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Special edition for courses within Concrete Structures.

Faculty of Building Technology and Construction

Management

VIA University College Denmark

Bjarne Chr. Jensen

Concrete structures

in accordance with DS/EN1992-1-1 2. edition. (Preliminary edition)

Translated extracts from Bjarne Christian Jensen, Betonkonstruktioner efter DS/EN1992-1-1. 2. udgave”

3

Preface to the translated version

At the VIA University College, School of Technology and Business the international exchange students work with projects, where they ap- ply engineering principles to practical problems. Furthermore a new study started in 2009 - BSc in Civil Engineering with the possibility to specialize within structures - and as a conse- quence the need for a good textbook covering basic concrete calcula- tion has arisen.

In the search of literature only text books that cover calculation meth- ods strictly in accordance with DS/N 1992-1-1 came up. However, the Danish textbook “Bjarne Chr. Jensen, Betonkon- struktioner efter DS/EN 1992-1-1” covers not only methods from DS/EN 1992 -1-1, but also methods included in the Danish National Annex and other well documented methods that are useful in structur- al concrete design. Among these methods are for example the stringer method. The choice was to translate extracts from this textbook and the ex- tracts have been chosen so as to cover the need from several courses that includes concrete calculations.

The translation has been done by Ernest Müller, MSc. in Construction Management and structural engineers, lecturer BSc. Karsten Völcker and senior lecturer MSc. Pauli Andreasen, all teaching at VIA Univer- sity College.

June 2011

Pauli Andreasen

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Content

All of the sections are not translated in full

 1 Properties of materials 9 1.1 Concrete 9 1.1.4 Breach condition by multiaxial tension conditions 9 1.1.5 Stress-strain relations for compression and modulus of elasticity 11 1.1.6 Shrinkage 13 1.1.7 Creep 17 1.1.8 Thermal expansion coefficient 20 1.1.9 Overview 19 1.2 Reinforcement 22 1.2.1 Special conditions for reinforcement with plain surface 25 1.3 Environmental conditions 26 1.3.3 Crack widths 26 2 Principles of calculation 27 2.1 Use and failure modes 27 2.2 Safety 27 2.2.1 Structures cast in situ 29 2.2.2 Precast concrete elements calculation 30 2.2.3 Precast concrete with functional test 31 2.2.4 Statistical evaluation of carrying capacity models 31 2.3 Dimensioning 32 2.3.1 Serviceability limit condition/state 32 2.3.2 Ultimate limit state 32 3 Anchorage, laps and detailing of members 35 3.1 Anchoring and overlap 35 3.1.1 Precast concrete elements calculation 38 3.1.2 Laps 44 3.2 Minimum reinforcement and other rules for reinforcement 50 3.2.1 Minimum reinforcement with regard to crack control 50 3.2.1.1 Ties 50 3.2.1.2 Pure bending 50 3.2.1.3 Consideration to size and other influences 51 3.2.1.4 Alternative minimum reinforcement 52 3.2.2 Other reinforcement rules 53 3.2.2.1 Bending reinforcement in beams 53 3.2.2.2 Shear reinforcement in beams 54

6

Content

 3.2.2.3 Torsion reinforcement in beams 55 3.2.2.4 Massive slabs 55 3.2.2.5 Columns 56 3.2.2.6 Reinforced walls 56 3.3 Spacing 57 4 Beams with bending and axial force 59 4.1 General 59 4.2 Linear Elastic conditions 60 4.2.1 Uncracked cross sections 61 4.2.1.1 Bending 61 4.2.2 Generel eguations for cracked cross sections 64 4.2.2.1 Bending 64 4.2.2.2 Bending with axial forces 66 4.2.3 Rectangular cross sections 68 4.2.3.1 Bending without compression reinforcement 68 4.2.5 Serviceability limit states 72 4.2.5.1 Stresses 72 4.2.5.2 Deflections 73 4.2.5.3 Load induced cracking 76 4.3 Ultimate limit state calculations 79 4.3.1 Bending 82 4.3.1.1 Rectangular cross sections without compression reinforcement 82 4.3.1.2 Rectangular cross sections with compression reinforcement 86 4.3.1.3 T-cross section 88 4.3.2 Bending with axial load 90 4.3.2.1 Simple method for normally reinforced cross section 90 4.3.2.2 Rectangular cross section without compression reinforcement 92 4.3.2.3 M-N interaction diagrams 96 5 Beams and shear 99 5.1 Shear reinforced beams 100 5.1.1 Shear theory for shear reinforced beams 100 5.1.2 Practical calculations of shear reinforced beams 104 5.1.2.1 The general approach 104 5.1.2.2 Dimensioning 107 5.1.5 Using different angles for the diagonal concrete strut 112 5.2 Non shear-reinforced beams 113 5.2.1 Calculation in accordance with DS/EN 1992-1-1 114 5.2.1.1 Shear resistance 114 5.2.1.2 The shear force 115 5.2.2 Calculation with great influence from the arch-effect 118 5.3 Reinforcement of T-beams flanges 120

