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MLE. Van Valkenburg Analog Elter Design ” Ox ford Cavers: é Press, 7982. CHAPTER 6 Butterworth — Lowpass Filters ‘This chapter is concerned with the design of lowpass filters of the general class realized by the biquad circuit ofthe last chapter. In the biquad circuit the param ter «fixed the transition from pass band to stop band, leaving only @ to shape ‘the magnitude response, Here our objective is to approximate the lowpass filter characteristic through the cascade connection of a number of circuits, each tuned to a different Q (said to be stagger tuned), together contributing to achieve the required overall response 6.1 THE IDEAL LOWPASS FILTER ‘The input voltage v, shown in Fig. 6.1 contains a low-frequency signal plus hash, term we apply to unwanted high-frequency signals such as shrill tones, scratch- ing sounds, or chirps, To remove the hash, leaving only the low-frequency signal, requires that we have a lowpass filter capable of passing low frequencies and re~ jecting high frequencies. Had voltage y, contained several low-frequency signal components, we would like the filter design to be such that each was transmitted without change in amplitude. This would not be the case if we had used the bi- quad circuit of the last chapter with a moderately high value of for, as shown by Fig. 6.2, signals near «, = 1 rad/s would be multiplied by as much as Q, in contrast with lower frequency signals which pass through the filter without multi- plication. From this discussion itis clear that the ideal iter characteristic we seek is that shown in Fig. 63. Below the normalized frequency of «= I, the amplitude of TLj) is a constant; above that frequency the value of T is 0, The pass band and stop band are clearly separated at «= I. Because ofits shape, this character- istic is called a brick wall, itis the ideal lowpass filter characteristic, While we rec- ‘ognize that we will not be able to achieve the ideal, it provides a basis on which we can rate an approximation. As shown in Fig. 64, we desire that |T| be as nearly constant as possible in the pass band. In the stop band we require n-pole 167 158 CHAPTER 6 BUTTERWORTH LOWPASS FILTERS +} Lowpass iter FouRE 6. rolloff, where n isa large number, in contrast to the n = 2 rolloff for the biquad circuit, We want the transition from pass band to stop band to be as abrupt as possible, ‘The method we will use in our approach to this problem is illustrated in Figs. 6.5 and 6,6. Suppose that we connect three modules in cascade such that the overall transfer function T is equal to the product 7,7,T;. The product of the ‘magnitudes is shown in Fig. 6.6 as the dashed line, which is ofthe form required in Fig. 64. The large values of |T;| are just overcome by the small values of |75| ‘and |7 to achieve the approximation to the brick wall. The transfer functions hhave the same value of w, but different values of Q. How do we determine the required values of @? To answer this question will be our first objective. 6.2 BUTTERWORTH RESPONSE We first review a topic in the algebra of complex numbers. If we denote the real and imaginary parts of the complex transfer function as Tiju) = Re Tis) + j Im TU) 1) then we may enumerate some of the properties of Ts). Now the real part of Eq. (-1)is an even function, while the imaginary partis an odd function. This means that replacing jo by ~)o will change the sign of the imaginary part, but not that of the real part. Hence T(=je) = Re Tlie) ~ j Im TUe) 62) ‘This function is also known as the conjugate of T(jw), so that Tj) = TU) 63) 2-poe ollott | t t v 62 FIGURE 62. BUTTERWORTH RESPONSE 159 nnn | Bick wat Pass band—>fe Stop bande T 3 GURE 63 Since TUT Gs) = (Re T? + Clon 1 = [TU)P 4) wwe have the important relationship ITN = THe) Tie) 63) In the past we have frequently