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TarotHistoryChronology

1215.FirstpapermillsinItaly

1356­74.PetrarchwritesthepoemITrionfi,partlywhileatViscontiCourtinMilan.Theconceptofaprocessionof

allegoricalfigures“triumphing”ordefeatingtheprecedingfigurewasthebasisofthegameofTrionfi.

@1370.BlockprintingonpaperbeginsinGermanyandappearsinItalyseveraldecadeslater.

@1370.MamlukstyleplayingcardsenterItalianandSpanishports.ArabicdesignisEuropeanizedtobecomethe

suitsofswords,batons,cupsandcoins(theItaliansuits)andthecourtcardsbecomeking,queen,knight,valet.

1371.Spain–FirstwrittenreferencetoplayingcardsinEurope,referredtoasnaip.

1377–1460s.NumerouswrittenreferencestoplayingcardsinItaly,FranceGermany,Belgium:incityordinances

againstgambling,accountbooksofaristocrats,inventoriesofmerchants.InitiallyreferredtoasSaracenor

Moorishcards(naibi,nahipi,naips,naibbi).LaterinItalytarotdecksarecalledcartedatrionfi.

1380.Firstreferencetoacardmakerbyname:RodrigoBorgesofPerpignanFrance,calleda“naipero”.

1392.AlistingintheaccountbookofCharlesVI,KingofFrance,refersto3packsofgiltandcoloredcardsordered

fromthepainterJacqueminGringonneur.Theseregularplayingcardsweremistakenlyassociatedwithatarotdeck

intheBibliotequeNationaleinParisthatwasactuallycreatedinFerrarainthelate1400s.Thisdeckisstill

erroneouslyreferredtoasthe“CharlesVIdeck”.

1422&1423.AccountbooksofthepainterSagramoroofFlorenceshowhimbeingcommissionedtorepairdecks

andtocreateluxurydecksdecoratedwithgold,lapizlazuli,andbrazilwooddyefortheMarchesaParisinaof Ferrara.ShewasanenthusiasticpurchaserofcardsbuthadtogooutsideFerraraforthemforatleastanother

decade.SagramorowasstillsupplyingthecourtofFerrarawithcardsin1456.

1424.MarchesaParisinaorderstwopacksofinexpensivecardsforhergirls.Thismaybefirstevidencethatcheap

printedcardswerebeingproduced.

1425.NolaterthanthisdateDukeFilippoMariaViscontiofMilancommissionedanallegoricalcardgamebased

onvirtuesandtemptations.Eachsuithadfourextratrumpcards.

1436.WrittenreferencetoacardpressownedbyDukeD’EsteofFerrara.

1440.Firstwrittenreferencethatcitestarotspecifically.AdiaryentrymentionsadeckcreatedinFlorence.

1441.FrancescoSforza,futureDukeofMilan,marriesBiancaViscontiinMilan.Possiblythiswastheoccasionfor

commissioningtheCary­Yaletarotdeck,asthedeckhasheraldicdevicesfrombothfamilies.Thisdeckandthe Brera/BrambilladeckhavecoinsmintedbyBianca’sfather,FilippoMariaVisconti,sobothdecksweredonebefore

hediedin1447.Milan’srecordsweredestroyedinafirein1447sowehavenoaccountbookstoshowcard­

purchasingactivityaswedoinFerrara.

1441.ThelatestpossibledatefortheinventionofTarot.Itmayhavebeenasearlyas1420.

1442.TarotappearsinaFerraraaccountbook:“OrderedfromSagramoro–paintedcups,coins,swords,batons,

andthefiguresforfourpacksoftrionfi.”

1442.AccordingtotheaccountbooksoftheMarcheseofFerrara,hepurchasedtwopacksofcartedatrionfiforhis

youngerbrothers.Heboughtthemfromamerchantforasmallamountofmoney,showingthattarotwasamass­

produced,easilypurchasedcommodity.

