Butterworth
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filter description butterworth filter
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0 valutazioniIl 0% ha trovato utile questo documento (0 voti)
5 visualizzazioni14 pagineButterworth
Descrizione:
filter description butterworth filter
Copyright:
© All Rights Reserved
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MLE. Van Valkenburg
Analog Elter Design ”
Ox ford Cavers: é Press, 7982.
CHAPTER 6
Butterworth —
Lowpass
Filters
‘This chapter is concerned with the design of lowpass filters of the general class
realized by the biquad circuit ofthe last chapter. In the biquad circuit the param
ter «fixed the transition from pass band to stop band, leaving only @ to shape
‘the magnitude response, Here our objective is to approximate the lowpass filter
characteristic through the cascade connection of a number of circuits, each tuned
to a different Q (said to be stagger tuned), together contributing to achieve the
required overall response
6.1 THE IDEAL LOWPASS
FILTER
‘The input voltage v, shown in Fig. 6.1 contains a lowfrequency signal plus hash,
term we apply to unwanted highfrequency signals such as shrill tones, scratch
ing sounds, or chirps, To remove the hash, leaving only the lowfrequency signal,
requires that we have a lowpass filter capable of passing low frequencies and re~
jecting high frequencies. Had voltage y, contained several lowfrequency signal
components, we would like the filter design to be such that each was transmitted
without change in amplitude. This would not be the case if we had used the bi
quad circuit of the last chapter with a moderately high value of for, as shown
by Fig. 6.2, signals near «, = 1 rad/s would be multiplied by as much as Q, in
contrast with lower frequency signals which pass through the filter without multi
plication.
From this discussion itis clear that the ideal iter characteristic we seek is
that shown in Fig. 63. Below the normalized frequency of «= I, the amplitude
of TLj) is a constant; above that frequency the value of T is 0, The pass band
and stop band are clearly separated at «= I. Because ofits shape, this character
istic is called a brick wall, itis the ideal lowpass filter characteristic, While we rec
‘ognize that we will not be able to achieve the ideal, it provides a basis on which
we can rate an approximation. As shown in Fig. 64, we desire that T be as
nearly constant as possible in the pass band. In the stop band we require npole
167158 CHAPTER 6 BUTTERWORTH LOWPASS FILTERS
+} Lowpass iter
FouRE 6.
rolloff, where n isa large number, in contrast to the n = 2 rolloff for the biquad
circuit, We want the transition from pass band to stop band to be as abrupt as
possible,
‘The method we will use in our approach to this problem is illustrated in
Figs. 6.5 and 6,6. Suppose that we connect three modules in cascade such that the
overall transfer function T is equal to the product 7,7,T;. The product of the
‘magnitudes is shown in Fig. 6.6 as the dashed line, which is ofthe form required
in Fig. 64. The large values of T; are just overcome by the small values of 75
‘and 7 to achieve the approximation to the brick wall. The transfer functions
hhave the same value of w, but different values of Q. How do we determine the
required values of @? To answer this question will be our first objective.
6.2 BUTTERWORTH RESPONSE
We first review a topic in the algebra of complex numbers. If we denote the real
and imaginary parts of the complex transfer function as
Tiju) = Re Tis) + j Im TU) 1)
then we may enumerate some of the properties of Ts). Now the real part of Eq.
(1)is an even function, while the imaginary partis an odd function. This means
that replacing jo by ~)o will change the sign of the imaginary part, but not that
of the real part. Hence
T(=je) = Re Tlie) ~ j Im TUe) 62)
‘This function is also known as the conjugate of T(jw), so that
Tj) = TU) 63)
2poe ollott

t
t
v
62
FIGURE
62. BUTTERWORTH RESPONSE 159
nnn  Bick wat
Pass band—>fe Stop bande
T 3
GURE 63
Since
TUT Gs) = (Re T? + Clon 1 = [TU)P 4)
wwe have the important relationship
ITN = THe) Tie) 63)
In the past we have frequently replaced s by fo or jo by s, so that,
ITUe)F = T)Mnw 66
which is an important relationship in our study. Now the magnitudesquared
function isan even function in that 7() = 7(—js. If we represent the mag
situdesquared function as a quotient of polynomials, then both the numerator
and the denominator polynomial must be even. Let this quotient be
IG = Fe 67
‘We choose a simple form for A(w*) by letting it be a constant A,. Then
Tey" fs 68)
BABS TBE FB
‘The reason for this choice is that we wish to make the rolloff of .) large for
large w, which is accomplished by making the difference of the degree of A and
the degree of B as large as possible. This choice will give a 7,(ju) with npole
rolloff and a 7,(s) that will be known as an allpole function. The special case in
which all B coefficients except B, and B,, have zero value, A, = B, such that
T,®) = 1, and
9)
FIGURE 6Ee
160 CHAPTER 6 BUTTERWORTH LOWPASS FILTERS
rE HEHE
FIGURE 65
gives us the simple form of Eq. (6.8):
a
LUO = Tapa
(6.10)
“This response is known as the Butterworth response.* We may follow our usval
procedure and let the frequency be normalized such that «y= 1, giving
LUO = Fee
1
From this equation we may observe some interesting properties of the Butter
worth response:
7,) = 1 forall r; the consequence of normalization.
