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TITLE:

The Development of Sports Equipment Inventory Management System


Applyng Stored Procedures
Chapter I
The Problem and Its Background
Introduction
The advancement in technology in the last few decades has improved our
lives in every aspect. Manually driven systems are being substituted by the
computerized systems. A system is a collection of elements and components that
are organized for a common purpose. System nowadays, is very essential in
doing their works easier, more systematized and well organized.
An inventory is the stock of items used in an organization. An inventory
system monitors the levels of inventory and determines the timeline and quantity
of orders. Companies maintain inventories of raw materials; work in development
or final products for various reasons, including unpredictable raw material
delivery time, allowing for production scheduling flexibility or demand variations.
Inventory management system is a computer-based system for tracking
inventory levels, orders, sales and deliveries. It can also be used in the
manufacturing industry to create a work order, bill of materials and other
production-related documents. Companies use inventory management software
to avoid product overstock and outages. It is a tool for organizing inventory data
that before was generally stored in hard-copy form or in spreadsheets. It is often
associated with and is similar to distribution software, as distributors that can

compete with less cash tied up in inventories have a distinct advantage over their
competitors.
The purpose of an inventory system is to keep track of what you have in
your small store, large office or product development factory. If you know what
you have available for sale or to build products, you can easily satisfy the needs
of your customers when they contact you to buy your products. The inventory
system informs you when you need to purchase more products or supplies.
Inventory management systems are central to how companies track and
control inventories. Having the ability to measure inventory in a timely and
accurate manner is critical for having uninterrupted business operations because
inventory is often one of the largest current assets on a company's balance
sheet.
Tracking where products are stocked, which suppliers they come from,
and the length of time they are stored is made possible with inventory
management software. By analyzing such data, companies can control inventory
levels and maximize the use of warehouse space. Furthermore, firms are more
prepared for the demands and supplies of the market, especially during special
circumstances such as a peak season on a particular month. Through the reports
generated by the inventory management software, firms are also able to gather
important data that may be put in a model for it to be analyzed.
Efficiently tracking inventory is an imperative component to a small
business and successful operation. By having up-to-date data regarding all

needed office supplies, raw manufacturing materials and merchandise for sale,
an organization will drastically increase its bottom line. In addition to the money
saved by not reordering unnecessary goods, an enterprise will be better
positioned to services customers quickly, as well as navigate any unexpected
changes in business, such as a supplier abruptly going out of business. Although
many companies maintain this information manually, there are benefits to using a
computerized inventory system.
Background of the Study
Ramon Magsaysay Technological University (RMTU) is a degreeawarding tertiary educational institution in Zambales that specializes agriculture,
forestry, engineering, education, arts, sciences, humanities and other fields may
be relevant to the development of the province.

Nowadays, although other universities and colleges already have Sports


Equipment Inventory Management System, Ramon Magsaysay Technological
University still uses a manual system.
A manual inventory system relies heavily on the actions of people, which
increases the possibility of human error. People might forget to record a
transaction or simply miscount the number of goods. This results in needless
additional orders that increase the company's inventory carrying costs and use
up precious storage space. Inaccurate physical counts could also result in not

ordering enough of a product, meaning the business could run out of a crucial
item at the wrong time.
Another disadvantage of manual inventory systems is that they can be
highly labor-intensive to operate. They require continuous monitoring to ensure
that each transaction is accounted for and that products are maintained at the
appropriate stocking levels. It is also more difficult to share inventory information
throughout the business, because the lack of computerization makes accessing
inventory records a more cumbersome process. The time spent monitoring
inventory levels could be used on more productive activities for the business.
A disadvantage of manual inventory systems is that they can be highly
labor-intensive to operate. They require continuous monitoring to ensure that
each transaction is accounted for and that products are maintained at the
appropriate stocking levels. It is also more difficult to share inventory information
throughout the business, because the lack of computerization makes accessing
inventory records a more cumbersome process. The time spent monitoring
inventory levels could be used on more productive activities for the business.

Theoretical and Conceptual Framework

Figure 1.0The Conceptual Model of the Study


Figure 1.0 shows the conceptual model of the study.

It indicates the

different inputs and processes that will be needed in order to come up with the
desired output.
Input consists of the knowledge requirements such as Information System,
Existing Inventory Management System, University History and Information,
Information Technology, Database Management System, Stored Procedures and
knowledge about creating window based applications.

