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STATCOM

Of Requirements for the Degree of

BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY

IN

ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING

By

YANDRAPRAGADA SRIHARI

07505A0201

D. RAGA LEELA M.Tech

Assistant Professor

PRASAD V. POTLURI SIDDHARTHA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY

(Affiliated to JNTU Kakinada, Approved by AICTE, New Delhi)

KANURU, VIJAYAWADA-520007

APRIL, 2010.

PRASAD V. POTLURI SIDDHARTHA INSTITUTE OF

TECHNOLOGY

(Affiliated to JNTU Kakinada, Approved by AICTE, New Delhi)

KANURU, VIJAYAWADA-520007.

Certificate

This is to certify that the project work entitled “VOLTAGE STABILITY

BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY in ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING by

Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University is a record of bonafide work carried out by them

under our guidance and supervision. The results embodied in this report have not been submitted

to any other University or Institute for the award of any degree or diploma.

Assistant Prof.

External Examiner

Acknowledgements

I express my profound sense of gratitude and sincere thanks to Sri D.RAGA LEELA

M.Tech., Assistant professor, Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, for initiating

me into this work and guiding me in the successful completion of this project.

I express my thanks to Sri Prof. Dr.S.V.M.BHUVANAIKARAO M.E.,F.I.E,Ph.D, Head of

the Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, for providing all the facilities in the

Department.

We are thankful to our Principal Dr.K.SRINIVASU, M.Tech., P.h.D, for providing an

excellent environment in our college and helping us at all points for achieving our task.

Finally we thank to our faculty, E.E.E Department for imparting good knowledge to us

throughout our course.

Last, but not least, I take this opportunity to thank all the people who aided me in the

completion of the project work, directly or indirectly, for their continuous encouragement and

extended services.

Finally, I would like to thank my parents, for their support and encouragement, which

helped me to complete this project with full enthusiasm.

PROJECT ASSOCIATE

YANDRAPRAGADA SRIHARI

Acknowledgements

I express my profound sense of gratitude and sincere thanks to Sri D.RAGA LEELA

M.Tech., Assistant professor, Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, for initiating me

into this work and guiding me in the successful completion of this project.

I express my thanks to Sri Prof. Dr.S.V.M.BHUVANAIKARAO M.E.,F.I.E,Ph.D, Head of

the Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, for providing all the facilities in the

Department.

We are thankful to our Principal Dr.K.SRINIVASU, M.Tech., P.h.D, for providing an

excellent environment in our college and helping us at all points for achieving our task.

Finally we thank to our faculty, E.E.E Department for imparting good knowledge to us

throughout our course.

Last, but not least, I take this opportunity to thank all the people who aided me in the

completion of the project work, directly or indirectly, for their continuous encouragement and

extended services.

Finally, I would like to thank my parents, for their support and encouragement, which

helped me to complete this project with full enthusiasm.

PROJECT ASSOCIATES….

YANDRAPRAGADA SRIHARI

BODDU ADILAKSHMI

MOHAMMAD ABDUL AZEEZ

MADASU VENKATESWARA RAO

SAJJA PRUDHVI NATH

MANDA EMYELU

ABSTRACT

In recent years, power demand has increased substantially while the expansion of

power generation and transmission has been severely limited due to the limited resources

and environmental restrictions. As a consequence, some transmission lines are heavily

loaded and the system stability becomes a power transfer-limiting factor. Flexible AC

transmission systems (FACTS) controllers have been mainly used for solving various power

system steady state control problems and function of power flow control.

Among the different variants of facts devices, static compensator are proposed as the

most adequate due to they can supply required reactive current even at low values of bus

voltage and also for the real power modulation.

voltage source for which the magnitude and phase angle may be adjusted using suitable

algorithm, to satisfy a specified voltage magnitude at the point of connection with AC

network.

The STATCOM will be represented by a synchronous voltage source with maximum

and minimum voltage magnitude limits and also it is represented as a voltage source for the

full range of operation.

This paper aims to verify the capability of statcom in improving voltage regulation in

the transmission systems and the statcom is included in Newton raphson model and

simulated study is implemented by MAT lab.

CONTENTS PAGE NO.

1.1. INTRODUCTION 1

1.2. FLOW OF POWER IN AC SYSTEM 2

1.3. AC SYSTEM SCENARIO 3

1.4. PROBLEM OF VOLTAGE STABILITY 4

1.4.1. VOLTAGE STABILITY ENHANCEMENT 5

1.5 LOAD FLOW STUDIES 7

1.6 LOAD FLOW 8

1.7 BUS CLASSIFICATION 9

1.8 LOAD FLOW METHODS 10

1.8.1Gauss–Seidel method 10

1.8.2 Fast-Decoupled-Load-Flow method. 11

1.8.3 Newton–Raphson method. 12

1.9 NEWTON-RAPHSON LOAD FLOW (NRLF) METHOD 14

CHAPTER 2

2 FACTS 16

2.1 FACTS CONTROLLERS 18

2.1.1SERIES CONNECTED CONTROLLERS 18

2.1.1.1Thyristor controlled series capacitor(TCSC) 19

2.1.1.2Thyristor switched series capacitor(TSSC) 20

2.1.1.3Static synchronous series compensator(SSSC) 20

2.1.2 SHUNT CONNECTED CONTROLLERS 22

2.1.2.1Static synchronous compensator(STATCOM) 22

2.1.2.2Thyristor controlled reactor(TCR) 23

2.1.2.3Thyristor switched reactor(TSC) 24

2.1.2.4Static var compensator(SVC) 24

2.1.3COMBINED SERIES SHUNT CONTROLLERS 25

2.1.4UNIFIED POWER FLOW CONTROLLERS 25

2.2 BENEFITS OF FACTS DEVICES 26

2.3 COMPARISON OF VARIOUS FACTS DEVICES 28

2.4 RELATIVE IMPORTANCE OF CONTROLLABLE PARAMETERS 29

CHAPTER 3

3 STATCOM 29

3.1 OPERATING PRINCIPLE 30

3.2 MODELLING OF STATCOM 32

3.2.1SHUNT VARIABLE SUSPECTANCE METHOD 33

3.3 TYPICAL APPLICATIONS OF STATCOM 34

3.4 MAIN ADVANTAGES OF STATCOM 34

CHAPTER 4

4 MATLAB 35

4.1 INTRODUCTION TO MAT LAB 35

4.2 MAT LAB WINDOW 36

4.3 PROBLEM EVALUATION 38

4.3.1 IEEE 5 BUS SYSTEM 38

4.3.1 USING WITHOUT STATCOM 38

4.3.2 USING SINGLE STATCOM 39

4.3.3 USING MULTIPLE STATCOM 40

4.3.2 IEEE 14 BUS SYSTEM 41

4.3.2.1 USING WITHOUT STATCOM 41

4.3.2.2 USING SINGLE STATCOM 43

4.3.2.3 USING MULTIPLE STATCOM 45

CHAPTER 5

5 CONCLUSION 47

BIBLIOGRAPHY 49

APPENDIX 50

IEEE 5 BUS LINE AND LOAD DATA 51

IEEE 14 BUS LINE AND LOAD DATA 52

LIST OF FIGURES:

3.3 STATCOM 31

LIST OF TABLES

INTRODUCTION

and in the development of various sectors of economy

Infact the modern economy is very dependent on the electricity as a basic

input. This in turn has led to increase in the number of power stations and their

capacities and consequent increase in the power transmission line that connect the

generating station to the load centers.