TG1) = 1/y2 5.707 for all n.
For large w,T,(jo) exhibits npole rolloff.
by a Taylor series,
ry ye bye Syne
[Toy = + y= 1 Zot Be"
then it follows that
F1TGo)
while
‘The derivatives of [7,(i) for small « are of interest. If we express Eq. (6.10)
6.12)
6.13)
6.14)
Since this form of response has all derivatives but one equal to zero near & =
0, the response i also known as maximally lat. These properties
fare shown in
Fig. 67, Observe the maximally flat property, and also that the case = 10
comes close to our brickwall ideal response.
6.3 BUTTERWORTH POLE
LOCATIONS
Our next objective is to determine the location of the poles for the transfer fune
tion with a Butterworth response. We begin by combining Eq, (6.6) with Ea:
+s, puiterwort’s orginal pper appears in the collection of papers in M.E. Van Val
hesbure. Crt
Fae Foetdanons and Cossie Conrbutions, Dowden, Hutchinson & Ros, Stoadsbarg, Pas
Tove Tul orm of response mas wed by other earlier conbstr to the eld, bat
the name Buterworth 8 2 Secure.
sonal wih
63. BUTTERWORTH POLE LOCATIONS 161
0 05 To is
(6.10) modified by letting w= 1 and w = s/f
TNTA9) =
1
oar (6.15)
1
re 16
‘The poles of Eq. (6.16) are the roots of the equation
BAS)BA) = 1+ (Is = 0 17)
where B, has been introduced to designate the Butterworth polynomial.
Inver
Lo
ost 
a6 =
od aml SS
z
oat—+— <
b
0
: I]
Uae Te 0
ricuRE 67462 CHAPTER 6 BUTTERWORTH LOWPASS FILTERS
‘We will illustrate the solution of Eq. 6.17 by considering several examples.
Let n= 1 so that
1s=( 4909 =0 6.18)
thus the pote are located as 4 ~ yas shown in Fig. 68, The poe in the ight
‘ies ie Poe caponds oan unstable system, and so we sls he poe inthe let
falfplane to associate wih and 7. Then
1
ad Ae (6.19)
Basti hea 6.19)
teen = 2, ten (61 bees
eco am
ite wit —1 + 0 he plo,
i= 12 +1360) wan
svineger vanes of and k= enw sett hag os equntion ae
y= HOO seas a8 xy
sesso in Fig 68 Awe forthe n= Las west he Fonte
signage no
moe iconn + prniar —pnny= e+ set (62)
FIGURE 68
6.3. BUTTERWORTH POLE LOCATIONS 163,
and
1
RO 3e i Co
For n= 3 the form of Eq. (6.17) is
lte0 oe # 625
The angi coreponting oF (622) ae
= 2 000,108,102 0" (626
and all roots of Eq. (6.25) are on a unit circle. If we generalize the two angle rela
tionships of Eqs. (6.22) and (6.26), we have
2k +n1
a.= 90"[ Reon 621)
Ae seam we in ica diet orm betes ou nes
al Sar pao pep led ovo Cae Sears oO
cunt conta dee sete is sdon eel ae
Sra me cp, nse ae sonepend ee sabe es
wean ip mite enema hte ew Sec
Sects etit cree ete mcr tc angie w repent eps
Sah deaonane arh ts ChapersUaog spec we ts
ane Seta aun a asap pose
ta = 0°, +60°, —60° (6.28)
Koning ten abd an of 0°, ee at
1 Bye tl
mower rfeter2)pet1B}acenereen «a
‘This form is better suited to our needs, especially if we use the form of Eq, (629),
from which
1
B= ot [[@+2e0us+t) 6.30)
aie
‘Two simple rules permit us to determine Wx:
L.Ifmis odd, then there isa pole at y= 0°; ifm is even, then there are poles at
y= £90°/n,
2. Poles are separated by y= 180°/n.
‘The consequences of these rules are that there are never poles on the imaginary
axis, and there is always symmetry with respect to both the real and the imagi
nary axes when the poles for both Ts) and T(~s) are included.