Content

7

 6 Torsion 127 6.1 In-plane stress conditions in diaphragms 127 6.2 Tensions from torsion 131 6.2.1 Thin-walled cross section 131 6.2.2 Massive cross sections 132 6.2.3 Complex cross sections 133 6.3 Dimensioning of torsion 134 6.4 Combined stresses 137 6.5 Assignments 144 7 Columns 147 7.1 Centrally loaded columns 148 7.1.1 Non-reinforced columns 149 7.1.2 Reinforced columns 151 7.2 Unreinforced, eccentric loaded columns 154 7.2.1 Unreinforced columns using formula in DS/EN 1992-1-1 154 7.2.2 Non-reinforced columns after the element formula 158 7.3 Reinforced, eccentric loaded columns 160 7.3.1 Method based on nominal stiffness 161 7.3.2 Simplified method II 166 7.4 Biaxial bending with 2 nd order effects 167 7.5 Taking into account the eccentricities 169 8 Casting joints 171 8.1 Theoretical resistance 171 8.2 Execution of casting joints 173 8.2.1 Indented casting Joints 173 8.2.2 Rough, smooth and very smooth casting joints 174 8.3 Casting joint calculations in practice 174 8.4 Particular characteristics of element joints 178 9. Concentrated loads 183 9.1 Punching 183 9.1.1 The basic control perimeter 184 9.1.2 Resistance without shear reinforcement 186 9.2 Bearing stress 189 9.2.1 General 189 9.2.2 Calculation in accordance with DS/EN 1992-1-1 190 9.2.2.1 Local crushing 190 9.2.2.2 Transverse tensile forces 191 9.2.3 Calculating in accordance with newer method 192 9.2.3.1 Splitting 192 9.2.3.2 Local crushing 193 10 Continuous beams and slabs 197 10.1 Continuous beams 197 10.2 Indirect supported beams 204 10.3 Beams and slabs that are casted together 204 10.4 Slabs spanning in one direction (one-way) 206

8

Content

 10.5 Slabs spanning in two directions 211 10.5.1 A lower bound method 211 10.5.2 Practical approach 214 11 The strut and tie model 221 11.1 Method description 221 11.2 Corbels 221 11.3 General about strut and tie models 223 11.3.1 Nodes 223 11.3.1.1 Node with hydrostatic pressure 223 11.3.1.2 Node with shear along the reinforcement 226 11.3.2 Ties 227 11.3.3 Struts 227 12. Stringer Calculations 229 12.1 Description of Method 229 12.2 Tensile stringers 242 12.3 Compression stringers 245 12.4 The shear fields 246 12.5 Serviceability limit state 249 12.6 Exercises 250 13 Literature 253 13.1 General literature 253 13.2 Literature about specific subjects 253

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1

Properties of materials

1.1 Concrete

The previous part of this section is intentionally not translated

1.1.4 Breach condition by multiaxial tension conditions

Not all stress conditions are uniaxial pull or uniaxial pressure. Since it is impossible to test a material for all of the tension combinations that may be present, one uses a breaking condition. A breakage condition predicts which tension combinations leads to breakage. As breakage condition for concrete, the friction hypothesis with limited tensile strength is used, also called Coulomb modified breach hypothesis. After the friction hypothesis, breaches in sections occur where

(1.7)

where

shear stress in the breach section

c cohesiveness the friction coefficient the angle of friction

normal stress in the breach section

c, and are material constants.

c  c tan

The break condition, consisting of the friction hypothesis and the lim- ited tensile strength, is depicted in fig. 1.1.

Figure 1.1:

Coulombs modified breach hypothesis and compression tests

Is the breach the condition known, random stress conditions can be ex- amined by plotting Mohr tension circles along with breach hypothesis. In fig. 1.1. are written Mohr's circle for the uniaxial compressive that just gives compressive failure.

10

1. Properties of materials

The figure shows that the breach section at a uniaxial compression tests, forms the angle π/4 /2 with the thrust direction. As it turns out that is almost constant 37 0 , it is seen that the height of the test body must be two times the cross dimension, in order a breakage freely can be developed.

From fig. 1.1 one can find

f c

cos sin

c

1 2

(1.8)

As mentioned above, it turns out that remains almost constant 37 0 . For a concrete, where the compressive strength are known, one is therefore capable of determining the breach condition. With = 37 0 (1.8) becomes to

fc

4c

On the main tension form the breach condition will be

4

1

3

1

f

t

f

c

where 1 = the largest main tension

3 = the smallest main tension

 f c = compressive strength f t = tensile strength

(1.9)

The main Tensions are positive by tensile. In practical calculations, the starting point is the characteristic concrete strengths as described in section 2.2. Particularly interesting is the plane stress conditions where the ten- sile strength is set to zero. In this case, the breach condition plotted as in fig. 1.2, and it is noted that the compression strength in one direction is independent of the transverse compression. More about breach con- ditions for concrete can be found in [2], [4] and [5].

Figure 1.2:

Break condition by plane stress and tensile strength f t = 0

1. Properties of materials

11

1.1.5 Stress-strain relations for compression and modulus of elasticity

Pressure tests are normally performed as short-term tests, i.e., tests lasting only a few minutes. Short-term strength and short-term stress- strain relations are found using such tests. At very small tensions, there is an almost linear correlation between stress σ and strain ε. However, there is a tendency for the stress-strain relation to be curved. The trend becomes clearer at higher tensions. The maximum tension (compressive strength f c ) is achieved for a strain of approx. 2 ‰. For strain beyond the strain that corresponds to the maximum ten- sion, the tension drops. When strain reaches the ultimate strain, ε cu , fracture occurs. DS/EN 1992-1-1 sets ε cu at 3.5 ‰ for all concrete strengths less than or equal to 50 MPa, while its value decreases for in- creasing strengths of high strength concrete. Experiments show, how- ever, that there is a very large spread for ultimate strain, which can be- come especially great in weak concrete.

Figure 1.3:

Stress-strain relation for concrete in compression

The principal shape of the stress-strain curve is shown in figure 1.3. Through time, various equations have been implemented for this shape. Test results show many variations, and give no indication of one equation being significantly better than the others. The influence from the type and size of aggregates, additives, etc, has a huge impact on the shape. If one is designing a concrete structure where the stress-strain relationship has a significant influence, tests must be carried out in or- der to determine the stress-strain curve for the type of concrete speci- fied. For a given stress-strain relationship, an initial modulus of elasticity, a secant modulus of elasticity and a tangent modulus of elasticity is de- fined, see figure 1.3. DS/EN 1992-1-1 has chosen a stress strain relation given by

12

1. Properties of materials

c

k

c

c 1

c

c 1

2

1

(

k

2)

c

c 1

f

cm

(1.10)

where c is the compressive stress in the concrete c is the strain in the concrete c1 is the strain in the concrete at maximum stress