replaced s by fo or jo by s, so that, ITUe)F = T)M-nw 66 which is an important relationship in our study. Now the magnitude-squared function isan even function in that |7() = |7(—js. If we represent the mag situde-squared function as a quotient of polynomials, then both the numerator and the denominator polynomial must be even. Let this quotient be IG = Fe 67 ‘We choose a simple form for A(w*) by letting it be a constant A,. Then Tey" fs 68) BABS TBE FB ‘The reason for this choice is that we wish to make the rolloff of |.) large for large w, which is accomplished by making the difference of the degree of A and the degree of B as large as possible. This choice will give a |7,(ju)| with n-pole rolloff and a 7,(s) that will be known as an all-pole function. The special case in which all B coefficients except B, and B,, have zero value, A, = B, such that T,®) = 1, and 9) FIGURE 6 Ee 160 CHAPTER 6 BUTTERWORTH LOWPASS FILTERS rE HEHE FIGURE 65 gives us the simple form of Eq. (6.8): a LUO = Tapa (6.10) “This response is known as the Butterworth response.* We may follow our usval procedure and let the frequency be normalized such that «y= 1, giving LUO = Fee 1 From this equation we may observe some interesting properties of the Butter- worth response: |7,)| = 1 forall r; the consequence of normalization. |TG1)| = 1/y2 5.707 for all n. For large w,|T,(jo) exhibits n-pole rolloff. by a Taylor series, ry ye bye Syne [Toy = + y= 1 Zot Be" then it follows that F1TGo)| while ‘The derivatives of [7,(i)| for small « are of interest. If we express Eq. (6.10) 6.12) 6.13) 6.14) Since this form of response has all derivatives but one equal to zero near & = 0, the response i also known as maximally lat. These properties fare shown in Fig. 67, Observe the maximally flat property, and also that the case = 10 comes close to our brick-wall ideal response. 6.3 BUTTERWORTH POLE LOCATIONS Our next objective is to determine the location of the poles for the transfer fune- tion with a Butterworth response. We begin by combining Eq, (6.6) with Ea: +s, puiterwort’s orginal pper appears in the collection of papers in M.E. Van Val hesbure. Crt Fae Foetdanons and Cossie Conrbutions, Dowden, Hutchinson & Ros, Stoadsbarg, Pas Tove Tul orm of response mas wed by other earlier conbstr to the eld, bat the name Buterworth 8 2 Secure. sonal wih 63. BUTTERWORTH POLE LOCATIONS 161 0 05 To is (6.10) modified by letting w= 1 and w = s/f TNTA-9) = 1 oar (6.15) 1 re 16 ‘The poles of Eq. (6.16) are the roots of the equation BAS)BA-) = 1+ (Is = 0 17) where B, has been introduced to designate the Butterworth polynomial. Inver Lo ost | a6 = od aml SS z oat-—+— < b 0 : I] Uae Te 0 ricuRE 67 462 CHAPTER 6 BUTTERWORTH LOWPASS FILTERS ‘We will illustrate the solution of Eq. 6.17 by considering several examples. Let n= 1 so that 1-s=( 490-9 =0 6.18) thus the pote are located as 4 ~ yas shown in Fig. 68, The poe in the ight ‘ies ie Poe caponds oan unstable system, and so we sls he poe inthe let falfplane to associate wih and 7. Then 1 ad Ae (6.19) Basti hea 6.19) teen = 2, ten (61 bees eco am ite wit —1 + 0 he plo, i= 12 +1360) wan svineger vanes of and k= enw sett hag os equntion ae y= HOO seas a8 xy sesso in Fig 68 Awe forthe n= Las west he Fonte signage no moe iconn + prni-ar —pnny= e+ set (62) FIGURE 68 6.3. BUTTERWORTH POLE LOCATIONS 163, and 1 RO 3e i Co For n= 3 the form of Eq. (6.17) is l-te0 oe # 625 The angi coreponting oF (622) ae = 2 000,108,102 0" (626 and all roots of Eq. (6.25) are on a unit circle. If we generalize the two angle rela- tionships of Eqs. (6.22) and (6.26), we have 2k +n-1 a.