen sinh Dai hoc, Cao dAng khoi B - 2004)

Trong khong gian voi he toa dQ Oxyz cho diem A(-4 ; -2 ; 4) va dirong thang d

{X = -3 + 21 d: y=I--t

z = -1 + 4t.

Viet phuong trinh duong thang ~ di qua A, cat va vuong goc voi d. Gidi

Do ~ di qua A va vuong goc voi d, nen tnroc het ~ phai nam trong (P), do la mat phang di qua A va vuong goc voi d.

Do d co vecto chi phuong la ii = (2 ; -1 ; 4), nen ii chfnh Hi vecto phap tuyen cua (P) do vay (P) co dang

(P) : 2(x + 4) - (y + 2) + 4(z - 4) = 0 <=> 2x - Y + 4z - 10 = O.

Gia sir d n (P) = M. Xet phirong trinh 2(-3+2t)-(1-t)+4(-1 +4t)-10=0 <=>21t-21 =O<=>t= l.

d

M

Vay M = (-1 ; 0; 3).

VI ~ chinh Ia dirong thang noi A, M, do do ~ co vecto chi phuong

AM = (3 ; 2 ; -1).

V ~y ~ co phuong trlnh

x+4 y+2 z-4

= =

3 2 -1

Chi! Y : Co th~ giai each khac nhu sau :

GQi M la hinh chieu cua A tren d. Tir giii thiet ta co

A

M

44

Vi the AM = (1 + 2tl ; 3 - tl ; -5 + 4tl)·

Ta c6 AM .L ii (6 day ii = (2 ;-1 ; 4) la vecto chi phirong cua d).

Do d6 c6

AM.u =0

<=> 2 + 4tl - 3 + tl - 20 + 16tl = 0

<=> 21t1-21 =O<=>tl = I.

Vi le ay M=(-1;0;3).

Do vay duong thang ~ chinh la dtrong thang noi A, M va ta di den ket qua tren.

Thi du 11. (I)., .. hi tuyen sinh D~i hoc, Cao dang khoi A - 2002) Trong khong gian voi he toa do Oxyz cho hai dirong thang r";~:l+t

{X - 2y + z - 4 = 0 J

dl : , d2: tY = 2 + t

x + 2y - 2z + 4 = 0 -,

z - 1 + Zt.

Viet phirong trlnh mat phang (P) chua dl va song song voi d2.

cuu

Duong thang d2 c6 vecto chi phuong u2 = (1 ; 1 ; 2). Duong thang d 1 c6 vecto chi plurong

u I ~ ( - ~ _ 2 ' _ ~ II ; : - ~) ~ (2 ; 3 ; 4)

.va di qua diem MI (0; -2; 0) ..

Mat phang (P) can tim c6 vecto phap .tuyen ii diroc xac dinh nhu sau :

n=[ut,u21=(3 4; 42; 23)=(2;0; __ 1).

1 2 2 1 1 1

Vi (P) chua d 1 nen chua M 1 (0 ; -2 ; 0). Do vay (P) c6 dang 2(x - 0) - (z - 0) = O.

<=> 2~ - z = O.

45

dz chua Mz = (1 ; 2; 1). VI Mz ~ (P) : 2x - Z = 0 nen dz song song voi (P) .

. Vay (P) chua dl va song song voi dz co dang 2x - Z = O.

N hdn .ret :

- Bai toan tren Hi mot trong nhimg dang CCi ban viet phuong trinh mat phang.

- Ta co the giai bai toan bang phuong phap sir dung "chum mat phang"

nhu sau :

Mat phang (P) chua dl nen no thuoc "chum mat phang"

z z

a(x-2y+z-4)+P(x+2y-2z+4)=0 (a +P >0)

<=> (a + P)x + (-2a + 2P)y + (a - 2P)z - 4a + 4P = O. (1)

Vecto phap cua (1) la 0= (a + P; 2P - 2a; a - 2P).

dz II (P) nen tnroc her uz. 0 = 0

<=> (a + P) + (2P - 2a) + 2(a - 2P) = 0 <=> a-p=O

<=> a = p.

Chon a = P = 1, vay (P) : 2x - z = O.

Ta thu lai ket qua tren (sau khi thir thay Mz ~ (P».

ttu du 12. (Dai hoc, Cao dang khoi A -12003). Trong khong gian voi he toa do

Oxyz cho hai hinh hop chir nhat ABCD.A'B'C'O' voi A == 0(0 ; 0 ; 0) ; B = (a ; 0 ; 0) ; 0(0 ; a ; 0), A'(O ; 0 ; b)

b A'

z

(a > 0, b > 0). TIm ti so a de hai mat

b .

phang (A'BD) va (MBO) vuong goc voi nhau, trong do M la trung diem canh CC'.

I I I

I

I

I

I

a

y

cu.

x

. Ta co C = (a; a ; 0) ; C' = (a ; a; b) suy ra M = (a; a ; ~).

46

Ta c6 A' B = (a ; 0 ; -b) A' 0 = (0 ; a; -b)

MB = (0 . - a . -~)

., ., 2

MD = ( -a ; 0 ; - ~ }

G9i "1' li2 lan luot Hi cac vecto phap tuyen cua hai mat phang (A'BD), (MBD). Ta c6

iii = [A'B,i\;O] = (~ =:

-b a ; a OJ

-b 0 0 a

2
= (ab, ab, a )
- [. -1 [I b b \
a 0 0 - ~ J
2 2
n, = MB,MD1 = .I ° -11 'I-~ -a
-a = (~} ; ab ; -- a2 J.

_ 2 ,

Ta e6 (A'BD)J. (MBD) ¢::/ iil."2 = 0

a2b2 a2b2 4

<=>--+---a =0

2 2

<=> a2b2 _ a 4 = 0

<=> b2 = a2

<=> b = a (do a> 0, b > 0)

a <=>--=1.

b

Nhdn xet .- Day la each giai khac cho thi du 2 (phan 2), loai 1 : Phep tinh toa do trong khong gian.

Thi du 13. (De thi tuyen sinh Dai h9C, Cao dang khoi A - 2006)

Trong khong gian voi he toa d¢ Oxyz cho hlnh lap phuong ABCD.A'B'CD' voi A(O ; 0 ; 0), BO ; 0 ; 0), D(O ; 1 ; 0), A'(O ; 0 ; 1).

Viet phuong trinh mat phang chua A'C va tao vci mat phang Oxy mot g6e u,

b.' 1

let cos« = ..J6.

47

cuu

z

Ta co C = (1 ; 1 ; 0).

Mat phang (Oxy) co phirong trinh z = o.

B' F-----'--L,:-----r, ,

,

,

I \

J---- ... - /,'O=A ,

" ,

,," ,

" ,

Vecto phap tuyen cua (Oxy) la ii2 = (0 ; 0; 1).

G9i mat phang can tim la

x

A1x + Bly + Clz + D1 = 0 (Af + Bf + cf > 0). Do A'C thuoc mat phang nay nen ta co

{C1 + D1 = 0 { C1 = -D1

Al + Br + D1 = 0 ~ -D1 = Al + B1·

Vay mat phang can tim co dang

A1x + B1y + (AI + B1)z - (AI + BI) = O.

Tit (1) suy ra vecto phap iii cua mat phang can tim co dang ii1 = (AI ; B1 ; A1 + B1)·

VI a la goc gitra mat phang can tim va (Oxy), nen ta co :

, _ !iil·ii2! 1 IAI + Bd

cos a - lii111ii21 ~ 16 = JAf + Bf + (A1 + B1)2

~ 6(A} +B})2 =At +Bt +(A} +B})2

~ 6(At + Bt + 2A}B}) = 2At + 2Bt + 2A]B] ~ 2Af + SA]B] + 2Bt = 0 (d~ thay B} :1; 0)

~=-2

~ 2( Z: r + 5( Z:) + 2 = 0 ~ ~~

-=--.

48

o

y

c

(1)

• Neu ~ = -2 ~ B} = -1 ; A} = 2; C} = I,D} =-1.

BJ

Khi do (P) : 2x - y + z - 1 = o .

• Neu ~ = -_!_ ~ B} =-2, A} = 1, C} =-1, O} =1.

BJ 2

Khi do (P).: x - 2y - z + 1 = o.

Tom lai 2x - Y + z - 1 = 0 va x - 2y - z + 1 = 0 la hai mat phang can tim.

Thi d,!-14

Lap phirong trtnh mat phang (a) trong cac tnrong hop sau :

1) Qua 3 diem M(2; 0; -I), NO ; -2; 3), P(O; 1 ; 2);

2) Qua 2 diem A( 1 ; 1 ; -1), B(5 ; 2 ; 1) va song song voi true Oy ,

3) Qua diem A(3 ; 2 ; -1) va song song voi mat phang (Q): x - 5y + z = 0;

4) Qua diem G(l ; 2 ; 3) va cat cac true Ox, Oy, Oz tai A, B, C sao cho G la trong tam tam giac ABC,

5) Qua diem H (2 ; 1 ; 1) va cat cac true Ox, Oy, Oz tai A, B, C sao cho H la tnrc tam tam giac ABC.

cuu

1) Mat phang (a) nhan ii = MN = (-1 ; -2 ; 4) va v = MP = (-2 ; 1 ; 3) la cap vecto chi phtrong (ii va v khong cung phirong do -1 : -2 : 4 '* -2 : 1 : 3). VI the mat phang can tim nhan ii la vecto phap tuyen, i:J day :

___ (-24 4-1 -1-2)

n = [u, v] = 1 3 ; 3 _ 2 ; -2 1

= (-10; -5 ; -5) cung phuong voi vecto (2 ; 1 ; 1).

Do mat phang (a) qua P(O ; 1 ; 2), nen no co dang 2(x - 0) + (y - 1) + (z - 2) = O.

¢:::> 2x + y + z - 3 = O.

Nhdn xet : Day la mot trong cac bai toan co ban nhat ve viet phuong trinh mat phang,

2) Ta co AB = (4 ; 1 ; 2), con Oy co vecto chi phuong ] = (0; 1 ; 0).

4·HHKG·A

49

v ecto phap ii cua mat phang can tim duoc xac dinh nhu sau :

-

- [---_. -. ] [1 2 2 4 4 1 J

n = AB v = . .

, 10'00'01

= (-2; 0; 4) cung phuong voi vecto (-1 ; 0; 2).

VI no qua B (5 ; 2 ; l ), nen mat phang can tim co phuong trinh -(x - 5) + 2(z - 1) = 0

¢:::> -x + 2z + 3 = O.

Mat khac do diem 0(0; 0; 0) E Oy nhung khong thuoc (a) : -x + 2z + 3 = 0,

nen Oy II (a).

Vay (a) : -x + 2z + 3 = 0 Hi mat phang can tim.

3) Vi (Q) II (a) nen (a) co dang x - 5y + z + D = O.

Do A( 3 ; 2 ; -1) E (a) ~ 3 - 10 - 1 + D = 0 ~ D = 8. Vi the x - 5y + z + 8 = 0 la mat phang (a) can tim.

Nhtin xet .- Day cling la bai roan rat co ban cua th~ loai, d6 la bai toan viet phuong trinh mat phang song song voi mot mat phang (P) cho tnroc va di qua mot diem cho truce.

4) Mat phang (a) can tim cat Ox, Oy, Oz tuong irng tai A, B, C. Neu goi

A = (a ; 0 ; 0) ; B = (0 ; b ; 0) ; C = (0 ; 0 ; c) (abc * 0) thi dua vao phuong trinh mat phang "theo doan chan", ta c6

x y z

(a) : - + - + - = 1. abc

Do G con la trong tam cua tam giac ABC, nen ta co abc -=1'-=2'-=3

3 ' 3 '3 .

Thay de gia tri tren vao (1) ta duoc

x V z

(a) : -- + .:.__ + - = 1

369

la phuong trinh mat phang can tim.

5) Giil Slr (a) la mat phang qua H thoa man yeu cau dau bai. Gia Stf (a) cat Ox, Oy, Oz tai A, B, C.

(1)

50

4-HHKG-B

Gia sir

A = (a . o· 0) . B = (0 . b : 0) .