The factor k is determined from

k 1,05 E

cm

c 1

f

cm

(1.11)

where E cm is the secant modulus of elasticity The modulus of elasticity can be determined as

E c

k

c

c

c 1

2

c 1

c

1

(

k

2)

c

c 1

f cm

(1.12)

Decreasing the value of ε c and inserting the expression for k shows that the initial modulus of elasticity is 1,05 times the secant modulus of elasticity. The secant modulus of elasticity is in DS/EN 1992-1-1 determined

as

E

cm

22

10

f

cm

0,3

; f cm and E cm in MPa

(1.13)

The value is given as a secant value for a concrete stress equal to 0,4f cm At the same time it is pointed out that the values are for concrete with quartzite aggregates and that the values are approximations, because of the variations in stress-strain relations for different concrete mixtures The modulus of elasticity´s variation with time can be estimated from

E

c

0

k

( ) E

t

c

0

k

  

f

cm



t

  

f

cm

0,3

(1.14)

where E c0k (t) and f cm (t) are the values for an age of t days, and E c0k and f cm are values at 28 maturity days. For small tensions, Poisson's Ratio v is usually is set to 0.2. The stress-strain relation for compression depends a lot on the load speed, since creep initially plays a role. Even for very small tensions,

1. Properties of materials

13

permanent deformation is found, and that is why the elasticity limit must be set to zero. Fig. 1.4 shows a typical example of the impact of creep. Curve 1 is the normal short-term stress-strain relation up to fracture. If we impose a load to a particular stress and let the load remain, the strain will grow. Curve 2 shows the strain after 100 min. and curve 3 is the creep limit (Point A). For tensions above 0.8f c , the creep limit is never accomplished, since fracture occurs before this point (Point B).

Figure 1.4:

Stress-strain relation for compression

For the illustrated example, the long-term strength is 80% of short- term strength. The curves are valid for concrete with specific concrete creep conditions. If these are altered the creep limits are altered, and you find other stress-strain relations for different load speeds. Stress-strain relations depend, therefore, on many factors, and the relation to be used in calculations depends on the type of calculation, since different approximations must also be made to facilitate these calculations. To calculate the fracture loadbearing capacity in cross- sections, DS/EN 1992-1-1 introduces three different stress-strain dia- grams for one to choose from; see section 4.3.

1.1.6 Shrinkage

Concrete will usually shrink over time, ie. its volume will be reduced. Four factors are particularly important for shrinkage. The concrete composition, body size, time and the surrounding humidity. There is no generally accepted theory for calculating shrinkage. One is there- fore referred to empirical calculations and hence there are many differ- ent methods to calculate shrinkage, with a consequent significant dif- ference in the calculated results. Thus, it is also indicated that the cal- culations are not very accurate. When you refer to the empirical data and have many factors to con- sider, on seek often to establish empirical formulas after additions or multiplication principle. For shrinkage DS / EN 1992-1 -1recommend an equation for a combination of addition and multiplication principle by dividing the total shrinkage strain in the strain from drying shrink- age and strains of autogenous shrinkage, ie.:

14

1. Properties of materials

cs cd ca

(1.15)

where ε cs is the total shrinkage strain ε cd is the strain from drying out shrinkage ε ca is the strain from the autogenous shrinkage

Desiccation shrinkage The strain from drying out shrinkage develops slowly because it is a function of capillary water migration through the concrete and its evaporation to a state of equilibrium with ambient (surrounding) air humidity. The basic amount of strain due to desiccation shrinkage ε cd,0 is calculated by

cd ,0

1,32

220

110

ds 1

exp

ds 2

f

cm

10

  

   

1

where f cm is the middle strength in MPa

  

100 RH

  

3

 

10

6

(1.16)

α ds1 is a coefficient that depends on the type of cement

= 3 for cement class S

= 4 for cement class N

= 6 for cement class R

α ds2 is a coefficient that also depends on the type of cement

= 0,13 for cement class S

= 0,12 for cement class N

= 0,11 for cement class R

RH is the ambient relative humidity in %.

For the relative humidity, may be used as a reasonable estimate:

 In water RH = 100 % Of water RH = 90 % Outdoor RH = 70 % Indoor RH = 50 % Very dry RH = 30 %

The desiccation shrinkage development over time ε cd (t) can be ter- mined by

(1.17)

cd

tds

t,ts khcd,0

ds

,

t t

s

t t

s

t

t s

0,04

h
3
0

(1.18)

where

t is the concrete age in days at the viewed time

1. Properties of materials

15

t s is the concrete age at the beginning of desiccation shrinkage, ie. usually the time when the plastic cover is removed and/or curingens cease to have effect. h 0 is the theoretical size of the cross section in mm k h is a factor which depends on h 0 , see Table 1.1.

Cross-sections theoretical sizes can be found by

h

0

2 A

c

u

(1.19)

where A c is the cross-sectional area of the concrete u is the circumference (the perimeter) of the part of the cross section, which is subjected to desiccation.

Table 1.1:

Value of k h in (1.17)

 h 0 in mm k h 100 1,0 200 0,85 300 0,75 ≥100 0,70

It should be noted that the factor β ds (t,t s ) goes toward 1 when time goes toward infinity, ie. Final desiccation shrinkage no matter what time you let the drying commence, are:

(1.20)

ud

khcd,0

Autogenous shrinkage The strain of autogenous shrinkage develops when the concrete hard- ens, ie. the fastest developing the first days after casting. The strain is a linear function of the concrete strength and its development over time can be found by;

(1.21)

ca tas tca

ca

as

 

t

2,5 fck

10 10

1 exp0,2 t

6

Where t is time in days

(1.22)

(1.23)

 Example 1.2: Given: Calculating of A cross section of 800300 mm is made with concrete C40 and ce- shrinkage ment class N. The member is located outside. After being casted the member is covered in plastic and insulations for 14 days.

16

1. Properties of materials

Desired:

Final drying shrinkage and the total shrinkage after 2 months (= 60 days).