Programming software tools that will be necessary in programming the


said module is also an important thing to consider. For the front-end application,
this study will be using VB. Net to produce a user-friendly GUI. To be particular,
MS SQL Server database server will be the database of the system.

For

hardware requirements, the system will need a desktop computer with at least
core i3 processor, DDR3 RAM and 1TB hard disk drive.

After the inputs have been completed, the next step is the creation of the
system. It will undergo the Design, Debugging and Testing to make sure that it
will meet all the requirements set.
For the output, this will be a Sports Equipment Inventory Management
System for RMTU.

Statement of the Problem

1.

What is the level of efficiency of the system when evaluated by


the user evaluation result of the existing, the prototype system
and the proposed system in terms of Correctness, Reliability,
Efficiency, Testability and portability?

2.

What is the level of efficiency in the system when evaluated by


the system testing result?

3.

Is there a significant difference between effectiveness of the


system when evaluated by the user evaluation result of the
present, the proposed system and the prototype system in terms
of Correctness, Reliability, Efficiency, testability and Portability?

4.

.The major problem experienced by the Faculty Head is that


there is still no computerized inventory system that can manage
and monitor athletes profile and sports equipment.

5.

The athletes information, school activities and policies are only


manage and kept in a physical storage such as filing cabinet.

6.

The sports activities and sports equipment are harder to monitor


and manage. It is hasle and time consuming to the part of the
Sports Development Head and the athletes in retrieving
information when it is needed.

7.

There is no system that would facilitate athletes scholarship and


financial support and a system that would evaluate atheletes and
school activities.

Objectives of the Study


Generally, this study aims to design and develop a Sports Equipment
Inventory Management System (SEIMS) for Ramon Magsaysay Technological
University (RMTU).
Specifically, this study aims to:
.
1.

What is the level of efficiency of the system when evaluated by


the user evaluation result of the existing, the prototype system
and the proposed system in terms of Correctness, Reliability,
Efficiency, Testability and portability?

2.

What is the level of efficiency in the system when evaluated by


the system testing result?

3.

Is there a significant difference between effectiveness of the


system when evaluated by the user evaluation result of the
present, the proposed system and the prototype system in terms
of Correctness, Reliability, Efficiency, testability and Portability?

4.

.The major problem experienced by the Faculty Head is that


there is still no computerized inventory system that can manage
and monitor athletes profile and sports equipment.

5.

The athletes information, school activities and policies are only


manage and kept in a physical storage such as filing cabinet.

6.

The sports activities and sports equipment are harder to monitor


and manage. It is hasle and time consuming to the part of the
Sports Development Head and the athletes in retrieving
information when it is needed.

7.

There is no system that would facilitate athletes scholarship and


financial support and a system that would evaluate atheletes and
school activities.

Scope and Delimitation

This study is intended for the use of Ramon Magsaysay Technological


University only. The Sports Development will only be the one to have a full
access to the system. This study focuses on some processes done in sports
development office.

It primarily includes managing and monitoring of the

inventory of sports equipment. The system also focuses on the profiling of all the
athletes in the university. It also includes monitoring events and activities related
to sports. Additionally, the system also intended in managing and evaluating
scholarship of the athletes.

This study will be using VB.Net programming language for its front end
application. MS SQL Server will be used as its database.

The proposed system will use stored procedures in the database design.
Majority of the transactions and functionalities of the proposed system are coded
using stored procedures. All the queries are coded in back end for the purpose of
code reuse, security and maintainability.

Significance of the Study


This study is intended to develop a module that will be beneficial to the
following persons or group of persons.
To the Company. This study will be helpful to RMTU for it will properly
monitor all the needed and available sports equipment for the athletes of the
university. It will be a great help for the University because the university identify
all the facilities available for the athletes.
To the Sports Development Head. The Sports Development Head can easily
manage and check sports equipment available. His/ her work will be lessen
because this system can.
To the Athletes. They will also benefit once the module is implemented. For
they will have their equipment and facilities properly monitored. It is also
advantage for them of having athletes profiling for their information are readily
available.
To the Proponent. The researchers acquire more skills and knowledge in
executing their research. This case, the proponent takes a lot of time to finished
the system.
To the future researchers. This research will guide them in the near future. We
encourage them to study about this field because it is engaging them to
formulate their own research.