Most if not all of the worlds, electric power systems are widely

interconnected. We need these interconnections because, apart from delivery, the

purpose of transmission network is to pool power plants and load centers in order to

minimize the total power generation capacity and cost. Transmission interconnections

enable taking advantage of diversity of loads, availability of sources, and full price in

order to supply electricity to the loads at minimum cost with a required reliability.

Transmission is often an alternative to the new generation resource. One cannot be

sure about what the optimum balance is between ge4neration and transmission unless

the system planners use advanced methods of analysis which integrate transmission

planning into an integrated value-based transmission/generation planning scenario.

Hence, we need to incorporate some control mechanism in order to increase the power

transfer capability and enhance the controllability.

On the other hand, as power transfer grow, the power system becomes

increasingly more complex to operate and the system can become less secure for

riding through the major outages. It may lead to large power flows with inadequate

control, excessive reactive power in various parts of the system, large dynamic swings

between different parts of the system and bottlenecks, and thus the full potential of

transmission interconnections can not be utilized.

The power systems of today largely, care mechanically controlled. The

problem with mechanical devices is that control cannot be initiated frequently,

because these mechanical devices tend to wear out very quickly compared to static

devices.

1

1.2 FLOW OF POWER IN AN AC SYSTEM

parameters plus inability to direct power flow at will.

generation and load must balance all the times. To some extent, the electrical system

is self-regulating. If generation is less than load, the voltage and frequency drop, and

there by the load, goes down to equal the generation minus the transmission losses.

However, there is only a few percent margin for such a self-regulation. If voltage is

propped up with reactive power support, them the load will go up, and consequently

frequency will keep dropping, and the system will collapse. Alternatively, if there is

inadequate reactive power, the system can have voltage collapse.

The basic requirement of power system is to meet the demand that varies

continuously. That is, the amount of power divided by the power companies must be

equal to that of consumer’s need.

impedance, the magnitude of the sending and receiving and voltages and the phase

angle voltages between voltages. The compensators have been provided to control any

one of the function variable.

adjustment are generally used to alter these parameters to achieve power transmission

control. Fired and mechanically switched shunt and series reactive compensation are

employed to modify the natural impedance characteristics of transmission line in

order to establish the desired effective impedance between the sending and receiving

ends to meet power transfer requirements. Voltage regulating and phase shifting

transformers with mechanical tap changing gears are also used to minimize voltage

variation and control power flow. These conventional methods provide adequate

2

control under steady state and slowly changing conditions, but are largely ineffective

in handling dynamic disturbance.

The power systems can be effectively utilized with prudent use of FACTS

technology on a selective, as needed basis.

enhancing the usable capacity of present, as well as new and upgraded lines. These

opportunities arise through the ability of FACTS controllers to control the interrelated

parameter that govern the operation of transmission systems. These constraints cannot

be overcome while maintaining the required system reliability, by mechanical means

with lowering the usable transmission capacity. By providing added flexibility,

FACTS controllers can enable a line to carry power closer to its thermal ratings.

Mechanical switches need to be supplemented by rapid-response power electronics.

the power by controlling the initial parameter that governs the operation of

transmission system.

Flow in AC lines is generally uncontrollable. As a result of the lack of control

in AC lines the following disadvantages are present in AC systems:

1. The power flow in AC lines (except short lines of lengths below 150 km) is

limited by stability considerations. The expression for power flow in a lossless

AC line with voltage magnitude v at sending and receiving end is given by:

that peak power transfer capability is

3

The normal power flow in a line is kept much below the peak value. This

margin (or reserve) is required to maintain system security under contingency

conditions. The fact implies that the lines may operate normally at power

levels much below their thermal limits.

2. The AC transmission network requires dynamic reactive power control to

maintain satisfactory voltage profile under varying load conditions and

transient disturbances. The voltage profile of a long line with the two ends

maintained at voltage magnitude v for different loading conditions.

generator rotors may contribute negative damping torque which results in

undamped power oscillations.

consumption in the line reactances. In case of mismatch in the reactive power

balance in the system, this can result in voltage instability and collapse.

Recent developments involving deregulation and restructuring of Power industry,

are aimed at isolating the supply of electrical energy (a product) from the service

involving transmission from generating stations to load centers. This approach is

feasible only if the operation of AC transmission lines is made flexible by introducing

fast acting high power solid-state controllers using thyristor or GTO valves. This led

to the development of FACTS technology.

magnitude so that when the system nominal load is increased, the actual power

transferred to that load will increase. The main cause of voltage instability is the

inability of the power system to meet the demand for reactive power. Voltage

instability s the cause of system voltage collapse, in which the system voltage decays

to a level from which it is unable to recover. Voltage collapse may lead to partial or

full power interruption in the system.

4

There are two types of voltage stability based on simulation time; static

voltage stability and dynamic voltage stability. Static analysis involves

computationally less extensive than dynamic analysis. Static voltage stability is ideal

for the bulk of studies in which a voltage stability limit for many pre-contingency and

post-contingency cases must be determined. Providing adequate reactive power

support at the appropriate location solves voltage instability problems. There are

many reactive compensation devices used by the utilities for this purpose, each of

which has its own characteristics and limitations. However, the utility would like to

achieve this with the most beneficial compensation device.

and researchers have met with the purpose of discussing and trying to consolidate a

definition regarding to voltage stability, besides proposing techniques and

methodologies for their analysis. Most of these techniques are based on the search of

the point in which the system’s Jacobin becomes singular; this point is referred as the

point of voltage collapse or maximum load ability point. The series and shunt

compensation are able to increase the maximum transfer capabilities of power

network .Concerning to voltage stability, such compensation has the purpose of

injecting reactive power to maintain the voltage magnitude in the nodes close to the

nominal values, besides, to reduce line currents and therefore the total system losses.

At the present time, thanks to the development in the power electronics devices, the

voltage magnitude in some node of the system can be adjusted through sophisticated

and versatile devices named FACTS. One of them is the static synchronous

compensator (STATCOM).

system dynamic problem. Contrary to the loss of electromechanical stability, voltage

instability is a possible consequence of progressive increase in load until the point of

collapse is reached, beyond which little can be done except to prepare for system

restoration. The collapse phenomenon is typically slow, over several minutes,

depending on the time-varying behavior of the loads.

5

The following conventional corrective actions are possible;

• Reserve reactive support must be used, i.e. switched shunt capacitors and

SVCs.

