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direction, the tmperature cannot be uniform overt entire area. Because ofthe Fising temperate in advance of the interface, those portions of each facet which are most advanced will be in contact with hotter liquid than those portions fo the rear. Since, for a given crystallographic plane, the rate of growth Js a function of the degree of supercooling, it is not possible forthe facets to ‘maintain asec crystallographic surface and grow with a constant velocity. As a consequence, the steps esume a curved shape. The most advanced, or hoter, portion of each facet coresponds to a lower indice, or higher accommodation factor surface, while the most retarded, or cooler portion corresponds to 2 slow-growing, cr lower accommodation factor surface, In this manner, t should be possible to btain an interface that grows at a constant speed The structue descibed in the above paragraph is that which attains when clorepacked panes are nearly paillel to the interface. When there are no close packed planes approximately parallel to the interface, «simpler interface, Consisting of a random (crystallographic) planar surface, may be more stable. ‘Such an interfais similar to ono obtained when aclse-packed crystallographic plane is sicily perpendicular to the heat flow direction, but differs in that ite not a close packed plane, but a plane with high, o rational indies 185. Dendritic Growth. A very important type of exysaline growth occurs when the liquidzolid interface moves info a ligud, whose temperature fas, or dereass, in advance of the interfice. One of the most important ways that a temperature gradient of this nature can form i follows. ‘Suppose tha Fig. 15.11 represents axegion containing iguisoli interface and thatthe heat is lowing from right to lft the heat is being removed through the solid, At the same time, assume that a considerable dares of supercooling has been attazed, so that the temperature of the liquid is wall below the equiibium freeing point. Because of the heat of fusion that i released at the interface, the temperature of th interface usually rises above that of both the Tiguid and the ssid. Under these conditions, the temperature drops as one moves from the interfice into the solid, because this isthe hea-flow direction, Ie also ao Fig. 15:11 Temperature imzersion during freezing. (After Chalmers, Bruce, Trans. AIME, 290519 (1954) ) ‘0/rysical Matallny Pines fas off into the tiqui because there is a natural flow of hea fom the interface the supercooled liquid. The resulting temperature contour is shown in 15,11 and it known in general asa temperature inversion? ‘When the temperatue fal inthe liquid in advance of the interface, the later becomes unstable and erystalline spikes may shoot out from the genenl interface irto the liquid. The resulting structure may also become quite complicated, with secondary branches forming on the primary spites, and porsibly with tertiary branches fouming on the secondary ones. The resulting branched ciystal often has the appearance of a miniature pine tee and i, accordingly, called a dendrite after the Gresk word dendrites mesning “of & ‘The seasons for the branched growth of « cystal into a liquid whose temperature falls fn advance ofthe solid are ot hard to understand. Whenever small ection ofthe interface finds itsalf ahead ofthe surounding surface it wil be in contact with liquid metal at a lower temperature. Its growth velosity will increased relative tothe surrounding surface which sin contact with quid at er temperature, and the formation of a spike is only to be expected “Associated with the development of each spike it the release of a quaatity of hest (tent hest of fusion). This eat raises the temperature of the liuid adjacent to any given spike and retards the formation of other similar projections on the general interlace in the immediate vicinity of a given projection. The net result is that a numberof spikes oF almost equal spacing are formed whih grow parallel to each other in the fashion shown in Fig, 15.12. ‘The direction in which these pikes grows cxystallographie and is known a the [ ae ae pS Ss | pet Se Fig, 18:12 Schematic representation of the first stage of dendritic growth. A temperature inversion is assumed to. exist at the interface; that fs, the ‘temperaturein th liquid drops in advance of the interface. 1, Weiter, and Chalmers, B., Conaion Jour of Phy, 29382 (1951), 30-488 59) Solaetion of Metae8t ‘able 152 _ Dendritic Growth Dict Structures Various Crate yet Structure Dende Growth Dirsction acecenterad cubic ‘400) Body-entered bic «00 Hexagonal clotepeckad oi) ‘ody-centeed tetragonal (Gn) 10 *Chatmers,B., Trans AIME, 200,519 (1954). dendritic growth direction. The direction of dendritic growth depends on the crystal structure of a metal, as may be seen in Table 15.2. ‘The branches, or spikes, shown in Fig. 15.12 are fist order, or primary, in nature, How secondary branches may form from primary ones will now be lted, For this purpose consider Fig. 15.13 where section aa represents the general interface. Notice that in this figure the dtection of dendritic growth is assumed to be normal to the general interface. This is done to simplify the presentation. Once the spikes have formed, growth at the general interface will, bbe slow because here the supercooling is small and the latent heat of fusion associated with the fommation of the spikes tends to further decrease its ‘magnitude. At section BB, on the other hand, the average temperature of the liquid is, by definition, lower than at aa. However, even on this section at points in the liquid close to the spikes the temperature will be higher than midway ‘between the spikes (74 > Tp) because of the latent heat released at the spikes. FF I k Fig. 15.13 Secondary dendrite arms form because there ie a falling tem- perature gradient starting at a point close to a primary arm and moving to a point midway between the primary arms. Thus, Ta (20 33 Fig, 15.14 In a cubic erystal, the dendrite arms form slong (100) directions. Primary and secondary arms are thus normal to each other. ‘There is, therefore, a decreasing temperature gradient not only in font ofthe primary spikes, but also in diections perpendicular to the primary branches. This temperatuc gradient is responsible forthe formation of secondary branches which form at more or less regular intervals along the primary branches, es shown in Fig. 15.14. Since the secondary branches form for the sume basic reasons as the primary branches, their directions of rapid growth are along directions equivalent erystallographically to those taken by primary ans. In the ‘ase of cubic metals, dendrite arms may form slong all of the (100) directions anid the arms ace perpendicular to each other. Further, in the cao lustated in Fig. 15.14 one would probably not find tertiary branches forming, on the secondary branches. This is a matter of geometry of the growth pattern under consideration. In other cases of theee