To the community. The importance of this study is to give some details and
information about the system we implement. Coming up with this study can give
some ideas and can use it in creating their own system.

Definition of Terms
The following are terminologies were operationally used in this study.

Database. It is storage of all related data and information about the Athletes and
Sports Equipemtn and facilities of RMTU. It is where all the records will be saved
and where all the needed records will be retrieved when needed. MSSQL
SERVER is the database used by this study.
Datatype. It identifies the kind of information that an Attribute/column in an
entity/table on a specific database platform represents. These are actual physical
representations and are dependent on the actual RDBMSs. The data type
should be given by the domain definition for that attribute/column.
DBMS. This is an integrated collection of programs designed to enable people to
design databases, enter and maintain data, and perform queries.
Field. This is the basic unit of data entry in a record.
GUI (Graphical User Interface). It is a term referring to the output or the front
end application that will be utilized by the end-user.
Inventory. A detailed list of goods and materials that are in stock.
Inventory Management Software. It is a computer-based system for tracking
inventory levels, orders, sales and deliveries.
Information System. It is the technology used in this study that will help in
performing all the transactions and task done in the Human Resource
Management when it comes to managing the records and files of the employees
of ACCESS.

Inventory is a quantity of goods owned and stored by a business that is intended


either for resale or as raw materials and components used in producing goods
that the business sells.

Join. It is an operation in which the rows of one table are related to the rows of
another through common column values.
MS SQL SERVER. A database server used to the proponents. It means
Microsoft Structured Query Language Server.
Query. This is a request to see information from a database that matches
specific criteria. (Morley, 2007. p. 596)
Sports Development Head. He/ she is the administrator of the proposed
system.
SQL (Structured Query Language).It is the language used for managing and
manipulating the data inside the MySQL database of the system.
Stored Procedure. It is a name collection of SQL statements and procedural
logic i.e,compiled,varified and stored in the server database.
User. A person who can interact with the software

Chapter II
Review of Related Literature and Studies
This chapter presents the summary of readings from related literature and
studies which are equally important to the present study. These are the materials
that have greatly enlightened the researcher in developing the topics in his study.
Inventory Management System
In the article published by Demand Media, it was mentioned that inventory
systems are tracking systems that inform you of the amount of raw materials,
supplies or final products you have readily available. The inventory system is
updated each time you sell an item or use raw materials to create a product, so
you know what you have available for the following day or week. This type of
system also allows you to order products in advance, so you have everything you
need at all times.
According to Crosby (2015), inventory management systems are the rule
for such enterprises, but smaller businesses and vendors use them, too. The
systems ensure customers always have enough of what they want and balance
that goal against a retailer's financial need to maintain as little stock as possible.
Mismanaged inventory means disappointed customers, too much cash tied up in
warehouses and slower sales. Factors such as quicker production cycles, a
proliferation of products, multi-national production contracts and the nature of the
big-box store make them a necessity.

Modern inventory management systems must have the ability to track


sales and available inventory, communicate with suppliers in near real-time and
receive and incorporate other data, such as seasonal demand. They also must
be flexible, allowing for a merchant's intuition. And, they must tell a storeowner
when it's time to reorder and how much to purchase.
To achieve this, inventory management systems pull together several
technologies into one cohesive approach. Read on to learn about the history of
inventory management systems and how modern systems work.

Types of Inventory Systems


There are two main types of inventory systems. Smaller privately owned stores
may use a manual inventory system, where the cashier manually keeps track of
all items sold each day. At the end of the day, sold items are subtracted from the
total inventory count to get an updated number available for sale. A technological
inventory system tracks the purchases and gives you an updated number of
inventory items left for sale. Both systems require that you manually count all of
the products or items in the inventory.
Asset or Liability

Items that the company has bought as part of the inventory are considered
business assets. As long as the company can sell or use the items, the

business is not losing money. However, items that have passed their
expiration dates or that are not selling due to a lack of demand or lack of
popularity can become liabilities for the business. An inventory system
should only store the amount of items that can easily be sold to avoid
creating a liability for the business.
Inventory Management

Any inventory system should have a manager to keep track of all the items
in the inventory system. The manager is responsible for ordering new
items or products when supplies are getting low and manually counting
the items to catch any employees who may be stealing or find any
inventory items that may be broken. The manager should also be
responsible for locating items that have expiration dates in the inventory
and that are subject to mold or damage.

