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LATIN BY THE NATURAL METHOD FIRST YEAR (Third Revised Edition) by WILLIAM G. Most, Pa.D. Professor of Latin Loras College Dubuque, lowa amd BOWLING GREEN STATE UNIVERSITY LIBRARY Henry Regnery Company 114 West Illinois St. Chicago, Ill, 60610 Copyright 1957, 1960, 1964 by Wm. G, Most Printed in the United States of America 473.24 Mab Ak. | ‘On December 31, 1939, in the encyclical On Educa- tion His Holiness Pope Pius XI wrote about the Christian teacher: ...- im accepting the new, he will not hastily abandon the old, which the experience of centuries has found expedient and profitable. This is particularly true in the teaching of Latin, which in our days is falling more and more into disuse, because of the unreasonable re- jection of methods so successfully used by that sane humanism, whose highest development was reached in the schools of the Church. The thirteenth and sixteenth centuries were certainly eras. when Christian humanism flourished. Also, methods of teaching are means to the objectives; and methods are naturally adapted as goals vary. Hence, the Holy Father's words clearly manifest his desire for a re- turn to the objectives and methods of Latin teaching ‘used with success in the thirteenth and sixteenth cen- turies, coupled with modern improvements. Precisely that is what is achieved by Father William G. Most’s textbooks for teaching and learning Latin by “The Natural Method.” They employ, not slavishly but with wise adaptation to changed modern circumstances, the objective (facility in using Latin as a means of com- munication) and methods (habit formation by frequent repetition) used in 1250 or 1550. They lead the student to reproduce the natural processes of habit formation by which Roman children learned Latin as their mother tongue. While doing this, the books do not discard the valuable training of mind, knowledge of grammar, and other benefits hitherto sought by Latin teachers of the twentieth century, but merely postpone their achieve- ‘ment until after the student has gained facility in using Latin. Also, they apply to the teaching of Latin many of the most effective techniques of teaching modern Ian- ‘guages, and much that has been learned from the modern science called “descriptive linguistics.” They are the first published American Catholic Latin textbooks which do al this. The great change in objectives and procedures of teaching Latin between the sixteenth and the twentieth centuries can be sketched here only with the utmost brevity. In the centuries of St. Thomas Aquinas (1225-1274) and St. Ignatius of Loyola (1491-1556) virtually all education was imparted from Latin textbooks explained by oral Latin. The pupils learning Latin were almost en- tirely between the ages of six and about fourteen. The chief objective of the teachers was to impart the art of reading, writing, and speaking Latin with facility, that Foreworp | 254637 it might be used as a means of communicating thought, or, in other words, as an indispensable tool in all higher studies and then in later life. They made extensive use of Latin conversation and of textbooks of easy Latin, such as dialogues, or “colloquia” about everyday life, the Pater, Ave, psalms, and Gospels. Thus by means of easy materials the teachers gave their pupils the copious prac- \tice and repetition which alone develop a set of habits— ind that is the essence of learning a language success- fully. The pupils, in truth, felt a sense of achievement jn expressing their thought in a new language. Learning” ‘Latin was fun rather than drudgery. The Latin words directly evoked the ideas, not vernacular equivalents or grammatical nomenclature which was laboriously used to catch the ideas. Through mastering the threefold art of reading, writing, and speaking Latin the pupils auto- ‘matically acquired much training of mind and cultural knowledge. But nobody thought of setting up discipline of mind or cultural knowledge as the goal of Latin teaching. That goal was mastery of the art of using Latin with ease This entire situation gradually changed from about 1700 onwards. The vernaculars replaced Latin in text- books and as the medium of instruction. As Latin more and more ceased to be necessary as the means of acquir- ing and expressing learning, men were less and less motivated to study it, and its place in the curriculum continually waned. To defend it, especially after the times of John Locke (1632-1704) and Christian Wolff (1679-1754), the teachers pointed to the training of mind and the cultural knowledge it brought. Growing stress was put upon knowledge of Ciceronian style and