, " " "

C = (0 ; 0 ; 0) voi abc *- O. Luc do (a) co dang

~+2'_+~-1=0 abc

) , ha ]' - (1 1 1)

(a co vecto p ap a n = -; - ; - .

abc

VI 1-1 = (2 ; 1 ; 1) => 01-1 (2 ; 1 ; 1).

Ta co 1-1 la true tam ~ABC nen

01-1 .L (ABC) => 01-1 II Ii

1 1 1

=>')'1'1=-'-'-

_.. a . b . c

=> b = 2a ; c = 2a.

Mat khac 1-1(2 ; 1 ; 1) E (a), nen ta co

2 1 1 2 1 1

-+-+-=lQ-+-·+-=l

abc a 2a 2a

z

c

o

x

y

6

Q _. = 1 Q a = 3 => b = c = 6.

2a

V~y (a) co dang

x y z -+-+-=1. 366

Thi du 15

Cho hai dirong thang

dl : {~ : ~ - t

z = -t

{X = 2t

d2: y = t - t z = t.

1) Chung minh d I va d2 Ia hai dirong thang cheo nhau.

2) Viet phuong trinh cac mat phang (P), (Q) sao cho (P) chua dl, (Q) chua d2 va (P) II (Q).

51

ci.u

1) dl co vecto chi phuong iiI = (-1 ; 1 ; -I) va di qua diem MI = (l ; 0; 0); d2 co vecto chi phuong ii2 = (2 ; -1 ; 1) va di qua di~m M2 = (2; 1 ; 0).

Ta co

-1-1 -1 1J

- 0·-1·-1

12' 2-1 -(, , )

MI M2 = (1 ; 1 ; 0).

V ay [ii I' ii2 ] . M 1M2 = -1 :;:. 0 => d I' d2 Ia hai dirong thang cheo nhau => dpcm.

2) Mat phang (P) chua dl va song song voi d2

(Q) chua d2 va song song voi d., thi ro rang (P) 1/ (Q).

cs hai (P) va (Q) deu nhan vecto ii = [iiI' u2] Hi vecto phap tuyen. Theo phan I) thi ii = (0 ; -1 ; -I) cung phuong voi vecto (0; 1 ; I).

Vi (P) chua dl nrc la chua diem MI(1 ; 0 ; 0), nen (P) : y + z = o.

Vi (Q) chua d2 nrc la chua diem M2(2 ; 1 ; 0) nen (Q) : (y - 1) + z = 0 => y + z - 1 = o.

Chu y : M I ~ (Q), M2 ~ (P) => (P) 1/ (Q). Dodo (P) va (Q) la hai mat phang can tim.

Nhdn xi! :

Bai toan : Viet phuong trmh mat phang chua mot dirong thang va song song voi mot dirong thang cho tnroc la mot trong nhfmg bai toan rat CO' ban va thuong xuyen sir dung.

Thi du 16. (Mot s6 bai toan CO' ban thiet lap phuong trtnh duong thang)

I) Viet phuong trinh dtrong thang di qua M(2 ; -1 ; 1) va vuong goc v6'i hai dirong thang

{X + Y + 1 = 0 dj :

2x - Z = 0

{2X + y -1 = 0 d2 :

z = o.

52

2) Viet phuong trinh dirong thang song song vai dirong thang

{X = 3t

~: y=l-t z = 5 + t

va cat d hai duong thang

x-I y+2 z-2

dl: --=--=-- va 143

{X - y + 4z - 3 = 0 d2 :

2x - y - z + I = O.

3) Viet phuong trlnh dirong thang di qua diem M(1 ; -1 ; I) va cat ca hai dirong thang.

{X = I + 2t

dj : y = t

z = 3 - t

{X + y + z - I = 0 d2 :

y + 2z - 3 = O.

4) Viet phirong trinh dirong thang d nam trong mat phang (P) : y + 2z = 0 va cat ca hai dirong thang

{X = 1 - t

dl: y = t z = 4t

{X = 2 - t

d2: y = 4 + 2t z = 1.

5) Viet phuong trinh dirong thang d di qua diem M(O ; I ; I), vuong goc voi

'. x - I Y + 2 z, '. {X + y - z + 2 = 0

dirong thang d I : -- = -- = - va cat dirong thang d2 :

3 I I . X + 1 = O.

6) Viet phuong trtnh dirong thang d vuong goc voi mat phang (P) X + 2y - 3z + 5 = 0 va cat ca hai duong thang

dl : {; : '. + t d2 : {; : '; :tt

z = 3 - t z = 4 - 5t .

7) Cho mat phang (P) : X + 2y - 3z + 5 = 0, diem M(1 ; -3 ; 0) E (P) va duong thang

x-I y+4 z-3

d:--=--=--.

2 -I I

53

Viet phuong trlnh duong thang t::. di qua M, nam trong (P) va vuong goc voi d.

CIl'; Y : 7 bai to an tren lit nhtrng bai toan co ban nhat, hay gap nhat ve viec lap phuong trinh dirong thang trong khong gian.

out

1) DU'Ong thang d 1 co vecto chi phuong uj xac dinh nhir sau :

(1 0 01 11)

ii - . . - -1 . 1 . -2

I - 0 - 1 ' -1 2 ' 2 0 - ( , , ).

Duong thang df co vecto chi phuong u2 xac dinh nhu sau :

(1 0 0 2 2 1)

U - . . - 1·-2·0

2 - 0 1 ' 1 0 ' 0 0 - (, .D),

Vi d vuong goc voi ca dr, d1 (han the uI, u2 lit hai vecto khong cung phirong), nen vecto chi plurong U cua d duoc xac dinh bang cong tlnrc

( 1-2 -2~1 -1 1)

u=[UI,U2]= -2 0; 0 l' -2 =(-4;-2;1).

Do d con di qua M(2 ; -1 ; 1), nen no co dang

x-2 y+l z-1

= =

-4 -2

Nhdn xet : Ta con co the giai nhu sau :

GQi U :::: (a ; b ; c) (a2 + b2 + c2 > 0) lit vecto chi phuong cua d.

Dod 1- d1,nenco U 1- Uj <=> ii.oj =0<=>-a+b-2c=0. (1)

Do d 1- d2, nen co ii 1- ii2 <=> ii , ii2 = 0 <=> a - 2b = O. Tir (1) va (2) co a = 2b ; c = _ b . 2

(2)

2 2 2

Do a + b + c > 0,

nen chon b = -2, a = -4, c = 1.

Tit do di den dang cua d la d:x-2=y+l=z-l.

-4 -2 1

54

2) Dua vao dinh If : Nell hai mat phang (P) II (Q) cat nhau vii cung song song voi duong thang 1\, thi giao tuyen cua (P) vii (Q) Ia duong thang song song voi 1\, ta giai bai toan nhu sau :

G9i (P) Iii mat phang chtra d I vii song song voi 1\. Khi do vecto phap tuyen iii cua (P) Iii iii = [UI'U],

6 day ul = (1 ; 4 ; 3) vii U = (3 ; -1 ; 1) tuong irng voi cac vecto chi phuong cua d I vii 1\. Nhir the

iii = (4 3 13 1

-1 1 '11 3

=(7;8;-13).

1 4 J

3 -1

Vay do (P) con di qua M1(1; -2; 2) (do M, E d1 vii d1 C P) nen (P) co phuong trinh

7(x - 1) + 8(y + 2) - 13(z - 2) = 0

<=> 7x + 8y - 13z + 35 = O.

(I)

Tir gia thiet suy ra

( -1 4 4 1 1 _. IIJ

u2 = ; ; I == (5 ; 9 ; 1)

-1 -1 -12 2-1

I.

Iii vecto chi phuong cua d2. D~ thay M2 = (-4 ; -7 ; 0) E d2.

G9i (Q) Iii mat phang chua d2 va song song voi 1\. Lap luan nhu tren (Q) co

.. - (9 1 1 5 5 9J

vecto phap ri = [u u] = .. . =(10' -2' --32) cung phirong

2 2' -1 ll ' 1 3 ' 3 -1 "

voi vecto (5; -1 ; -16).

Vay (Q) : 5(x + 4) - (y + 7) - 16z = 0

<=> 5x -y -16z+ 13 =0.

Do iii vii ii2 khong cung phuong, nen (P) vii (Q) cat nhau.

Gia sir d = (P) n (Q), thi

{7X + 8t ._ I3z + 35 = 0 d:

5x - y - 16z + 13 = O.

55

Ro rang d II ~, nen co the lay ii = (-3 ; 1 ; -I) lam vecto chi phuong cho d.

Trong (P) do ii va "I khong cung phuong (vi -3 : 1 : -1 "* 1 : 4 : 3), nen d va

d) dt nhau, nrong nr d~ thay d cat d2. VIle do d chfnh la dirong thang phai tim. e Ill; Y : 1) Phai thir lai xem d co cat d), d co cat d2 khong ? VI phep dung d a tren moi la die'u kien can.

2) Ta co the lam each khac nhu sau . . GQi d la dirong thang can tim.

Gia sir d n d) = A d n d2 = B, thi A = (1 + t ; -2 + 4t ; 2 + 3t)

B = (-4 + 5s; -7 + 9s; s)

Do vay BA = (5 + t - 5s ; 5 + 4t - 9s ; 2 + 3t - s).

VI BA II ~,nen ta co I

5 + t - 5s 5 + 4t - 9s 2 + 3t - s

= =---

3 -1

It = ~~4

49

s=-'

94 '

V d' h' " , d ( hii , , d A (35 142 58)J

~y irong tang can nm co ang c u y 0 ay = 47; - 47 ; 47

~ {-13t + 32s = .20 ~ 7t - lOs = -7

35 142 58
x ---- y+-- x ---
d: 47 = 47 = 47
3 -I 1 Chu y rang theo ker qua tnroc ta co

d : {7X + 8y - 13z ,: 35 = 0 5x - Y - 16z + 13 = 0 .

D~ thay tir (*) suy ra d co vecto chi phirong la (3 ; -1 ; 1). Mat khac de y

rang A E d VI co the thir thay rang:

56

(*)

7. 35 + 8(_142) _ 13(58) + 35 = 0

47 47 47

5. 35 + 142 _ 16. 58 + 13 = O.

47 47 47

Ta thu lai ket qua tren.

Cac ban thfch each giai nao ?

3) G9i (P) la mat phang qua M(l ; -1 ; 1) va chua dirong thang dl :

R6 la d I co vecto chi phirong ul = (2; 1 ; -1) va di qua diem M I = (1 ; 0 ; 3). Vay (P) qua M va nhan 111 va MM) = (0 ; 1 ; 2) Ia cap vecto chi phuong.

G9i 11) la vecto phap tuyen cua (P), thi

", = MM, = (: -; ; - ~ ~; ~ :) = (3 ; -4 ; 2)

Nhir the <f) co dang : 3(x - 1) - 4(y + 1) + 2(z - 1) = O. <=> 3x - 4y + 2z - 9 = O.

Duong thang d2 co vecto chi phirong u2 xac dinh nhu sau :

(1 1 11 1 I)

u2 = 1 2; 2 0; 0 1 = (1 ; -2 ; 1).

Ngoai fa de thay d2 di qua M2(-2 ; 3 ; 0).

G9i (Q) la mat phang xac dinh boi M va (d2). Nhu the (Q) nhan cap vecto u2 = (1 ; -2 ; 1) va MM2 = (-3 ; 4 ; -1) lam cap vecto chi phirong, do vay vecto phap tuyen 112 cua (Q) xac dinh nhir sau :

~- [--. ~~ .. ---J (--2 1 1 1 1 - 2 )

n = u MM = . .

2' 2 4 - 1 ' -1 - 3 '-3 4

= (-2 ; -2 ; -2) cung phirong voi vecto (1 ; 1 ; 1).

Vay (Q) co dang (x - 1) + (y + 1) + (z - 1) = 0 <=> x + y + z - 1 = O.

57

R6 rang (P) va (Q) VI cung chua M nen chac chac cat nhau.

Gia sir d = (P) n (Q), 'thi

{3X - 4y + 2z - 9 = 0 d:

x+y+z-l=O.

Dc thay d co vecto chi phuong

U-· = (-41 21 ; 21 3 3 - 4 J

. = (-6' -1 . 7)

1 '1 1 ".

(1)

Trong (P), do ii va iiI khong cung phirong nen d va d1 cat nhau. Tuong nr d cat el2.

D1 nhien d qua M (vi (P) n (Q) = d rna M E (P) n (Q).