Importance of Inventory Management

The term inventory refers to the goods or materials used by a firm for the
purpose of production and sale. It also includes the items, which are used as
supportive materials to facilitate production.
There are three basic types of inventory: raw materials, work-in-progress and
finished goods. Raw materials are the items purchased by firms for use in
production of finished product. Work-in-progress consists of all items currently in
the process of production. These are actually partly manufactured products.

Finished goods consists of those items, which have already been produced but
not yet sold.

Inventory constitutes one of the important items of current assets, which permits
smooth operation of production and sale process of a firm. Inventory
management is that aspect of current assets management, which is concerned
with maintaining optimum investment in inventory and applying effective control
system so as to minimize the total inventory cost.

Inventory management is important from the view point that it enables to address
two important issues:

1. The firm has to maintain adequate inventory for smooth production and selling
activities.

2. It has to minimize the investment in inventory to enhance firm's profitability.

Investment in inventory should neither be excessive nor inadequate. It should


just be optimum. Maintaining optimum level of inventory is the main aim of
inventory management. Excessive investment in inventory results into more cost
of fund being tied up so that it reduces the profitability, inventories may be
misused, lost, damaged and hold costs in terms of large space and others. At the
same time, insufficient investment in inventory creates stock-out problems,

interruption in production and selling operation. Therefore, the firm may loose the
customers as they shift to the competitors. Financial manager, as he involves in
inventory management, should always try to put neither excessive nor
inadequate investment in inventory. The importance or significance of inventory
management could be specified as below:

* Inventory management helps in maintaining a trade off between carrying costs


and ordering costs which results into minimizing the total cost of inventory.

* Inventory management facilitates maintaining adequate inventory for smooth


production and sales operations.

* Inventory management avoids the stock-out problem that a firm otherwise


would face in the lack of proper inventory management.

* Inventory management suggests the proper inventory control system to be


applied by a firm to avoid losses, damages and misuses.(AccountingManagement, 2016)

Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC) - Waterfall Model

The waterfall model is a sequential design process, used in software


development processes, in which progress is seen as flowing steadily
downwards (like a waterfall) through the phases of conception,
initiation, analysis, design, construction, testing,
production/implementation and maintenance.
The waterfall development model originates in
the manufacturing and construction industries: highly structured physical
environments in which after-the-fact changes are prohibitively costly, if not
impossible. Since no formal software development methodologies existed at the
time, this hardware-oriented model was simply adapted for software
development. ( Benington, 1983)
According to Gordiyenko (2014), in order to build good-quality software
you need to fully understand the essentials of software development life cycle
(SDLC), customers requirements to the delivered product as well as customers
budgets. Theres a number of life-cycle model types (waterfall model, spiral
model, rapid prototyping, etc). Selection of a particular type of life-cycle model
depends largely on your project scope and stakes.

As a rule, we adhere to using the spiral model that involves agile


development methodologies. However, sometimes we use a Waterfall model and
its derivatives for small and trivial projects, when applicable.

Waterfall Model Pros & Cons

Advantage

The advantage of waterfall development is that it allows for departmentalization


and control. A schedule can be set with deadlines for each stage of development
and a product can proceed through the development process model phases one
by one.
Development moves from concept, through design, implementation,
testing, installation, troubleshooting, and ends up at operation and maintenance.
Each phase of development proceeds in strict order.
(http://www.tutorialspoint.com/, 2015)

Disadvantage
The disadvantage of waterfall development is that it does not allow for much
reflection or revision. Once an application is in the testing stage, it is very

difficult to go back and change something that was not well-documented or


thought upon in the concept stage.
(http://www.tutorialspoint.com/, 2015)
The following table lists out the pros and cons of Waterfall model:

Pros

Cons

Simple

and

easy

to

understand and use

No working software is produced


until late during the life cycle.

Easy to manage due to the

High amounts of risk and uncertainty.

Not a good model for complex and

rigidity of the model . each


phase

has

specific

object-oriented projects.

deliverables and a review


process.

projects.

