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ORRIS

(IRIS SPECIES)

Kylie Leeper
NTRS 465
Winter 2015

Description
Medicinal Parts: rhizome with the root
Flowers and Fruit:
- flowers are long-pedicled and perfumed
- tepals: white or slightly blue
- outer are darker with yellow beard
- fruit is a large capsule with sections of brown seeds
Leaves Stem and Root:
- Perennial, 30-100cm high
- rhizome: thick and short
-strong branched stem
-broad leaves, sword-shaped, curved and gray-green

Description
Habitat: Indigenous to
Southern Europe
Production: root of Iris
germanica, Iris versicolor,
and other varieties.
Names: : Blue Flag, Daggers,
Dragon Flower, Flaggon, Flag
Lily, Fliggers Florentine Orris,
Gladyne, Iris, Jacobs Sword,
Liver Lily, Myrtle Flower,
Poison Flag, Segg, Sheggs,
Snake Lily, Water Flag, White
Flag Root, Wild Iris, Yellow
Flag, Yellow Iris

Action and Pharmacology


Compounds
Volatile oil: chief constituents irone: alpha-, beta- and
gamma-irone (odor resembling violets)
Triterpenes: Iridale (mono-, bi-, and spirocyclic
compounds, precursor of the irones), including
irigermanal
Isoflavonoids: including irilon, irisolone, irigenine,
tectorigenin and their glycosides including iridine
Flavonoids
Xanthones: C-glucosylxanthones: iris xanthone,
mangiferin
Starch

Dosage
No true dosage
is known
Iris is available
in homeopathic
dilutions in
various
combination
preparations &
in various tea
mixtures

Effects
Mild expectorant
Flavonoids have
inhibitory effect
Root extracts have ulcerprotective, spasmolytic,
and serotoninantagonistic effect

Indications and
Usage
Unproven Uses:
respiratory system
disorders
Homeopathic Uses:
respiratory tract or
thyroid gland disorders,
for digestion complaints,
and headaches.

Precautions and
Adverse Reactions
No Health hazards or side
effects are known
However:
-The juice of the fresh plant
has severely irritating effect
-If taken internally can lead to:
vomiting, abdominal pain, and
bloody diarrhea
-Severe inflammation can
occur
Pregnancy: Not to be used

History and Folklore


Roots of the European Iris species, Iris germanica,
Iris florentina, and Iris pallida are known as orris
root in herbalism
French adopted it as an emblem of the monarchy
Eves tears of sorrow produced an iris

Magical Uses
Love charms and used in sachets,
powders, or amulets designed to
attract the opposite sex
Ward off evil spirits in Japan
Incense blends to call the Goddess
Iris who will then helps lost souls
journey across her rainbow to the
land of the blessed

Uses Today
No longer used in herbal medicine
Dried roots smell like violets
Oil can be distilled from its root and
used in perfumes
Dried root is used in potpourris,
incense, toothpaste, and cosmetics
Ingredient in many brands of Gin

Flavonoid
Anti-bacterial, antioxidant, antiinflammatory, cardiovascular, and anticancer benefits

Mangiferin
Anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant
effects, anti-cancer, anti-diabetes, antitumor, antiviral, and blood lipid benefits

Clinical Trials testing the effects of antiinflammatory flavonoids on behavior in


children with Autism Spectrum Disorder
Tested 50 children age 4-10 with ASD
Flavonoids were given to children as a dietary supplement
Each capsule contained 100mg of Luteolin, 70mg of
Quercetin, and 30mg of Rutin. One capsule was given per
10kg (22lb) weight per day to the child with food for 26
weeks
Pre test and post tests
Results:
From initial baseline to the 26 th week the children scores
changed in their age-equivalent scores.
Change seen in the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC), the
Autism Treatment Evaluation checklist (ATEC), and the
Clinical Global Impression-Improvement score (CGI-I)

Clinical Trials testing the effects of mangiferin


on gastrointestinal transit (GIT) in mice
Six groups of eight mice each were given different
doses of mangiferin and one group was the control
group
One group receives 10ml/kg which was mangiferin
diluted in in distilled water, the others 3mg/kg,
10mg/kg, 30mg/kg, or 100mg/kg of mangiferin
orally
Charcoal meals 30 minutes after consuming the
mangiferin
Mice were then killed after 20 minutes and the
length that the charcoal meal had gone down the
small intestine were measured
Results showed that mangiferin accelerated the GIT
the greatest in doses of 30mg/kg and 100mg/kg at

References
Annie's Remedy Essential Oil and Herbs. (n.d.). Orris Root Iris Germanica Benefits. Retrieved
from http://www.anniesremedy.com/herb_detail494.php
Bolise Co. Limited. (n.d.). Mangiferin-Herbal Extract-Mangiferin supplier Bolise Co., Limited.
Retrieved from http://www.bkherb.com/Mangiferin.html
Flavonoid - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. (2015, February 22). RetrievedFebruary23, 2015,
from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flavonoid
George Mateljan Foundation. (n.d.). flavonoids. Retrieved from
http://www.whfoods.com/genpage.php?tname=nutrient&dbid=119
Konstantinos,F. (2013, May 2). Effects of the Anti-inflammatory Flavonoid Luteolin on Behavior in
Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders - Tabular View - ClinicalTrials.gov. Retrieved from
https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/record/NCT01847521
Mangiferin - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. (2014, October 24). RetrievedFebruary24, 2015,
from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mangiferin
Orris root - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. (2014, November 12). RetrievedFebruary23, 2015,
from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Orris_root
ORRIS: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD. (n.d.). Retrieved from
http://www.webmd.com/vitamins-supplements/ingredientmono-645-ORRIS.aspx?
activeIngredientId=645&activeIngredientName=ORRIS
Singh SK., Sharma VK., Kumar Y., Kumar SS., Sinha SK. (2009). Phytochemical and
pharmacological investigations on mangiferin. Retrieved from
http://www.herbapolonica.pl/magazines-files/1371763-14.pdf
Star Child Herbs: ORRIS ROOT POWDER - (Iris spp./I. florentina) on Star Child. (n.d.). Retrieved
from http://www.starchild.co.uk/products/6564_3578_orris-root-powder.aspx
Thomson Healthcare (Firm). (2007). Herbal Monographs. In PDR for Herbal Medicines (4thed.,
pp.623-624). Montvale, NJ: Thomson.
World Journal of Gastroenterology. (2012, July 7). Mangiferin, a natural xanthone, accelerates
gastrointestinal transit in mice involving cholinergic mechanism. Retrieved from http://
www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3391757/