1450.FrancescoSforzaiscrownedDukeofMilan.PossiblytheoccasionofcommissioningthePierpontMorgan

Bergamodeck,asithasSforzaandViscontiemblems.Replacement(oradditional)cardsweremadeinFerrara

about1470.

1450.FrancescoSforzawritesanoterequestingtwodecksofcartedatrionfi(trumps),orifnotavailable,carteda

giocare(playingcards).Hewants“thefinestyoucanfind”andneedsthembySunday.Thisshowstherewasa

standardTrionfideckthatdidn’thavetobedescribed,andthatwaseasilypurchased.

1452.SigismondoMalatesta,lordofRimini,asksBiancaSforzatoobtainadeckoftriumphcardsforhimfromone

ofthecelebratedartistsofCremona.ThismaybeevidencethattheSforza’shand­painteddeckisbeingcopiedby

otherartists.

1450s.CardplayingisverypopularinnorthernItaliancourts.AlargefrescoofTarocchiplayersispaintedona

walloftheBorromeoCastleinMilan.

1454.AccountbooksofCountBorsoofFerraramentionapairofprintingblocksforcards.Pressesownedbythe

countweremassproducingcheapplayingcards.

1456&1457.CountBorsocommissionedtheartistdaVicenzatocreatetwoveryluxuriouspacksofcartegrandeda

trionfiwith70cards.Thiswaseitheradifferenttrionfigamethantarot,oritshowsthatsometarotdeckshadonly

14trumpcards.DaVicenzaproducedseveraldecksayearforthecourtofFerrarathrough1463.

1459.RecordsshowthatDukeBorsoloanedoutblocksforprintingtrumpcards.

1459.FirstreferencetotarotinBologna.

1465.CountBoiardoofFerraradesignedatarotdeckbasedonlovewithapoemforeachcard.

1466.OldestexampleofItalianplayingcards.Anuncutsheetfoundinthebindingofbookspublishedin1466and

1469hassuitsofcoinsandcups,andfragmentsofcourtcards.

1470.EarliestpossibledatefortheSteeleSermon,theSermonesdeLudoCumAliis,writtenbyapriestpreaching

againstdiceandcardplaying.Helistedthetarottrumpsinessentiallythesameorderwestilluse.

1470s.MuchtarotcreationactivityinFerrara:thehand­paintedd’EstedecknowintheCareycollection;theso­

calledCharlesVI/GringonneurdeckwhichresidesinParisintheBibliothequeNationale;thereplacement(or

additional)cardsforthe1450PierpontMorganBergamoVisconti­Sforzadeck;andhand­paintedandblockprint

cardsnowpartoftheRothschildcollectionintheLouvre.

1477.WrittenreferencestothemanufactureofplayingcardsandtrionfiinBologna.

1480.Frenchsuitsymbolsappear.Mostcardgamesconverttothesuitsofhearts,clubs,diamondsandspades

whichareeasiertostencilontomassproducedcards.ItalyclingstooldersuitsespeciallyforthegamesofTrionfi

andMinchiate.

1482.FirstreferenceinFranceto“Triumphe”cards,butit’snotcertainiftheywerestandardtarotcards.

1491.Ferrara.CreationofthecopperengravedSolaBuscadeckwithitsuniquedesignsandillustratedpipcards.

1480s­1510s.Lotbooksbecomepopular.Playingcardsareusedtopickapageatrandomandfindananswertoa

question.

1480s­90s.Prohibitionsagainstgaminginvariouscitiesexemptcertaingamesfavoredbyaristocratsliketarot,

backgammonandchess,possiblybecausetheseareconsideredgamesofskillratherthanchance,andbecausethe

Churchdidn’twanttoalienatetherulingclass.

1490s.MilanandpartsofItalyareconqueredbyFrance.CardmanufacturingshiftstoFrance.