There are various ways in which information about the Butterworth re
sponse ean be presented. The angles for each value of n can be presented, as is164 CHAPTER 6. BUTTERWORTH LOWPASS FILTERS
lo ele 
geegeggegs 8
= fees eeeERE g
3 /BSeeeeeees : 5
= LITST ST ST HTS
Seay  25
suas SEgSSE3 8: Be
ine « /SSESS SER, . BH
nouae es aeSs
B sarerarss gaz
done in Fig, 6.9, as derived from the rules given following Eq. (6.30). Table 6.1 a  } 25 z
{abulates the pole locations for n = 2 to n = 10, and Table 6.2 gives the coeff RERESESE ’ age
‘Gents ofthe Butterworth polynomials B,). The value of @ for each of the pole EeGE 2258. se
a utnly found sing the resol given in Eq. (38) and apparent in Ea ~ Se8e5988 wn
(6.30, since w= 1, tess s9ee ggg
1 ie gg
30 aeeiee . 3383
Orsay 3p gages as
‘Such values are given in Table 6:3. Finally, the phase angle associated with the . Eexeae: agegg
Butterworth response is found, once B,(s) is known, as : TST Sa b89e3
tpn tant BL) 2) oleabe of s Sage
BeBe) saggge 3 genes
“These angles for n = Ito n= 10 are given in Fig. 6.10. © /HEBESS tay PASE
Example 61. We wish otibulate information concerning the itorder Butterworth re Tssesee  t R568
As 3
Pram aml the pave ange athe quency ol 1  r ERS
‘Sines nS indicates an odd Butterworth function, we know that one pole i located egese g aggaere
at yw O and thatthe other are separated from it by multe of 160°/5 = 36". Thos eceee  : Rega
ven 236, 272 oe i , BB8s z, ghee?
‘The pole locations are i TST ils 2aee
Po Bi = —008 yj sin Y (634) «  & R8e2gosR
; absl  ij BgSS525
coe aRea f  E:fg8:22
o0 El. lesea)  _ 23888822
~oSoporTo + jo9sises £yr/egeal   i
“pisworr0 0st EyHTera)  3 .
“The values of Q for the poles are found from Eq, (6:31) as 0.500, 0.618 and 1.618. The  £ 2
Bitorder Butterworth fseion i 3 i  3 5
Moseene crepes neszean set) 69 als leee   i
which can be compared with values tabulated in Table 63. The phase angle ato = 1 can 35 Thr   ;
ce re Ca5 by simply determining the pase ofeach ofthe terms Hee
weve iat  (gg   3 5
Asi = 45° + 90° + 90° = 25° 626 2 . lee.  3
bch grec with an simatd vale taken om Fig 610 Z lie    z] Joo.166
TABLE 63 Qof Butterworth Poles
nod
5
7
iW
16
2
70
ost 0s) 080080050
060 056 «(054 «(053.082
090 (071063059087
236 lid 082 OTS
052
on
193
054
131
on
079
1.06
17
5110
131094
383
320
1s
4a
TForn d tere ao «Fa poe for which Q'= 05.
64 LOWPASS FILTER SPECIFICATIONS 167
200
By. dearees
— «0
a NS
oa 08
FIGURE 6:10
6.4 LOWPASS FILTER
SPECIFICATIONS
Since the early 1920s it has been traditional for those who design electronic am
plifiers to think in terms of gain decibels being positive, while those who design
filters think of loss in decibels as being positive. With the advent of the op amp
and thus active filters, we need both concepts. Rather than adopt one point of
view or the other, we resolve the problem by using two symbols as explained in
Chapter 1. Thus
a=A 4B 37)
where
A= 20 log TUis) dB (638)
In doing so we are simply introducing another coordinate system which reverses
the direction of our plots up or down. The Butterworth response of Fig, 6.7 is
shown on linear coordinates. The corresponding plot of a in decibels as a func
tion of linear « is shown in Figs. 6.11 and 6.12, one for the pass band and the
other for the stop band. Such plots are useful for visualizing magnitudes, but de
sign values will always be found using a calculator.