= 90"[ Reon 621) Ae seam we in ica diet orm betes ou nes al Sar pao pep led ovo Cae Sears oO cunt conta dee sete is sdon eel ae Sra me cp, nse ae sonepend ee sabe es wean ip mite enema hte ew Sec Sects etit cree ete mcr tc angie w repent eps Sah deaonane arh ts ChapersUaog spec we ts ane Seta aun a asap pose ta = 0°, +60°, —60° (6.28) Koning ten abd an of 0°, ee at 1 Bye tl mower rfeter2)pet-1B}acenereen «a ‘This form is better suited to our needs, especially if we use the form of Eq, (629), from which 1 B= ot [[@+2e0us+t) 6.30) aie ‘Two simple rules permit us to determine Wx: L.Ifmis odd, then there isa pole at y= 0°; ifm is even, then there are poles at y= £90°/n, 2. Poles are separated by y= 180°/n. ‘The consequences of these rules are that there are never poles on the imaginary axis, and there is always symmetry with respect to both the real and the imagi- nary axes when the poles for both Ts) and T(~s) are included. There are various ways in which information about the Butterworth re- sponse ean be presented. The angles for each value of n can be presented, as is 164 CHAPTER 6. BUTTERWORTH LOWPASS FILTERS lo ele | geegeggegs 8 = fees eeeERE g 3 /BSeeeeeees : 5 = LITST ST ST HTS Seay | 25 suas SEgSSE3 8: Be ine « /SSESS SER, . BH nouae es aeSs B sarerarss gaz done in Fig, 6.9, as derived from the rules given following Eq. (6.30). Table 6.1 a | |} 25 z {abulates the pole locations for n = 2 to n = 10, and Table 6.2 gives the coeff- RERESESE ’ age ‘Gents ofthe Butterworth polynomials B,). The value of @ for each of the pole EeGE 2258. se a utnly found sing the resol given in Eq. (38) and apparent in Ea ~ |Se8e5988 wn (6.30, since w= 1, tess s9ee ggg 1 ie gg 30 aeeiee . 3383 Orsay 3p gages as ‘Such values are given in Table 6:3. Finally, the phase angle associated with the . |Eexeae: agegg Butterworth response is found, once B,(s) is known, as : TST Sa b89e3 tpn tant BL) 2) oleabe of s Sage BeBe) saggge 3 genes “These angles for n = Ito n= 10 are given in Fig. 6.10. © /HEBESS tay PASE Example 61. We wish otibulate information concerning the it-order Butterworth re Tssesee | t R568 As 3 Pram aml the pave ange athe quency ol 1 | r ERS ‘Sines nS indicates an odd Butterworth function, we know that one pole i located egese g aggaere at yw O and thatthe other are separated from it by multe of 160°/5 = 36". Thos eceee | : Rega ven 236, 272 oe i |, |BB8s z|,| ghee? ‘The pole locations are i TST ils 2aee Po Bi = —008 yj sin Y (634) « | & R8e2gosR ; absl | ij BgSS525 coe aRea f| | E:fg8:22 -o0 El. lesea) | |_| 23888822 ~oSoporTo + jo9sises £yr/egeal | | i “pisworr0 0st EyHTera) | 3 . “The values of Q for the poles are found from Eq, (6:31) as 0.500, 0.618 and 1.618. The | £ 2 Bitorder Butterworth fseion i 3 i | 3 5 Moseene crepes neszean set) 69 als leee | | i which can be compared with values tabulated in Table 63. The phase angle ato = 1 can 35 Thr | | ; ce re Ca5 by simply determining the pase ofeach ofthe terms Hee weve iat | (gg | | 3 5 Asi = 45° + 90° + 90° = 25° 626 2 |. lee. | 3 bch grec with an simatd vale taken om Fig 610 Z lie | | | z] Joo. 166 TABLE 63 Qof Butterworth Poles nod 5 7 iW 16 2 70 ost 0s) 080080050 060 056 «(054 «(053.082 090 (071063059087 236 lid 082 OTS 052 on 193 054 131 on 079 1.06 17 5110 131094 383 320 1s 4a TForn d tere ao «Fa poe for which Q'= 05. 64 LOWPASS FILTER SPECIFICATIONS 167 200 By. dearees — «0 a NS oa 08 FIGURE 6:10 6.4 LOWPASS FILTER SPECIFICATIONS Since the early 1920s it has been traditional for those who design electronic am- plifiers to think in terms of gain decibels being positive, while those who design filters think of loss in decibels as being positive. With the advent of the op amp and thus active filters, we need both concepts. Rather than adopt one point of view or the other, we resolve the problem by using two symbols as explained in Chapter 1. Thus a=-A 4B 37) where A= 20 log |TUis) dB (638) In doing so we are simply introducing another coordinate system which reverses the direction of our plots up or down. The Butterworth response of Fig, 6.7 is shown on linear coordinates. The corresponding plot of a in decibels as a func- tion of linear « is shown in Figs. 6.11 and 6.12, one for the pass band and the other for the stop band. Such plots are useful for visualizing magnitudes, but de- sign values will always be found using a calculator. ‘The manner in which specifications for a filter will be given to the engineer is illustrated by the plot of Fig. 6.13. For the pass band extending from w = 0 10 ‘© = oy, the attenuation should not exceed aa.