• Network control actions: coordinate system LTCs, recluse lines

automatically, use

HVDC station reactive power control capabilities.

• Load control: automatic under voltage load shedding or operator initiated

load

Shedding.

• Generator control action: remove generation to mitigate a transmission

system overload, add local generation or trade real power for reactive power on

critical generation.

FACTS studies on easing voltage instability problems have been confined, so

far, to the application of the SVC and the more recent alternative, the STATCOM.

A more difficult form of voltage instability, sometimes referred to as

“transient voltage instability” is becoming an increasing problem. This form of

voltage instability is the long recognized problem of “induction motor instability”.

Induction motor instability is an increasing problem as transmission system becomes

more heavily loaded. Following a system fault, certain induction motors may either be

already stalled or absorb a disproportional high reactive power compared with active

power in their recovery to operating speed. In the absence of established solutions,

certain FACTS devices (like the STATCOM), which are fast acting and have the

potential for high short time overload ratings, may be helpful.

6

1.5 LOAD FLOW STUDIES

Load-flow studies are probably the most common of all power system analysis

calculations. They are used in planning studies to determine if and when specific

elements will become overloaded. Major investment decisions begin with

reinforcement

Strategies based on load-flow analysis. In operating studies, load-flow analysis is used

To ensure that each generator runs at the optimum operating point; demand will be

met

Without overloading facilities; and maintenance plans can proceed without

undermining

The security of the system.

The objective of any load-flow program is to produce the following

information:

• Voltage magnitude and phase angle at each bus.

• Real and reactive power flowing in each element.

• Reactive power loading on each generator.

The above objectives are achieved by supplying the load-flow program with

the Following information:

• Branch list of the system connections i.e., the impedance of each element, sending-

end and receiving-end node. Lines and transformers are represented by their π-

equivalent models.

• Voltage magnitude and phase-angle at one bus, which is the reference point for the

rest of the system.

• Real power generated and voltage magnitude at each generator bus.

• Real and reactive power demanded at each load bus.

The foregoing information is generally available since it either involves

readily Known data (impedances etc.) or quantities which are under the control of

power system

Personnel (active power output and excitation of generators.) Simply stated the load-

flow problem is as follows:

7

● at any bus there are four quantities of interest: │V│, θ, P, and Q.

● If any two of these quantities are specified, the other two must not be specified

otherwise we end up with more unknowns than equations.

Load flow solution is a solution of the network under steady state condition

subjected to certain inequality constraints under which the system operates. These

constraints can be in the form of load magnitude, bus voltages, reactive power

generation of the generators, tap settings of a tap-changing transformer etc. The load

flow solution gives the bus voltages and phase angles, hence the power injection at all

the buses and power flow through interconnecting transmission lines can be easily

calculated. Load flow solution is essential for designing a new power system as well

as for planning an extension or operation of the existing one for varying demand. `

These analyses require number of load flow solutions under both normal and

abnormal (outage of transmission line or outage of some generators) operating

conditions. Load flow solution also gives the initial state of the system when the

transient behaviour of the system is to be studied. The load flow solution of the power

system mainly requires the following calculations/steps:

2. Suitable mathematical technique for the solution of the equations

Under steady state condition, the network equations will be in the form of

simple algebraic equations. The loads and generations are continuously changing in a

real power system, but for solving load flow it is assumed that loads and generations

are fixed at a particular value over a suitable period of time. E.g. half an hour or

monthly etc depending upon data

8

1.7 Bus Classification

In a power system each bus or node is associated with four quantities, real and

reactive powers, bus voltage magnitudes and its phase angles. In a load flow solution

two out of four quantities are specified and the remaining two are to be calculated

through the solution of the equations. The buses are classified into the following three

types depending upon the quantities specified.

PQ bus: At this bus the real and reactive components of power are specified. It is

desired to find out the voltage magnitude V and phase angle δ through the load flow

solution. Voltage at load bus can be allowed to vary within a prescribed value e.g.

5%. It is also known as the load bus.

PV bus: Here the voltage magnitude corresponding to the generator voltage V and

real power PG corresponding to its ratings is specified. It is required to find out the

reactive power generation QG and the phase angle δ of the bus. It is also known as the

Generator bus or voltage-controlled bus.

Slack/Swing or reference bus: Here the voltage magnitude V and phase angle δ is

specified. This will take care of the additional power generation required and

transmission losses. It is required to find the real and reactive power generations (PG,

QG) at this bus.

This is called the slack (or swing, or reference) bus and since P and Q are

unknown, │V│ and θ must be specified. Usually, an angle of θ = 0 is used at the

slack bus and all other bus angles are expressed with respect to slack.

Load flow solution can be achieved by any iterative methods. There are many

kinds of iterative methods but as per the literature review the Newton-Raphson

method is normally applied. In the load flow problem as explained above, two

variables are specified at each bus and the remaining variables are obtained through

load flow solutions.

The additional variables to be specified for load flow solution are the tap settings of

regulating transformers, capacitances, resistances etc. If the specified variables are

allowed to vary in a region constrained by practical considerations (upper and lower

limits of real and reactive generations, bus voltage limits and range of transformer tap

settings), these results in load flow solutions each pertaining to one set of values of

specified variables.

9

1.8 CLASSICAL LOAD FLOW METHODS:

1. Newton–Raphson method.

2. Fast-Decoupled-Load-Flow method.

3. Gauss–Seidel method

In numerical algebra, the Gauss–Seidel method, also known as the Liebmann

method or the method of successive displacement, is an iterative method used to solve

a linear system of equations. It is named after the German mathematicians Carl

Friedrich Gauss and Philipp Ludwig von Seidel, and is similar to the Jacobian

method. Though it can be applied to any matrix with non-zero elements on the

diagonals, convergence is only guaranteed if the matrix is either diagonally dominant,

or symmetric and positive definite.

Description

Given a square system of n linear equations with unknown x:

Where

Then A can be decomposed into a lower triangular component L*, and a strictly upper

triangular component U:

A=L+U

Where

10

The Gauss–Seidel method is an iterative technique that solves the left hand side of

this expression for x, using previous value for x on the right hand side. Analytically,

this may be written as:

However, by taking advantage of the triangular form of L*, the elements of x(k+1)

can be computed sequentially using forward substitution:

The procedure is generally continued until the changes made by iteration are below

some tolerance. The element-wise formula for the Gauss–Seidel method is extremely

similar to that of the Jacobian method.

The computation of xi(k+1) uses only the elements of x(k+1) that have already

been computed, and only the elements of x(k) that have yet to be advanced to iteration

k+1. This means that, unlike the Jacobian method, only one storage vector is required

as elements can be overwritten as they are computed, which can be advantageous for

very large problems.

However, unlike the Jacobian method, the computations for each element cannot

be done in parallel. Furthermore, the values at each iteration are dependent on the

order of the original equations .The convergence properties of the Gauss–Seidel

method are dependent on the matrix A. Namely, the procedure is known to converge

if either:

A is symmetric positive-definite, or

A is strictly or irreducibly diagonally dominant.