Phases are processed and


completed one at a time.
Works

well

projects

for

Poor model for long and ongoing

Not suitable for the projects where


requirements are at a moderate to

smaller

high risk of changing. So risk and

where

uncertainty is high with this process

requirements are very well

model.

understood.

It is difficult to measure progress

Clearly defined stages.

Well understood milestones.

within stages.

Cannot

accommodate

changing

requirements.

Easy to arrange tasks.

Process and results are well

No working software is produced


until late in the life cycle.

documented.

Adjusting scope during the life cycle


can end a project.

Integration is done as a "big-bang. at


the very end, which doesn't allow
identifying

any

technological

or

business bottleneck or challenges


early.

Advantages of Stored Procedures


According to the article published in docs.oracle.com, to help you build
powerful database applications, stored procedures provide several advantages
including better performance, higher productivity, ease of use, and increased
scalability.
Performance
Stored procedures are compiled once and stored in executable form, so
procedure calls are quick and efficient. Executable code is automatically cached
and shared among users. This lowers memory requirements and invocation
overhead.
By grouping SQL statements, a stored procedure allows them to be executed
with a single call. This minimizes the use of slow networks, reduces network
traffic, and improves round-trip response time. OLTP applications, in particular,
benefit because result set processing eliminates network bottlenecks.
Additionally, stored procedures enable you to take advantage of the computing
resources of the server. For example, you can move computation-bound
procedures from client to server, where they will execute faster. Likewise, stored
functions called from SQL statements enhance performance by executing
application logic within the server.

Productivity and Ease of Use


By designing applications around a common set of stored procedures, you can
avoid redundant coding and increase your productivity. Moreover, stored
procedures let you extend the functionality of the RDBMS. For example, stored
functions called from SQL statements enhance the power of SQL.
You can use the Java integrated development environment (IDE) of your choice
to create stored procedures. Then, you can deploy them on any tier of the
network architecture. Moreover, they can be called by standard Java interfaces
such as JDBC, CORBA, and EJB and by programmatic interfaces and
development tools such as SQLJ, the OCI, Pro*C/C++, and JDeveloper.
This broad access to stored procedures lets you share business logic across
applications. For example, a stored procedure that implements a business rule
can be called from various client-side applications, all of which can share that
business rule. In addition, you can leverage the server's Java facilities while
continuing to write applications for your favorite programmatic interface.
Scalability
Stored procedures increase scalability by isolating application processing on the
server. In addition, automatic dependency tracking for stored procedures aids the
development of scalable applications.
The shared memory facilities of the Multi-Threaded Server (MTS) enable
Oracle8i to support more than 10,000 concurrent users on a single node. For

more scalability, you can use the Net8 Connection Manager to multiplex Net8
connections.
Maintainability
Once it is validated, a stored procedure can be used with confidence in any
number of applications. If its definition changes, only the procedure is affected,
not the applications that call it. This simplifies maintenance and enhancement.
Also, maintaining a procedure on the server is easier than maintaining copies on
various client machines.
Interoperability
Within the RDBMS, Java conforms fully to the Java Language Specification and
furnishes all the advantages of a general-purpose, object-oriented programming
language. Also, like PL/SQL, Java provides full access to Oracle data, so any
procedure written in PL/SQL can be written in Java.
PL/SQL stored procedures complement Java stored procedures. Typically, SQL
programmers who want procedural extensions favor PL/SQL, and Java
programmers who want easy access to Oracle data favor Java.
The RDBMS allows a high degree of interoperability between Java and PL/SQL.
Java applications can call PL/SQL stored procedures using an embedded JDBC
driver. Conversely, PL/SQL applications can call Java stored procedures directly.

Security
You can restrict access to Oracle data by allowing users to manipulate the data
only through stored procedures that execute with their definer's privileges. For
example, you can allow access to a procedure that updates a database table, but
deny access to the table itself.
Replication
With Oracle Advanced Replication, stored procedures can be replicated (copied)
from one Oracle8i database to another. This feature makes them ideal for
implementing a central set of business rules. Once written, the stored procedures
are replicated and distributed to work groups and branch offices throughout the
company. In this way, policies can be revised on a central server rather than on
individual servers.
Why use Stored Procedures?
One of the most beneficial reasons to use stored procedures is the added layer
of security that can be placed on the database from the calling application. If the
user account created for the application or web site is configured with EXECUTE
permissions only then the underlying tables cannot be accessed directly by the
user account. This helps prevent hacking directly into the database tables. The
risk of a hacker using the user account to run a stored procedure that has been
written by you is far safer than having the user account have full insert, update
and delete authority on the tables directly.