@1500.Earliestexamplesofprintedwoodblockcardsthatsurvive.Theywerepreservedasuncutsheetsofcards

usedinbookbinding.SomewerefoundinawellatSforzaCastleinMilan.SomecardshavetypicalTarotde

Marseillesimagery.

Early1500s.MinchiatedeckinventedinFlorence.Anexpandedtarotdeckwithadditionaltrumpsdepictingthe

fourelementsandtwelvezodiacsigns.TheKnightsbecomeCentaurs.

@1500.FirstreferencestothewordTarocchiinFerraraandAvignon.Theoldnametrionfishiftstoanothergame

playedwitharegularpackofcards.

1507.FirstwrittenreferencetocardmanufactureinFrance(Lyons).

1515.Germany.Tarotimagesappearinanativitycalendar,showingthattheseimagesarepartofpopularculture.

1527.Venice.TeofiloFolengo(pennameMerlinCocai)wrotefoursonnetsbasedontarottrumpsthatdescribethe

poetbeingledintoaroomwherefourpeoplehavedrawncardsrelatedtotheirfatethenaskforpoemsaboutthem.

1500s.Tarocchiappropriatiisapopularparlorgamewherehumorouspoemsbasedonatarotcardareinvented

onthespottodescribethepersonholdingthecard.

1534.TarocchiappropriatibyTroiloPomerandaCittadela–sonnetsbasedonthetrumpsthatpraisetheladiesof

Venice.

1534.Rabelais’FiveBooksofGargantuaandPantagruellistsover200gamesincluding“Tarau”.Healsolists

numerousdivinatorymethods,butTarotisnotincluded.

1543.TheCardsSpeakbyPietroAretinopublishedinVenice.Partofapornographicbookthatgivesinformation

onthenamesandorderofthetrumpsduringthecourseofadialog.

1550.FlavioAlbertiLilliowroteInvettivacontrailGiuocodelTaroco,aversediatribeagainsttarot.

1550.GiulioBertoniwroteanessay“TarocchiVersificati”whichdescribesladiesofthecourtofFerraraand

includesinformationonthenamesandtheorderofthetrumps.

1557.Lyons.TheCatelinGeoffroydeck.Thisisthefirstblockprinteddeckstillexisting.

1570.Pavia.GiambattistaSusiowroteappropriatipoemsassociatingthetrumpswithladiesofthecourt.Hegave

thenamesandtheLombardyorderofthetrumps,whichisalmostthesameastheVievilledeckcreatedinParisa

centurylater.

1572.Venice.GiriolamoBargaglidescribeshowhesaweachparticipantinatarocchigamebeinggivenacardand

beingtoldwhyhewasassociatedwiththatcard.

1575.Venice.Firstprintedaccountofagameoftarot.

1576.France.PoemsinaseriesofstoriescalledFacetiousNights.Ineachstanzaatrumpfigurewhoisplayinga

gameoftarotlosesthetricktoasuitcardthatkillshim.Attheend,alltheslaintrumpsareresurrectedbyshuffling

thedeck.

1589.Venice.RecordsoftheInquisitionshowtheDevilcardbeingusedasafocusofvenerationandprayer.It’s

notablethatTarotitselfisnotconsideredevilbyassociation.

@1610.TheParisiandeck,thefirstcompleteblockprinteddecktosurvive.Itshowsablendofseveralregional

influences.

1637.France.ThefirstsurvivingprintedrulesofthegameofTarotarepublishedinapamphlet.

Mid­1600s.TheBelgianpatternappearsintheDeHautotdeckpublishedinRouenandtheVievilledeckmadein

Paris.

1660.Paris.JeanNobletpublishedthefirstdeckweknowofthatcloselyconformstotheTarotdeMarseille

pattern.

1663.TarocchiandMinchiateareintroducedtoSicily.Siciliandecksareverydifferent,withPortuguesesuits,

fewercardsandsomeuniquetrumpimagery.