Solution:

C40, so

fck 40 MPa

fcm fck 8 408 48 MPa

Desiccation shrinkage Outdoor environment: RH = 70 % Cement class N:

ds 1

4

ds 2

0,12

cd

,0

1,32

220

1,32

220

0,32 10

3

110

ds 1

exp

ds 2

f

cm

10





 

 

1

110

4 exp

0,12

f

cm

10





 

 

1

RH

100

3

10

6

RH

100

3

10

6

h

0

k

n

2 A

c

2 800 300

u

2 800

300

218mm,

and from table 1.1 is

0,85

0,85

0,75

218

200 200

300

0,83

Final strain:

ds

t , t

s

ud

 

khcd,0

0,83 0,32 10

3

0,27 10

3

t

t s

60

14

t

t s

0,04

60

14

0,04

218
3

0,26

Strain after 60 days

cd

60

ds

t,ts khcd,0

0,26

0,83 0,32 10

3

0,07 10

Autogenous shrinkage Final strain:

ca

 

2,5 fck

10 10

6

2,5 40

10

10

6

0,075 10

  as 60 1   exp 0,2  t   1 Strain after 60 days ca  t  as  t ca     0,79 

exp 
0,2 60

0,79

0,075 10

3

0,06 10

3

3

3

1. Properties of materials

17

Accumulated strain After 60 days

cs

60

d

Final strain

cs

 

cd

60

 

ca

ca

60

0,07 10

 

0,27 10

3

3

0,06 10

3

0,075 10

3

0,13 10

3

0,35 10

3

1.1.7 Creep

As mentioned in section 1.1.5 concrete creeps. In figure 1.5 the strain is shown as a function of time. The time t = 0 is applied the load σ and strain grows momentarily to c0 . For small tensions; c0 = σ/E, and over time the growth of strain as illustrated in fig. 1.5 (and in fig. 1.4).

Figure 1.5:

Strain as a function of time

The growth cc is the creep strain that can be attributed

cc

E

where φ is creep figure

The total amount of strain is found as

c

co

cc

E

1

(1.24)

(1.25)

The effective modulus of elasticity E c,eff defined in terms of total strain c can be found through (1.25) of

E

c eff

,

E

c

1

(1.26)

In practical calculations used secant modulus of elasticity, ie. in (1.26) is added E = E cm given by (1.13). Is the creep coefficient known, the effective modulus of elasticity can be found. The value is then used in the calculation of, for example, deflection of beams. The creep coeffi- cient (t,t 0 ) at the time t, when the load is applied at the time t 0 , can according to DS/EN-1992 be estimated as:(notice the word: estimate this tells that we can expect great variations in concretes behaviour)

18

1. Properties of materials

t,t0

t,t0

(1.27)

where

φ is the final creep coefficient, or the theoretical creep coefficient, as it is called in DS/EN 1992-1-1 (t,t 0 ) is a coefficient to describe the development of creep with time after loading.

The final creep coefficient is estimated from

(1.28)

RH

fcm

t0

The first factor is taking into account the relative humidity in the sur- rounding environment by

RH

    1

1

1  RH
/ 100
0,1
3 h
0
1  RH / 100
 
1
2
0,1
3
h
0

for f

cm

for f

cm

35MPa

35MPa

(1.29)

where RH is the relative humidity in the surrounding environment in %.

Usually one assumes RH = 50 % for dry indoor environment RH = 80 % for outdoor environment h 0 is the theoretical size of the cross-section (see 1.19) and α 1 and α 2 are coefficients given by

1

2

35

f

cm

 

0,7

35

f

cm

0,2

f

cm

f

cm

inMPa

inMPa

(1.30)

(1.31)

The second factor takes into account the concrete strength by

f

cm

16,8

f
cm

f

cm

inMPa

(1.32)

The third factor takes into account the concretes age when applying the load at the time t 0 in days from

t

0

1

0,2

0

0,1 t

(1.33)

One is usually interested in the final creep coefficient. If you want to follow the time flow or want to find the creep coefficient at the time t, it is possible to find a useful expression for (t,t 0 ) in DS/EN 1992-1.1.

1. Properties of materials

19

The above standing is valid for cement class N. In DS/EN 1992-1-1 there is given a possibility to adjust to another cement class and a pos- sibility to find a temperature adjusted age at the time of loading. As mentioned in the description of modulus of elasticity and creep coefficient, the variations can be significant and describing concrete to- tally only by its strength alone is not possible. The determination of de- flections is therefore not very accurate, but for a normal assessment of structures ,the long term deflection can be estimated on the safe side, if the final creep coefficient is set to 3, so one can use

E

c eff

,

E

c

E

cm

4

(1.34)

This rule is usually on the safe side, meaning that the found deflections are too big, especially for outdoor structures and stronger types of con- crete. In these cases it is possible to find a more accurate deflection by determining the final creep coefficient as described here, but the best solution is to test the actual type of concrete.

Example 1.3:

 Given: A cross section of ment class N. 800300 mm is made with concrete C40 and ce- Desired:

The final creep coefficient when the member is located indoor and outdoor, and the load is applied after 28 days.

Solution:

First find the two α factors

1

2

35

f

cm

 

0,7

35

f

cm

 

0,2

 

40 35

8   

0,7

40 8

35

0,2

0,80

0,94

h 0 = 218 mm, see example 1.2

Then φ RH is found for RH = 50 % and RH = 80%

RH = 50 %:
RH
1
100
1
 
 RH
1
2
0,1
3
h
0

RH = 80 %:

50
1
 
100
1
0,80 0,94
 1,56
0,1 218
3
 

20

1. Properties of materials

RH

Influence from concrete strength

1,19

16,8
16,8
f
 2,42
cm
f
40
 8
cm

And finally the influence from the time of applying the load:

t

0

1

1 0,49

28

0,2

0,2

0

0,1 t

0,1

Thereafter the final creep coefficients are found

 RH  50 %:  RH  fcm t0  1,56  2,42  0,49  1,85 RH  80 %:  RH  fcm t0  1,19  2,42  0,49  1,41

1.1.8 Thermal expansion coefficient

Concrete's thermal expansion coefficient is normally set to

10

5

m m K

For steel’s thermal expansion is normally used 1,2 · 10 -5 m/(m · K). The difference is so small that you can ignore the tensions caused by differen- tial expansion. One should rather be aware of coercion forces (forced forces) from un- even heating. These temperature tensions can be significant.