The Gauss–Seidel method sometimes converges even if these conditions are not

satisfied

It is a reliable and fastest method in obtaining convergence

This method with branches of high (r/x) rations could not solve problems with regard

to non-convergence and long execution time

11

1.8.3 Newton-Raphson load flow (NRLF) Method

Calculation of Jacobian

For an N-bus power system there will be n equations for real power injection i

P and n-equations for reactive power11 injection Qi .

=

= I =1 , 2, 3, …….,N

have. If the total number of buses is n and number of generator buses is m then the

number of equations to be solved will be number of known Pi’s and number of known

Qi’s. In the above conditions number of known Pi’s are n-1 and the number of known

Qi’s are (n-m), therefore the total number of simultaneous equations will be 2*n-m-1,

and number of

unknown quantities are also 2*n-m-1. Unknowns to be calculated are power angles

(δ) at all the buses except slack (i.e. n-1) and bus voltages (V) at load bus (i.e. n-m).

The following method known as Newton- Raphson method is used for solving

=

the unknown quantities. The problem formulation is as follows:

= (specified)

= (specified)

Real power terms will be calculated for all the buses except slack bus and reactive

power terms will be calculated for all load buses. In the above equation

And

12

is the jacobian matrix…………. (4)

The elements of the Jacobian matrix can be calculated using the following equations

= -

= ………..(5)

13

Procedure for this iterative method is for the given system first the Y-bus matrix has

to be formed.

Y=G+jB

Where

Y is a bus admittance matrix

G is real part of Y-bus matrix

B is imaginary part of Y-bus matrix

The resistance and reactance of each line have been given for any system from which

the admittance matrix can be formed.

1.9 Iterative Algorithm for N-R Method

1. With voltage and angle (usually δ = 0 ) at slack bus fixed, assume voltage

magnitude and power angles at PQ buses and δ at all PV buses. Generally flat voltage

start will be used.

2. Compute i ΔP for all buses except slack bus and i ΔQ for all PQ buses using Eq.

(3). If all the values are less than the prescribed tolerance, stop the iterations.

3. If the convergence criterion is not satisfied, evaluate elements of the jacobian using

Eq. (5)

4. Solve the Eq. (2) for correction vector.

5. Update voltage angles and magnitudes by adding the corresponding changes to the

previous values and return to step 2.

14

START

Reactive power at all buses except the slack bus, slack

bus voltage magnitude and phase angle, no of buses

P P

Calculate PK ,QK

P P P P

∆PK = PK(Scheduled) - PK ; ∆QK (Scheduled) –QK

K=1,2,3,…..n, K ≠ S

P P

Determine max ∆P and max ∆Q

P=

P

P+1 │ Max ∆P │

P

and│Max ∆Q │ > t

(or) 0. 001

P P

P J1 J2

∆P ∆δ

=

∆Q

P P P ∆│V │

J3 J4

STOP

15

2. FLEXIBLE AC TRANSIMISSION SYSTEMS

based and other static controllers to enhance controllability and increase power

transfer capability. FACTS do not indicate a particular controllers but a host of

controllers which the system planner can choose based on both technical

considerations and cost benefit analysis.

OBJECTIVES OF FACTS

The main objectives of introducing FACTS are:

1. Regulation of power flows in prescribed transmission routes.

2. Secure loading of lines nearer their contributing to emergency control

3. Prevention of cascading outages by contributing to emergency control

4. Improving the stability of the system.

Consider a very simple case of power flow through two parallel paths

(possibly corridors of several lines) from a surplus generation area, shown as an

equivalent generator on the left, to a deficit generation area on the right. Without any

control, power flow is based on the inverse of the various transmission line

impedances. Apart from ownership and contractual issues over which lines carry how

much power, it is likely that the lower impedance line may become overloaded and

thereby limit the loading on both paths even though the higher impedance path is fully

loaded. There would not be and incentive to upgrade current capacity of the

overloaded path, because this would further decrease the impedance and the

investment would be self-defeating particularly if the higher impedance path already

has enough capacity.

Fig (b) shows the same two paths, but one of these has HVDC transmission.

With HVDC, power flows as ordered by the operator, because with HVDC power

electronics converters power is electronically controlled. Also, because power is

electronically controlled, the HVDC line can be used to its full thermal capacity if

16

adequate converter capacity is provided. Furthermore, an HVDC line, because of its

high-speed control, can also help the parallel ac transmission line to maintain stability.

However, HVDC is expensive for general use, and is usually considered when long

distances are involved, such as the Pacific DC Inter tie on which power flows as

ordered by the operator.

As alternative FACTS controllers, fig(c) and (d) show one of the transmission

lines with different types of series types FACTS controllers. By means of controlling

impedance, or series injection of appropriate voltage a FACTS controller can control

the power flow as required. Maximum power flow can in fact be limited to its rated

limit under contingency conditions when this line is expected to carry more power

due to the loss of a parallel line.

1.1 Power flow in parallel paths a) ac power flow with parallel paths b) power flow control with hvdc c) power

flow control with variable impedance d) power flow control with variable phase angle

17

2.1 FACTS CONTROLLERS

A power Electronic based system and other static equipment that provide

control of one or more AC transmission system parameters.

FACTS devices or controllers are used for the dynamic control of voltage,

impedance and phase angle of high voltage AC transmission lines. Below, the

different main types of FACTS devices are described:

Series connected controllers

Combined series-series controllers

Combined series-shunt controllers

The series controller could be variable impedance, such as capacitor, reactor etc

(or) power electronics based variable source (or) a combination of these. In principle,

all series controllers inject voltage in series with the line. The series controller could

be variable impedance, such as capacitor, reactor, etc., or power electronics based

variable source of main frequency, sub synchronous and harmonic frequencies to

serve the desired need. In principle, all series controllers inject voltage in series with

the line. Even variable impedance multiplied by the current flow through it, represents

an injected series voltage in the line. As long as the voltage is in phase quadrature

with the line current, the series controller only supplies or consumes variable reactive

power. Any other phase relationship will involve handling of real power as well.

ii. Thyristor switched series capacitor(TSSC)

iii. Static synchronous series compensator(SSSC)

18

2.1.1.1 THYRISTOR CONTROLLED SERIES CAPACITOR (TCSC)

shunted by a thyirstor-controlled reactor in order to provide a smoothly variable series

capacitive reactance. The TCSC may be a single, large unit, or may consist of several

equal or different-sized smaller capacitors in order to achieve a superior performance.

alternative to SSSC above and like an SSSC, it is a very important FACTS controller.

A variable reactor such as a Thyristors-controlled reactor (TCR) is connected across a

series capacitor. When the TCR firing angle is 180 degrees, the reactor becomes non-

conducting and the series capacitor has its normal impedance. As the firing angle is

advanced from 180 degrees to less than 180 degrees, the capacitive impedance

increases. At the other end, when the TCR firing angle is 90 degrees, the reactor

becomes fully conducting, and the total impedance becomes inductive, because the

reactive impedance is designed to be much lower than the series capacitor impedance.