- From u, to w, we have a transition band, Then the specifications indicate that from w, and forall higher frequencies the attenuation should not be less than au... Given this information, we need to find n and «, as applied to the Butterworth response, from which the design can proceed. We begin with Eq. (6.10) for the Butterworth response, retaining uy Since itis now one of the unknowns, Substituting this equation into Eqs. (6.37) 108 CHAPTER 6 BUTTERWORTH LOWPASS FILTERS GURE 6:11 and (6.38) gives us ef] @ es a 1006/1 +( Dividing by 10 and then finding the antilogarithm gives us oven t+ 64) and from this equation, es 41) “Thus if we are given corresponding values of « and o then ois determined. If ‘nd w, a8 defined in Fig. 6.13, then Eq. (6:41) becomes Wwe select aed — m= 64) ‘which expresses wy in terms of specified quantities. ae n. we sant with Bq. (6.40) and substitute valves of a and @ that go together, as indicated in Fig, 6.13. Thea y- 190 643) 64 LOWPASS FILTER SPECIFICATIONS 169 129} 20 a} Stop-band attenuation a, dB ao 0 BOO ioURE 6.2 and = 10-1 oy & Dividing these equations gives us ch (645) Taking the logarithm of this equation and solving for m gives the desired result: Tog [0 = 1)/10" = 1) Flog (./u,) (646) FIGURE 613 170 CHAPTER 6 BUTTERWORTH LOWPASS FILTERS © FIGURE 614 “This the second required equation to be used in design. A calculator is useful in ‘carrying out the operations indicated by this equation. "A design procedure is carried out in two steps: Using Ea (646), fitd n. This wil ordinarily be a noninteger, 0 we round up fe next integer value and assign it to 7. : a oats Ret ceri we And We cannot mest th specication eae now because we are not using the noninteger n. However, we ha scl, te me fon exactly, a shown in Fig. 6.14a, but there is excess a at ace ee tang Ba, (641) matched to the ober speciation point, oo" qT a7) 2 aR 6.140, this will result in meeting one specification ex: Sees fenvation in the pass band than is re- facily with a smaller value of att quired, Ina given design problem we can try both possibilities with the aid of a lator to see which offers an advantage. caleu- wig tons with @ Example 62. Suppose that we are required to realize the following speciea Butterworth response ou O5EB, Gin 2068, = 1000 rad/s, 0, = 2000 08/8 64 LOWPASS FILTER SPECIFICATIONS 171 For these specifications we wish to determine the transfer function 7[s) from which real ization can be found. Substituting the required values into Eq. (6.46) we ind that n= 483209, round upton=5 (648) Suppose that we decide to se Eq. (6.47) to determine a, It is found to be es = 1263.2. If ‘we had vsed Eq. (642), it would have been found to be uy ~ 1234, The Duttorwunle case ‘n= Shas been considered earlier inthis chapter, and it was found that the required values of Q are 05,0618, and 1.618. Hence the realization of creas to meet these specifications ‘willbe in the block diagram form shown in Fig. 6.15, where each block could be realized using the biquad circuit of Chapter 5, for example, but other allernatives will be given in y= ea] fop= 12689 Q=0s Q- 0618 FIGURE 615, the next section, We will do our design by eting w= 1 initaly and then frequency scale to the required wy by using the scaling constant k, = 1263.2. Finally we should check to sce what the attenuation is ato, Using Eq. (6.39), we find that 10-1 1+ [22+ moar 6) 72633] which is less than the specified 0.5 4B as predicted. 