Another advantage to using stored procedures, especially in medium to large


scale web sites or applications, is the data functionality is separated from the
application making it easier to manage, document, and maintain. For example, if
an application updates the customer table in ten different places, there can be a
single stored procedure and a standard procedure call from the application for
this functionality. If a change needs to be made to the way a customer record is
managed, then the SQL statements only need to be changed in one place, in the
database layer. In most cases, the application is not affected unless the
procedure call requires modification. Changing the procedure call is also easier,
because a standard call is already in place. Managing the data in the data layer
avoids having to keep track of embedded SQL calls that may be different in each
place, whenever a change is required.
Stored procedures provide improved performance because fewer calls need to
be sent to the database. For example, if a stored procedure has four SQL
statements in the code, then there only needs to be a single call to the database
instead of four calls for each individual SQL statement. Of course there is always
a tradeoff. There is an increased workload on the server side that needs to be
taken into account.
Another advantage to using stored procedures allows for multiple client
applications written in any language and running on any platform to have
consistent database routines. Each application uses the same procedures and

simply has to embed a standard procedure call for the language in the calling
program.
(http://mysqlstoredprocedure.com/, 2015)

Chapter III
Research Methodology

Methodology
This chapter presents discussions of the method of research as well as
the description of the setting of the study.

Research Design
This research aims to create Sports Inventory Management System
(SEIMS) for Ramon Magsaysay Technological University. To attain the desired
end, the researcher will use a descriptive method of research which aims to
describe the proposed system and so it could fit with the pertinent rules regarding
sports equipment inventory management system.

Waterfall Model design


Waterfall approach was first SDLC Model to be used widely in Software
Engineering to ensure success of the project. In "The Waterfall" approach, the
whole process of software development is divided into separate phases. In
Waterfall model, typically, the outcome of one phase acts as the input for the
next phase sequentially.
Following is a diagrammatic representation of different phases of waterfall
model.

The sequential phases in Waterfall model are:

Requirement Gathering and analysis: All possible requirements of the


system to be developed are captured in this phase and documented in a
requirement specification doc.

The researchers, being exposed to the existing problems of the current


Sports Equipment Inventory System, will use Ramon Magsaysay Technological
University (RMTU) current Inventory Management system as spring board in
creating an on line program. It is in accordance in the standard System
Development Life Cycle (SDLC).

System Design: The requirement specifications from first phase are


studied in this phase and system design is prepared. System Design
helps in specifying hardware and system requirements and also helps in
defining overall system architecture.

After identifying the problems, the researcher will design the main interface
and the database of the Sports Equipment and Inventory System. The proponent
will have to assure that the system will give ease to the usersthe Sports
Development Head.
Further, the system will be designed to cater be user friendly as not all the
users are technology geeks. So, this will assist and not add burden. On the
layout and interface of the program, this proponents will apply simple shades of

color and identifiable icons or symbols only in order to facilitate smooth access of
this proposed on line application. Most importantly, this proposed system will not
be designed to induce intimidation, but, it will be designed to express
accommodation.

Development: With inputs from system design, the system is first


developed in small programs called units, which are integrated in the next
phase. Each unit is developed and tested for its functionality which is
referred to as Unit Testing.
After the designing stage, the proponents will go to the careful process of
constructing the proposed system as designed. The proponent will be
encoding the system tediously by using VB.Net Consequently, the
proponent will use MSSQL Server for the database.

Integration and Testing: All the units developed in the implementation


phase are integrated into a system after testing of each unit. Post
integration the entire system is tested for any faults and failures.
After the construction, the proponents will arrange a time to test the
program and its features to assure efficiency and accuracy of the system.

The proponent will consult experts and the users about the program to
guaranty that it will serve them better. Doing so, the proponent will be able
to identify inconsistency or discrepancy of the system, then, debug system
errors and adhere to suggestions.

Deployment of system: Once the functional and non functional testing is


done, the product is deployed in the customer environment or released
into the market.
Lastly, the proponent will have to implement the system to make it fully
operational. The proponent may conduct training or orientation to users in
order to provide information and awareness.