grammatical analysis. In time, pupils began Latin not at the age of six but at fourteen. They learned declen- sions, conjugations, rules of syntax, vocabulary lists, and grammatical nomenclature. Then, after 1890 in the United States, they decoded the long difficult sen- tences of Caesar, and parsed the words. They repeated the process with a speech or two of Cicero and a few books of Vergil. They were acquiring knowledge about Latin, but not the art of using it with ease as a means of ‘communicating thought. (Ability to read Latin at sight ‘was ranked only in last place among the nineteen ob- jectives of Latin teaching listed by the teachers during 1 Acta Apostolicae Sedis, 22, 80; America Press Edition, p. 29, 3 For a longer account, see “A Sketch of the History of Latin Teaching,” pp. 218-258 of Ganss, G.E., SJ., St. Ignatius’ Idea ofa Jesuit University, Marquette University Press, Milwaukee, the Classical Investigation of 1923.) With most stu- dents the learning of Latin became drudgery rather than fun and 2 growing sense of achievement. Enrollments fell. In 1910, 49.05% of the American high school stu- dents were taking Latin. By 1954, only 7% were study- ing it (-1.3% in Alabama, 5.8% in Wisconsin, 16.4% in Connecticut).* Most Americans who have studied Latin, with our priests and seminarians included, have employed this method, which they thought was “traditional.” But as something fully developed, this tradition scarcely goes farther back than 1880; and even in its beginnings it hardly antedates the seventeenth century. In contrast to this method of grammatical analysis, Father Most’s textbooks reproduce much of the “natural method” by which children learn their native language. Hence, the significance of Father Most’s books is ma festly great for the Latin classes in any Catholic high schools or colleges. So much of our Catholic doctrine and culture have been deposited in Latin that we want ‘many of our educated Catholics to be able to use Latin with ease. f, But the special significance of Father Most’s texts is for the Latin classes in our seminaries. Here the students still have much the same cogent motives to master the art of using Latin with ease as the pupils of the thirteenth or sixteenth century. They need it as an indispensable means of communicating thought in their higher studies, and afterwards throughout life. The objectives (know!- edge about Latin and training of mind) and correspona- ing methods (grammatical analysis and translation) “traditional” since 1880 have taken over in our scmi- naries; and there too the students have been experienc- ing an ever growing inability to use Latin. Father Most’s textbooks can contribute much towards revolutionizing the teaching of Latin by bringing back, as the chief objective, the art of reading, writing, and (when de- sired) speaking Latin with ease. Thus they will help towards realizing not only the desires of Pope Pius XI cited above, but also those expressed by Pope Pius XII to the Carmelite Congress on September 13, 1951: ‘Alas, the Latin language, the glory of priests, now has rather few devotees, and even they are constantly languishing. ... Let there be no priest who does not Know how to speak and read it easily and quickly. Beyond this, may there arise among you some neither medioere nor few who can write it even in & com: pressed and elegant style of speech.* Towards the accomplishment of these lofty objec- tives, our hope and prayer is that Father Most's impor- tant textbooks using the “natural method” will have a wider and wider use. Georce E. GANss, S.J., PHD. Director, Department of Classics, Marquette University, January 20, 1957 3 The FL. Program, Report No. 2 (August, 1955), Boston, DC. Heath Co,, p. 5. “Acta Apostolicae Sedis 43, 737. TABLE OF CONTENTS LESSON 1 10. cy 12. 13. 14, 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. |. Review Lesson ... Perfect indicative active, third singular Nominative and objective singular of the first three declensions ...........6cec005 . Perfect indicative active, third plural Objective plural of first three declensions ‘Quod indirect statements ....... Ablative singular ofthe first three declensions Prepositions Gor ondeeenooc68 ‘Ablative plural of the first three declensions The expletive there Plebs . Nominative singular and plural of the first three declensions - Objective and ablative of fourth and fifth declensions Adjectives used as nouns Ablative without prepositions . . |. Review Lesson ...... A ). Nominative of fourth and fifth declensions Present active infinitives Neuternouns of second and third declensions Gender Agreement of bonus type adjectives Use of medius a0 Review Lesson Declension and agreement of third declen- sion adjectives Pluperfect indicative active Adjectives used as nouns Perfect indicative passive Perfect passive participles The three parts of verbs... Parts of verbs already learned Agent with ab ........ Review Lesson 5 Ablative absolutes with perfect passive C3 ticiples 0.0.22... eee Possessive case ofall five declensions Participles used as nouns . ile in the nominative, objective and ablative Review Word order .........5 Hic in three cases Pluperfect indicative passive Sus. PAGE | LESSON 22. Present indicative active, third singular, in four conjugations . 1} 23. Present indicative active, third plural, in four | conjugations ~iunt verbs... 3'| 24. Review Lesson . «5 | 25: ls and idem in three cases 7 | 26- The use and declension of qui (three cases es) 27. Quidam, ipse and sui in three cases 28. Review Lesson 9 | 29. Present indicative passive, third singular and plural ul Present infinitive passive . Ea 30. Dative case of all five declensions Word order sandwiches . .. 31. Deponent verbs 13 ‘Going to towns and cities .......... 15 | 32. Review Lesson . | 33. Imperfect indicative active, all conjugations 7 Use of the imperfect . 19 | 34, Imperfect indicative passive, all conjugations Possessive of pronouns . 21 | 35- Formation and use of present participles 24 |___ Ablative absolutes without participles 36. Review Lesson 37. Future indicative, active and passive, all con- jugations : 26 | 38. Interrogative quis in nominative, possessive, objective and ablative Perfect infinitives . 28 | 39. Indirect statements with Objesive and ini tive wee ES 31 | 40. Review 33| Word order . 41. Imperfect subjunctive active 35 | Purpose clauses and substantive purpose clauses . eee 37 | 42. Imperfect subjunctive pasive 39 | Dative of pronouns Nine irregular adjectives ... a0 41 | 43. Pluperfect subjunctive active Cum clauses Tense use in subjunctive 43 | 44. Review Lesson .. PAGE 45 47 49 SL 33 55 37 39 61 63 65 67 6 n B 15 1 19 81 83 85 87 90 LESSON 45. 46. 41. 48. 49. 50. Si. 92. 53. 54, 55. 56. 57. 58, 59. 60. 61. Pluperfect subjunctive passive Result clauses Indeclinable names . : Present subjunctive, active and passive Tense use in subjunctive Hortatory subjunctive Indirect questions . Preview of first and second person active forms Present and imperfect subjunctive active First and second person Review Lesson Imperfect indicative active, first and second person Tu Tuus . Perfect indicative active, first and second Noster Present indicative active, frst and second person Ego Meus 5 Review Lesson . Fature indicative active, first and second person Imperative active : Fist and second person forms of velle, noe and ire frst and second person First and second person forms of ese, posse and ferre . First and second person forms in the perfect passives Perfect subjunctive and future perfect indica- tive passive ae Preview of first and second person passive in the simple tenses First and. second person of present and imperfect subjunctive . Review Lesson . First and second person in imperfect indice- tive passive igus, egal que. i First and second person in present indicative passive Indefinite quis and qui . 92 100 102 104 106 108 a 113 115 7 119 122 62. 63. 64. 65. 66. 67. 68. 69. 70. n. 72. 73. 74, 75. 16. 71. 2B. 79. 80. al. PAGE | LESSON First and second person in future indicative passive Vocative case Review of all passive forms Future perfect indicative and perfect sub- junctive active Passive imperatives .... Future passive participles expressing obliga- tion Objective of extent Mille. Review Sequence of tenses in subjunctive clauses . Gerundives expressing purpose Dative of possession . Gerunds Datives of purpose and reference . . Future active participles and infinitives Double objectives ..... Review Lesson .. Comparison of adjectives Irregular comparatives Ablative of comparison .... Formation and comparison of adverbs | Irregular adverbs Fourth declension neuters, Iste Real conditions Ablative of measure of difference Review Lesson Ideal conditions Conjugation of malle .. Further uses of the gerundive . Impersonal verbs Ablatives of cause and separation Review Lesson . Locative case Ablative of instrument and personal agent . Cum clauses Third declension mixed stem nouns Rules for J-stem nouns, i Five deponents with the ablative Optional endings of third declension and of verbs Use of the Latin dictionary . Declensions of Nouns Declensions of Adjectives . Conjugations of Verbs . Latin Numbers . Latin-English, English-Latin Vocabularies Index Beeboes PAGE 128 130 132 135 138 140 142 144 146 148 150 152 154 156 158 160 162 164 166 168 171 