1664.MitelliTarot,aspecialcommissiondoneincopperengraving.TheearliestdeckwehaveintheBolognese

pattern.

1680.JohannMayerofSwitzerlandpublishesthefirstknownexampleoftheBesanconpatternwithJupiterand

JunoinsteadofthePapesseandPope.

Early1700s.ChossonstyledecksproducedbyMadenieofDijon,PayenofAvignon,HeriofSwitzerlandand

others.

1714.Lyon.Dodaldeckpublished.It’satransitiondeckbetweentheNobletandthestandardTarotdeMarseilles.

1725.Bologna.TheEmpress,Emperor,PopeandPapessearereplacedbythefourMoorsinregionaldeckson

orderoftheVatican.

1730­1830.HeightofpopularityoftheTarotgame.Therulesanddecksarestandardized.

1736.ChossonofMarseilleprintsadeckthatbecomesthetemplateforthemainstreamofTarotdeMarseilles

decks.

1736.Serravalle,Italy.FirstTaroccoPiemonteseprintedbyGiuseppeOttone.It’snowintheMuseodeNaipes

Fournier.

1740.Bologna.One­pagemanuscriptdiscoveredinthe20thcenturybyPratesiintheUniversityLibrary.Itgives

divinatorymeaningsof35cardsoftheTaroccoBolognese,andsaystoseparatethecardsinto5pilesof7cards

each,butdoesn’tsaywhattodowiththemnext.

1740s.The78­cardLombardystyleemergesinMilan.It’spublishedwithItaliantitlesandiseventually

supersededbythePiemontesepatternforcardplaying.

@1750.TarockdeckinventedwithFrenchsuitsanddecorative,double­headedtrumps.Itisstillthestandarddeck

forgameplaying.

1753.Bologna.FirstrulesforTarocchiBolognesepublishedinacardgamebook.

1756.Vienna.TheearliestrulesforthegameinGerman.It’sthestyleofgameplayedinLombardywhichwas

ruledbyAustriaatthetime.

1750s.Etteilla(Firstknownprofessionaltarotreader–1738­1791)istaughtcardreadingbyamanfrom

Piedmont.

1760.Marseilles.TheConverdeck,averyclosecopyofChosson’s1736deckbecomesthestandardTdMandthe

basisforcontemporarydecksbyFournier,Grimaudandothers.

1770.Paris.Etteillawritesthefirstbookofcartomancy,HowtoEntertainOneselfwithaPackofCards.Heusesa

PiquetdeckbutmentionsTarotforfortunetelling.Thisisthefirstmanualofcardreadingandthefirstexplicit

writtenreferencetodivinationwithTarot.

1770s.Flemish­styledeckswithSpanishCaptainandBacchusinsteadofPapesse&PopeareprintedinBelgium.

1760­1780.TheTaroccoBolognesebecamedouble­headed.Double­headeddecksdidn’tappearinFranceand

Englanduntilthe1800s.

1781.AntoineCourtdeGebelinpublishesVolumeVIIIofMondePrimitif.ItcontainsessaysonTarotlinkingit

withtheHebrewalphabetandancientEgyptforfirsttimeinprint.

1783.EtteillapublishesHowtoEntertainoneselfwithaPackofCardscalledTarot,thefirsthow­to­read­tarot

manual.ItcontainsanelaboratestoryofTarot’sancientEgyptianorigins.

1789.EtteillaproducesthefirstoccultdeckillustratingHermeticteachings.It’scurrentlyinprintasLeGrand

EtteillabyGrimaud.

1804­1807.D’Odoucet,afollowerofEtteilla,publishesabookoncardmeaningsbasedonEtteilla’steachings.

ThisisthebasisforabouthalfthemeaningsoftheMinorArcanacardsintheRiderWaiteSmithdeck.

1820s.Adeckofdouble­headedBolognesecardsislabeledonthetopandbottomwithdivinatorymeanings.