1. Properties of materials

21

1.1.9 Overview

Concrete strength divided into strength classes corresponding to the characteristic cylinder strength. Calculations are carried out with con- crete strengths corresponding to these strength classes. table 1.2 shows values for the different strength parameters corresponding to these strength classes.

 Strength class f ck (MPa) 12 16 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 70 80 90 f ck,cube 15 20 25 30 37 45 50 55 60 67 75 85 95 105 (MPa) f cm 20 24 28 33 38 43 48 53 58 63 68 78 88 98 (MPa) f ctm 1,6 1,9 2,2 2,6 2,9 3,2 3,5 3,8 4,1 4,2 4,4 4,6 4,8 5,0 (MPa) f ctk, 0,05 1,1 1,3 1,5 1,8 2,0 2,2 2,5 2,7 2,9 3,0 3,1 3,2 3,4 3,5 (MPa) f ctk, 0,95 2,0 2,5 2,9 3,3 3,8 4,2 4,6 4,9 5,3 5,5 5,7 6,0 6,3 6,6 (MPa) E cm 27 29 30 31 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 41 42 44 (GPa) E c∞ 6,8 7,2 7,5 7,9 8,2 8,5 8,8 9,0 9,3 9,6 9,8 10,2 10,6 10,9 (GPa

Tabel 1.2: Concrete’s strength parameters.

22

1. Properties of materials

1.2 Reinforcement

The reinforcement can be divided into two main groups. Reinforce- ment for pre-stressed concrete structures and reinforcement for tradi- tionally reinforced concrete structures. The reinforcement of pre-stressed concrete comes in two forms. Strings are used to pre-tensioned concrete and cables used for post- tensioned concrete. The steel used in pre-stressed concrete is a special steel with very high strengths. The strengths of reinforcement for pre-stressed concrete is so high that they cannot be used in ordinary concrete structures, so one have to carry out tensioning in order to get benefit from the high forces. In ad- dition, pre-stressed reinforcement types very diverse and are often pa- tented with special systems for clamping and fixing of the pre-stressed reinforcement. For further details, please refer to the companies. Pre- stressed reinforcement is dealt with in the DS / EN 10138 and DS / EN 1992-1-1, and will not be further discussed here. For other (traditionally) reinforced concrete structures, one distin- guished between rib steel, surface corrugated profiled steel and smooth structural steel. The DS / EN 1992-1-1 only applies to ribbed and weldable rein- forcement, including welded mesh. Welded mesh is rebar’s delivered "ready-bonded" by tack welding. Surface Corrugated steel bars can be used in precast concrete where the detailed rules for their use can be found in the relevant product standards. Plain (smooth) structural steel was previously widely used for rein- forcement of concrete structures, but ae now more or less been discon- tinued. With the European concrete standard DS / EN 1992-1-1 the fi- nal step to leave the plain reinforcing was taken. Plain reinforcement was provided typically as what is known as mild (soft) steel, ie. with low forces, but with very large elongations to break. The additional price and the advantages of using reinforcement with higher forces are so great that the reinforcement of such types is in use today mostly. However, the plain reinforcement ability to be bent on small bending radii and its ability to bend back and forth several times is being missed now and then. That is why the National Annex from 2011 in- troduced rules for the use of reinforcement with plain surfaces, see sec- tion 1.2.1. However, the economically advantageous higher reinforce- ment strengths, requires better anchoring conditions than we have for plain rebars. Hence why reinforcement with high strengths are made of of ribbed steel with associated anchoring, according to rules in DS / EN 1992-1-1, see chapter 3. Reinforcing the standard DS / EN 10080 states the properties that characterize reinforcement and the test methods to be used to demon- strate the properties. The requirements for the properties of the rein-

1. Properties of materials

23

forcement can be used in conjunction with DS / EN 1992-1-1 is indi- cated in DS / EN 1992-1-1. The slack reinforcement is also characterized by

the tensile yield strength or 0.2 percentage tension

ductility

anchorability

allowable bending diameter

manufacturing process.

For reinforcement with distinct yield strength the tensile strength f y is specified as the upper limit of the tensile yield strength, see figure 1.6. After some yielding tension increases again - the occurrence of a strain hardening happens. After the maximum tension (= tensile strength f t ) is achieved, a decrease in the tension of growing strains happens. The strain at maximum force is described as Ԑ u .

Figure 1.6:

Typical stress-strain diagram for steel with a distinct yield strength

For reinforcement without distinct yield strength, apply f 0,2 -tension as ten- sile yield strength f y . f 0,2 is the tension there by a unloading would provide 0.2 % permanent elongation, see figure 1.7.

Figure 1.7:

Typical stress-strain diagram for steel without a distinct yield strength

On the basis of multiple measurements of yield stresses f y , tensile strengths f t and strain at maximum force Ԑ u the corresponding characteristic values

24

1. Properties of materials

of 5% and 10% fractile is determined, as defined in section 1.1.2 for con- crete compressive strength. It is to such values being required in DS/EN

1992-1-1.

When speaking about the strength of reinforcement - whether in the case of yield strength or breaking strength - the tension is calculated from nominal diameters. That is, it is the nominal diameter used in the calcula- tion of strengths etc. regardless of the actual diameter that naturally may vary due to manufacturing tolerances. DS / EN 1992-1-1 is working with reinforcement in three classes called class A, class B and class C. Some of the requirements are given in Table 1.3.