7 173 17 178 185 LECTIO PRIMA De tertia persona in numero singulari in tempore perfecto De casu nominativo et de casu obiectivo in numero singulari ‘Maria habuit parvum agnum. Agqus fuit albus. Marfa venit in scholam. Agnus venit in scholam. ‘Agnus venit cum Marfa. Marcus vidit agnum in schola. Agnus dixit: baa, baa. Mary had a We Are DIscovERED Colimbus fuit nauta. Sed Columbus non hébuit navem. Coltimbus venit ad Reginam Isabéllam. Colimbus dixit ‘Mundus est rotiindus. Mundus non est planus. Regina dedit pectiniam. Cokimbus non invénit Indiam. Colim- bus invénit Américam. América non fuit parva. VocaBULARIUM dedit-gave sed-but dixit-said agnus-lamb mundus-world hébuit-had nauta-sailor invénit-found navis-ship venit-came parva-small vidit-saw parvus-small ad-to peciinia-money cum-with planus-flar ergo-therefore puélla-girl in-in, into, on regina-queen non-not rotiindus-round Now Ler’s THINK Here is an English sentence: Marcus saw the lamb (Mar- cus vidit agnum). There are three important words in it: Marcus is the subject; itis in the nominative case. The verb is saw. The object is lamb; therefore, itis in the objective case. Notice that the Latin verbs above all end init. Notice that the word lamb in English, comes after the verb. Lamb is the object. In Latin we do not (three guesses) hAbuit-had parvus-small, little agnus-lamb albus-white fuitewas venit-came cum-with vidit-saw said depend on the order of words to show the object—we depend on the ending. Notice that many words above end in -m. That is the ending for the object. Some have -am: some have -um: some have -em. Notice the various endings for the nominative case, We need not be con- cerned about them today. After words like ad, cum, and in, we have still other endings. Do not bother about them today. We can understand the story without knowing about them. Notice also that Marcus is just one person. So we say the subject is nominative singular. There is also only cone lamb in school. That is singular too. More than one would be plural. More than one lamb would not only be plural. It would be too much. So we could say that the object in our sentence, agnum, is objective singular. ‘And we could say that the subject in our sentence, Marcus, is nominative singular. There is no Latin word for the, no word for a or an. Just supply these in English when you need them. CoLumBus AND Lamp STEW Colimbus non fuit puélla. Maria fuit puélla. Colimbus non fuit planus. Fuit Cokimbus rotindus? Coliimbus non habuit peciiniam, Isabélla hébuit peciiniam. Isabél- la non hébuit parvum agnum. Isabélla habuit pectniam. Colimbus non hébuit parvum agnum. Marfa hébuit parvum agnum. Marfa non dedit peciiniam. Isabélla dedit pectiniam. Sed Maria non dedit parvum agnum. Isabélla non venit in scholam. Colimbus non venit in scholam, Colimbus venit in Américam. Colimbus non venit in Américam cum agno. Colimbus non venit in Américam cum Isabélla. Isabélla non venit in Améri- cam cum Colimbo. Isabélla non venit in navem. Agnus albus non venit in navem. Marfa non venit in navem. Agnus albus non fuit in India. Colimbus non fuit in India. India non est agnus. India non est navis. Colim- bus fuit albus. Sed India non fuit alba. Mundus fuit rotindus. Sed India non fuit alba, Mundus fuit rotén- dus. Sed India non fuit rotdnda. EXERCISE Find all the English words that are similar to those in the vocabulary. This should be done with every vocabulary. LECTIO SECUNDA De tertia persona in numero plurali in tempore perfecto De casu obiectivo in numero plurali ‘Some get none, Quinque (5) Porei ‘Some get to Marke Hic (this) parvus porcus venit in forum. Hic parvus porcus reménsit domi, Hic parvus porcus hébuit carnes bovinas assas. Hic hAbuit. Hic parvus porcus exclamévit: Oui! Oui! O Oink! Oink! forum-market, forum reménsit-remained domi-at home carnes bovinas assas-roast beef Sumauany: The Romans didn’t know the truth about the founding of Rome: What &Xelamévit-shouted Romulus and Remus dida't do, the Etruscans di urbs-city Roma fuit urbs magna. Roméni amavérunt Romam. Roma fuit antiqua. magna-great Roméni dixérunt quod Rémulus et Remus fundavérunt Romam. Sed non amayérunt-loved dixérunt veritétem. ne In anno millésimo (1000 BC) ante Christum, viri iam fuérunt in terra cme : Roména. Etrisci (Etruscans) fundavérunt Romam. Etrisci amavérunt fandavérunt-founde Roménos. Roméni amavérunt terras Romanas. Sed non habuérunt urbes pear tae magna, fuérunt-were vir-man iam-already terra-land VocABULARIUM amévitloved annus-year exclamavit-shouted forum-market, forum reménsit-remained magnus-great, large domi-at home terra-land hic-this urbs-city quod-that vir-man ante-before véritas-truth iam-