Sei sulla pagina 1di 23

Fracture Modeling Petrel 2010

Fracture Modeling
Intro

Theorethical
Background

Modeling Fracture
Parameters

Building Fracture
Model

Import/Display

QC and use Fracture


Attribute Data

Initial Data
Analysis

Upscaling

Fracture model with


Multiple Fracture Drivers

Simulation

Fracture Modeling Course


Course Content

Day 1

Day 2

Introduction

Building a Fracture model

Optional: Background theory

Upscaling fracture attributes

Import & display fracture data

Fracture drivers

QC and use fracture attributes

Dual porosity simulation setup

Initial data analysis


Modeling fracture parameters

Fracture Modeling Course


Introduction Overview
What is Fracture Modeling?
Naturally Fractured Reservoirs
Fluid Flow Simulation Models
Fracture Modeling approaches
Fracture Modeling Workflow
Data Set - Location
Data Set - Geological description
Stratigraphy/Mechanical zones
Fractures

Data Set - Comparative Outcrop studies

What is Fracture Modeling?


Purpose and Process
Purpose

Create simulation properties for matrix and fractures to


be able to predict reservoir behavior

Why?

Many reservoirs are dual porosity/dual permeability


(Naturally fractured); leading to high flow zones not
representative of the matrix flow capacity
Flow simulators have problems simulating these kind
of reservoirs.

Process

Multi-disciplinary approach;
Use analyzed fracture data from wells
Building a Fracture model (DFN+IFM)
Upscale fracture permeability, porosity and connection
factor between matrix and fractures from the Fracture
model
These data can subsequently be simulated

Naturally Fractured Reservoirs


Simple Classification of Reservoir types
I. Fractures provide essential Porosity and Permeability

Requires large reservoir tank or thick pay zones to be economical (no matrix porosity)

II. Fractures provide essential reservoir Permeability

Most reservoirs with storage in matrix but low matrix permeability

III. Fractures assist Permeability in already producible reservoir

Higher porosity lithologies

IV. Fractures provide no additional Porosity/Permeability


Fractures act as Flow Barriers

100% KF

% of Total Perm.

II

III
IV
% of Total Poro.

100% F

Naturally Fractured Reservoirs


Example of Reservoir types
MATRIX
DISCHARGE

I. Fractures provide essential Porosity and


Permeability

II. Fractures provide essential reservoir


Permeability
Fluid communication from Matrix to
Fractures is important
Fracture Morphology essential !
III. Fracture assist Permeability in already
producible reservoir
IV. Fractures provide no additional
Porosity/Permeablity

Crossflow

No Crossflow

M
F

M
Morphology
Morphology
M to F communication
Restricted communication
Good Recovery Factor Poor Recovery Factor in
Good waterflood
tight Matrix
sweep efficiency
Poor waterflood sweep
efficiency

Fluid Flow Simulation Models


How to approximate nature?
Reality captured in 3D Models

Fracture

Ideally hydrocarbon flow takes place in a Single Porosity / Permeability system


However in Dual Porosity reservoirs, fluids exist in two interconnected systems
(matrix and fractures). This must be accounted for in Simulation models.

Reality

Matrix

Well Productivity
Field Connectivity

In Place Reserves
Recovery

Approximation

Fluid Flow Simulation Models


Dual Porosity (DP) models
Dual Porosity idealization

A simplification of the real reservoir is done when creating a dual porosity model
Fluid flow and transport exist in both the connected fractures and matrix blocks
Two overlapping continua, where both are treated as porous media

Dual Porosity model types

Simple layer model (sheet of parallel fracture sets)


Matchsticks model (2 orthogonal fracture sets)
Sugarcube model (3 orthogonal fracture sets)

Layered Model

Match Stick Model

Sugar Cube Model

Real Reservoir

Fluid Flow Simulation Models


DFN vs. Dual Porosity models
DFN Model

- ->

Non Uniform Geometry


Variable Fracture Orientation
Variable Fracture Length
Variable Aperture
Variable Intensity and Interconnectivity

Dual Porosity Model

Fixed Geometry
Continuous Fractures
Equal spacing
Constant Aperture

DFN Model
Real Fractured
Medium

Layered Model

Fluid Flow Simulation Models


Standard approaches to fracture modeling
Equivalent Non-Fractured
Medium

Equivalent Continuum

Bulk response for equivalent porous media

Layered Model

Dual Porosity (DP)

Separate Matrix and Fracture blocks

Discrete Fracture Network (DFN)

Physical fracture representation


Upscaled to Dual porosity properties

DFN Model

Real Fractured
Medium

Fluid Flow Simulation Models


Petrel 2010 approach to fracture modeling
Property Model

Implicit Fracture Model (IFM)