Table 1.3:

Overview of some of the requirements for reinforcement

 Product Rebars, straightened Fractile Reinforcement and welded mesh (%) Class A B C Characteristic yield strength f yk or f 0,2 (MPa) 400 - 600 5,0 Minimum value of k = (f t /f y ) k 1,05 ≥ 1,08 ≥ 1,15 10 ≥ < 1,35 Characteristic strain at maximum force, ε uk (%) ≥ 2,5 ≥ 5,0 ≥ 7,5 10

It is noted that it separates the three classes is their ductility. It is such that the class C reinforcement aim primarily of use in earthquake im- pacts, where high ductility helps to provide high energy absorption and large strain at break. class B reinforcement is intended to apply in rela- tion to DS / EN 1992-1-1 and calculations are based on the theory of plasticity. Class A reinforcement has a more limited use. It can be used in some cases and the issue is discussed in section 2.3.2. To all reinforcement types applies, that the computational basis for the characteristic line of work - according to DS/EN 1992-1-1 - is as- sumed to consist of two straight lines, as shown in fig. 1.8. It is stated in DS/EN 1992-1-1 that if this assumption is followed - what it has to according to the danish annexe - you do not need to control the strain limit.

Figure 1.8:

Characteristic stress- strain relation for use in DS/EN 1992-1-1

The characteristic value of the modulus of elasticity of reinforcement is set to E sk = 200 . 10 3 MPa.

1. Properties of materials

25

The strain at the beginning yielding y corresponding to the charac- teristic yield strength are by;

y

f yk

E sk

(1.35)

In order to prevent damage to the reinforcement, limits on how small bending diameters may be used in the design of the reinforcement of the structures are set. The minimum diameter as a reinforcing bar di- ameter ø must be bent over the (dowel bar diameter) is given in DS/EN 1992 - 1-1 and are shown in Table 1.4.

Table 1.4:

Minimum dowel bar diameter to avoid damaging the reinforcement

 Bar diameter Smallest dowel diameter ø ≤ 16 mm 4 ø ø > 16 mm 7 ø

For welded mesh there are also limitations on the dowel diameters, depending on bar diameter and distance to the crossbar. Refer to DS / EN 1992-1-1.

1.2.1 Special conditions for reinforcement with plain surface

As previously mentioned the danish national annex has introduced rules, making it possible to use reinforcement with plain surface to- gether with DS/EN 1992-1-1. Reinforcement with plain surface must be manufactured as structur- al steel according to DS/EN 10025-2 or as reinforcement steel accord- ing to DS/EN 10080. Structural steel must be of the types S235, S275 or S355. The lower limit for the yield strength described in table 1.3 is not valid for plain reinforcement and the yield stress must not exceed 250 MPa is forces are planned to be transferred from reinforcement to con- crete by bonding. The characteristic yield strength for structural steel according to DS/EN 10025-2 can, for diameters up to and including 16 mm be set to respectively 235 MPa, 275 MPa and 355 MPa for the steel types S235, S275 and S355. For plain reinforcement according to DS/EN 10080 table 1.3 is also valid, except the limits for yield strength. The lower limit is not valid and the characteristic yield strength must be lower than 500 MPa. For plain reinforcement, it is necessary to introduce special rules for anchoring. As plain reinforcement is seldom used as main reinforce- ment, this topic is not covered in this book. The rules are the same as the ones introduced in the exceeded Danish standards and can be found in e.g. Bjarne Chr. Jensen: Concrete Structures according to DS 411, 3, edition and Teknisk Ståbi 19. Edition (only available in Danish).

26

1. Properties of materials

As mentioned, it is possible to bend plain reinforcement more than ribbed reinforcement. Instead of table 1.4, one must use table 1.5.

Table 1.5:

Minimum dowel bar diameter for plain reinforcement

 Bar diameter Smallest dowel diameter ø ≤ 12 mm 2 ø ø > 12 mm 3 ø

1.3 Environmental conditions

The previous part of this section is intentionally not translated

1.3.3 Crack widths

In areas with tensile in steel- reinforced concrete, cracks will occur in the concrete. In such load caused cracking is a kind of “self-healing ef- fect, which among other things is due to un-hydrated cement, contin- ues to hydrates. However if the crack width is too large, there is a dan- ger of corrosion of the reinforcement. Therefore, it is recommended that one limit the width of the load-caused cracks. However, there is no clear relationship between the width of the cracks and the corrosion hazards. Therefore you see different countries many different proposals for maximum crack widths. Simultaneously there is very wide dispersal on crack widths, and they are very hard to calculate. DS / EN 1992-1-1 recommend some calculated maximum crack widths, depending on environmental classes and it also forward in- structions on estimation of crack widths, see Section 4.2.5.3. The recommended calculated maximum crack widths from DS / EN 1992-1-1 is seen in table 1.7.

Table 1.8:

Recommended, calculated maximum crack widths

 Environmental class Un-stressed Prestressed reinfocement reinforcement Extra aggressive 0,2 mm 0,1 mm Aggressive 0,3 mm 0,2 mm Moderate 0,4 mm 0,3 mm

27

2

Principles of calculation

2.1 Use and failure modes

Calculation of load-bearing structures include two different situations. Partly, by calculating, it is assessed whether structures behave ap- propriately under normal use. E.g. a floor partition does deflect too much, or that there are no unwanted cracks in the structures. This situa- tion is called the serviceability state. Partly, by calculating, assessing whether structures have the neces- sary safety against failure. This is done by conducting a failure struc- tural calculation. This situation is called the ultimate state. For calcula- tions in ultimate state, securities are introduced, ie. the calculations are typically carried out with greater loads than those that occur and with material strengths that are lower than those that occur.