19

2.1.1.2. THYRISTOR SWITCHED SERIES CAPACITOR (TSSC)

shunted by a thyristor-switched reactor to provide a stepwise control of series

capacitive reactance.

switching inductors at firing angle of 90 degrees or 180 degrees but without firing

angle control, could reduce cost and losses of the controller.

It is reasonable to arrange one of the modules to have thyristors control, while

others could be thyristors switched

source as a series compensator whose output voltage is in quadrature with, and

controllable independently of, the line current for the purpose of increasing or

decreasing the overall reactive voltage drop across the line and thereby controlling the

transmitted electric power.

20

Figure 2.1.3 SSSC

The SSSC may include transiently rated energy storage or energy absorbing

devices to enhance the dynamic behavior of the power system by additional

temporary active power compensation, to increase or decrease momentarily, the

overall active (resistive) voltage drop across the line. SSSC is one the most important

FACTS controllers.

It is like a STATCOM, except that the output ac voltage is in series with the

line. It can be based on a voltage-sourced converter or current-sourced converter.

Without an extra energy source, SSSC can only inject a variable voltage, which is 90

degrees leading or lagging the current.

Usually the injected voltage in series would be quite small compared to the

line voltage, and the insulation to ground would be quite high. With and appropriate

insulation between the primary and the secondary of the transformer, the converter

equipment is located at the ground potential unless the entire converter equipment is

located on a platform duly insulated from ground.

a series controller to inject a voltage vector of variable angel in series with the line.

21

2.1.2 SHUNT CONNECTED CONTROLLERS

power electronics based variable source, or a combination of these. In principle all

shunt controllers inject current into the system at the point of connection. Examples of

shunt connected controllers. As in the case of series controllers, the shunt controllers

may be variable impedance, variable source, or a combination of these. In principle,

all shunt controllers inject current into the system at the point of connection. Even

variable shunt impedance connected to the line voltage causes a variable current flow

and hence represents injection of current into the line. As long as the injected current

is in phase quadrature with the line voltage, the shunt controller only supplies or

consumes variable reactive power. Any other phase relationship will involve handling

of real power as well.

ii. Thyristor controlled reactor(TCR)

iii. Thyristor switched reactor(TSC)

iv. Static var compensator(SVC)

A static synchronous generator operated as a shunt-connected static var

compensated whose capacitive or inductive output current can be controlled

independent of the AC system voltage. It can be based on a voltage-sourced or

current-sourced converter. For the voltage-sourced converter, its AC output voltage is

controlled such that it is just right for the required reactive current flow for any AC

bus voltage DC capacitor voltage is automatically adjusted to serve as a voltage

source for the converter. STATCOM can be designed to also act as an active filter to

absorb system harmonics.

22

Figure 2.2.1 STATCOM layout

A shunt-connected, thyristor-controlled inductor whose effect

reactance is varied in a continuous manner by partial-conduction control of the

thyristor valve.

TCR is a subset of SVC in which conduction time and hence, current in shunt reactor

is controlled by a thyristor-based AC switch with firing control.

23

2.1.2.3 THYRISTOR SWITCHED REACTOR (TSC)

A shunt-connected, thyristor-switched inductor whose effective reactance is

varied in a stepwise manner by full- or zero-conduction operation of the thyristor

valve.

TSR is made up of several shunt-connected inductors which are switched in and

out by thyristor switches without any firing angle.

TSC is also a subset of SVC in which thyristors based ac switches are used to switch

in and out shunt capacitors units, in order to achieve the required step change in the

reactive power supplied to the system. Unlike shunt reactors, shunt capacitors cannot

be switched continuously with variable firing angle control.

A shunt-connected static var generator or absorber whose output is adjusted to

exchange capacitive or inductive current so as to maintain or control specific

parameters of the electrical power system (typically bus voltage).SVC is based of

thyristors without the gate turn-off capability. SVC is considered by some as a lower

cost alternative to STATCOM.

This is a general term for a thyristors-controlled or thyristors-switched reactor,

and/or thyristors-switched capacitor or combination. SVC is based on thyristors

without the gate turn-off capability. It includes separate equipment for leading and

lagging var’s the thyristors-controlled or thyristors-switched reactor for absorbing

reactive power and thyristors-switched capacitor for supplying the reactive power.

24

2.1.3 COMBINED SERIES-SHUNT CONTROLLERS

This could be combination of separate shunt and series controllers, which are

controlled in a coordinated manner, or a Unified Power Flow Controller with series

and shunt elements in principle, combined shunt and series controllers inject current

into the system with shunt part of controller and voltage in series in the line with

series part of controller. However, when the shunt and series controllers are unified,

there can be real power exchange between the series and shunt controllers via the

power link.

In principle, combined shunt and series controllers inject current into the

system with the shunt part of the controller and voltage in series in the line with the

series part of the controller. However, when the shunt and series controllers are

unified, there can be a real power exchange between the series and shunt controllers

via the power link.

This could be a combination of separate series controllers, which are

controlled in a coordinated manner, in a multi line transmission system. The real

power transfer capability of the unified series-series controller, referred to as interline

power flow controller, makes it possible to balance both the real and reactive power

flow in the lines and thereby maximize the utilization of the transmission system.

A combination of static synchronous compensator (STATCOM) and a static

series compensator (SSSC) which are coupled via a common dc link, to allow

bidirectional flow of real power between the series output terminals of the SSSC and

the shunt output terminals of the STATCOM, and are controlled to provide

concurrent real and reactive series line compensation without an external electric

energy source. The UPFC, by means of angularly unconstrained series voltage

injection, is able to control, concurrently or selectively, the transmission line voltage,

25

impedance, and angle or, alternatively, the real and reactive power flow in the line.

The UPFC may also provide independently controllable shunt reactive compensation.

This is a complete controller for controlling active and reactive power control

through the line, as well as line voltage control.

In UPFC, which combines a STATCOM and an SSSC, the active power for

the series unit is obtained from the line itself via the shunt unit STATCOM; the latter

is also used for voltage control with control of its reactive power. This is a complete

controller for controlling active and reactive power control through the line, as well as

line voltage control. Additional storage such as a superconducting magnet connected

to the dc link via an electronic interface would provide the means of further enhancing

the effectiveness of the UPFC. As mentioned before, the controlled exchange of real

power with an external source, such as storage, is much more effective in control of

system dynamics than modulation of the power transfer within a system.

Increase the loading capability of lines to there thermal capabilities.

Increase the system security through raising the transient stability limit.

Control of power flow as ordered.

Provide secure tie line connections.

Provide greater flexibility in setting new generation.

Reduce loop flows.

Reduce reactive power flows.