‘The manner in which specifications for a filter will be given to the engineer
is illustrated by the plot of Fig. 6.13. For the pass band extending from w = 0 10
‘© = oy, the attenuation should not exceed aa. From u, to w, we have a transition
band, Then the specifications indicate that from w, and forall higher frequencies
the attenuation should not be less than au... Given this information, we need to
find n and «, as applied to the Butterworth response, from which the design can
proceed. We begin with Eq. (6.10) for the Butterworth response, retaining uy
Since itis now one of the unknowns, Substituting this equation into Eqs. (6.37)108 CHAPTER 6 BUTTERWORTH LOWPASS FILTERS
GURE 6:11
and (6.38) gives us
ef] @ es
a 1006/1 +(
Dividing by 10 and then finding the antilogarithm gives us
oven t+ 64)
and from this equation,
es 41)
“Thus if we are given corresponding values of « and o then ois determined. If
‘nd w, a8 defined in Fig. 6.13, then Eq. (6:41) becomes
Wwe select aed
—
m= 64)
‘which expresses wy in terms of specified quantities.
ae n. we sant with Bq. (6.40) and substitute valves of a and @ that
go together, as indicated in Fig, 6.13. Thea
y 190 643)
64 LOWPASS FILTER SPECIFICATIONS 169
129}
20
a}
Stopband attenuation a, dB
ao
0 BOO
ioURE 6.2
and
= 101 oy
&
Dividing these equations gives us
ch
(645)
Taking the logarithm of this equation and solving for m gives the desired result:
Tog [0 = 1)/10" = 1)
Flog (./u,)
(646)
FIGURE 613170 CHAPTER 6 BUTTERWORTH LOWPASS FILTERS
©
FIGURE 614
“This the second required equation to be used in design. A calculator is useful in
‘carrying out the operations indicated by this equation.
"A design procedure is carried out in two steps:
Using Ea (646), fitd n. This wil ordinarily be a noninteger, 0 we round up
fe next integer value and assign it to 7. :
a oats Ret ceri we And We cannot mest th specication eae
now because we are not using the noninteger n. However, we ha
scl, te me
fon exactly, a shown in Fig. 6.14a, but there is excess a at
ace ee tang Ba, (641) matched to the ober speciation
point,
oo" qT a7)
2 aR
6.140, this will result in meeting one specification ex:
Sees fenvation in the pass band than is re
facily with a smaller value of att
quired,
Ina given design problem we can try both possibilities with the aid of a
lator to see which offers an advantage.
caleu
wig tons with @
Example 62. Suppose that we are required to realize the following speciea
Butterworth response
ou O5EB, Gin 2068,
= 1000 rad/s, 0, = 2000 08/8
64 LOWPASS FILTER SPECIFICATIONS 171
For these specifications we wish to determine the transfer function 7[s) from which real
ization can be found. Substituting the required values into Eq. (6.46) we ind that
n= 483209, round upton=5 (648)
Suppose that we decide to se Eq. (6.47) to determine a, It is found to be es = 1263.2. If
‘we had vsed Eq. (642), it would have been found to be uy ~ 1234, The Duttorwunle case
‘n= Shas been considered earlier inthis chapter, and it was found that the required values
of Q are 05,0618, and 1.618. Hence the realization of creas to meet these specifications
‘willbe in the block diagram form shown in Fig. 6.15, where each block could be realized
using the biquad circuit of Chapter 5, for example, but other allernatives will be given in
y= ea] fop= 12689
Q=0s Q 0618
FIGURE 615,
the next section, We will do our design by eting w= 1 initaly and then frequency scale
to the required wy by using the scaling constant k, = 1263.2. Finally we should check to
sce what the attenuation is ato, Using Eq. (6.39), we find that
101 1+ [22+ moar 6)
72633]
which is less than the specified 0.5 4B as predicted.
6.5 SALLEN AND KEY CIRCUIT
‘The circuit given in Fig. 6.16 is one of a class of circuits that were described in
1955 by Sallen and Key,* then at MIT's Lincoln Laboratory. In the circuit the
noninverting opamp circuit provides a constant relationship between Vand Vi,
which is
(6.50)
‘The controliedsource representation of the Sallen and Key circuit is given in Fig.