2.2 Safety

When theories or empirical formulas are established for bearing capac- ities and these should be compared with tests, one must use the present forces. However, the present forces are not well-defined sizes. Two major problems arise immediately. How are strength parameters de- termined and how large correlation is there between the measured strengths and the strengths of the current structure? Compressive and tensile strengths are determined after carefully de- scribed methods (see, for example. Sections 1.1.2 and 1.1.3). Based on these average values are calculated as the best estimate of the present strength. These strengths are used, for example, when test results must be evaluated. Calculation methods and formulas are normally based on these "true" values. In order to take into account the random variation in the material properties, the standards are using, as a basis for calculations, the char- acteristic strengths see section 1.1.2. These strength parameters are named with the index k. The strengths used in calculations, are called design strengths, and they appear as one of the characteristic strengths divided with partial factors. Together with the partial factors on the loads, is hereby granted a guarantee against breakage. The design strengths depend on the load combinations, the level and types of failure and hence whether it is re- inforced or non-reinforced concrete structures. The design strength pa- rameters are referred to with the index d (d = design). For concrete, the same partial factor for compressive strength and modulus of elasticity are used, while using a larger partial factor of tensile strength, see below. An example of the basic relationship be- tween stresses and strains is shown in fig. 2.1.

28

2. Principles of calculation

Figure 2.1:

Principal stress-strain relation for concrete

Design

Average

Characteristic

For reinforcement is used a design modulus of elasticity that is equal to the characteristic, whereby the design yield strain should be less than the characteristic yield strain. The design yield strain ε yd is thereby

yd

f yd

E sd

(2.1)

Fig. 2.2 shows the correlation between characteristic and design related work line.

Figure 2.2:

Principal working

lines for

reinforcement

The design strengths are generated by the characteristic forces by divi- sion with a material partial factor γ M , for reinforcing the index s and the concrete index c instead of M. Table 2.1 shows an overview of the de- sign strengths. It is noted that the reinforcement tensile and compres- sive forces are considered equal.

Table 2.1:

Design value of forces

 reinforcement concrete tension compression f yd f yd f yk    s yk f   f ctd f cd f ctk c  f ck  s  c modulus of E sd  E sk E  E ck elasticity cd  c

2. Principles of calculation

29

Material partial factors γ M laid down according to DS / EN 1990

(2.2)

where γ 1 take into account the failure type (unwarned failure or warned fail- ure with or without security reserve) γ 2 takes into account the uncertainty of the calculation γ 3 takes into account the control class γ 4 takes into account the variation in the strength parameters or meas- ured load bearing capacity.

M

12

34

The factor γ 4 depends as mentioned by the random variability in the material properties. The variation is less for concrete in precast con- crete elements than it is for concrete in situ cast concrete structures. Therefore, the partial factors for concrete in precast concrete are small- er than they are for concrete in structures, cast on site. The variation of the concrete compressive strength is less than the variation of the ten- sile strength of concrete, therefore, the partial coefficient for concrete tensile strength is greater than that of concrete compressive strength and modulus of elasticity. Failure type of concrete (γ 1 ) in unreinforced structures is unan- nounced as they are announced in reinforced concrete, so there is a dif- ference between the partial factors for reinforced and unreinforced concrete. It is also possible to assess the prefabricated concrete elements safe- ty by performance test. This eliminates uncertainty in the calculation models. You could say that one has come the elements usage even closer when the force is assessed. This means that the partial factors on the carrying ability found by functional tests of precast concrete ele- ments is different from the partial factors used in calculating the bear- ing capacities of precast concrete elements. In the concrete standard DS/EN 1992-1-1 the individual factors size is considered, so that only γ 3 is determined in current projects.

2.2.1 Structures cast in situ

Partial factors for use in the calculation of concrete cast on site are found of

 Compressive strength and modulus of elasticity of reinforced concrete γ c = 1,45 γ 3 (2.3) Compressive strength and modulus of elasticity of unreinforced concrete γ c = 1,60 γ 3 (2.4) Tensile strength of concrete γ c = 1,70 γ 3 (2.5) Reinforcement strengths γ c = 1,20 γ 3 (2.6)

The factor γ 3 takes into account the inspection level prescribed in the project. What is required of control in each level are described in

30

2. Principles of calculation

DS/EN 13670 and associated standards. Correlation between γ 3 and in- spection level is available in table 2.2.

Table 2.2:

γ 3 in dependency of the inspectionlevel (KK)

 Inspection level Tightened Normal Relaxed γ 3 0,95 1,00 1,10

Structures located in high consequence class, must not be prescribed in relaxed inspection level. Structures cast in situ is usually performed in normal inspection lev- el (γ 3 )=1,0 and the partial factors are thus as shown in table 2.3.

Table 2.3:

Partial factors for normal inspection level and in-situ cast concrete

γ 3 for normal inspection level

Compressive strength and modulus of elasticity of reinforced concrete Compressive strength and modulus of elasticity of unreinforced concrete Tensile strength of concrete

Strength of reinforcement

1,45

1,60

1,70

1,20

2.2.2 Precast concrete elements calculation

Partial factors for the calculation of prefabricated concrete elements are found of

 Compressive strength and modulus of elasticity of reinforced concrete γ c = 1,40 γ 3 (2.7) Compressive strength and modulus of elasticity of unreinforced concrete γ c = 1,55 γ 3 (2.8) Tensile strength of concrete γ c = 1,60 γ 3 (2.9) Reinforcement strengths γ c = 1,20 γ 3 (2.10)

Table 2.2 concerning the inspection level also applies here. Precast concrete is usually performed in the tightened inspection level (γ 3 = 0,95) and the partial factors are thus as shown in table 2.4.

Table 2.4:

Partial factors for prefabricated structures in tightened inspection level

γ 3 for tightened inspection level

Compressive strength and modulus of elasticity of reinforced concrete Compressive strength and modulus of elasticity of unreinforced concrete Tensile strength of concrete

Strength of reinforcement

1,33

1,47

1,52

1,14

2. Principles of calculation

31

2.2.3 Precast concrete with functional test

Partial factors for use in the provision of prefabricated concrete ele- ments carrying capacity when they are functionally tested, are found by

Performance testing with ductile fracture γ M = 1,20 γ 3 (2.11)

Functional testing of brittle fracture γ M = 1,45 γ 3 (2.12)

Table 2.2 for the inspection levels also applies in connection with the functional tests. Functional testing is rarely used in concrete, but as the rule of sepa- rate partial factors for functional tested precast concrete is new, you might see a development where functional test is gaining ground. It should be noted that the partial factor for ductile fracture only ap- plies to bending fractures if certain specified requirements are met, see DS/EN 1992-1-1. Other fracture modes are regarded as brittle frac- tures.