6.5 SALLEN AND KEY CIRCUIT ‘The circuit given in Fig. 6.16 is one of a class of circuits that were described in 1955 by Sallen and Key,* then at MIT's Lincoln Laboratory. In the circuit the noninverting op-amp circuit provides a constant relationship between Vand Vi, which is (6.50) ‘The controlied-source representation of the Sallen and Key circuit is given in Fig. 6.17. This circuit may be routinely analyzed using Kirchhofl’s current law. At node a the currents directed out of the node must sum to 2er0, oF v aE 651) Similarly, the sum of the currents out of node b is ty, eee - El! Broun + EUG Ky=0 (652) We next rearrange this equation ina form for solution: Lit 1h ¥ Ret Rt eT RTO 653) “RP. Salen and E.L. Key, “A Praccal Method of Designing RC Active Fier” IRE Trans. Cir ut Theory, vol C12, pp 785, 172 CHAPTER 6 BUTTERWORTH LOWPASS FILTERS and 654) We now eliminate the voltage ¥, and solve forthe ratio V/V; = T. The result is, after some algebraic simplification, % __KURRGG 10) = = SEUTROF URE TURG= KIRCHTURREE 6° “This transfer function is recognized as being of the general form Kor TO" FE ONte oo rhch i that ofa lowpass ler. As was the casein Chapter 5 our objective i to ich a npy ns etrmine Kand the foo Geet elements, given the de- nd etd, Before doing this, we wll examin the role of K with sien pram Srment tweet C= Ch Land oR, = Ry = 1 then EQ (635) reduces © we Kk To” FeO= eel “The locus of poles forthe uppe left haf ofthe plane it shown in Fig, 6.18 Foe oe a (gy de Toes ison ciceof ads 1, When Kf then sino Fa iS) are bh a 1. AB inreases, the pos move into the aaa tun Kote areon the imaginary wis Ths we se hal ‘K alone can place the poles in a position to satisfy any ‘Q requirement. This is also se on the elaionbip in Eq (637): 1 o- sg 58) (since K may have any vale simply by adjusting R, and Ry we arf with the (Sith ote meaning ofa circuit with negative Q) Ho ae ral equation for T1) forte Sallen-Key circuit, W® 50) 65. SALLEN-KEY CIRCUIT 173 ow outne desig procedures to permit chokes of element sizes, We tly mae th dein at egy wb ald ch hat oie ths sien pramsenWosnly he vale of A ew ofthe ge number of posible shoes wil be outlined ts diferent dsgn states Ia eral we will sect mos ofthe clement to have unit valve, knowing that thse wil be changed to a practical range of values by frequency and magnitude ‘sealing, Design 1 Fotis design we wil sete element ves that ed and C, = C, = 1. Then from Eq. (6.58), an iaie 1 Kes gait (659) If we make the further choice that R, = 1, then Ry is determined: Ry a (6.60) ‘The rnng cies given in F its given in Fg 6198, Only Q need be specie o complete the dig a which equeny end magiode ling an be applied Design 2 We make the choice K'= 1 which equ ering op-am which requires thatthe nonin ict De sepacaly avolae ower at shown n Fe 6198, Weako mete eo fon that R, = Ry = Land =I. Applying these choices Yo Eq, (635), gives the FIGURE 6:8 174 CHAPTER 6 BUTTERWORTH LOWPASS FILTERS (© Noninverting, K = (a) verting, = FIGURE 619 two conditions d-g md Gr! 661) From these equations we find that G20 and G35 (682) which become the design equations, as shown in Fig. 6.196, Design 3 Since using equal resisors has an advantage in design, suppose that we lt Ry = See Tohat K =. As always, oy = 1, and as assumptions we let C, = ¥ and REG, ~ R.C._ Applying these conditions to Eq (6.55), we find that 1 ot 3 G ag (663) Ral, as shown in Fig. 6.19¢. A fourth realization, which differ from the other three in that itis inverting, is given in Fig, 6.194. Returning now to the Butterworth response, we recall that the zero-re- quency response is T() = 1, or 0 dB, while we see thatthe Sallen-Key circus dive usa zeo-trequency gain 7/0) ~ K. If we must meet the specification ofthe Fite exactly, then we must reduce the gain