6.17. This circuit may be routinely analyzed using Kirchhofl’s current law. At
node a the currents directed out of the node must sum to 2er0, oF
v
aE 651)
Similarly, the sum of the currents out of node b is
ty, eee 
El! Broun + EUG Ky=0 (652)
We next rearrange this equation ina form for solution:
Lit 1h ¥
Ret Rt eT RTO 653)
“RP. Salen and E.L. Key, “A Praccal Method of Designing RC Active Fier” IRE Trans. Cir
ut Theory, vol C12, pp 785,172 CHAPTER 6 BUTTERWORTH LOWPASS FILTERS
and
654)
We now eliminate the voltage ¥, and solve forthe ratio V/V; = T. The result is,
after some algebraic simplification,
% __KURRGG
10) = = SEUTROF URE TURG= KIRCHTURREE 6°
“This transfer function is recognized as being of the general form
Kor
TO" FE ONte oo
rhch i that ofa lowpass ler. As was the casein Chapter 5 our objective i to
ich a npy ns etrmine Kand the foo Geet elements, given the de
nd etd, Before doing this, we wll examin the role of K with
sien pram Srment tweet C= Ch Land oR, = Ry = 1 then EQ
(635) reduces ©
we Kk
To” FeO= eel
“The locus of poles forthe uppe left haf ofthe plane it shown in Fig, 6.18
Foe oe a (gy de Toes ison ciceof ads 1, When Kf then
sino Fa iS) are bh a 1. AB inreases, the pos move into the
aaa tun Kote areon the imaginary wis Ths we se hal
‘K alone can place the poles in a position to satisfy any ‘Q requirement. This is also
se on the elaionbip in Eq (637):
1
o sg 58)
(since K may have any vale simply by adjusting R, and Ry we arf with the
(Sith ote meaning ofa circuit with negative Q)
Ho ae ral equation for T1) forte SallenKey circuit, W®
50)
65. SALLENKEY CIRCUIT 173
ow outne desig procedures to permit chokes of element sizes, We
tly mae th dein at egy wb ald ch hat oie
ths sien pramsenWosnly he vale of A ew ofthe ge
number of posible shoes wil be outlined ts diferent dsgn states Ia
eral we will sect mos ofthe clement to have unit valve, knowing that thse wil
be changed to a practical range of values by frequency and magnitude ‘sealing,
Design 1
Fotis design we wil sete element ves that ed
and C, = C, = 1. Then from Eq. (6.58), an iaie
1
Kes gait (659)
If we make the further choice that R, = 1, then Ry is determined:
Ry
a (6.60)
‘The rnng cies given in F
its given in Fg 6198, Only Q need be specie o complete
the dig a which equeny end magiode ling an be applied
Design 2
We make the choice K'= 1 which equ ering opam
which requires thatthe nonin ict
De sepacaly avolae ower at shown n Fe 6198, Weako mete eo
fon that R, = Ry = Land =I. Applying these choices Yo Eq, (635), gives the
FIGURE 6:8174 CHAPTER 6 BUTTERWORTH LOWPASS FILTERS
(© Noninverting, K = (a) verting, =
FIGURE 619
two conditions
dg md Gr! 661)
From these equations we find that
G20 and G35 (682)
which become the design equations, as shown in Fig. 6.196,
Design 3
Since using equal resisors has an advantage in design, suppose that we lt Ry =
See Tohat K =. As always, oy = 1, and as assumptions we let C, = ¥ and
REG, ~ R.C._ Applying these conditions to Eq (6.55), we find that
1
ot 3
G ag (663)
Ral,
as shown in Fig. 6.19¢. A fourth realization, which differ from the other three in
that itis inverting, is given in Fig, 6.194.