2.2.4 Statistical evaluation of carrying capacity models

DS / EN 1990 contains an annex about design, based on experiments. It may be relevant in specific cases, where there are no computational models. The annex has also a section on statistical analysis of the car- rying capacity models. On the basis of observations of elements behaviour in experiments and theoretical considerations, a computational model is worked out. This model's validity is checked by a statistical analysis of all test data. Thereafter, if necessary, the calculation model must be adapted until there is sufficient coherence between the theoretical values and the ex- perimental data. A difference in the predictions by using the calculation model, should also be determined from experiments. It is necessary to com- bine this deviation with the deviations of the other variables in the cal- culation model, to get an overall indication of deviations and thus one can calculate the partial factor to be used in conjunction with the calcu- lation model. The procedure is described step by step in DS / EN 1990 and it is new compared to standard systems in Denmark and is so far applied to a new model for unreinforced wall panels, see [17] and Section 7.2.2.

32

2. Principles of calculation

2.3 Dimensioning

2.3.1 Serviceability limit condition/state

The requirements for the serviceability state is called the serviceability limit state. It is worth noting that the DS / EN 1992-1-1 does not pro- vide actual requirements for the serviceability limit state, but says that one should formulate requirements for serviceability state, and that it must be determined whether they are fulfilled or not. In the serviceability limit state it is therefore the designer himself who formulate the requirements, which usually occurs in conjunction with the owner of the structure. When calculating the serviceability limit state, the characteristic material strengths is used and there are no partial factors added on the loads. In some cases, only parts of the moveable load. DS / EN 1992-1-1 gives guidance on how deflections can be con- trolled by calculation or respecting simple design rules are respected. DS / EN 1992-1-1 also recommends some limits on deflections of beams, slabs and cantilevers (see section 4.2.5.2) in its quasi- permanent load combination (quasi = apparently). Serviceability limit states are normally assessed on the loads that are so small compared with the structure's load bearing capacity that it is reasonable to assume that the structures behave as linear elastic struc- tures, ie. assessment of serviceability limit states is generally carried out by using the theory of elasticity.

2.3.2 Ultimate limit state

Fracture limit state calculations consist in calculating whether a de- signs capacity is greater than the applied load, where the partial factors on the strengths is used according to DS/EN 1992-1-1 and on loads ac- cording to DS/EN 1990. In assessing ultimate resistance one must partly find a cross sections bearing capacity and also find the actual internal forces. Both will be described in detail in the following chapters.

Section forces The section forces can be determined by both the theory of elasticity or the theory of plasticity. Elasticity theory has among other things the advantages that it is well known, it allows superposition (addition of different loads effects) and that it can be used to assess the serviceabil- ity state. Disadvantages include that it can be expensive to use, since there seems to appear section force peaks which it is unreasonable to reinforce for, if not demands to crack widths or similar demands it. Fi- nally, it should of course be noted that concrete is not a linear elastic material. As described in Section 1.1.5, the elastic modulus varies with the stresses, ie. it varies in the structure. Second area moments also

2. Principles of calculation

33

vary according to whether the cross sections are cracked or not, and it varies with the amount of reinforcement. A very accurate determina- tion of internal forces by the theory of elasticity is not necessary, of course, one must simply ensure that internal forces are static permissi- ble, ie. they must satisfy the equilibrium conditions. The theory of plasticity has especially the advantage that it is a cal- culation of fracture condition. It provides significantly better potential for exploitation of the reinforcement, so it is usually cheaper to use than the theory of elasticity. Moreover, it is often simpler to use than the theory of elasticity. One drawback, however, is that the serviceabil- ity limit state requires a different calculation, but according to the notes on the theory of elasticity, it does not need to be so accurate. Qualified estimate or simple approximation methods are often sufficient for the serviceability state. Finally, it should of course be mentioned that the theory of plasticity with its advantages may only be utilized when the required plasticity (ie yielding capacity) are present. According to DS/EN 1992-1-1 it re- quires the use of reinforcement in Class B or C unless you can prove that a yielding capacity is present. If fatigue fractures or instability is essential for bearing capacity, the internal forces are determined by the theory of elasticity, since the use of yielding then cannot take place. In connection with the theory of plasticity must include some im- portant concepts:

Static permissible force distributions are section force distributions that meet the equilibrium equations and the static boundary condi- tions.

Secure internal force distributions are distributions that everywhere is less than or equal to the internal forces that may be included in the sections in which they appear

Geometric possible failure figures are deformation conditions that meet compatibility conditions and geometric boundary conditions (compatibility = compatibility, ie. fracture figure must be compati- ble with the material’s and the structure's physical conditions).

Upper bound theorem:

The load, which is found by the work equation for any possible geo- metric fracture, is greater than or equal to the load of the body’s float load.

Lower bound theorem:

The, to a safe and static permissible distribution of forces, associated load is less than or equal to the bodys float load.

34

2. Principles of calculation

Uniqueness theorem:

If there to a load is a corresponding geometric possible fracture figure as well as a safe and static permissible distribution of forces, the load is equal to the bodys float load. By using the work equation are upper values of carrying capacities found, why it is important to find the one that gives the minimum ca- pacity. The minimum is often flat so fracture figures that slightly differ from the one that gives minimum, provide useful values. By using lower bound theorem, lower values of bearing capacity are found, and in this case it is about finding the safe and static distribution of forces which provides the highest load bearing capacity. Lower bound theorem has in fact been used for many years. Many structural parts through th