Yields directly fracture porosity and


permeability as properties
Upscaled to Dual porosity properties

Real Fractured
Medium

Combined Model

Discrete Fracture Network (DFN)

Physical fracture representation


Upscaled to Dual porosity properties

DFN Model

Fracture Modeling Workflow


Petrel Overall Fracture modeling workflow
Well data

Data
Analysis

Model
Parameters

Upscale
& Simulate
Create
Fracture model

Fracture Modeling Workflow


Petrel Specific Fracture modeling processes
DFN

Fracture intensity

IFM

Hybrid
IFM / DFN
model

Data Set
Teapot Dome Wyoming (USA)
Teapot Dome is located in central Wyoming. A comprehensive Data Management
project has been conducted to digitize
USAand compile all available data. Data is
available e.g. for research and software testing/training.

Achnowledgements:
Thanks to Rocky Mountain Oilfield Testing Center and
U.S. Department of Energy for using Teapot data

Data Set
Stratigraphy (Outcrops @ Alcova anticline)
N

Cretaceous
Measverde Fm

Teapot Sandstone
Parkman Sandstone

East

West

Unit 5: Fluvial Ss
Unit 4: Non-Marine Carb.
Sh with localized
coal
Unit 3: White Beach
Ss

Unit 2: Shoreface/Beach
Ss
Unit 1: Shallow Marine
Interbedded Ss
and Sh

1 Section

10m

Location,
Number
Quaternary
Alluvium
Mesaverde Fm
Undifferentiated

NPR3 Boundary
0

Carboniferous
Tensleep Fm
Reworked from:
S.Raeuchle et al, 2006 and Cooper, S. 2000

1 km

5
3
4

Data Set
Mechanical Zones (Mesaverde Fm. Outcrops)
Mechanical zones
Separating units according to mechanical properties is important due
to mechanical influences on fracture characteristics.

Generalized Stratigraphic column


Parkman Sandstone Mb. (Mesaverde Fm.)
Unit 5: Fluvial Ss
Unit 4: Non-Marine Carb.
Sh with localized
coal
Unit 3: White Beach
Ss

Unit 2: Shoreface/Beach
Ss
Unit 1: Shallow Marine
Interbedded Ss
and Sh

1 Section

10m

Compiled from Mallory et al., 1972; Spearing, 1976, and


Rocky Mountain Oilfield Testing Center field data.

Location,
Number
Quaternary
Alluvium
Mesaverde Fm
Undifferentiated

From: Cooper, 2000; Cooper et al., 2001, 2003.

NPR3 Boundary
0

1 km

5
3
4

Data Set
Mechanical Zones (Tensleep Sst. Outcrops)
Stratigraphic systems
Separating units according to stratigraphic architecture is also important for
prediction of complex fracture development in low-complex reservoir facies.

Compiled from Zahm & Hennings, 2009 (AAPG Bulletin)

Data Set
Fracture Intensity (Tensleep Sst. Outcrops)
Fracture intensity at multiple scales
High variability in fracture intensity was demonstrated, caused by original depositional
architecture, overall structural deformation and diagenetic alteration of the host rock.
Fracture intensity depends on stratigraphic scale.
1. Throughgoing fractures

3. Facies Bound fractures

2. Sequence Bound fractures

4. Lamina Bound fractures

Compiled from Zahm & Hennings, 2009 (AAPG Bulletin)

Data Set
Faults at Teapot Dome (Outcrops)
Map of faults and representative
hinge-perpendicular fractures

Modified from: Cooper et al., 2006

Map of faults and representative


hinge-parallel fractures

Data Set
Fractures at Teapot Dome (Outcrops)

Fracture map of a pavement surface Illustrating


the nature of throughgoing fractures and cross
fractures at the top of a single sandstone bed at
Teapot Dome
Throughgoing fractures

Cross fractures

covered

Illustrations from: Cooper, 2000

1m

Conceptual 3D model of fracture outcrop patterns


developed at Teapot dome.

Data Set
Fractures related to Lithology (Outcrops)
Throughgoing
fractures
N
Unit 5: Fluvial Ss
Unit 4: Non-Marine Carb.
Sh with localized
coal
Unit 3: White Beach
Ss
Unit 2: Shoreface/Beach
Ss
Unit 1: Shallow Marine
Interbedded Ss
and Sh

10m

N
n = 24

Quaternary
Alluvium
Mesaverde Fm
Undifferentiated
Charted Locality
NPR3 Boundary

A
Rotation to
Fold Hinge

1 km

n = 23

Illustrations from: Cooper, 2000

Data Set
Infer Outcrop observations to subsurface 3D models?
Surface outline
(boundary) of
subsurface 3D grid

Tensleep Fm top

Overthrust

EXERCISES
Module 1

P.42 - 49