Returning now to the Butterworth response, we recall that the zerore
quency response is T() = 1, or 0 dB, while we see thatthe SallenKey circus
dive usa zeotrequency gain 7/0) ~ K. If we must meet the specification ofthe
Fite exactly, then we must reduce the gain of our circuit realization. This is done
65. SALLENKEY CIRCUIT 175
sth tt
Sava Ste eke rote erate ee
Patton ee pet Sp nes oe
ers perenne et
bane ke
wn RR
Fig. 6200 without changing the veral
% ng the overall taster funtion excep for
stant. So in addition to satisfying Eq. (6.64), we require that ad
H
Hel (664)
(665)
I we divide this equation by Eq. (6.64), we find that
1
Rag 666)
‘Then solving Eq. (6.64) gives
Rag on
‘These values ae shown in he cet oF
in the cei of Fig. 6.20
We next apply this result to two different situatic
een situations. The transfer factions
for the SllnKey cit given by Eq, (658) have etoequency ai of
Ty) = K (668)
FIGURE 620,176 CHAPTER 6 BUTTERWORTH LOWPASS FILTERS
Hence for enin equalization itis necessary that a resistive voltage divider be pro
vided such that H = 1/K, meaning that
R=K ad R= “ oo
Let us apply this result to the SallenKey circuit of Fig, 6.198 for which
et «m
xesb
sen combining Eqs (669) an (670) ves the required values ofthe vlage
Grider esto
228 6.71)
291
‘Then the creistom fora
ict showa in Fig. 62 as a ain of 0B a ro regueney
Miss of Rather than aeeping ths requirement, we wish he gan aot 0
Taunt hucine value of 0 dB atthe normalized frequency w = 1. Since
3Vo (2)
TO)" 54 70 +1
wwe have from this
iTuyi=301 ere
FIGURE 621
65. SALLENKEY.CIRCUIT 177
wl,
iGURE 622
so that we require that
6.74)
This gives the circuit of Fig. 621b. The response function a(u) is shown in Fig,
6.22 for several values of @.
Example 63 We now return tothe design ofthe fifthorder Butterworth filter specified in
Fig. 6.15 as to Q and wy For the realization we will elect the circuit of Fig. 6 19b becaus
‘ofits simplicity and dve to the fact that it requires no gain adjustment with a voltaged
er circuit. The eascade connection of the three modules is shown in Fig, 623. The te
sponses ofthe individual stages andthe overall response of the circuit are show in Fig,
624, To complete the design requires scaling, We had found that k, = 1263.2, and we will
‘make the choice that k= 10, so that all resistor will ave the value of 10 kf. The ea
pacitor values are found from
1
Come Re Cae (615)
where I/k;k., = 0.79164 % 10°. The capacitor values ae given in the following tabula
Values of Con
‘Sage 1 ‘Sage? ‘Sage 3
Cue Q= 05 2,= 0618 Q= 1818
1 079164 oF = =
29  09784 nF 25617 oF
129 = 0.6405 nF 0.2446 oF
66 RESISTIVE GAIN
ENHANCEMENT
In studying the SallenKey circuit we have found that the gain K is adjusted to
‘control Q. Any excess gain is compensated by a resistive voltagedivider circuit.178 CHAPTER 6 BUTTERWORTH LOWPASS FILTERS
KeaLeR,
FIGURE 624
mths section we consider a diferent problem. Suppose that we wan! ovr,
tn this set response, but we also want more gan than the Salen 8°Y circuit
Prowdes, While such gain is realized with addtional oages, 2% also be at
Proves modification ofthe SallenKey circuit oF ater ceils peru CO
san nip In the circit shown in Fig. 6.24 the Sllen ey STAN
oo a riya fraction ofthe output voltae, Vi fed back Wooeh the
oa the amount being KV, where, fom the votagedivider eG¥AU0%
R
kn RR (676)
the circuit used for aralysis as shown in Fig. 6.17 need only be changed with kV
va cng Vth controlled soure. If we let R, = Ri = R and Cy — a=G
then it is found that the transfer function becomes
ae 7
19) = SE TB = RRIRCS + RS ae
From this
1
 6.18)
OK 628)
‘This compares with the value given in Eq. (6.58), which is
ox 619)
66. RESISTIVE GAIN ENHANCEMENT 179
Fiftorder Butterworth
~£ 0088
Product 7.