26

2.3 Comparison of various facts devices:

TABLE 1

FACTS DEVICE TYPE OF CONNECTION FUNCTION

Static var compensator Shunt Var compensation, steady

state and dynamic stability

STATCOM Shunt Generating or absorbing

the reactive power

SSSC Series Controlling transmitted

Static Synchronous Series electric power by

Compensator increasing or decreasing

reactive voltage drop

TCSC Series Capacitive reactance

Thyristor Controlled compensator in continuous

Series Capacitor manner

UPFC Two port Terminal voltage control,

phase angle regulation,

series line compensation

can provide a powerful means of current control.

When the angle is not large, which is often the case, control of X or the angle

substantially provides the control of active power.

Control of angle, which in turn controls the driving voltage, provides a powerful

means of controlling the current flow and hence active power flow when the angle

is not large.

Injecting a voltage in series with the line, and perpendicular to the current flow,

can increase or decrease the magnitude of current flow. Since the current flow lags

27

the driving voltage by 90 degrees, this means injection of reactive power in series,

can provide a powerful means of controlling the current, and hence the active

power when the angle is not large.

Injecting voltage in series with the line and with any phase angle with respect to

the driving voltage can control the magnitude and the phase of the line current.

This means that injecting a voltage phasor with variable phase angle can provide a

powerful means of precisely controlling the active and reactive power flow. This

requires injection of both active and reactive power in series.

Because the per unit line impedance is usually a small fraction of the line voltage,

the MVA rating of a series controller will often be a small fraction of the

throughput line MAVA.

When the angle is not large, controlling the magnitude of one or the other line

voltages can be a very cost-effective means for the control of reactive power flow

through the interconnection.

Combination of the line impedance control with a series controller and voltage

regulation with a shunt controller can also provide a cost-effective means to

control both the active and reactive power flow between the two systems.

28

3. STATIC COMPENSATOR (STATCOM)

serves of link between the electrical power system and the voltage synchronous

controller (VSC) that generates the voltage wave comparing it to the one of the

electric system to realize the exchange of reactive power. The control system of the

STATCOM adjusts at each moment the inverse voltage so that the current injected in

the network is in quadrature to the network voltage, in these conditions P=0 and Q=0.

based device, which converts a DC input voltage into an AC output voltage in order to

compensate the active and reactive needs of the system. STATCOM has better

characteristics than SVC; when the system voltage drops sufficiently to force the

STATCOM output to its ceiling, its maximum reactive power output will not be

affected by the voltage magnitude. Therefore, it exhibits constant current

characteristics when the voltage is low under the limit.

29

Figure 3.2 Typical VI characteristics of stat COM

Thus, when operating at its voltage limits, the amount of reactive power

compensation provided by the STATCOM is more than the most-common

compensating FACTS controller, namely the Static Var Compensator (SVC). This is

because at a low voltage limit, the reactive power drops off as the square of the

voltage for the SVC, where Mvar=f(BV2), but drops off linearly with the STATCOM,

where Mvar=f(VI). This makes the reactive power controllability of the STATCOM

superior to that of the SVC, particularly during times of system distress.

phase can be adjusted rapidly by using semiconductor switches. The STATCOM is

composed of a voltage-source inverter with a dc capacitor, coupling transformer, and

signal generation and control circuit.

The voltage source inverter for the transmission STATCOM operates in multi-

bridge mode to reduce the harmonic level of the output current. Fig. below shows a

single-phase equivalent circuit in which the STATCOM is controlled by changing the

phase angle between the inverter output voltage and the bus voltage at the common

point connection point. The inverter voltage Vi is assumed to be in phase with the ac

terminal voltage Vt .

30

Figure 3.3 statcom

is greater than that of Vt. It draws reactive power from the ac system if the magnitude

of Vt is greater than that if Vi.

There can be a little active power exchange between the STATCOM and the

EPS. The exchange between the inverter and the AC system can be controlled

adjusting the output voltage angle from the inverter to the voltage angle of the AC

system. This means that the inverter can not provide active power to the AC system

31

form the DC accumulated energy if the output voltage of the inverter goes before the

voltage of the AC system. On the other hand, the inverter can absorb the active power

of the AC system if its voltage is delayed in respect to the AC system voltage.

Using the classical equations that describe the active and reactive power flow

in a line in terms of Vi and Vs, the transformer impedance (which can be assumed as

ideal) and the angle difference between both bars, we can define P and Q. The angle

between the Vs and Vi in the system is d. When the STATCOM operates with d=0 we

can see how the active power send to the system device becomes zero while the

reactive power will mainly depend on the voltage module. This operation condition

means that the current that goes through the transformer must have a +/-90º phase

difference to Vs. In other words, if Vi is bigger than Vs, the reactive will be send to

the STATCOM of the system (capacitive operation), originating a current flow in this

direction. In the contrary case, the reactive will be absorbed from the system through

the STATCOM (inductive operation) and the current will flow in the opposite

direction. Finally if the modules of Vs and Vi are equal, there won’t be nor current

nor reactive flow in the system.

Thus, we can say that in a stationary state Q only depends on the module

difference between Vs and Vi voltages. The amount of the reactive power is

proportional to the voltage difference between Vs and Vi.

capable of generating/obsorbing reactive power and in which the output can be varied

to ocntrol the specfic parameters of an electric power system. It is in general a solid

state switching converter capable of generating independatly controllable reactive

power at its output terminal.

The statcom is placed in the bus m and is represented by a shunt reactive

current source is as shown n fig above

32

Figure 3.4 statcom under variable susceptance model

With the statcom the output power Pe of the machine can be written and is

positive when oscillates in between zero and π.

The equation of power can be modulated by modulating the shunt reactive

current I.

The modeling of the statcom can be done in various methods

1. Variable suspectance method

2. Firing angle method

3. Transformer tapping and firing angle method

In practice the SVC can be seen as an adjustable reactance with either firing –

angle limits (Ambriz – Periz , Acha , and Fuerte – Esquivel , 2000 ). The equivalent

circuit shown in figure is used to derive the SVC non-linear power equations and the

linearised equations required by Newton’s method.

With reference to the figure , the current drawn by the SVC is

And the reactive power drawn by the SVC which is also the reactive power injected at

bus k, is

the state variable.

33

At the end of iteration (1), the variable shunt susceptance is updated according

to

The changing susceptance represents the total SVC susceptance necessary to maintain

the nodal voltage magnitude at the specified value.

Once the level of compensation has been computed then the thyristor firing

angle can be calculated. However , the additional calculation requires an iterative

solution because the SVC susceptance and thyristor firing angle are non – linearly

related.

• Utilities with weak grid knots or fluctuating reactive loads

• Unbalanced loads

• Arc furnaces

• Wind farms

• Wood chippers

• Welding operations

• Car crushers & shredders

• Industrial mills

• Mining shovels & hoists

• Harbor cranes

3.4 MAIN ADVANTAGES OF STATCOM

• Continuous and dynamic voltage control

• High dynamic and very fast response time

• Enables grid code compliance

• Maximum reactive current over extended voltage range

• High efficiency

• Single phase control for unbalanced loads

• Small footprint

34

INTRODUCTION TO MATLAB

4.1 INTRODUCTION

and visualization it provides an interactive environment with hundred of built-in

function for its own high level programming language. The name MAT LAB stands

for MATrix laboratory.