of our circuit realization. This is done 65. SALLEN-KEY CIRCUIT 175 sth tt Sava Ste eke rote erate ee Patton ee pet Sp nes oe ers perenne et bane ke wn RR Fig. 6200 without changing the veral % ng the overall taster funtion excep for stant. So in addition to satisfying Eq. (6.64), we require that ad H Hel (664) (665) I we divide this equation by Eq. (6.64), we find that 1 Rag 666) ‘Then solving Eq. (6.64) gives Rag on ‘These values ae shown in he cet oF in the cei of Fig. 6.20 We next apply this result to two different situatic een situations. The transfer factions for the Slln-Key cit given by Eq, (658) have eto-equency ai of Ty) = K (668) FIGURE 620, 176 CHAPTER 6 BUTTERWORTH LOWPASS FILTERS Hence for enin equalization itis necessary that a resistive voltage divider be pro- vided such that H = 1/K, meaning that R=K ad R= “ oo Let us apply this result to the Sallen-Key circuit of Fig, 6.198 for which et «m xes-b sen combining Eqs (669) an (670) ves the required values ofthe vlage- Grider esto 22-8 6.71) 29-1 ‘Then the creistom fora ict showa in Fig. 62 as a ain of 0B a ro regueney Miss of Rather than aeeping ths requirement, we wish he gan aot 0 Taunt hucine value of 0 dB atthe normalized frequency w = 1. Since 3-Vo (2) TO)" 54 70 +1 wwe have from this iTuyi=30-1 ere FIGURE 621 65. SALLEN-KEY.CIRCUIT 177 wl, iGURE 622 so that we require that 6.74) This gives the circuit of Fig. 621b. The response function a(u) is shown in Fig, 6.22 for several values of @. Example 63 We now return tothe design ofthe fifth-order Butterworth filter specified in Fig. 6.15 as to Q and wy For the realization we will elect the circuit of Fig. 6 19b becaus ‘ofits simplicity and dve to the fact that it requires no gain adjustment with a voltage-d er circuit. The eascade connection of the three modules is shown in Fig, 623. The te- sponses ofthe individual stages andthe overall response of the circuit are show in Fig, 624, To complete the design requires scaling, We had found that k, = 1263.2, and we will ‘make the choice that k= 10, so that all resistor will ave the value of 10 kf. The ea pacitor values are found from 1 Come Re Cae (615) where I/k;k., = 0.79164 % 10°. The capacitor values ae given in the following tabula- Values of Con ‘Sage 1 ‘Sage? ‘Sage 3 Cue Q= 05 2,= 0618 Q= 1818 1 079164 oF = = 29 - 09784 nF 25617 oF 129 = 0.6405 nF 0.2446 oF 66 RESISTIVE GAIN ENHANCEMENT In studying the Sallen-Key circuit we have found that the gain K is adjusted to ‘control Q. Any excess gain is compensated by a resistive voltage-divider circuit. 178 CHAPTER 6 BUTTERWORTH LOWPASS FILTERS KeaLeR, FIGURE 624 mths section we consider a diferent problem. Suppose that we wan! ovr, tn this set response, but we also want more gan than the Salen 8°Y circuit Prowdes, While such gain is realized with addtional oages, 2% also be at- Proves modification ofthe Sallen-Key circuit oF ater ceils peru CO san nip In the circit shown in Fig. 6.24 the Sllen ey STAN oo a riya fraction ofthe output voltae, Vi fed back Wooeh the oa the amount being KV, where, fom the votagedivider eG¥AU0% R kn RR (676) -the circuit used for aralysis as shown in Fig. 6.17 need only be changed with kV va cng Vth controlled soure. If we let R, = Ri = R and Cy — a=G then it is found that the transfer function becomes ae 7 19) = SE TB = RRIRCS + RS ae From this 1 - 6.18) O-K 628) ‘This compares with the value given in Eq. (6.58), which is o-x 619) 66. RESISTIVE GAIN ENHANCEMENT 179 Fiftorder Butterworth ~£ 0-088 Product 7. os To 15 FIGURE 625 Comparing these two equa tha ations we see tht fora Q tht is given asa result Spats Kaa be ma gr provid tf mae alo com peste This permite a much larger value of to be employed in th ization, This is known as resistive gain enhancement. iret ral 6.7 RC-CR TRANSFORMATION The general ube of re equeney transformation is covered in