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AENAN BASHIR L12- 5715, TAIMUR SALIK L12- 5727, USMAN L12- 5731


Bituminous mixes (some times called asphalt mixes) are
used in the surface layer of road and airfield pavements.
The mix is composed usually of aggregate and asphalt
cements. Some types of bituminous mixes are also used in
base coarse. The design of asphalt paving mix, as with the
design of other engineering materials is largely a matter of
selecting and proportioning constituent materials to obtain
the desired properties in the finished pavement structure.
The desirable properties of Asphalt mixes are:
1.Resistance to permanent deformation.
2.The mix should not crack when subjected to repeated
loads over a period of time.
3.Resistance to low temperature cracking.
5.Resistance to moisture-induced damage.
6.Skid resistance.
7. Workability
8. Low noise and good drainage properties
Marshall stability and Hveem stabilometer tests are
largely used for the routine testing. Criteria for the
suitable mix design have been specified by the Asphalt

Marshall stability and flow can be used to monitor
the plant process of producing asphalt mixture.
Marshall stability and flow may also be used to
relatively evaluate different mixes and the effects of
conditioning such as with water.
The principle for the testing with this apparatus is
that Marshall stability is the resistance to plastic
flow of cylindrical specimens of a bituminous
mixture loaded on the lateral surface.
Marshall stability and flow are asphalt mixture
characteristics determined from tests of compacted
specimens of a specified geometry.
The mechanism of failure in the Marshall test
apparatus is complex but it is essentially a type of
unconfined compression test.
This being so, it can only have limited correlation
with deformation in a pavement where the material
is confined by the tire, the base and the surrounding



The apparatus consists of :

1. A loading unit motorized, capacity 5000kgf
with two telescopic pillars and an adjustable
cross head. Limit switches are fitted inside to
control upward or downward movement of the
pillars. On-off reversing switch and indicator
lamps are on the front side while a hand wheel
to manually move the pillars is on the right.
The load frame has fixed speed of 5.08cm per
minute. Operated on 230 Volts A.C.
2. 1 No. Compaction pedal with specimen mold
3. 2 Nos. Compaction Rammers, 4.5kg weight
and free fall 45.7cm.
4. 1 No. Breaking head assembly with provision
to fix flowmeter.
5. 3 Nos. Specimen mold 10.16cm I.D. x 7.6cm
high with base plate and extension collar.
6. 1 No. Kit for specimen extraction, consists of
one each load transfer bar, steel ball, specimen
extracting plate.
a) Integral type Proving Ring capacity 3000 kgs.
b) A dial gauge 0.01 x 25mm
c) Universal Water Bath S.S. with false bottom
and pyramid shaped lid to accommodates 3
Nos. Marshall specimen
d) Thermometer 0 - 250C x 1C

Marshal Mix Design is the test which is performed with

this apparatus.
In this test, the resistance to plastic deformation of
cylindrical specimen of bituminous mixture is
measured when the same is loaded at periphery at 5 cm
per min.
The test is applicable to hot mix designs using bitumen
and aggregates up to a maximum size of 25mm.
This test procedure is used in designing and evaluating
bituminous paving mixes.
The test procedure is extensively used in routine test
programmed for paving jobs.
There are two major features of the Marshall method of
designing mixes namely,
Density voids analysis
Stability flow tests.
The Marshall stability of mix is defined as a maximum
load carried by a compacted specimen at a standard test
temperature of 60C.
The flow value is deformation the Marshall test
specimen under goes during the loading up to the
maximum load, 0.25 mm units.
In this test an attempt is made to determine optimum
binder content for the type of aggregate mix and traffic

For each type of test it is necessary to determine the
correct distance between the upper cross-beam and the
test platen.
This operation must be carried out with the measuring
instruments and testing equipment already fitted on the
machine and by then moving the upper cross-beam by
means of the nuts indicated on p. 3 until the required
height is reached.
Check that the cross-beam is maintained perfectly
horizontal using a bubble level.
An idle test should also be performed in order to check
that the direction of operation as indicated on the
control panel is in fact the same as that of the machine.

1. The machine should be installed in an illuminated and
airy room.
2. The user should wear adequate clothes, nonslip shoes,
very well closed sleeves, and should not wear
dangling clothes (ties, napkins, open jackets etc.) to
prevent the risk of entangling.

1. Asphalt Institute Manual Series No.2 (MS-2) Mix design methods for
Asphalt concrete and other hot mix types Lexington Ky 1993
2. Kenneth N. Derucher and George P. Korfiatis, Materials for civil and
highway engineers, Prentice Hall, NJ, 2nd edition, 1988.