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Curriculum implementation:
how the planned or officially designed course
of study is translated by the teacher into
syllabuses, schemes of work and lessons to
be delivered to students.
implementation : the manner in which the
teacher selects and mixes the various
aspects of knowledge contained in a
curriculum document or syllabus.

Factors That Influence Curriculum


The Teacher
Teachers must be involved in curriculum
planning and development so that they can
implement and modify the curriculum for the
benefit of their learners.
The Learners
influences teachers in their selection of
learning experiences, hence the need to
consider the diverse characteristics of learners
in curriculum implementation. For example,
home background and learner ability can

Resource Materials and Facilities

adequate resource materials such as
textbooks, teaching aids and
The availability and quality of
resource material and the availability
of appropriate facilities have a great
influence on curriculum

Interest Groups
Example: religious organisations, local
authorities, companies
Provide schools with financial resources
to purchase required materials.
Demand the inclusion of certain subjects
in the curriculum.
Influence learners to reject courses they
consider detrimental to theinterests of the

The School Environment

Schools located in rich socio-economic
environments and those that have adequate
human and material resources can implement the
curriculum to an extent that would be difficult or
impossible for schools in poor economic
Culture and Ideology
Cultural and ideological differences within a
society or country can also influence curriculum
implementation. Some communities may resist a
domineering culture or government ideology and
hence affect the implementation of the centrally
planned curriculum.

Instructional Supervision
Curriculum implementation cannot be
achieved unless it has been made possible
through the supervisory function of the school
head. The head does this through:
deploying staff,
allocating time to subjects taught at the
providing teaching and learning materials, and
creating an atmosphere conducive to effective
teaching and learning.

Due to the great value given to
public examination certificates by
communities and schools, teachers
have tended to concentrate on
subjects that promote academic
excellence and little else

Current Issues in Curriculum

5.5.1 Literacy
Literacy is the ability to read and write. The inability
to do so is called illiteracy or analphabetism.
Visual literacy also includes the ability to understand
visual forms of communication such as
body language, pictures, maps
In a technological society, the concept of literacy is
expanding to include the media and electronic
text, in addition to alphabetic and number systems.
These abilities vary in different social and cultural
contexts according to need, demand and education.

5.5.2 Access to Education

the ability of people to have
equal opportunity in education,
regardless of their social class,
gender, ethnicity background or
physical and mental disabilities.
encourages a variety of pedagogical
approaches to accomplish the
dissemination of knowledge across
the diversity of social, political,
cultural, economic,

The current financial crisis has put

extra pressure on stretched public
The aid to education hasfallen by10
per cent since 2010.
5.5.3 Equity in Education
equity refers to the principle of
equity encompasses a wide variety
of educational models, programs and
strategies that may be considered

Income and class

who come from a family of a higher
socioeconomic status (SES) are
privileged with more opportunities
than those of lower SES.
who come from a higher SES can
afford things like better tutors,
rigorous SAT/ACT prep classes,
impressive programs, and so on
Parents willing to donate large sums
of money to a certain institution to
better improve their child's chances

Costs of education
Higher education has become too
expensive and doesnt do enough to
help lower income students succeed.
High-achieving low-income students
do not have the means to attend
selective schools that better prepare
a student for later success. Because
of this, low-income students do not
even attempt to apply to the top-tier
schools for which they are more than

Tracking sorts students into
different classes or groups based
on ability or future plans
The quality of teaching and curricula
vary between tracks and as a result,
those of the lower track are
disadvantaged with inferior
resources, teachers, etc.

Racial equity in education

Racial equity in education means the
assignment of students to
public schools and within schools
without regard to their race.
includes providing students with a
full opportunity for participation in all
educational programs regardless of
their race.

Higher education
Higher education plays a vital role in
preparing students for the
employment market and active
citizenship both nationally and
internationally. By embedding race
equality in teaching and learning,
institutions can ensure that they
acknowledge the experiences and
values of all students, including
minority ethnic and international

Gender equity in education

Gender equity in practicality refers to
both male and female concerns, yet
most of the gender bias is against
women in the developing world.
Boys and girls are often taught with
different approach which programs
children to think that they are different
and deserve different treatment.

Causes of gender discrimination in education

Community Level Obstacles

relates to the bias displayed for
education external to the school
environment. This includes restraints
due to poverty and child labour, soileconomic constraints, lack of
parental involvement and community

School and Education System

Level Obstacles: Lack of
investment in quality education,
inappropriate attitudes and
behaviors, lack of female teachers as
role models and lack of genderfriendly school environment are all
factors that promote gender inequity
in education.