Maintenance: There are some issues which come up in the client


environment. To fix those issues patches are released. Also to enhance
the product some better versions are released. Maintenance is done to
deliver these changes in the customer environment.
Maintenance will be easy since the proponents studies in the same
company as the recipient of this program.

All these phases are cascaded to each other in which progress is seen as
flowing steadily downwards (like a waterfall) through the phases. The next
phase is started only after the defined set of goals are achieved for previous
phase and it is signed off, so the name "Waterfall Model". In this model phases
do not overlap.

Requirements Planning
The researcher, being exposed to the existing problems of the current
system of the Faculty Information, used Ramon Magsaysay Technological
University current manual faculty information system as spring board in creating
a windows-based Faculty Information System (FACIS). In accordance of the
standard System Development Life Cycle; after identifying the problems, the
researcher developed a system that was fit to address the faculty information
system. The proponents assure that the system give ease to the users, the HR,
administrator and the faculty.

1 The Descriptive Method


The proponents conduct a personal interview with the users of the
system. The project team talked to the faculty, HR, and Registrar for
gathering of data about the system specification, needed in creating the
proposed system that can help them to enhance the Faculty Information
System of Ramon Magsaysay Technological University (RMTU).
1.1

Interview
During

requirements

gathering

stage,

the

proponents

conduct

interview with faculty, HR, and Registrar of RMTU, who gave the resources
and needed information about the flow of the manual system and the
manual process of keeping and organizing faculty information.
1.2

Observation

The proponents had some inspection regarding the current system to


gather more ideas on how to design the proposed system. From this
observation, the proponent noted some problems being encountered.
1.3

Internet Research
The proponents also conduct an internet research to gather more

data and topics that are related to the study.


1.4

Library Research
The proponents also used library materials like thesis documentation

books, journals and articles that are related to the proposed study in
gathering significant information and validation of the study.
1.5

Survey and Testing


The proponents conduct a survey and user testing to derive

interpretations and inferences. The survey is presented in accordance with the


statement of the specific problem. Proponents also conduct Usability testing, it is
a technique used in user-centered interaction design to evaluate a manual
process of faculty information system of RMTU.

Data Gathering Instruments

1 Company Observation.
The proponents had some inspection regarding the current system to
gather more ideas on how to design our proposed system. From this
observation, we noted some problems being encountered.
1

Naturalistic observation
Naturalistic observation is a research tool in which a subject is
observed in its natural habitat without any manipulation by the
observer.
The faculty information system of RMTU is still manual.
Currently, there is no computer system dedicated in monitoring and
managing Faculty Information. Thus, it is arduous to the part of the
HR and faculty to get information because data and information are
not readily available. Faculty information is only kept and compiled in
a file cabinet. All the events and activities can only be broadcast to
the faculty individually. Faculty Load assignment is also difficult to
monitor because there is still no database used to keep track on the
teaching load of the faculty. It is very difficult to both the HR and
Faculty considering large amount of information is concern and it still
growing. Therefore the Computerized Faculty Information System is
needed in RMTU.

Participants observation
Participants

observation is

structured

type

of research strategy. It is a widely used methodology in many


disciplines,

particularly, cultural

anthropology,

but

also sociology, communication studies, and social psychology. Its aim


is to gain a close and intimate familiarity with a given group of
individuals (such as a religious, occupational, or sub cultural group, or
a particular community) and their practices through an intensive
involvement with people in their natural environment, usually over an
extended period of time.
The Proponents Indicate the Specific Problem of the Faculty
Information System for Blanco Family Academy.
1.2.1. The faculty information are only recorded using paper and pen and
are only kept in a file cabinet.
1.2.2. The data are harder to monitor and more time consuming on the
part of Human Resources, Administrator and Faculty when it is needed.
1.2.3. It is very hard to keep track on the faculty load assignment of the
faculty.
1.2.4. It is so hard to broadcast school events and activities to each
faculty.
1.2.5 It is also very difficult to disseminate manuals and handbook for
each faculty because it is only done manually.

1.2.6 It is hard to monitor Facultys monthly dues because it is manually


done.