MATLAB’s built-in functions provide excellent tool for linear algebra

computation, data analysis, signal processing, optimization, and numerical solutions

of ODES, quadrature, and many type of scientific computation. Most of these

functions use state-of-the art algorithm. These are numerous functions for 2-D and 3-

Dgraphics as well as for animation also, for those who can’t do without their

FORTRAN or C courses, MATLAB even provides an external interface to fun those

programs from within MATLAB even provides an external interface to fun those

programs from within MATLAB. The user however is not limited to the built-in

functions, he can write his own function in the MATLAB language once written, and

these functions behave just like the built –in functions MAT lab’s language is very

easy to learn and to use.

There are several optional ‘toolboxes’ available from the developers of the

MATLAB. These toolboxes are collections written for special applications such as

symbolic computations, image processing, static’s control system design and Neural

Networks. The basis building block of MATLAB is the matrix. The fundamental data

type is the array. Vectors, scalars, real matrices and complex matrices are all

automatically handled as special cases of the basic data-type. What is more , you

almost never have to declare the dimensions of the matrix. MATLAB simply loves

matrices and matrix operations. The built in functions are optimized for vectors

operations. Consequently, vectorised commands or commands or codes run much

fast in mat lab.

35

4.2 MATLAB WINDOW

On all UNIX system Macs, and pc, mat lab through three

Basic windows, they are

Command window: This is the main window it is characterized by MATLAB

Command prompt ‘>>’: when you launch the application program, MATLAB puts

you in this window. All commands, including those for running user written

programs, are typed in this window at the MATLAB prompt.

Graphics Window: The outputs of all graphic commands are typed in the command

window and are flushed to the graphic or figure window, a separate grey window

with white back ground colour. The user can create as many figure windows, as the

system memory will allow.

Edit Window: This is where you edit, write, create, and save your own programs in

files called M-files. We can use any text editor to carry out these tasks. On the most

systems, such as PC’s and Macs, MATLAB provides it’s built in editor. On other

systems, you can invoke the edit window by typing the standard file editor command

that at the MATLAB prompt following special character ‘!’. The exclamation

character prompts MATLAB to return the control temporarily to the local operation

system, which executes the commands following the ‘!’ character. After editing is

completed, the control is returned to MATLAB.

Input-Output: MATLAB supports interactive computation taking input from the

screen, and flushing the output to the screen. In addition, it can read input files and

write output files. The following features hold for all forms of input-output

Data Type: The fundamental data type in MATLAB is the array. It encompasses

several distinct data objects, integer, double, matrices, character string, and cells. In

most cases, however, we never have to worry about the data type or the data object

declaration. For example there is no need to declare variable, MATLAB automatically

sets the variable to be real.

Dimensioning: Dimensioning is automatic in MATLAB. No dimensioning statements

are required for vectors or arrays. We can find the dimensions of an existing matrix or

a vector with size and length commands.

Case sensitivity: MATLAB is case sensitive, that is, it differentiates between lower

case and upper case letters. Thus a and an are different variables. Most MATLAB

commands and built-in function calls are typed in lower case letters. We can turn case

sensitivity on and off with case sensitive command.

36

Output Display: the output of every command is displayed a screen unless MATLAB

is directed otherwise. A semicolon at the end of a command suppress the screen

output, expect for the graphics and on-line help command. The following facilities are

providing for controlling the screen output.

Paged Output: To direct the MATLAB to show one screen of output at a time, type

more on the MATLAB prompt. Without it, MATLAB flushes the entire output at

once, without regard to the speed at which we read.

Output format: Though computations inside the MATLAB are performed using the

double precision, the appearance of floating point numbers on the screen is controlled

by the output format in use. There are several different screen output formats.

Command History: MATLAB severs previously typed commands in buffer. These

commands can be called with the up arrow key .This helps in editing previous

commands. You can also recall previous command by typing the first few characters

and then pressing the up-arrow key. On most UNIX systems, MATLAB command

line editor also understands the standard maces key buildings.

FILE TYPE:

MATLAB has three types for strong information

M-files: M-files are standard ASCII text files, with an extension to the filename.

There are low types of these files: script files and functions. Most programs we write

in MATLAB are saved as M-files. All built-in function in MATLAB are M-files,

most of which reside on our computer in precompiled format. Some built in function

are provided with secure code in readable M-file so they can be copied and modified.

Mat-files: Mat-files are binary data-files with mat extensions to the filename. Mat

fills are created by MATLAB can read. Can be loaded into MATLAB with the load

command.

Mex-files are MATLAB: Mat –files –callable FORTRAN and C programs, with a

Mex extension to the filename ,use of these files requires some experience with

MATLAB and a lot of patience.

37

4.3 PROBLEM EVALUATION:

The IEEE 5 BUS SYSTEM data

for iter=4 TABLE 2

With out statcom

Bus no. Voltage magnitude Voltage angle

1 1.0600 0

2 1.0000 -2.0554

3 0.9873 -4.6268

4 0.9842 -4.9466

5 0.9717 -5.7563

38

4.3.1.1 IEEE 5 BUS USING WITH SINGLE STATCOM

SINGLE STATCOM

The statcom is placed at the bus no:3 .At the bus 3 we are

placing the statcom for maintaining the voltage stability.

TABLE 3

With statcom

Bus no. Voltage magnitude Voltage angle

1 1.0600 0

2 1.0000 -2.0534

3 1.0000 -4.8379

4 0.9944 -5.1073

5 0.9752 -5.7975

Injected reactive power at bus no:3is QSVC = -0.2047 Mvar p.u

39

4.3.1.2 USING THE MULTIPLE STATCOM

Table 4

for iter=5 multiple statcom

With statcom

Bus no. Voltage Voltage angle

magnitude

1 1.0600 0

2 1.0000 -2.0549

3 1.0000 -4.8355

4 1.0000 -5.2094

5 0.9771 -5.8262

Injected reactive power at bus no: 3 and 4are QSVC = -0.0180 and

-0.2331 Mvar p.u.