os To 15
FIGURE 625
Comparing these two equa tha
ations we see tht fora Q tht is given asa result
Spats Kaa be ma gr provid tf mae alo com
peste This permite a much larger value of to be employed in th
ization, This is known as resistive gain enhancement. iret ral
6.7 RCCR
TRANSFORMATION
The general ube of re
equeney transformation is covered in Chapter
pea etd ay me ow sn nd sci wansforna
CR tansformiatin, The consequence ofthat i we can
espn lowpas fe, then we can design ange
toting eenent Ths ober inicatdinFige2e
we divide the frequency seal of Fig 6278 into wo
from Ito then te ponon fhe Heqweay sae of ite sen to ave 2
reciprocal relationship for the lowpass and the
recor lant ote lowpas an the highpass er cas. This may be
(6.80)
We will later generalize this to
&
so 681)
RCopamp "RCopamp
towpass  >=] highpass:
filter fiter
FIGURE 626180 CHAPTER 6 BUTTERWORTH LOWPASS FILTERS
in in
oT hoot %
o ©
iGURE 627
where the normalized frequency 1 has been scaled to uy It was initially shown by
Nhrse that this transformation is accomplished ifthe circuit is modified as fol
lows:
Ris replaced by C=
1
at 682)
Gis replaced by R,
‘as shown in Fig, 6.28. We have modeled the op amp asa voltagecontolied source
aa ae in atnfected by this transformation, and so k, a gain factor used
see I this chapter, isnot changed. Note also that it is not necessary to apply
Ghus transformation to the resistors used to set the gain for the noninverting oP
amp circuit, R, and Ry.
To illustrate the procedure, we return to Design 2 ofthe SallenKey circuit
shown in Fig. 6.198 for which the design equations were given in Eq. (6.62). With
Koni and R, = Ry I then Eq, (6.55) was
. VC,
TO" Se aIC)s+ VOG
‘From the requirement that C,C, = 1 and 2/C, = 1/@, we found the design eas
(683)
«5. K. Miva, “A Network Pansformation for Active RC Networks” Proc, IEEE, vl $5. PP 2021
2am, i967
Lowpass Highpass
R TR,
FIGURE 628
67 RCCR TRANSFORMATION 181
tions to be
1
Pa (6.84)
‘The resulting circuit of Fig 6.196 is also shown in Fig. 6.29a. If we apply the ele
‘ment transformations epecified in Ege. (6.92) then we obtain the highpass filter
shown in Fig. 6.29 whi magnitu
pe hich has the magnitude response shown in Fig. 630. Sub
G
Q and
Ras and R20
u . (635)
along with replacing s by (1/s) gives us
=
TO" FE Q7R)S+URR, ey
whichis the transfer function for thei
ction forthe highpass circuit of Fig, 62%
‘Asa second example ofthe we ofthe RCCR transformation we make use
FIGURE 629
FIGURE 630182. CHAPTER 6 BUTTERWORTH LOWPASS FILTERS
3.5468 F
reels
‘ p+
ie
1396 F
20285 F
" y
FIGURE 631
0.28198.
S GURE 633
of the circuit due to Geffe,* shown in Fig. 631, which realizes a thirdorder But
terworth frequency response with ay = 1. Applying the RCCR transformation,
‘we obtain the circuit shown in Fig, 6.32, which will have the frequency response
tiven in Fig, 6.33. Such a circuit will substitute for the cascade connection of @
firstorder and a secondorder circuit,
[Example 64 We require a highpass iter having the attenuation characteristics shown in
Fig. 634, which indicate an attenuation of atleast 30 4B at 60 Hz and 3 dB or less atenu
ation forall frequencies in excess of 200 Hi.
"For our design we ist test the suitability of the Geffe circuit of Fig. 6.32. Tis is @
thirdorder Butterworth circuit. The normalizing frequency is 200 Hz or 1256.6 rad/s,
‘which wll be made to correspond to wy = I inthe Geffe circuit, Ia terms ofthis frequency
‘ormalization, 60 Hz coresponds to 03 rad/s. To compute the attenuation at that fre
‘Guoncy, we use Eq, (638) which was derived for the lowpass ease and recognize that 0:3
“=P. R. Gee, “How to Build HighQuality Filters out of LowQuality Pars” Electronics, pp 111
113, Now, 1996
67 RCCR TRANSFORMATION 183
238
FIGURE 634
say forthe ighpas cases equivalent 01/03 = 3333 for he eras ws ‘Then from
* = 10 log (1 + 3.333) = 31.35.48 (687)
evn est pes me an er eg
ssa nt ce i tae a
Fae re ahem on prem. at
ELS eae
2 De = 958 (638)
may aww i tn nec Fe 3 br mating ht
wen a a dan nvm PS
2paaxa
OF OL aE
FIGURE 635
1 elements Ly and C: are
Get the cit town in Fig. PLL is given that Ri = The Se 4
ttn rein sch that P/V gives Basterworth ren S05
FIGURE P61
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