Tom lai d qua M, cat d., cat d2 nen la duong thang can tim. PhuO'n, trinh d duoc cho duai dang (1).

N hdn .yet : Ta co each giai khac sau day :

Gia sir d Ia dirong thang qua M, cat ca d1 Ian d2.

d

B = d2 n d.

Khi do A = (1 + 2t ; t ; 3 - t), B = (-2 + s ; 3 - 2s ; s).

Ta co A, B, M thang hang. De thay

MA = (2t ; t + 1 ; 2 - t), MB = (s - 3 ; 4 - 2s ; s - 1).

VI A, B, M thang hang, nen

[MA, NiB] = 0 <=> (1\4t _+_21s 2 - t , 2s _-It 2t. 2t t + 1 I - 0

s - 1 s - 3 ' s - 3 4 - 2s) -

M

58

{-tS+5S+3t~-9=O {(t=-~ 2 ¢::) -3ts + 2s + 5t - 6 = 0 ¢::)

-5ts - s + lit + 3 = 0 s = 27 .

13

Yay d co vecto chi phuong MA = (-6; -1 ; 7). Do do d co dang d: x-1=y+J=z-1.

-6 -1 7

Do chinh lit dang chinh tac cua (1) «(1) lit dang tong quat).

v 6i hai phuong phap trinh bay, cac ban ur lira chon eho minh phirong phap thich hop voi ban.

4) Gia sir d lit duong thang nam trong (P) cat ca d, bIn d2. De thay d, va d2

cat (P).

Khi do neu goi A = d () d" tht di nhien dl () (P) = A.

Tuong nr neu goi B = d () d2, thi d2 () (P) = B. VI Ie ay tnroc het xac dinh A = d I () (P)

va B = d2 () (P).

Ta co A E d, => A = (1 - t ; t ; 4t). Lai do A E (P), nen co plurong trinh sau de xac dinh t :

t + 2.4t = 0 ¢::) t = O.

V ~y A = (1 ; 0 ; 0).

Ttrong nr B E d2 => B (2 - s ; 4 + 2s ; 1). L<;1i do B E (P), nen co phirong trinh sau de xac dinh s :

V~y

(4 + 2s) + 2 = 0 ¢::) S = -3. B,=(5;-2;1).

Duong thang d phai tim chinh la dirong thang noi A, B. Ta co

AB = (4 ; -2 ; 1).

d:

x-I Y z

,--=-=-'

4 -2

59

N hdn xet : C6 th~ giai each khac nhir sau :

Gia sir

d n d I = A(l - t : t ; 4t)

d n d2 = B(2 - zt ; 4 + 2s ; 1)

=> AB = (1 - s + t ; 4 + 2s - t ; 1 - 4t) •

Do AB la vecto chi phtrong cua d, nerr d narn trong (P) khi va chi khi

AE (P) va AB .L ii , a day ii = (0 ; 1 ; 2) la vecto chi phuong (P). Vay ta co he sau d~ xac dinh s va t :

{t + 2.4t = 0 {t = 0

4 + 2s - t + 2(1 - 4t) = 0 <=> s = -3

=> AB = (4 ; -2 ; 1) va thu lai ket qua tren.

5) Duong thang d di qua M(O ; 1 ; 1) va vuong g6c voi dl nen d nam trong (P) qua M va vuong g6c voi dl

d n d2 = A, thl d2 n (P) = A.

Vi the ta Ian hrot tien hanh cac biroc sau :

+) Viet phuong trinh (P) chua M va vuong g6c voi d I' Ta co

(P) : 3(x - 0) + (y - 1) + (z - 1) = 0

<=> 3X: + y + z - 2 = O.

+) TO<;l d¢ (x ; y ; z) cua giao diem A la nghiem cua he plnrong trinh

{X+Y-Z+2=0 {X=-l

x+I=O <=> y=2

3x + y + z - 2 = 0 z = 3.

Vay A=(-1;2;3).

Ta co MA = (-I ; 1 ; 2). V ay duong thang d phai tim co phuong trlnh

x y-l z-l

-=--=--

-I 1 2

60

Nhdn xet :

a) Xet each giai khac cho bai toan tren :

Duong thang d2 nhan u2 'Ia vecto chi phuong, voi

(1 - 1 -1 1 1 1)

u2= 00; 01;10 =(0;-1;-1).

d2 con di qua diem M2(-1 ; 0; l).

Vay d2 c6 dang tham s6 sau

d2: {; : =:

z=l-t.

Giastrdnd2=A,thiA=(-1 ;-t; I-t),nhuv~ydodquaM=(O; I; l j nen d c6 vecto chi plurong

U = MA = (-1 ; -t - 1 ; -t).

Vi d j_ d, nen U. UI = 0,6' day ul = (3; 1 ; 1) la vecto chi phirong cua d.. T~ c6 ii . ul = 0 ¢:::? -3 - t - 1 - t = 0

¢:::? t = -2.

Vay U = (-1 ; 1 ; -2) Vi the d c6 dang

x y':"l z-1

-=--=:--

-1 1 2

Ta thu lai ket qua tren.

b) Ta con c6 the giai each khac nifa nhu sau :

GQi (Q) la mat phang xac dinh boi M va d2.

Vi d2 con di qua diem M2(-1 ; 0; I), nen (Q) la mat phang qua M = (0; 1 ; 1) va nhan cap vecto u2 = (0; -1 ; -1) va MM2 = (-I ; -1 ; 0) cung phuong voi vecto (1 ; 1 ; 0) lam cap vecto chi phtrong.

M~t phang (Q) nhan vecto n = [ u2' MM2 ] lam vecto phap tuyen.

61

Ta co

(-1 -1 ~1 0 0-IJ

n = . . = (1 . -1 . 1).

10'01'11 "

Vay (Q) co dang : x - (y - 1) + (z - 1) = 0 <=> x - y + z = o. Vay d = (P) n (Q)

{3X + y + z - 2 = 0 d:

x - y + z = o.

D~ thay d co vecto chi phuong ii

(1 1 1 3 3 1 J u= -11;11;1-1

= (2; -2; -4) cling phuong vai vecto (-1 ; 1 ; 2).

Nhu the ta thu lai ket qua tren nhung b day dirong thang cho duoi dang tong quat.

c) D~ xac dinh mat phang (Q) tao boi M va d2 ta con co th~ lam nhu sau : (Q)doch6ad2nenthuOcchlim

a(x + y - z + 2) + ~(x + 1) = 0 (a2 + ~2 > 0)

<=> (a + ~)x + ay ~ az + 2a + ~ = o. (*)

Do (*) di qua M(O; 1 ; 1) nen ta co

2a + ~ = O. Vi a2 + ~2 > 0, nen chon a = 1, ~ = -2. Thay vao (*) va co (Q) : -x + y - z = 0 <=> x - y + z = o. Ta co lai ket qua d5 thu diroc trong phan 2).

Binh ludn : Co nhieu each d~ XU If mot bai toano Cac ban hay lila chon d~ roi co the ap dung mot each hieu qua nhat vao cac bai toan khac.

6) Gia sir d la.dirong thang vuong goc voi (P) va cat ca d I) d2.

Vi d cat d I' nen neu goi (Q) la mat phang xac dinh boi d va d 1, thi (Q) _L (P).

Tuong tu rna: phang (R) xac dinh boi d va db thi (R) _L (P).

Tv do ta Ian luot tien hanh cac buoc nhu sau :

62

=(-1;2;1).

VI (Q) con di qua MI(O; -4; 3) (do MI E (dl», VI the (Q) co dang (Q) : -x + 2(y + 4) + (z - 3) = 0

¢::>-x + 2y + z + 5 = O .

• Tuong nr (R) nhan cap vecto u2 = (-2 ; 1 ; --5) va n, = (1 -; 2 ; -3) lam cap vecto chi ph t(O"I1g , do d6 (R) nhan Ii2 1~1I11 vecto phap tuyen cua no va

M~t phang (Q) nhan icap vecto ul = (1 ; 1 ; -I) (vecto chi phuong

(dl» va 0 (I ; 2 ; -3) (vecto phap tuyen cua (P» HIm cap vecto chi phuong, do do (Q) nhan .

(I -1 -11 lIJ

nl = 2 _ 3 ; -3 I ; I 2

. (III _- 5-5- 2'1 ·-2 II'

02 = [ti2,ii] ==. ;. ; 2/j =(7;-11 ;-5)

\12 - 3-3 1 1_

Vay (R) : 7(x - 1) - II( Y + 3)- 5( z - 4) = 0

¢::> 7x - 1 l y - 5z - 20= O.

R5 rang VI (-1) : (2) : (I) ;;t.: (7) : (-II) : (-5), nen (P) va (Q) cat nhau. GQi d = (R) (\ (Q) thl d .L (P).

Cling de kiem tra d cat ca d I Ian d2, vi the

{' --x + 2y + z + 5 = 0 d·

'. Tx > I Iy- 5z - 20 = ()

Hi duong thang can tim.

N//{It/ xet : Xet each gia) khac sau day:

Gia sir dj (\ d = A,

thi A = (t ; -4 + t ; 3 - t) con d2 (\ d = B, thi

B = (I - 2s ; -3 + s ; 4 - 5s).

=> AB = (1 - 2s _. t ; I + S - t ; 1 - 5s + t).

(1)

d

A

63

D~ d 1. (P), ta can c6 AS cung phuong voi ii ..

. 1 - 2s - t 1 + s - t 1 - 5s + t

Vay ta c6 = =

. 1 2 -3

{I + s - t = 2 - 4s - 2t {5S + t = 1

<=> 1 - 5s + 5 = --3 + 6s + 3t <=> -lIs - 2t = -4

{s = 2

<=> t = -9.

V~y AB =(6; 12;-18)clingphuO'ngvmvecto(1 ;2;-3)vaA=(-9;-13; 12).

T' de d' h' d cc d x + 9 Y + 13 z -12

u 0 uong tang co ang -1- = 2 = _ 3

(2)

Bif/II IU(1fI : a) C6 th~ thay each hai nay don gian hun each 1.

b) (l) va (2) chi la hai dang khac nhau rna thoi (dang tong quat va dang chinh tac cua dirong thang). That vay A = (-9 ; -13 ; 12) 0 dang (1) (toa do cua A tho a man he phuong trinh cho boi (1».

TiT ( 1), ta thay d c6 vecto chi phirong la

( 2 1 1 -1 -1 2J

ii = ; ; = (1 ; 2; -3).

. -11 - 5 -5 7 7 - 11

7) GQi ii = (a ; b ; c) =I:- 6 la vecto chi phuong cua 11. Do 11 qua M(1 ; -3 ; 0), nen 11 c6 dang tham s6 sau :

{~ : ~; :tbt

z = ct.

Vi 111. d nen ii . iii = 0 (0 day iiI = (2; -1 ; 1) la vecto chi phirong d.).

Ta c6

ii . iiI = 0 <=> 2a - b + c = o.

(1)

Vi 11 nam trong (P) nen ii.ri = 0 (0 day ii = (1 ; 2; -3) la vecto phap tuyen cua (P».

Ta thay ii.ii = 0 <=> a + 2b - 3c = 0

Vay ta c6 he phuong trinh (1 )(2) da xac dinh a, b, c

(2)

64

{2a - b + e = 0 ja = ~

a + 2b - 3c = 0 ¢o> b = 7;.

Do a2 + b2 + e2 > 0, nen chon e = 5, thi a = 1, b = 7.

Duong thang ~ can tim co dang (do con qua M = (1 ; -3 ; 0). x-I y+3 z

= = (1)

7 5

NI/{!n xet : a) Ta da dung ket qua hien nhien sau : Duong thang ~ di qua M E (P) se nam tron trong (P) khi va chikhi ~ 1. ii , a day ii Ia vecto phap tuyen cua (P).

b) Xet each gi ai khac sau day:

VI ~ qua M va vuong goc voi d, nen ~ nam trong m~t phang (Q) quaM va vuong goc voi d. Do ~ con nam trong (P), nen 1\ la giao tuyen cua (P) va (Q).

Bay gia Ian lirot xet nhu sau :

• Viet phirong trlnh mat phang (Q) qua M va vuong goc voi d, thl (Q): 2(x-l)-(y+3)+z=0

¢::? 2x - Y + z - 5 = O.