1835.CarloDellaRoccaengravestheMilanese­stylesoprafinodeck.It’sstillprintedbyLoScarabeoandIl

Meneghello.

Late1700s.Grandpretredeckengravedincopperplateandhand­colored.ThePopeandPapessearecalledthe

HighPriestessandHighPriest,thefirsttimethesenamesareusedinadeck.TheHangedManisuprightand

calledPrudenceasindeGebelin.

1856.Paris.EliphasLevipublishedDogmaandRitualofTranscendentalMagic,agrandsynthesisofthewestern

magicaltraditionthatgivesTarotanimportantplace.

1861.EnglishoccultistKennethMackenzievisitsEliphasLeviinParisandisinspiredtocreatetheCypher

ManuscriptandBookTwhichbecomethebasisfortheteachingsoftheHermeticOrderoftheGoldenDawnand

thebedrockofAnglo­AmericanTarot.

1863.Paris.PaulChristianpublishesRedManoftheTuileries,anovelthatdescribesEgyptianTarotcards.The

firsttimethetermArcanaisusedforthecards.

1864.RobertChamberswritestheBookofDayswhichgivescard­readingtechniquesusedbyBritishsoldier’s

wives.A.E.Waiteusedsomeofthesecardmeaningsforhisminorarcana.

1865.Paris.EdmondBillaudot,professionalcardreader,createsTarotBellinefromChristian’sdescriptionsinRed

Man.ThefirstdecktohaveHebrewlettersonthecards.It’scurrentlypublishedastheGrandTarotBelline.

1870.Paris.PaulChristianpublishesHistoiredelaMagieusingallthetarotmaterialinRedManofTuileries.He

describesanancientEgyptianinitiationchamberandexpandsonTarotasanancientmysteryteaching.

1888.London.WilliamWestcottandS.L.MatherslaunchtheHermeticOrderoftheGoldenDawnafter

obtainingMacKenzie’spapers(CypherManuscriptandBookT).

1888.London.S.L.MatherspublishesTheTarot:ItsOccultSignification,UseinFortuneTelling,andMethodof

Play.

1888.France.ElyStarpublishesanastrologybookusingPaulChristian’steachingsonTarotandhiscardnames,

whichinfluencedEgyptiandecks.HisuseofthetermMajorandMinorArcanawasadoptedbyPapus.

1889.Paris.OswaldWirthpublisheshisdeck,designedwiththehelpofStanislausDeGuaitausingLevi’s

descriptions.

1889.PapuspublishesTarotofBohemianswhichcodifiesLevisteachingsonTarot.It’sillustratedbytheTdMand

Wirthdecks.

1896.TheFalconnier­Wegenercardsarepublished.TheyarethefirsttrulyEgyptiandeckbasedonPaul

Christian’sdescriptionsof1870.

1909.A.E.WaitepublishestheRiderWaitedeckandtheaccompanyingbookthePictorialKeytoTarot.These

becomethebedrockofAnglo­Americantarot.

1909.AleisterCrowleypublishesLiber777whichdivulgesalltheGoldenDawn’sritualsandteachings.This

demystifiessecretsocietiesanddemocratizesesotericteachings.

1910.TarotoftheBohemiansbyPapus(1889)translatedintoEnglish.Oneofthemostimportantbookson

FrenchesotericTarot.Stillinprint.

1912.AleisterCrowleypublishestheGoldenDawn’sBookTwhichcontainstheirTarotteachingsinhismagazine

TheEquinox.

1917.ThefirstAmericantarotbook.Hariette&F.HomerCurtisspublishTheKeytotheUniverseoraSpiritual

InterpretationofNumbersandSymbols,abookonesoterictarotillustratedwiththeRiderWaiteSmith,Egyptian,

TarotdeMarseillesandWirthdecks.

1917.USA.DeLaurenceCompanypiratestheRiderWaitedeckandWaite’sbookThePictorialKeytoTarot.