Chapter pea etd ay me ow sn nd sci wansforna CR tansformiatin, The consequence ofthat i we can espn lowpas fe, then we can design ange toting eenent Ths ober inicatdinFige2e we divide the frequency seal of Fig 6278 into wo from Ito then te ponon fhe Heqweay sae of ite sen to ave 2 reciprocal relationship for the lowpass and the recor lant ote lowpas an the highpass er cas. This may be (6.80) We will later generalize this to & so 681) RC-op-amp "RC-op-amp towpass | >=] highpass: filter fiter FIGURE 626 180 CHAPTER 6 BUTTERWORTH LOWPASS FILTERS in in oT hoot % o © iGURE 627 where the normalized frequency 1 has been scaled to uy It was initially shown by Nhrse that this transformation is accomplished ifthe circuit is modified as fol lows: Ris replaced by C= 1 at 682) Gis replaced by R, ‘as shown in Fig, 6.28. We have modeled the op amp asa voltage-contolied source aa ae in atnfected by this transformation, and so k, a gain factor used see I this chapter, isnot changed. Note also that it is not necessary to apply Ghus transformation to the resistors used to set the gain for the noninverting oP- amp circuit, R, and Ry. To illustrate the procedure, we return to Design 2 ofthe Sallen-Key circuit shown in Fig. 6.198 for which the design equations were given in Eq. (6.62). With Koni and R, = Ry I then Eq, (6.55) was . VC, TO" Se aIC)s+ VOG ‘From the requirement that C,C, = 1 and 2/C, = 1/@, we found the design eas (683) «5. K. Miva, “A Network Pansformation for Active RC Networks” Proc, IEEE, vl $5. PP 2021- 2am, i967 Lowpass Highpass R TR, FIGURE 628 67 RC-CR TRANSFORMATION 181 tions to be 1 Pa (6.84) ‘The resulting circuit of Fig 6.196 is also shown in Fig. 6.29a. If we apply the ele- ‘ment transformations epecified in Ege. (6.92) then we obtain the highpass filter shown in Fig. 6.29 whi magnitu pe hich has the magnitude response shown in Fig. 630. Sub- G Q and Ras and R20 u . (635) along with replacing s by (1/s) gives us = TO" FE Q7R)S+URR, ey whichis the transfer function for thei ction forthe highpass circuit of Fig, 62% ‘Asa second example ofthe we ofthe RC-CR transformation we make use FIGURE 629 FIGURE 630 182. CHAPTER 6 BUTTERWORTH LOWPASS FILTERS 3.5468 F reels ‘ p+ ie 1396 F 20285 F " y FIGURE 631 0.28198. S GURE 633 of the circuit due to Geffe,* shown in Fig. 631, which realizes a third-order But- terworth frequency response with ay = 1. Applying the RC-CR transformation, ‘we obtain the circuit shown in Fig, 6.32, which will have the frequency response tiven in Fig, 6.33. Such a circuit will substitute for the cascade connection of @ first-order and a second-order circuit, [Example 64 We require a highpass iter having the attenuation characteristics shown in Fig. 634, which indicate an attenuation of atleast 30 4B at 60 Hz and 3 dB or less atenu- ation forall frequencies in excess of 200 Hi. "For our design we ist test the suitability of the Geffe circuit of Fig. 6.32. Tis is @ third-order Butterworth circuit. The normalizing frequency is 200 Hz or 1256.6 rad/s, ‘which wll be made to correspond to wy = I inthe Geffe circuit, Ia terms ofthis frequency ‘ormalization, 60 Hz coresponds to 03 rad/s. To compute the attenuation at that fre ‘Guoncy, we use Eq, (638) which was derived for the lowpass ease and recognize that 0:3 “=P. R. Gee, “How to Build High-Quality Filters out of Low-Quality Pars” Electronics, pp 111- 113, Now, 1996 67 RC-CR TRANSFORMATION 183 238 FIGURE 634 say forthe ighpas cases equivalent 01/03 = 3333 for he eras ws ‘Then from * = 10 log (1 + 3.333) = 31.35.48 (687) evn est pes me an er eg ssa nt ce i tae a Fae re ahem on prem. at ELS eae 2 De = 958 (638) may aww i tn nec Fe 3 br mating ht wen a a dan nvm PS 2paaxa OF OL aE FIGURE 635 1 elements Ly and C: are Get the cit town in Fig. PLL is given that Ri =| The Se 4 ttn rein sch that P/V gives Basterworth ren S05 FIGURE P61