Do vay 1\ = (P) n (Q) hay

{2X - Y + z - 5 = 0 L\.

. x + 2y - 3z + 5 = O.

(2)

Binh ludn : each giai nay kha dan gian !

D~ thay (1) va (2) la hai dang khac nhau cung d~ bieu dien mot dirong thang. That vay tir (2) suy ra ~ co vecto chi phucng

(-1 1 1 2 2 - 1 J

u = 2 _ 3 ; -3 1 ; 1 2 = (1 ; 7 ; 5).

Binh ludn chung : TTOng thf du tren ta da trinh bay hang loat cac bai toan co ban ve viet phuong trlnh dirong thang trong khong gian. Nhu cac ban da thay noi chung voi moi thi du, ta co it nhat hai each khac nhau d~ giai cluing.

S-HHKG-A

65

Tuy tung tnrong hop cu th~ cac ban hay chon cho minh mot each giai irng y nhat va gon gang nhat !

Loai 2. Cac bai toan xac dinh diem va cac yeu to' khac trong hinh hoc • giai tich khong gian.

Thi du l . (D6 thi tuyen sinh Dai hoc, Cao dang kh6i A - 2002)

Tr~ng khong gian voihe toa do Oxyz cho duong thang ~ : .{: : ~ : tt

z = 1 + 2t. va diem M(2 ; 1 ; 4). Tim toa do diem H thuoc Aisao cho doan thang MH co do dai nho nhat.

cut Diem H phai tim chinh la hlnh chieu

cua M(2; 1 ; 4) tren ~.

Ta co H = (1 + to ; 2 + to ; 1 + 2to). Tir do MH = (to-I; to+ 1; 2to- 3). Ta thay MH .1 ~ <=> MH. u = O, a day ii := (1 ; 1 ; 2) Iii vecto chi phirong

M

H

cua ~.

Vay ta co (to - 1) + (to + 1) + 2(2to:_ 3) = O.

<=> 6to - 6 = O. <=> to = 1.

V~y H(2 ; 3 ; 3) la diem duy nhat tren ~ can tim. C/Ill y : Ta co th~ lam each khac nhir sau

V6i mot diem H(1+t. 2+t. 1+2t) tuy y tren (~). ta co

MH = J(t - 1)2 + (t + 1)2 + (2t - 3)2

=~6t2-12t+l1

= ~_1)2 + 5.

Tir do MH nhan gia tri be nhat bang J5 khi va chi khi t = 1, nrc la H = (2 ; 3 ; 3) la diem duy nhat tren ~ can tim.

Ta thu lai ket qua tren.

66

S-HHKG-6

Tid du 2. (D~ thi tuyen sinh Dai hoc, Cao dang khoi D - 2002) Trong khong gian vdi h~ toa dQ Oxyz cho mat phang (P)

(P) : 2x - y + 2 = 0

va dtrong thang

{(2m + l)x + (l - m)y + m - 1 = 0 dm:

mx + (2m + l)z + 4m + 2 = O.

Xac dinh m de duong thang dm song song voi mat phang (P). cu.

Duong thang dm c6 vecto chi phuong ii xac dinh nhu sau :

l.i = l( I - mOl; 0 2m + 1 ; 2m + 1 1 -0 m J

o 2m + 1, 2m + 1 m m

2 2 2·

=(-2m +m+ I ;-4m -4m-l;m -m).

dm II (P) nen U. ii = 0 a day ii = (2 ; -1 ; 0) Hi mot vecto phap tuyen cua (P) Ta c6 U. ii = O. ~ -4m2 + 2m + 2 + 4m2 + 4m + I = O.

~ 6m + 3 = 0 I

~m= --.

2

Kh' 1 hl d ' d d {y = 1

1 m = - - . tIm co <;lng :

2 x=O

R6 rang A = (0 ; 1 ; z) E d vai Z E R. Tuy nhien A ~ (P). Vay qua Hl d II (P).

T6m lai m = _ _!_ la gia tri can tim cua tham s6 m de dm II (P).

. 2 .

N h(JII xet : Ta c6 the giai each khac nhir sau :

Duong thang dm II (P) neu nhtr h~ phirong trinh sau day

{2X _ Y + 2 = 0 '

(2m + l)x + (l - m)y + m - 1 = 0 mx + (2m + l)z + m + 2 = 0

vo nghiern.

67

H¢ nay vietlai diroi dang wong duong sau :

{y = 2x + 2

(2m + I)x + (1 - m)(2x + 2) + m - 1 = 0 mx + (2m + l)z + 4m + 2 -x: 0

{y = 2x + 2

<=> x(2m + 1 + 2 - 2m) + 2 - 2m + m - 1 ::: 0 mx + (2m + ljz + 4m + 2 ::: 0

Y = 2x + 2 m -1·

<=> x::: ---

3

m(l- m)

(2m + l)z ::: . - (4m + 2).

. 3

R6 rang he (1 )(2)(3) vo nghiern <=> (3) vo nghiem

{2m + 1 = 0

<=> mO ; m) _ (4m + 2) "* O.

T' 4' IKh· I hi

tt ( ) co m = - --. 1 m = - - t 1

2 2

1

VT (5) :::: - - "* O. 4

1

V~Y (4)(5) <=> m = - -.

2

Nhu the ta thu lai ket qua tren : dm II (P) khi va chi khi m = - k '. Thi du 3. (De thi tuycn sinh Dai hoc, Cao dang khoi D - 2003) Trong khong gian voi he toa do Oxyz cho duong thang

{X + 3ky - z + 2 = 0 dk:

kx - y + z + 1 = O.

Tim k de duong thang dk vuong g6c voi mat phang (P) : x - y - 2z + 5 = o.

68

(I) (2)

(3)

(4) (5)

cuu

Duong thang dk co vecto chi phirong uk diroc xac dinh nhu sau :

( 3k - 1 -1 1 1 3k J 2

U"- = '.' == (3k - 1 . =k - 1 . -I - 3k )

k " .".

-I 11k k-I

-

Ro rang Uk =t:- 0 voi rnoi k.

dk .L (P) ¢::> Uk II n. a day n = (I ; -I ; -2) la vecto phap tuyen cua (P).

{3k-l=k+l (1)

Ta co U II ri ¢::>

k 2(3k-l)=1+3k2• (2)

Til (I) suy ra k = 1. Thay vao (2) thay dung.

Vay k = 1 la gia tri duy nhatcua tham s6 k d~ dk II (P).

Thi du 4. (De thi tuyen sinh Dai hoc, Cao d~ng kh6i A - 2005)

Trong khong gian voi he toa dQ Oxyz cho duong thang d va mat phang (P)

d: x-I ==y+3==z-3

-1 2 1

(P) : 2x + y - 2z + 9 = O.

I) Tim toa de diem I thuoc d sao cho khoang each til I den (P) bang 2. 2) Tim toa de? diem A, biet A = d n (P).

ciu

1) V iet lai d diroi dang tham s6

Ix == 1 - t d: y == -3 + 2t

1 z == 3 + t, '

t E R.

Vi Le d => 1= (I - to ; -3 + 2to ; 3 + to) •

12(1 - to) + (-3 + 2to) - 2(3 + to) + 91

d(l, (P» = 2 ¢::> I

, ~4+1+4

¢::> 12 - 2to 1 == 6

¢::> [2 - 2to = 6 ¢::> [to == -2

2 - 2to = -6 to = 4.

69

v ~y co hai diem can tim tren d Hi

1)(3; -7; 1) va 12(-3; 5; 7).

2) Vi A = d (l (P), nen gia sir A = (1 - t) ; -3 + 2t) ; 3 + t), do A E (P) nen co phuong trlnh sau day de xac dinh t).

2(1 - t) + (-3 + 2t) - 2(3 + t) + 9 = 0 ~ 2 - 2t) = 0

~ t) = 1.

V~yA=(O;-1 ;4).

Thi du S, (De thi tuyen sinh Dai hoc, Cao dang khoi D - 2(05) Trong khong gian voi he toa d¢ Oxyz cho hai duong thang

d) : x-I = Y + 2 = z + 1

3 -I 2

{X + Y - z - 2 = 0 d2 :

x + 3y - 12 == O.

Gia sir d) (l (Oxz) = A, d2 (l (Oxz) = B. Tim di¢n. tich tam giac OAB.

Gidi

Mat phang (Oxz) co phuong trlnh y = o. Xet he phirong trinh

{X-I=Y+2=Z+1

3 -1 2

y=o

~ x = -5 ; y = 0, z = -5.

Vay A = (-5 ; 0; -5).

Bay gia xet he phuong trinh

{X +. Y - Z - 2 = 0 {X = 12

x + 3y - 12 = 0 ~ y = 0

y=o z=1O.

V~y B=(12;0;1O).

70

Taco OA =(-5;0;-5); OB (12;0; 10). Theo cong thirc ta eo SOAB =~I[ OA,013JI·

(1)

Ta thay [0'\,6-8]= (~ Suy fa I[ OA, 013JI = 10.

- 5 -5 - 5 5 0 J

- 0 =(0;-10;0).

10 ' 10 12' 12

(2)

Thay (2) vao (1), va eo SOAB = 5(dvdt) •

Thi du 6. (Dc thi tuyen sinh Dai hoc, Cao dang khoi 0 - 2006)

Trong khong gian voi he toa do Oxyz eho diem A(1 ; 2; 3) va duong thang

x-·2 y+2 z-3

dj : ----=--=_ .. -.

2 -1 1

TIm toa de;> diem A' doi xirng voi diem A qua duong thang d I' Gidi

G9i H la hinh chieu cua A tren d I' Ta eo

H E d., nen H = (2 + 2t ; -2 - t ; 3 + t).

Nhu vay AH = (2t + 1 ; -4 ~ t ; t)

d I eo vecto chi phuong ii = (2 ; -1 ; 1). Do vay AH .L d I <=> AH. u = 0

<=> 4t + 2 + 4 + t + t = 0 <=>t=-1.

VI the H = (0 ; -1 ; 2).

VI H la trung diem cua AA' nen A' = (x. : Yl ; zl) v6i

{Xl = 2XH - xA = 2.0 - 1 = -1

Yl : 2_YH ~ YA: 2.(~1)~2 =-4

zi - 2zH zA - 2.2 3 - 1.

A

H

A'

Tit do suy fa A' = (-1 ; -4; 1) la diem d6i xirng cua A qua d..

71

Thi du 7. (De thi tuyen sinh Dai h9C, Cao dang kh6i B - 2006)

Trong khong gian v6i he toa do Oxyz, cho diem A(O; 1 ; 2) va hai duong thang.

d I: ~ ~ y ~ I ~ z :/; d,: {~ : ~; ~ 21

z=2+t.

11m toa dQ cac diem M Ed" N E d2 sao cho ba diem A, M, N thang hang. ouu

Vi M E (d.) ~ M = (2t ; 1 + t ; -1 - n.

Do N E (d2) ~ N = (1 + s ; -1 - 2s ; 2 + s),

Ta co AM = (2t ; t ; -3 - t)

AN = (1 + s ; -2 - 2s ; s).

Ba diem A, M, N thang hang ~ AM = k AN (k:j:. 0 VI A ~ dj )

{2t = k(l + s) (I)

~ t = -2k(l + s) (2)

-3 - t = ks . (3)

Tir (1) va (2) suy ra k(l + s) = -4k(l + s)

~ 1 + s = 0 (dok v 0)

~ s = -1 (khi do t = 0) •

Thay vao (3) va co -3 = -k hay k = 3.

Tir do di den M(O; 1 ; -1) E d, ; N(O; 1 ; 1) E d2 la hai diem can tim. Nhan xet : Co the the giili nhir sau :

Ba diem A, M, N thang hang ~ [AM, AN ] = 6.

["-~ --~J ( t" - 3 - t -3 - t 2t 2t

Taco AM AN = . .

, -2 - 2s s ' s 1 + s ' 1 + s

= (-ts - 2t - 6s - 6 ; -3ts - t - 3s - 3 ; -5ts - 5t).

VI the [AM, AN] = 6

72

{ts + 2t + 6s + 6 = 0 <=> 3 ts + t + 3s + 3 = 0 5t(1 + s) = 0

(4) (5) (6).