1918.USA. C.Z.ZainpublishesinstructionalcoursesforhisChurchofLightwhichcontainthefirstEnglish translationsofPaulChristian’steachings.HeusestheFalconnier­WegenerEgyptiancarddesignsforhisdeck.

1920.USA.PaulFosterCasefoundsB.O.T.A.whoseteachingsdrawheavilyontheGoldenDawn.

1926.Paris.OswaldWirth’sbookLeTarotdesImagiersduMoyenAgerepublished.

1927.London.DionFortuneestablishestheSocietyofInnerLightandbeginsherteachingandwritingcareer.

1929.USA.J.AugustusKnappandManlyPalmerHallcreatewhatcametobeknownastheKnapp­HallTarot

publishedin1978whichcombinesWirthandEgyptianimagery.

1930.Paris.PaulMarteau,ownerofGrimaudpublishinghouse,producesare­coloredConverTdMwhichis

currentlythestandarddivinationdeckinFrance.

1936.USA.TheChurchofLightfoundedbyC.Z.ZainproducesitsEgyptiandeckbasedontheFalconnier­

Wegenerdesigns.

1937.USA.IsraelRegardiebeginspublishingalloftheGoldenDawn’steachingsandrituals.

1938­1942.London.FriedaHarriscreatestheoriginaloilpaintingsforAleisterCrowley’sThothdeck.

1942.London.OriginalpaintingsbyFriedaHarrisforCrowley’sThothdeckareexhibitedinagallery.

1944.LimitededitionofCrowley’sdeckpublished.

1947.PaulFosterCasepublishesasynthesisofhisteachingsinTheTarot:AKeytotheWisdomoftheAges,with

linedrawingsofhisdeckbyJessieBurnsParke.

1948.ThebookLeTarotdeMarseillebyPaulMarteauteachesreadingtheTdMbypayingcloseattentiontothe

imagery,colorsandnumber,ratherthanusingesotericattributions.

1951.Britain.TheWitchcraftActisrepealedallowingTarotdeckstobeprintedandsoldfreely.

1959.USA.UniversityBooksbeginsprintingtheRiderWaiteSmithdeckandthePictorialKeytoTarotgivingit

widespreaddistribution.

1960.EdenGraypublishesherfirstbookonhowtoreadtarot,TheTarotRevealed.Tarotbecomesuser­friendly

andaccessibletothegeneralpublic,layingthegroundworkforTarot’spopularityinthelate20thcentury.

1966.GertrudeMoakelypublishesTheTarotCardsPaintedbyBembo,whichshowstherelationshipbetween

15thcenturytrumpcards,PetrarchandRenaissancetriumphalparades.

1968.HouseofCamoinproducesitsfirstreproductionofConver’s1760TdM.

1968.AlbanoWaitedeck,are­coloredRWSdeckmaybethefirstRWSspin­off.

1968.TheNewTarotfortheAquarianAgebyJohnStarrCookeandRosalindSharpeischanneledviaaOuija

board.Thefirst“NewAge”post­moderndeck.

1968.StuartKaplanbuystheSwiss1JJ(Jupiter&Juno)deckatatradefair,launchingU.S.GamesSystemsinto

Tarotdeckpublishing.

1969.GrimaudbeginspublishingitsTdMwithanaccompanyingbookletinEnglish.

1969.AleisterCrowley’sThothdeck,createdinearly1940s,ispublishedasapoorqualityphotoreproduction.

1970.Crowley’sThothdeckpublishedbasedonphotosoftheoriginalpaintings.

1970.EdenGray’sbookCompleteGuidetotheTarotdescribesthe“Fool’sJourney”forthefirsttime.

1970.DavidPalladini’sAquarianTarotisoneofthefirstofalandslideofRWSspin­offdecks.

1971.PaulHuson’sTheDevil’sPictureBookisoneofseveralbookspublishedinthelate60sandearly70stoput

tarotinaWiccanorpagancontext.