40

4.3.2 IEEE 14 BUS SYSTEM IEEE 14 BUS SYSTEM

41

MAT LAB RESULTS

Ieee 14 bus without using the statcom

Mat lab results without using the statcom for iter=12

TABLE 5

1 1.0600 0

2 1.0000 0.6486

3 1.0000 -3.3780

4 0.9900 -7.2978

5 0.9956 -6.2474

6 1.000 -17.1069

7 0.9895 -16.2977

8 1.0000 -16.4584

9 0.9853 -20.2564

10 0.9812 -21.4684

11 0.9865 -20.0745

12 0.9881 -19.1840

13 0.9807 -19.6256

14 0.9648 -22.3504

42

4.3.2.2USING SINGLE STATCOM

43

Mat lab results by placing the single statcom at bus 14 for iter=12

TABLE 6

Bus no Voltage magnitude VM Voltage angle VA

1 1.0600 0

2 1.0000 1.3388

3 1.0000 -1.4316

4 1.0047 -3.7057

5 1.0089 -3.0453

6 1.0000 -7.8704

7 0.9930 -7.0389

8 1.0000 -7.0389

9 0.9838 -8.8289

10 0.9786 -8.9877

11 0.9854 -8.5796

12 0.9866 -8.9359

13 0.9872 -9.2189

14 1.0000 -11.0470

44

4.3.2.2USING MULTIPLE STATCOM

45

TABLE 7

Mat lab results for multi statcom at bus 4 and 14 for iter=17

Bus no Voltage magnitude VM Voltage angle VA

1 1.0600 0

2 1.0000 1.3415

3 1.0000 -1.4435

4 1.0000 -3.6365

5 1.0060 -3.0054

6 1.0000 -7.8546

7 0.9911 -6.9891

8 1.0000 -6.9891

9 0.9822 -8.7840

10 0.9733 -8.9477

11 0.9848 -8.5506

12 0.9866 -8.9214

13 0.9872 -9.2057

14 1.0000 -11.0426

Injected reactive power at bus no:4 and 14 are QSVC = 0.1133 and -0.2280 Mvar

p.u

46

5. CONCLUSION:

In this thesis, various aspects regarding voltage stability have been presented

and the importance to maintain voltage profile has been discussed.

Various concepts regarding the FACTS technology and the important features

of some of the FACTS devices have been presented. The Newton raphson method has

been presented to solve the power flow problem in the power system with static

synchronous compensator (STATCOM). In this thesis we had discussed about the

STATCOM modeling and analysis when connected to a bus and made it to maintain a

flat voltage profile of the full range of operation when there is a need. There by the

reactive power compensation was successfully done in the particular transmission

whenever it is required.

The power flow and the voltage profile in various transmission lines along

with and without the placement of STATCOM in a specific transmission line is

obtained in order to improve the system performance by using the load flow studies

using MAT lab software.

achieved with the incorporation of Static Synchronous Compensator (STATCOM).

47

FUTURE SCOPE

The project has been performed on a 5-bus and 14 bus power system using

Newton raphson method with a single and multiple STATCOMs.

However, it can be extended to any bus system with single and multiple

STATCOMs if necessary. Along with this thesis optimization can also be done.

48

Bibliography:

[1] IEEE FACTS working group 15.05.15, “FACTS Application”, December 1995.

[2] M. J. Lautenberg, M. A. Pai, and K. R. Padiyar, “Hopf Bifurcation Control in

Power System with Static Var Compensators,” Int. J. Electric Power and Energy

Systems, vol. 19, no. 5, 1997, pp. 339–347.

[3] N. G. Hingorani and Laszlo Gyugyi, “UNDERSTANDING FACTS”.

[4] C. A. Ca˜nizares and Z. T. Faur, “Analysis of SVC and TCSC Controllers in

Voltage Collapse,” IEEE Trans. on Power Systems, vol. 14, no. 1, February 1999, pp.

158–165.

[5] C. A. Ca˜nizares. “Power Flow and Transient Stability Models of FACTS

Controllers for Voltage and Angle Stability Studies”. In Proc. of IEEE/PES Winter

Meeting, Singapore, January 2000.

[6] G. Hingorani and L. Gyugi, Understanding FACTS: Concepts and Technology of

Flexible AC Transmission Systems. IEEE Press, 1999.

[7] Modern Power System Anaylsis., Dillon.P.kothari

[8] C. A. Ca˜nizares, UWPFLOW: Continuation and Direct Methods to Locate Fold

Bifurcation in AC/DC/FACTS Power Systems. University of Waterloo, November

1999.

[9] Ambriz-Perez, H. (2000) Advanced SVC Models for Newton-Raphson Load Flow

and Newton Optimal Power Flow Studies. IEEE Trans. On Power Systems, vol.15,

No:1, February 2000, pp 129-136.

49

APPENDIX

IEEE 5 BUS SYSTEM

Ieee 5 bus system load and line data of the system

Bus code impedance line charging

1-2 0.02+j0.06 0+j0.030

1-3 0.08+j0.24 0+j0.025

2-3 0.06+j0.18 0+j0.020

2-4 0.06+j0.18 0+j0.020

2-5 0.04+j0.18 0+j0.015

3-4 0.01+j0.18 0+j0.010

4-5 0.08+j0.24 0+j0.025

Table 8

Bus Assumed bus Generation load

code voltage

1 1.06+j0.0 slack 0 0

2 1.00+j0.0 40 30 20 10

3 1.00+j0.0 0 0 45 15

4 1.00+j0.0 0 0 40 5

5 1.00+j0.0 0 0 60 10

50

IEEE 14 BUS SYSTEM :

LINE DATA

Table 9

()P.U) (p.u.)

1 3 0.04699 0.19797 0.0438

1 4 0.05811 0.17632 0.0374

1 5 0.05695 0.17388 0.034

2 1 0.01938 0.05917 0.0528

2 5 0.05403 0.22304 0.0492

3 4 0.06701 0.17103 0.0346

4 5 0.01335 0.04211 0.0128

4 7 0.00 0.20912 0.00

4 9 0.00 0.55618 0.00

5 6 0.00 0.25202 0.00

6 11 0.09498 0.1989 0.00

6 12 0.12291 0.25581 0.00

6 13 0.06615 0.13027 0.00

7 8 0.00 0.17615 0.00

7 9 0.00 0.11001 0.00

9 10 0.03181 0.08450 0.00

9 14 0.12711 0.27038 0.00

10 11 0.8205 0.19207 0.00

12 13 0.22092 0.19988 0.00

13 14 0.17903 0.34802 0.00

51

Load data IEEE 14 bus system

Table 10

Bus P Q P Q BUS Q Q

no. Generated Generated Load Load Generated Generated

(p.u.) (p.u.) (P.U.) (P.U.) TYPE MAX(p.u.) MIN (p.u.)

1 2.32 0.00 0.00 0.00 2 10.0 -10.0

2 0.4 -0.424 0.2170 0.1270 1 0.5 -0.4

3 0.00 0.00 0.9420 0.1900 2 0.4 0.00

4 0.00 0.00 0.4780 0.00 3 0.00 0.00

5 0.00 0.00 0.0760 0.0160 3 0.00 0.00

6 0.00 0.00 0.1120 0.0750 2 0.24 -0.06

7 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 3 0.00 0.00

8 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 2 0.24 -0.06

9 0.00 0.00 0.2950 0.1660 3 0.00 0.00

10 0.00 0.00 0.0900 0.0580 3 0.00 0.00

11 0.00 0.00 0.0350 0.0180 3 0.00 0.00

12 0.00 0.00 0.0610 0.0160 3 0.00 0.00

13 0.00 0.00 0.1350 0.0580 3 0.00 0.00

14 0.00 0.00 0.1400 0.0500 2 0.00 0.00

52