Tit (6) suy ra t = 0 hoac ] + s = O . • Neu t = 0, thay vao (4), (5) va co

{6S + 6 = 0

<=>s=-l. 3s + 3 = 0

• Neu s = -1, thay vao (4), (5) va co

{t = 0 <=> t=O.

-2t = 0

V~y (4)(5)(6) <c> {: : ",

Tit do di den M(O; 1 ; -1) E (d), N = (0; 1; 1) E d2 la hai diem can tim. Binh ludn : Ta co the Slr dung hai phuong phap tren de tim dieu kien cho 3 diem thang hang !

Thi du 8. (D~ thi tuyen sinh Dai hoc, Cao d~ng khoi D - 2007)

Trong he toa d¢ Oxyz trong khong gian cho hai diem A(l ; 4; 2) va B(-1 ; 2; 4) .va dirong thang

Tim diem M E ~ sao cho dai luong MA2 + MB2 nhan gia tri be nhat. GiJi

Viet lai ~ diroi dang tham so sau day:

{X = 1 - t

Y = -2 + t z = 2t.

Vi M E ~, nen M = (1 - t ; -2 + t ; 2t).

73

Ta co MA2 + MB2 = [(l - t - 1)2 + (-2 + t - 4)2 + (2t -2PJ + [0-t+l)2 +(-2+t-2)2 +(2t-4)2J

= t2 + (t - 6)2 + (2t - 2)2 + (2 - t)2 + (t - 4)2 + (2t _ 4)2 = 12t2 - 48t + 76.

2' 2

= 12(t - 4t + 4) + 28 = 12(t - 2) + 28.

V i,ly MA 2 + MB2 nhan gia tri be nhat bang 28 khi va chi khi t = 2. Khi do

M = (-I ; 0; 4) Hl diem duy nhat can tim thuoc ~.

Thi du 9. (Cac bai toan tim hinh chieu)

1) Cho diem M(2 ; -3 ; 1) va mat phang (P) : x + 3y - z + 2 = O. lim hinh chieu H cua M tren (P).

2) Cho diem M(2 ; -I ; 1) va duong thang d :

f x = 1 + 2t d: 'tY = -1 - t z = 2t.

TIm hlnh chieu H cua M tren d.

3) Trong khong gian voi he toa do Oxyz, eho dirong thang

{X - 2y - z - 2 = 0 d:

x + 2y - 4 = O.

TIm hlnh chieu cua d tren mat phang (P) : 2x - y + 2z - 3 = O. Gidi

1) Duong thang d qua M va vuong goc voi (P) nhan vecto phap tuyen ii = (1 ; 3 ; -I) cua mat phang CP) lam vecto chi phuong cua no. Vi the d eo dang

{X = 2 + t

d: y: -~ + 3t z - 1 t.

Goi H = (2 + to ; -3 + 3to ; 1 - to) la hinh chieu cua M tren (P). Ta co phirong trinh sau d6 xac dinh to. (dua vao H E (P»

74

M

(2 + to) + 3(-3 + 3to) - (I-to) + 2 = O.

<=> 11 to - 6 = 0

6 H

<=> to = -. p

11 ~""__ -J

Yay H = (28; -15; 2_) la hlnh chieu cua H tren (P).

. 11 II 11

Cluj y : Tir ket qua tren co the d~ dang suy ra diem M' d6i xirng voi M qua (P) co loa do la M' = (34 ; ~ . __ 1) .

. .. 11 11' 11

(dua vao cong thirc : thf du xM' = 2xH - xM = 2. 28 - 2 = 34, ... )

. . 11 II

2) G9i H la hlnh chieu cua M tren d. Khi do H = (I + 2to ; -1 - to ; 2to).

Tir do MH = (-1 + 2to; -to; 2to - I),

Ta thay ii = (2 ; -1 ; 2) la vecto chi phuong cua d.

Ta co MH. u = 0

<=> 2(-1 + 2to) - (-to) + 2(2to - 1) = 0 4

<=> 9to - 4 = 0 <=> to = - .

9

Yay ta co: H = (!2 .. -13 . ~).

. 9 ' 9 '9

3) d co vecto chi plurong ii duoc xac dinh nhu sau :

[-2 -1 -11 1-2)

u = 2 0; 0 1; 1 2 = (2; -1; 4).

G9i (Q) l~ mat phang xac dinh boi d va hlnh chieu d' cua no. Suy ra (Q) j_ (P) nen (Q) nhan ii va fip (2 ; -1 ; 2) lam cap ve.cta chi phuong. Do do mat phang

(Q) co mot vecto phap tuyen

.. ~ _ _ (-1 4 4 2 2 -1)

n - u n - . .

Q - [, pJ - -1 2' 2 2' 2 -1

= (2 ; 4 ; 0) cung phuong vai vecto (1 ; 2 ; 0).

75

De thay M(4 ; 0; 2) E d, nen

(Q): (x·- 4) + 2(y - 0) = 0 ¢:::> x + 2y - 4 = O.

Nhu vay d' hlnh chieu ella d tren (P) co phuong trinh :

{2X - y + 2z - 3 = 0 d' :

x + 2y - 4 = O.

Nhdn xet : a) Co the giili bang each khac nhir sau :

Mi;H phang (Q) xac dinh boi d va hinh chieu d' ella no thuoc vao chum mat phang sinh boi d sau :

a(x - 2y - z - 2) + P(x + 2y - 4) = 0, a2 + p2 > 0

¢:::> (a + P)x + (2P - 2a)y - az - 2a - 4P = O. (1)

Vecto phap ella (1) la "I (a + P ; 2P - 2a; -a).

Mat phang (Q) .L (P), nen hai vecto phap "1 va ii (2 ; -1 ; 2) phai vuong goc voi nhau.

"1 .L ii ¢:::> iii. ri = 0

¢:::> 2(a + P) - (2P - 2a) - 2a = 0 ¢:::> 2a = 0 ¢:::> a = O.

Do a2 + p2 > 0 ~ lilY P = L

Tir do (Q): x + 2y - 4 == O.

Ta thu lai ket qua tren

d' . {x + 2y - 4 = 0

. 2x - y + 2z - 3 = 0

la hlnh chieu ella d tren (P).

b) Tnroc khi tim hinh chieu ella d tren (P) phai xem d co vuong goc voi (P) hay khong ?

- Neu d khong vuong goc voi (P), tht ta tien hanh nhu tren.

- Neu d .L (P), thi bai toan tro thanh tim giao diem cua d vai (P).

Neu d .L (P), thi M = (P) (\ d chinh la hmh chieu ella d tren (P).

d

M

76

Thi d,!- 10. (Cac bai toan C(/ ban v~ khoang each). 1) Tren true Oy tim diem each deu hai mat phang (P) : x + y - z + 1 = 0 ;

(Q) : x - y + z - 5 = O.

2) Gia sir (P) la mat phang co phirong trmh x + 2y - 3z + 7 = 0,

va A(2 ; 4; -6) ; B(4 ; 0; -2) la hai diem cho tnroc.

Tim cac diem tren (P) rna each deu A va B.

3) Tim khoang each tir diem M(2 ; 3 ; -1) den dirong thing d

d . {x + y - 2z - 1 = 0

. x + 3y + 2z + 2 = O.

4) Tim khoang each giira cac cap dirong thang sau day:

{X = 1 + t {X = 2 - 3t

a)dl: y=-I-t d2: y=-2+3t

z = 1 z = 3t

{2X - z - 1 = 0 {3X + y - 2 = 0

b) dl : d2 :

-x - y + 4 = 0 y - z - 2 = 0

x-I y+3 z-4 cj dj : .-- = -- =--

2 1 -2

Gidi

1) GQi M = (0 ; Yo; 0) la diem nam tren true Oy. Ta co d(M, (P» = d(M, (Q»

Iyo + 11 I-yo - 51·

¢:::;> = -'------=-=----'-

J3 J3

¢:::;> Iyo + 11 = Iyo + 51 .......... [YO + 1 = Yo + 5

......... => Yo = -3.

Yo + 1 = -Yo - 5

Vay M(O ; -3 ; 0) la diem duy nhat can tim tren Oy.

77

2) Goi M la trung diem cua AB, thi M = (3 ; 2 ; -4).

Ta thay AB = (2 ; -4; 4) cung phuong voi

vecto (l ; -2 ; 2).

Goi (Q) ia mat phang trung true cua AB thi (Q) : (x - 3) - 2(y - 2) + 2(z + 4) = 0

<=> x - 2y + 2z + 9 = O.

Nhirng diem can tim chinh la giao tuyen cua (Q) va (P).

{X - 2y + 2z + 9 = 0 Yay d:

. x + 2y - 3z + 7 = 0

la tap hop nhirng diem nam tren (P) va each deu hai diem A, B.

CIIIJ Y :

a) Co the giai each khac nhu sau :

Gia Slr N(x ; y ; z) E (P) va each deu A va B.

Ta co NA = NB <=> NA2 = NB2

<=> (x - 2)2 + (y - 4)2 + (z + 6)2 = (x _ 4)2 + y2 + (z + 2)2 <=> -4x + 4 - 8y + 16 + 12z + 36 = -8x + 16 + 4z + 4

<=> x - 2y + 2z - 9 = o.

{X - 2y + 2z - 9 = 0 d·

. x + 2y - 3z + 7 = 0

Hi tap hop nhfrng diem can tim. Ta thu lai ket qua tren.

b) Neu thay A, B bang hai diem A'(1 ; 5 ; 7) va B'(3 ; 9 ; 1), ta co A' B' = (2 ; 4 ; -6) cung phirong voi vecto (1 ; 2 ; -3), tire la A'B' cung plurong ri (fi la vecto phap tuyen cua (P» => Mat phang trung true cua A'B' song song vai (P).

Trong twang hop nay bai toan vt: nghiem,

Ta ciing co th~ lam: Neu N(x ; y ; z) E (P) va each deu A', B', tht ta co

,2 "2 2 2 2 2 2. 2

NA' =NB <=>(x-l) +(y-5) +(z-7) =(x-3) +(y-9) +(z-l)

<=> x + 2y - 3z - 4 = O.

O he {x + 2y - 3z - 4 = 0 . hie bai toa hie ,

o e vo ng rem => ar toan vo ng rem .

. x + 2y - 3z + 7 = O· .

78

c) Bay gio neu thay A, B bang hai diem AJ(1; 1; -6); BJ(-3; -7 ;6). Luc do A1B1 = (-4 ; -8 ; 12) cung plurong voi vecto (1 ; 2 ; -3).

Vay A)3; cung phuong voi ii , Mat khac trung di~m MJ cua AIB1 la MI(-I, -3, 0). De thay MJ E (P). Vay trong tnrong hop nay (P) chinh la mat phang trung true cua AIBI. Do do cac diem can tim la toan bo mat phang

(P) : x + 2y - 3z + 7 = O. A,

Ta cling co the thay dieu do bang each

lam nhtr sau : Goi N(x ; Y ; z) E (P) sao cho

NAI = NBI. Khi do ta co

2 2 2

(x - 1) + (y - 1) + (z + 6)

2 2 2

= (x + 3) + (y + 7) + (z -- 6)

p

¢::> x + 2y - 3z + 7 = O.

Vay tap cac diem N(x ; y ; z) can tim thoa man h~

{X + 2y - 3z + 7 := 0 (d~ NA1 = NBI)

X + 2y - 3z + 7 = 0 (de N E (P»

¢::> x + 2y - 3z + 7 = O.

Ta thu lai ket qua tren.

Binh 11I~lfI : V 6i mot bai toan don gian, co ban nhu tren - qua each trtnh bay cua chung toi cac ban thu luom duoc nhicu dieu co If thu khong ?

3) Duong thang d da cho nhan vecto

U = (I - 2 . -2 1; 1 1 J'

32' 2113

A'

= (8 ; -4 ; 2) cung phuong voi vecto (4; -2 ; I)

lam vecto chi plurong. Trong he phirong trinh xac dinh d cho y = 0, ta co

{ jx = -_!_

x - 2z = 1 2

x + 2z = -2 ¢::> 3

z = --.

4

79

Y' N( 1 0 3) l' 'd·;! ? d

ay --;; - - a mol lcm cua .

. 2 4 .

Theo cong thirc tfnh khoang each h tir M toi d, ta co

Ta co

I[MN,u JI

h=~- .