1971.RichardRoberts’bookTarotandYoucontainstranscriptsofreadingsusingapsychologicalfree­association

methodwhichinfluencedMaryGreer.

1971.TarotofBohemiansbyPapusisre­publishedinEnglishforthefirsttimesince1910.It’soneofthemost

influentialtarotbooksofalltime.

1971.U.S.Games,Inc.acquiresrightstotheRiderWaiteSmithcards

1971.BuenosAires.EgipciosKierdeckpublished.ThisisanimportantesoterictarotinSpanishspeaking

countries.

1974.NewTarotbyHurley&HorlerisoneofthefirstradicallyredesigneddecksthatbreakswithRiderWaite

imagery.Theyworkedonitfrom1961­67whilelivingparttimeatEsaleninBigSur,California.

1975.MountainDreamTarotbyBeaNettles.Thefirstdeckbasedonphotographs.

1975.JosephMaxwell’sbookTheTarotbecomesoneofthefewFrenchtarotbookstranslatedintoEnglish.

1976.XultunTarotbyPeterBalinisthefirstdeckbasedonanon­westernculture.

1976.PennySlinger’sTheSecretDaikiniOracleisthefirstcollageddeck.

1976.Tarotrespondstothefeministmovement.WomanspiritCircleinSantaCruz,CAisthebirthplaceofseveral

feministdeckswhichappearinthelate70ssuchasANewWoman’sTarotandtheAmazonTarot.

1978.StuartKaplanpublishesthefirstoffourEncyclopedias,makingthousandsofdecksavailableforeveryoneto

study.

1978.A.G.MullerprintsFalconnier­Wegener’sEgyptiandeckastheEgyptianTarot.

1980.MichaelDummettpublishesTheGameofTarot,thedefinitiveworkontheTarotdeckandgame.

1980.Seventy­EightDegreesofWisdombyRachelPollackbecomesoneofmostinfluentialbooksoncard

meanings.

1981.MotherpeacedeckbyVickiNoble&KarenVogel.Thefirstrounddeckandthefirstfeministandgoddess­

orienteddecktoenjoywidedistribution.

1984.FfionaMorganand14otherspublishtheDaughtersoftheMoon,arounddeckconceivedintheSantaCruz

WomanspiritCircleinthelate1970s.

1984.MaryGreerpublishesTarotforYourself,aworkbookthatguidesthereaderthroughformingpersonal

meaningsforthecardsratherthanmemorizingreceivedcardmeanings.GoldenDawnastrologicalandelemental

attributionsaredisseminated.

1980s­’90s.Goldenageofsmall,individually­ownedtarotmagazinessuchasTracyHoover’sWinged

Chariot,CrystalSage’sTapestryandGeraldineAmaral’sCelebratingtheTarot.

1990s.SeveralartistsandpublishersupdatetheTarotdeMarseilles:Fournier,MajorTom,Rodes&Sanchez,and

Hadar.

1990s.Llewellyn,foundedin1901asanastrologicalpublishinghouse,becomesamajortarotdeckpublisher,and

in2000formsapartnershipwithLoScarabeo,amajorItaliantarotdeckpublisher.

1991.FirstBATS(BayAreaTarotSymposium)organizedinSanFranciscobyThalassa.

Mid1990s.TheTarotcommunitygoesglobalthankstotheinternet.Alt_TarotandTarot_L(Yahoo)are

pioneeringdiscussionlists

1996.ThebooksAWickedPackofCardsfollowedbyTheHistoryofOccultTarotin2002,aswellasresearchinto

tarothistorybyMichaelDummettandindependentresearcherswhosharetheirfindingsonline,debunkoccultist

theoriesofTarot’sancientorigins.

1997.FirstWorldTarotCongressinChicagoorganizedbyJanetBerres.

2002.FirstReader’sStudioorganizedinNewYorkbyRuthandWaldAmberstone.