Statistical Tools
These tools were used to compute the data gathered in relation to the
proponents study.
1 Percentage Distribution
Percentage and frequency of distribution were used to describe the profile
of the respondents of the study in terms of age, gender and profession using
faculty information system, and if they were the users, administrator or field
expertise on this system; this is solved by the formula: (Probability Statistics for
scientist and Engineer, 7th edition, Walpale Myer)
Percentage (%) = (f / n) * 100
Where:
P- Percentage distribution
f- Scores in the distribution
n- Number of respondents
2 Weighted Mean.
This was used for most of the item in the questionnaire checklist, weighted
is utilized. The following scales and its equivalency used as follows:
Survey
Criteria
Male

Scale Value
Yes

Rating
1

Interpretation
Agree

Female
No
Table 1: Survey Criteria

Disagree

User Evaluation
Criteria
Scale Value
Correctness
E
Reliability
G
Efficiency
A
Testability
P
Portability
NI
Table 2: User Evaluation Criteria

Rating
5
4
3
2
1

Interpretation
Excellent
Good
Average
Poor
Needs Improvement

Rating

Interpretation

3
2
1

Full Compliance
Partial Compliance
Non-Compliance

System Testing
Criteria
Scale Value
Block and white
Testing
Full Compliance
Unit Testing
Partial Compliance
Security Testing
Non-Compliance
Table 3: System Testing Criteria

It measures the average numerical value of a set of scores. It is calculated


by adding all the scores and dividing the sum of its frequency. The formulas are
as follows:

WM =

X
N

Where:

X = Score
N = Number of cases or respondents

Analytical Tools

The analytical tools in conducting the proposed study were the System
Architecture, Context Diagram, Data Flow Diagram, System flowchart, HIPO
(Hierarchical Input-Process-Output) and VTOC (Visual Table of Contents).
Context Diagram. It is a data flow diagram, with only one massive central
process that subsumes everything inside the scope of the system. It shows how
the system will receive and send data flows to the external entities involved.
Data Flow Diagram. It is a graphical representation of the "flow" of data
through an information system, modeling its process aspects. Often they are a
preliminary step used to create an overview of the system which can later be
elaborated. It also shows what kinds of data will be input to and output from the
system, where the data will come from and go to, and where the data will be
stored.
Data flow diagram show the step by step procedure that is more
complicated on how the system will works.
System Flowchart. It is the graphical representation of the flow of data in
the system, and represents the work process of the system. Information system
flowchart show how data flows from source documents through the computer to
final distribution to users. Program flowcharts show the sequence of instructions
in a single program or subroutine.

It shows the flow of the payroll system were the human resources is in
charge in adding new employee information including editing, deleting and set of
salary for every employee. The user allows all the employee to register their
finger print for their time log, the system will have a transaction were it will show
all the computation of payroll and generate the reports for the employee unlike
the existing system of Blanco family academy it is more sophisticated when it
comes into computation and filling the records of each employee. It will be
efficient for the user to use if the system is more accurate and fast when it comes
into preparing the payroll of employee. (See Appendix D for the System
Flowchart)
HIPO (Hierarchy plus Input-Process-Output) technique is a tool for
planning and/or documenting a computer program. A HIPO model consists of a
hierarchy chart that graphically represents the programs control structure and a
set of IPO (Input-Process-Output) charts that describe the inputs to, the outputs
from, and the functions (or processes) performed by each module on the
hierarchy chart.
Hierarchical Input process output is similar to vtoc where it shows the
module needed by the system. The process on how the data has been entered
and how its being process will show its output or results.
VTOC or Visual Table of Contents. It is an analytical tool for planning
and/or documenting a computer program. Each function represented by a
rectangular box can be described in further detail in an IPO (or input-process-

output) diagram. It also show the scope of the system were the module are
connected.
VTOC shows every module of the system, their module contains the form
where it reflects on how the modules are connected and every form represents
the detailed information of every module at it is arranged through tables.
ERD or Entity-Relation Diagram. It is a specialized graphic that
illustrates the relationships between entities in a database. ER diagrams often
use symbols to represent three different types of information. Boxes are
commonly used to represent entities. Diamonds are normally used to represent
relationships and ovals are used to represent attributes. ERD is used to see the
relationship of different entity in the system.
The entity relationship diagram shows the relations of entities or the user
of the system on how he/she does the process, you will see the flow where the
user is connected to what he/she does.