I u I

M-N = (_2. . - 3 . .!.) nen

2 ' '4'

[ MN, ii J = (-3 ~; ~ - % ; - % - 3 J

-2 1 1 4 4 - 2

(I)

= (-2. . .2..17).

2 ' 2 '

Tir do thay vao (1), va co

f6l5

h - 'J--2_ _ ~205 - J2t - ~ .

. Nhdn xet :

1) Cach giai tren chi cho ta biet khoang each gifra M va d, khong cho biet

hinh chieu cua M tren d.

2) Co th~ giaicach khac nhu sau :

Tnroc het ta tim hinh chieu H cua M tren d :

Taco

Ta co

1

x = -- + 4t 2

d: y = -2t

3

z = -- + t.

4

H = (-.!. + 4t . - 2t . - ~ + t)

2 ' , 4

._-_ ( 5 . 1)

=> MH = -2 + 4t ; - 3 - 2t ; 4" + t .

80

Ta co MH.u = 0 <=> 4(-~ + 4t) - 2( - 3 - 2t) + __!__ + t = 0

2 4

1

<=> -10 + 16t + 6 + 4t + - + t = 0 4

Nhu the each nay can xac dinh hlnh chieu cua M tren d. Til do tinh khoang each tir M den d, nrc la tinh MH.

4) a) Xet cap dirong thang

{X = 1 + t

dl: y=-I-t z = 1

{X = 2 - 3t

d2 = Y = -2 + 3t z == 3t.

Duong thang dl di qua diem MI (1 ; -1 ; 1) va nhan UI = (1 ; ., 1 ; 0) lam vecto chi phuong, con d2 di qua diem M2(2 ; -2 ; 0) va nhan u2 = (-3 ; 3 ; 3) cung phuong voi vecta (-1 ; 1 ; 1) lam vecto chi phirong.

Ta co

(-1 0 0 1 1 -IJ

U U - . . - -1· -1 ·0

[ I' 2] - 1 1 ' 1 - 1 '-1 1 - ( , • O),

Vi the

M]M2 = (l ; -1 ; -1). [u],u2].M~-M;,=-1 + 1 +0=0.

Til do suy ra d I va d2 cung nam trong mot mat phang. M~t khac theo tren thi [UI,U2] :;:. 6, vay dl vad2 cat nhau.

Do do khoang each h giifa dl va d2 bang O.

6-HHKG-A

81

b) Xet cap duong thang

{2X - z - 1 = 0

dj : .

-~x -~ y + 4 = 0

{3X + y -- 2 = 0 d2 :

y - z - 2 = O.

Ta thay dl va d2 urong irng nhan cac vecto iii' u2 nhir sau :

( 0 - 1 -1 2 2 0)

ul = -1 0; 0 _ 1 ; -1 _ 1 = (-1 ; 1 ; -2)

(1 01 0 3 3 1 )

u2 = 1 _ 11 ; -1 0; 0 1 = (-1 ; 3 ; 3).

Trong cac he thirc xac dinh d I' d2 lfin hrot cho x = 0, ta thay

MI(O; 4; -I) va M2(0; 2; 0) urong irng Ia cacdiem thuoc dl, d2. Til do co

(I - 2 -2 - 1 -1 I)

[UI,U2] = 3 3; 3 -1; -13 =(9;5;-2),

MIM2 =(0;-2; 1).

Vi vay [UI,U2]. ~M-; = 9.0 + 5(-2) + 1(--2) = -12 -::F O.

Do do d I va d2 cheo nhau. Theo cong thirc xac dinh khoang each h giira d., d2 ta co :

Nhiin xet : Ta chi tfnh khoang each gifra d1 va d2 rna khong can xac dinh duong vuong goc cua no.

c) Xet cap <luang thang

x-I y+3 z-4 d1: ---- = -- =--

2 1 --2

x+2 y-l z+l

d2: ---- = --- = .--.

-4 -2 4

Duong thang d2 nhan ul = (2 ; 1 ; -2) lam vecto chi phuong va qua diem MI(l ; -3 ; 4, con d2 nhan u2 = (-4; -2 ; 4) lam vecto chi phirong va di qua M2(-2; 1; -1).

82

6-HHKG-B

VI _3_ = _1_ = -2 nen dl II d2. '

4 -2 4'

Vay khoang each h giii'a dl va d2 bang khoang each h' tit M, toi d2 :

(I)

Ta co the thay

[M1M2'"2J = ( -~

= (6 ; 32; 22).

Thay lai vao (1) va co

h = ../36 + 1024 + 484 = 56

../16 + 4 + 16 3·

Thi du 11. (Bai toan ve dirong vuong goc chung) Cho hai duong thang

d, : ~ = y - 1 = z + 2

2 -I 1

{X = -1 + 2t d2: y = 1 + t

z = 3.

1) Chirng minh d" d2 la hai dirong thang cheo nhau.

2) Viet phirong trlnh dirong vuong goc chung cua d, va d2. cuu

1) Ta co dl co vecto chi phirong UI = (2; -1 ; 1) va qua M, = (0; 1 ; -2); Ta co d2 co vecto chi phuong u2 = (2 ; 1 ; 0) va qua M2(-1 ; I'; 3).

YAy ["1,0,] = (-: ~; ~ ~; ~ -n = H ; 2; 4).

M)M2=(-1;0;5).

[ ii I ' u2 ] . M~M~ = 21 :j:; 0 ~ d, va d2 cheo nhau ~ dpcm.

83

2) Goi MN la dirong vuong goc chung cua d I va d2, thi MN chinh la giao tuyen cua (P) va (Q), trong do (P) la mat phang xac dinh bci MN va d I' tire (P) la mat phang nhan ul va U (0 day U = [Ul' U2]) lam cap vecto chi phircng va

chua d1 (nrc chua M1).

Nhu vay (P) co vecto phap la

[ 2 4 4 - 1 -1 2)

n-uu - ..

l-[,d- -11'12' 2-1

d

= (6; 9; -3) cung phuong voi vecto (2; 3; -I), Vay (P) : 2(x - 0) + 3(y - 1) - (z + 2) = o.

<=> 2x + 3y - z ~ 5 = O. (1)

Tuong nr (Q) nhan il va u2 lam cap vecto chi phirong va chua M2. (Q) co vecto phap la n2 :

[2 4 4 - 1 . -1 2)

n2 = [U,U2] = ;

1002'21

= (-4 ; 8 ; -5) cung phuong voi vecto (4 ; -8 ; 5) Vay (Q): 4(x + 1) - 8( y - 1) + 5(z - 3) = 0

<=> 4x - 8y + 5z -3 = O.

Tom lai dirong vuong goc chung A cua d., d2 la !1 : {2X + 3y - z - 5 = 0

4x - 8y - 5z - 3 = O.

(1)

Nh dn xet :

1) each giai tren khong cho biet chan dirong vuong goc chung.

2) Xet each giai sau day:

GQi M va N nreng img la chan dirong vuong goc chung (M E d1, N E d2).

Khi do ta co M = (2t; 1 - t ; -2 + t) N = (-1 + 2s ; 1 + s ; 3).

V~y

NM = (2t + 1 - 2s ; -t - s ; -5 + t).

Do MN la duong vuong goc chung, nen ta co

84

{NM.UI = 0 NM.u2 = 0

<=> {2(2t + 1 - 2s) + (t + s) - (5 - t) = 0 2(2t + 1 - 2s) - (t + s) = 0

<=> {6t - 3s = 3

3t - 5s = -2

<=> {t = 1

s = 1.

V~y M=(2~O~-I)~N=(l~2~3)

va NM = (1 ; -2 ~ -4).

Do do dirong vuong goc chung 1'1 co dang

x-2 =l= z+l. -2 -4

(2)

Binh ludn :

1) Trong thf du nay each giai tren la dan gian. No con cho phep xac dinh diroc chan cac dirong vuong goc chung.

2) Chu y ding ta thay tir (1) suy ra 1'1 co vecto chi phirong la (1 ; -2 ; -4).

Vay (1) Ht dang t6ng quat, con (2) la dang chinh tac cua dirong vuong goc chung can tim 1'1 .

. Thi du l Z,

Cho hai diem A(-l ; 3 ; -2), B(-9; 4 ~ 9) va mat phang (P) : 2x - y + z + I = O.

Tim diem K E (P) sao cho AK + BK U\ nho nhat.

Gidi

D~t f(x ; y ; z) = 2x - y + 3 + 1.

Ta co f(-1 ; 3 ; -2) = -2 - 3 - 2 + 1 = --6 < O. f( -9 ; 4 ; 9) = -18 - 4 + 9 + 1 = -12 < O.

Vay A, B a ve cung mot phfa cua (P).

GQi A I la diem d6i xirng cua A qua (P).

N6i BAl' Ta co BAI n (P) = K.

B

85

Khi do de chirng minh K chlnh la diem can tim (bai toan co ban cua phep doi xirng qua mat phang).

GQi A'Ia hinh chieu cua A tren (P).

{X = -1 + 2t Duong thang AA' co dang : y = 3 - t

z = -2 + t.

GQi A' = (-1 + 2to ; 3 - to ; -2 + to)

Ta co phuong trinh sau d~ xac dinh to (dira vao A' E (P» : 2( -1 + 2to) - (3 - to) + (-2 + tD) + 1 = 0

~ 6to - 6 = 0 ~ ~o = l.

Vay A' = (1 ; 2; -1). Do A'Ia trung diem cua AAI, nen co ngay Al = (3; 1 ; 0) .. Ta co BAI = (12; -3 ; -9) cung phirong voi vecto (4; -1 ; -3).

Vay BAI co dang

{X = 3 + 4t

y = 1 - t z = -3t.

Gia su K = (3 + 4tl ; 1 - tl ; -3tl), khi do ta co plurong trmh sau d~ xac dinh tl (dira vao K E (P» :

2(3+4tl)-0-tl)-3tl + 1 =0

~ 6tl + 6 = 0 ~ tl = -1.

Vay K = (-1 ; 2; 3) Ia diem cAn tim. cna»

Neu A, B (j hai phfa cua (P), thi neu goi M = AB (\ (P), thl M chlnh Ia diem can tim.

Loai 3. Cac bal toan ve chum mat phang Nguoi tathuong su dung phuong pliap chum mat phang d~ giai cac bai roan co noi dung sau : Viet phuong trinh mot mat phang chua mot dirong thang d (trong do d eho duoi dang t6ng quat:

86

{AIX + Bjy + CIZ + DI = 0 d:

A2x + B2y + C2Z + D2 = 0

va thoa man them mot dieu kien nao do. M:;U phang can tim se thuoc chum a(Alx + Bly + Clz + DI) + P(A2X + B2y + C2z + D2)= 0, (a2 + p2 > 0).

Dira vao dieu kien dau bai ta se co phuong trinh de xac dinh a, p.

Thi du 1. (De thi tuyen sinh Dai hoc, Cao dAng kh6i A - 2002) Cho hai duong thang

{X - 2y + Z _ 4 = O· {X = 1 + t

~I : ; ~2: y = 2 + t

X + 2y - 2z + 4 = 0

Z = 1 + 2t.

Lap phuong trmh mat phang chua ,1.1 va song song voi ~2. Gidi

Goi (P) la mat phang can tim. Do (P) chua ~I' nen (P) thuoc churn mat phang sau

2 2

a(x - 2y + Z - 4) + P(z+ 2y - 2z + 4) = 0, a + p > O.

<=> (a + P)x - (2a -2P)y + (a - 2P)z - 4a + 4P = O. (1)

Vecto phap cua (1) la Ii = (a + p, 2P - 2a, a -- 2P).

Do /\2 II (P) nen vecto chi phirong ti2 = (1, I, 2) ella (~2) tnroc het phai vuong goc voi ri .

Ta co ti2 . ii = 0 <=> a + P + 2P + 2a - 4P = 0

<=> a - P = o.

Do a2 + p2 > 0, chon a = P =1. Vay (P): 2x - z = O.

Mat khac diem M(1 ; 2; 1) E ll2 va M \l (P). Do do qua la ll2 II (P). Vay 2x - z = 0 la mat phang can tim.

Nhan xet : Hay so sanh each gia: nay voi each giai da trinh bay trong thi du 9 - loai I : Cac bai wan thiet lap phirong trinh dirong thang va mat phang.

87

Thi du 2. Cho dirong thang

d : {2X - Y - 1 = 0 z - 1 = O.

Viet phuong trinh mat phang chua d va each diem 1(-1 ; 2 ; 3) mot khoang bang 3.

ciu

GQi (P) la mat phang can tim. Vi (P) chua d, nen (P) thuoc chum

a(2x - y - 1) + P(z - 1) = 0 (a2 + p2 > 0)

~ 2ax - ay + pz - a - p = O.

(1)

Vi khoang each tii' 1(-1 ; 2; 3) den (1) bang 3, nen ta co 1:-2a - 2a + 3p - a -;- pi = 3

~5a2 + p2

~ 12p = 5al = 3~5a2 + p2

~ 4p2 + 25a2 - 20ap = 45a2 + 9p2

~ 4a2 + p2 + 4ap = 0 ~ (P + 2a)2 = 0 ~ p = -2a.

Do a2 + p2 > 0 nen cho a = 1, P = -2, vay mat phang (P) can tim la (P) : 2x - y - 2z + 1 =-= O.

Nhdn xet : Xet each giai khac sau day:

Duong thang d co vecto chi phirong ii :

(-1 0 0 2 2 -1)

ii = . . =(-1'-2'0) va di qua diem Mttl i+-Li L).

01'10'00 ", "

Gia sir (P) : Ax + By + Cz + D = O. Khi do ta co he sau : -B + C + D = 0

-A - 2B = 0

1- A + 2B + 3C + DI = 3 ~A2 + B2 + c2

~ l~: ;2~ D

12B + 2B + 3B - 3D + DI2 = [4B2 + B2 + B2 + 02 - iBDJ

88

{A = -2B

<=> C=B-O

49B2 + 402 - 28BO = 54B2 + 902 - I8BD.

<=> {~: ;2~ D ~ {~: ;2~ D

(B + D)2 = 0 D = -B.

Do A2 + B2 + C2 > 0, nen chon B = -1, A = 2, D = 1, C = -2. V ~y (P) : 2x - y - 2z + 1 = O.

Ta thu lai ket qua tren.

Thi du 3.

. ,{x - 2y - z - 2 = 0 "

Trong khong gian cho dirong thang d: . va mat phang

x + 2y - 4 = 0

(P) : 2x - y + 2z - 3 = o.

Viet phirong trlnh hlnh chieu cira d tren (P). cu:

Goi (Q) la mat phang xac dinh boi d va hinh chieu d' cua d, nhu vay (Q) la mat phang chua d va vuong goc voi (P).

Do (Q) chua d nen (Q) thuoc chum 2 2

a(x'-2y-z-2)+P(x+2y-4)=0,a +P >0.

<=> (a + P)x + 2(P - a)y -az - 2a - 4P = o. (1) co vecto phap tuyen 01 (a + P ; 2P - 2a ; - a).

(P) co mot vecto phap tuyen 0 (2 ; -1 ; 2).

Ta co 01 .L 0 <=> 01.0 = 0 <=> 2a + 2P - 2P + 2a - 2a = 0 <=> 2a = 0 <=> a = O.

d'

(1)

Vay chon P = 1, ta co (Q) : x + 2y - 4 == O.

Do vay hinh chieu cua d tren (P) Ia d', trong do

{2X - Y + 2z - 3 = 0 d' :

x + 2y - 4 = O.

89

Chuong B

M!TCAu·

1. TOM TAT LI TH~T

• Phuong trinh mat cau

Hinh cau tam tai I(xo ; Yo ; zo) va ban kinh R la

2 2 2 2

(x - xo) + (y - Yo) + (z - zo) = R

.• Phuong trinh mat cau tong quat c6 dang

x2 + l + i + 2ax + 2by + 2cz + d = 0, voi a2 + b2 + c2 - d > O. (1)

Diroi dang nay thi tam hlnh cau la I( -a ; -b ; -c) va ban kinh hinh diu

R = N+ b2 + c2 - d .

• Vi tri urong d6i gifra mat phang va hinh cau

2 2 2 2

Cho hinh cau (.7'): (x -- xo) + (y - Yo) + (z - zo) = R ,

va mat phang (P): Ax + by + Cz + D = 0

h = IAxo + Byo + CZo + DI ~A2 + B2 + C2

Khi d6

la khoang each tir tam I(xo, Yo, zo) tci (P).

- Neu h > R : thi (P) va (.7') khong cat nhau.

-_ Neu h = R : tht (P) va (.7) tiep xuc voi nhau. Luc d6 neu goi M Ia tiep

diem cua (P) voi (.7'), thl 1M = R va 1M .L (P).

- Neu h < R : thi (P) va (.'7') cat nhau thea mot giao tuyen la dirong tron.

90

Tam K cua duong tron giao tuyen chinh la hinh chieu cua tam I tren (P), con ban klnh r cua duong tron giao tuyen duoc xac dinh nhu sau :

r= JR2 _h2.

h > R

h=R

2. cAe DANG ToAN eo BAN

Loai 1. Cac bai toan viet phuong trrnh mat C3U

Thi du 1. (De thi tuyen sinh Dai hoc, Cao dang khoi D - 2(04)

Cho ba diem At? ; 0 ; 1), B(1 ; 0 ; 0) ; C(1 ; 1 ; 1) va mat phang (P) :

x + y + z - 2 = O. Viet phuong trinh mat cau di qua A, B, C va c6 tam thuoc (P). ou:

Phuong trinh tong quat cua mat cau qua A, B, Cia

(.'1/) x2 + y2 + z2 + 2ax + 2by + 2cz + d = 0, voi a2 + b2 + c2 > d. (l)

Khi do (.'1/) co tam la I(-a ; -b; -c).

Tir do ta di den he phrrong trinh sau de xac dinh a, b, c, d :

4 + I + 4a + 2c + d = 0 1+ 2a + d = 0

3 + 2a + 2b + 2c + d = 0 -a - b - c - 2 = o.

(2) (3) (4) (5)

«2),(3),(4) c6 diroc do (.~/l) qua A, B, C; con (5) co diroc do tam I(-a ; -b; -c) E (P».

De thay h~ (2), (3), (4), (5) cho nghiem a = -1, b = 0, c = -1, d = 1. V ay mat cau (/)'1) can tim co phuong trinh

2 2 2

x+y+z+l=O

2 2 2

¢::>(x-l) +y +(x-l) =1.

Do la mat cau tam tai I( 1 ; 0; 1) va ban kinh R = 1.

91

Cluj y :

1) Ta eo each giai khac sau :

Gia siX I(xo ; Yo ; Zo la tam cua mat cau va R Hi ban kinh cua no. Khi do ta eo

{xo + Yo + Zo = 0

IA 2 = IB2 = IC2 = R 2

jxo + Yo + Zo - 2 = 0

~ (xo - 2)2 + Y6 + (Zo - 1)2 = (xo - 1)2 + Y6 + Z6

(xo - 1)2 + Y6 + Z6 = (xo - 1)2 + (Yo - 1)2 + (Zo - 1)2

{xo + Yo + Zo - 2 = 0 '

~ -4xo + 4 - 2zo + 1 = -2xo + 1 -2xo + 1 = -2xo - 2yo - 2zo + 3

{xo + Yo + Zo - 2 == 0

~ Xo + Zo = 2

Yo + Zo = 1

~ {~~ : ~

Zo = 1.

Tir do thay vao tren ta co R = 1, vay mat cau (.9") eo phuong trinh

2 2 2

(/l) : (x - 1) + Y + (z - 1) = 1.

Ta thu lai ket qua tren !

2) Xet mot each giai "eire doan" sau day:

Ta eo

AB = (-1 . 0 . -1)· AC = (-1 . 1 . 0)

'" , ,

['-'---J (0 -1 -1 -1 -1 OJ

AB AC = . . = (1 . 1 . -1)

, 1 0' 0 -1' -1 1 "

Vay

Do chfnh la vecto phap cua mat phang (ABC). Vay (ABC) la mat phang (x - 2) + (y - 0) - (z - 1) = 0

~ x + y - Z - 1 = o.

92

GQi K(xo ; Yo ; zo) la tam dirong tron ngoai tiep tam giac ABC. Ta co

{XO + Yo - Zo - 1 = 0

¢::> Xo -4- Zo = 2 '

Yo + Zo = 1

412 ¢::> Xo = 3" ; Yo = 3" ; Zo = 3" .

K = (4 . .!.. 3_)

3 ' 3 '3 .

Duong thimg d .1 (ABC) tai K co dang 4

x=-+t B

3

V~y

I

d: y=-+t

3

2

z=--t.

3

p

\ \

Xet phuong trinh sau d~ xac dinh t.

Vay d (1 (P) = 1(1 ; 0; I) va I chinh la tam cua hinh cau qua A, B, C. Ta co R = IA = I. Do do (.if!) la hlnh cau voi phirong trlnh

(x_I)2 + / + (z_1)2 =1.

Ta thu lai ket qua tren.

Di nhien each "eire doan" nay chi la de tham khao rna thoi I

Thi du 2. (D~ thi tuyen sinh Dai hoc, Cao dang Khoi B - 2005)

Trong khong gian cho hinh lang tru dirng ABCD.AIBICIDI voi A(O ; -3 ; 0), B(4; 0; 0) ; C(O ; 3 ; 0)-; BI (4; 0 ; 4).

1) Tim toa dQ cac dinh AI' CI.

2) Viet phU<1I1g trinh mat cau co tam la A va tiep xuc voi mat phang BCCIB!.

93

1) De thay A) = (0 ; -3 ; 4) ; c) = (0; 3 ; 4).

2) Xet mat phang BCC)B)), ta co

z

cts:

BC = (-4 ; 3 ; 0) va BB) = (0 ; 0 ; 4).

Vay vecto phap ii cua (BCC)B)) la

n = [BC,BB1]

(300 -4.-4 3J = 04;40' 00

x

= (12; 16; 0) cung phuong \rai vecto (3 ; 4; 0). v ~y mat phang BCC) B 1 co phuong trinh :

3(x - 4) + 4(y - 0) = 0

~ 3x + 4y - 12 = O.

Khoang each h tir A xuong (BCC) B)) la :

h _ 13.0 + 4(-3) - 121 _ 24

- 5 - 5 .

Do chinh la ban kinh R cua hlnh cau UP) co tam la A va tiep xuc voi (BCC)B)).

Vay mat cau (.'7)) can tim co phuong trinh

2 2 2 576

x + (y + 3) + Z = -. 25

Thi du 3. (D~ thi tuyen sinh Dai hoc, Cao dang khoi D - 2008)

Trong khong gian voi he toa d¢ Oxyz cho bon diem A(3 ; 3; 0) ; B(3 ; 0; 3) ;

C(O; 3 ; 3) ; D(3 ; 3 ; 3)

I) Viet phuong trlnh mat cau di qua bon diem A, B, C, D. 2) TIm toa do tam dirong tron ngoai tiep tam giac ABC. ouu

1) Xet hinh lap phuong B'OC'A.BO'CD (xem hlnh ve). De thay mat cau di qua bon diem A, B, C, D chinh la mat cau ngoai tiep hlnh lap phuong,

94

, (3 3) (3 3 )

Ta co H = -' - . 0 . H' = -' - . 3

2 ' 2 " 2 ' 2 '

z
C

B

3
C' y
3
B' G9i HH' la true cua hinh lap phuong, thi tren I cua mat cau ngoai tiep lap phirong chinh la trung diem cua HH'.

, ," iu bi IOC' 13 ~3

Ban kmh eua mat cau ang - . = - 'Vj

. 2 2

(vi canh lap phuong = 3 =:> dirong cheo BC' = 3.j3)

x

Vay mat cau can tim co phuong trmh .

(x-D' +-H +-%)' ~~

~ x 2 + y2 + z2 - 3x - 3y -- 3z = O.

2) ABC Hi tam giac deu canh bang 3.J2. Do do tam K dirong tron ngoai tiep ~ABC cling chinh la trong tam cua tam giac ABC. Ap dung cong thirc tim toa do trong tam tam giac, ta co

K = (3 + 3 + 0 . ~~ 0 + 3 . 0 + 3 + 3) = (2 . 2 . 2)

3 ' 3 '3 ' ,.

CIIlJ Y : Cau 1) co the gdti bang phuong phap truyen thong nhir sau :

GQi phirong trinh mat cau phai tim la

x 2 + y2 + z2 + 2ax + 2by + 2cz + d = 0

Vi mat cau qua A, B, C, D nen co he sau de xac dinh a, b, c, d. 18 + 6a + 6b + d = 0

18 + 6a + 6c + d = 0

18+6b+6c+d=O

27 + 6a + 6b + 6c -I- d = 0

Tir (1)(2)(3) suy ra a = b = e. Tir do di den he

(*)

(I) (2) (3) (4)

95

{I8 + I2a + d = 0 28 + 18a + d = 0

Thay lai vao (*) va c6 x2 + y2 + z2 - 3x - 3y - 3z = 0

I

Ta thu lai ket qua tren.

Cau 2) c6 the giai nhu sau :

AB = (0 ; -3 ; 3) cling phirong voi vecto c6 toa d¢ (0 ; -1 ; 1) AC = (-3; 0; 3) cling phirong voi vecto c6 toa do (-1 ; 0; 1).

V ay (ABC) nhan ii = [AD, ACJ la vecto phap tuyen.

Ta c6 Ii = [ -1 1; 1 0; 0 -1 J

o 1 1 -1 ~I 0

= (-1 ; -1 ; -1) cling phuong voi vecto (1 ; 1 ; 1)

Ke IK _l (ABC) (K E (ABC)). Do I la tam mat cau di qua A, B, C, D nen K 1ft tam dirong tron ngoai tiep tam giac ABC.

Duong thang IK nhan ii la vecto chi phuong, vay

3

x = - + t

2

3

y = - + t 2

3

z=-+t.

2

IK:

Do (ABC) c6 phuong trinh x - 3 + Y - 3 + Z = O<=> x + y + z - 6 = 0, nen ta c6 phuong trinh 3(-~ + t) - 6 = 0 <=> 9 + 6t - 12 = 0 <=> t = ~

Vay K = (2 ; 2 ; 2). Ta thu lai ket qua tren,

Binli ludn : R6 rang each giai 1 hay hon nhieu (tuy nhien each giai 2 la each giai "truyen thong").

" 96

Thi df!. 4. Cho hai dirong thang dl, d2 c6 phtrong trtnh .

{X = 2t

dl: y = t z = 4;

{X + y - 3 = 0 d2 :

4x + 4y + 3z - 12 = O.

1) Chung minh dl va d2 cheo nhau.

2) Lap phuong trlnh mat cau (.9') nhan doan vuong g6c chung cua dl va d2 lam duong kinh.

cuu

1) De thay d2 c6 vecto chi phirong li2 :

(1 0 0 1 1 IJ

ii = . . =(3'-3'0)//(1'-1'0).

2 43'34'44 " "

V~y dl N d2 VI lil = (2 ; 1 ; 0) khong cung phirong voi li2 = (1 ; -1 ; 0).

M~t khac, xet he phirong trinh sau :

{2t + 5 - 3 = 0 . {t = 1

8t + 4t + 12 - 12 = 0 <=:> t = O.

Vay h¢ vO nghiem, do d6 dl va d2 cheo nhau (dpcm).

Nhdn xet : Di nhien chung ta c6 the thay [lil,li2] MIM2 =t:- 0, a day MI = (0 ; 0 ; 4) E d. ; con M2 = (3 ; 0; 0) E d2.

Tit d6 suy ra d I va d2 cheo nhau,

2) Tnroc het xac dinh chan hai duong vuong g6c chung cua d., d2 la MN, voi M = (2t; t; 4) Ed., N = (3 + s; -s; 0) E d2.

Ta c6 MN = (s - 2t + 3 ; -s - t ; -4).

Do MN .L UI va MN .L U2' nen ta c6 he phirong trinh sau de xac dinh t, s :

{2(S - 2t + 3) - (s - t) = 0 {s - 5t = -6

<=:> <=:> t=l,s=-1.

s - 2t + 3 + s + t = 0 2s - t = -3

Vay M = (2 ; 1 ; 4) va N(2 ; 1 ; 0).

Hlnh cau (.9') can tIm c6 tam I ;" (2, 1, 2) la trung diem cua MN va ban

kinh R = !.MN = !.~02 + 02 + 42 = 2.

2 2

7-HHKG-A

97

Vay (,In e6 phirong trlnh :

2 2 2

(//1): (x - 2) + (y - 1) + (z - 2) = 4.

Thi d~ 5.

1) V i€t phuong trlnh mat cau (.9?) e6 tarn nam tren dirong thing

{X = t

d: y = 0

z = -1,

tiep xuc voi hai mat phang (P) : 3x + 4y + 3 = 0 va . (Q) : 2x + 2y - z + 39 = 0

2) Viet phirong trinh mat cau (.~) e6 tarn nam tren dirong thang d

d : {x + y + z + 1 = 0

x - y + z -1 = 0,

tiep xuc voi hai mat phang

(P) : x + 2y + 2z + 3 = 0 va (Q) : x + 2y + 2z + 7 = O.

Gidi

1) GQi I(to ; 0 ; -1) E d la tam cua mat cau (.n voi ban kfnh R. Do (.~) tiep xuc voi ca (P) va (Q), nen ta e6

13to + 31 _ 12to + 1 + 391 _ R (1)

5 - 3 -.

Tit (1), ta e6 313to + 31 = 512to + 401

[9to + 9 = 1Oto + 200 [to = -191

<=> <=>.

9to + 9 = :-1Oto - 200 to = -11.

Khi to = -191 thl tit (1) e6 R = 114. Khi to = -11 thl tit (1) e6 R = 6. V~y e6 hai mat cau (.?,J) can tim

[(.9?) : (x + 11)2 + y2 + (z + 1)2 = 36

(.9?): (x + 191)2 + y2 + (z+ 1)2 = 12996~

98

7-HHKG-B

2) VI (P): x + 2y + 2z + 3 = 0 (Q) : x + 2y + 2z + 7 = 0, nen (P) II (Q). C6 th~ thay ngay

Ml = (-3 ; 0 ; 0) E (P), v~y d(P),(Q») = d(M1),(Q»)

1-3 + 0 + 0 + 71 4

= =-

3 3

VI the do hlnh cau (.7") can Om tiep xuc voi ca (P) va (Q) nen ban kfnh R cua n6 duqc xac dinh nhu SClU :

R = ~d( (P),(Q»)= ~.

Goi I(xo, Yo, Zo) E d Ia tam cua hlnh cau (.7"), thi ta c6

{Xu + Yo + Zo + 1= 0 Xo - Yo + Zo -1 = o.

Mat khac, ta con c6

d(I,(P») = d(I,(Q») = ~ 3

Ixo + 2yo + 2zo + 31 Ixo + 2yo + 2zo + 71 2

~ = =-

3 3 3

~ {Ixo + 2yo + 2zo + 31 = 2

Ixo + 2yo + 2zo + 71 = 2

(1) (2)

[XO + 2yo + 2zo + 3 = 2 Xo + 2yo + 2zo + 3 = -2

~

[XO + 2yo + 2zo + 7 = 2

Xo + 2yo + 2zo + 7 =,-2

~ Xo + 2yo + 2zo = -5.

[Xu + 2yo + 2zo = -1 Xo + 2yo + 2zo = -5

[XO + 2yo + 2zo =. -5 Xo + 2yo + 2zo = -9

(3)

H~ (1), (2), (3) Ia h~ phuong trinh d~ xac dinh (xo ; Yo ; zo). Giai he (1), (2), (3) ta c6

99

Xo = 3, Yo = -1, Zo = -3 => I = (3 ; -1 ; -3).

V ~Y mat cau (.?,J) can tim c6 phuong trlnh

2 224

(x - 3) + (y + 1) + (z + 3) = -.

9

tt« du 6.

Cho duong thang d :

x-I y+2 Z, •

d: -- = -- = -, va.mat phang (P)

3 1 1 .

(P) : 2x + y - 2z + 2 = o.

Viet phuong trlnh mat cau (.?,J) c6 tam nam tren d, tiep xuc v6'i (P) va c6 ban kinh bang 1.

ouu

GQi I la tam cua mat cau (.?,J). Do Lc d, nen

I = (1 + 3to ; -2 + to ; to).

Vi (.?,J) tiep xuc voi (P) va c6 ban kfnh R = 1, nen ta c6

( ) 12(1+3to)+(-2+to)-2to+21

R = d I, (P) = 3 = 1

<=> ISto + 21 = 3

[Sto + 2 = 3 [to = _!_

<=> <=> S

Sto + 2 = -3 _ 1

to - - .

-

Vay c6 hai hlnh cau (.?,J) can tim la

[(,9') : (x + 2)2 + (Y + 3)2 + (z + 1)2 ~ 1

(.9') :(x -H +{Y+H +-H ~ 1

(irng voi to = - 1) (img voi to = _!_).

rua« 7.

Trong khong gian voi he toa dQ Oxyz cho ba diem A(1 ; 2 ; 3), B(2 ; 1 ; 0), C(O ; 4 ; 0).

Lap phirong trlnh mat cau ngoai tiep ni dien OABC.

100

Gidi

Gia sir mat cau (.??) co phuong trtnh

2 2 2 .

X + Y + Z + 2ax + 2by + 2cz + d = 0 (1)

voi a2 + b2 + c2 > d.

VI mat cau qua 0, A, B, C, nen ta co d = 0 (do qua 0 nen thay x = y = z = 0 vao (1».

{I + 4 + 9 + 2a + 4b + 6c = 0

4 + 1 + 4a + 2b = 0 <=>

16 + 8b = 0

b =-2 1

a =-_

4

11

C=--.

12-

Thay vao (1) ta co

(.?,J) : x2 + y2 + z2 -.!_x - 4y _.!..!.z = 0 ·26

( 1 )2 (11 )2 706

<=> x - 4 + (~ - 2)2 + z -12 = 144

Nhdn xet :

1) Ta co the giai nhu sau : GQi I(xo ; Yo ; zo) la tam mat oau ngoai tiep ttl dien OABCD, thl ta co

10 = IA =IB = IC, vay co h~ phuong trlnh sau de xac dinh xo, Yo, Zo x5 + Y5 + z5 = (xo - 1)2 + (Yo - 2)2 + (zo - 3)2

x~ + Y5 + z~ = (xo - 2)2 + (Yo - 1)2

X5 + Y5 + Z~ = (Yo - 4)2

!xo + 2yo + 3Z~ = 7

<=> Zo = 5 - 4xo - 2yo

Y5 + z5 = 16 - 8yo·

G·?· , 1 2 11

iai ra ta co Xo = - ; Yo = ; Zo = -.

4 12

Luc try ban kfnh cua m~t cau la

R = ~X8 + Y6 + z8 = _1 + 4 + 121 = _1 J706.

16 144 12

Ta thu lai duoc ket qua tren.

101

2) Ta lai co the giai nhu sau : GQi I Hl tam cua hlnh cau ngoai tiep tll' dien OABCD, thl I la giao cua ba m~t phang trung tnrc cua .cac canh OA, OB, ~C.

Trung diem I euaOA lit I = (~; 1; %).

Ta co OA = (1 ; 2 ; 3) chfnh lit vecto phap tuyen cua mat phang trung true canh OA, nen mat phang trung true cua OA lit

(x - ~) + 2(y - 1) + 3( z - ~)= 0

ee x + 2y + 3z - 7 = o.

z

3

x

y

4

(1)

Trung diem J cua OB lit

J = (1 ; ~ ; 0), con OB = (2 ; 1 ; 0), v~y mat phang trung true cua OB lit

2(x - 1) + (y -~) = 0 <=> 4x + 2y - 5 = O. (2)

Trung diem K cua OC lit K(O ; 2 ; 0). Do OC = (0 ; 1 ; 0), v~y m~t phang

trung true cua canh OC lit y = 2. (3)

Tir 0), (2), (3) suy ra he phirong trinh sau de xac dinh toa dO tam O)(x; y; z) cua hlnh cau ngoai tiep tll' dien OABC

1

X=-

4

<=> y=2 11

z=-.

12

R = 00) = _1 + 4 + 121 = _1 J706.

16 144 12

{X + 2y + 3z - 7 = 0 4x + 2y - 5 = 0 y=2

Tudo

Ta thu lai k~t qua tren,

102

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