Special edition for courses within Concrete Structures.
Faculty of Building Technology and Construction
Management
VIA University College Denmark
Bjarne Chr. Jensen
Concrete structures
in accordance with DS/EN199211 2. edition. (Preliminary edition)
Translated extracts from “Bjarne Christian Jensen, Betonkonstruktioner efter DS/EN199211. 2. udgave”
3
Preface to the translated version
At the VIA University College, School of Technology and Business the international exchange students work with projects, where they ap ply engineering principles to practical problems. Furthermore a new study started in 2009  BSc in Civil Engineering with the possibility to specialize within structures  and as a conse quence the need for a good textbook covering basic concrete calcula tion has arisen.
In the search of literature only text books that cover calculation meth ods strictly in accordance with DS/N 199211 came up. However, the Danish textbook “Bjarne Chr. Jensen, Betonkon struktioner efter DS/EN 199211” covers not only methods from DS/EN 1992 11, but also methods included in the Danish National Annex and other well documented methods that are useful in structur al concrete design. Among these methods are for example the stringer method. The choice was to translate extracts from this textbook and the ex tracts have been chosen so as to cover the need from several courses that includes concrete calculations.
The translation has been done by Ernest Müller, MSc. in Construction Management and structural engineers, lecturer BSc. Karsten Völcker and senior lecturer MSc. Pauli Andreasen, all teaching at VIA Univer sity College.
June 2011
Pauli Andreasen
5
Content
All of the sections are not translated in full
1 
Properties of materials 9 

1.1 
Concrete 9 

1.1.4 
Breach condition by multiaxial tension conditions 
9 

1.1.5 
Stressstrain relations for compression and modulus of 

elasticity 11 

1.1.6 
Shrinkage 13 

1.1.7 
Creep 17 

1.1.8 
Thermal expansion coefficient 
20 

1.1.9 
Overview 19 

1.2 
Reinforcement 22 

1.2.1 
Special conditions for reinforcement with plain surface 25 

1.3 
Environmental conditions 
26 

1.3.3 
Crack widths 
26 

2 
Principles of calculation 
27 

2.1 
Use and failure modes 
27 

2.2 
Safety 27 

2.2.1 
Structures cast in situ 
29 

2.2.2 
Precast concrete elements calculation 30 

2.2.3 
Precast concrete with functional test 31 

2.2.4 
Statistical evaluation of carrying capacity models 
31 

2.3 
Dimensioning 32 

2.3.1 
Serviceability limit condition/state 
32 

2.3.2 
Ultimate limit state 32 

3 
Anchorage, laps and detailing of members 
35 

3.1 
Anchoring and overlap 
35 

3.1.1 
Precast concrete elements calculation 38 

3.1.2 
Laps 44 

3.2 
Minimum reinforcement and other rules for reinforcement 50 

3.2.1 
Minimum reinforcement with regard to crack control 
50 

3.2.1.1 
Ties 50 

3.2.1.2 
Pure bending 
50 

3.2.1.3 
Consideration to size and other influences 
51 

3.2.1.4 
Alternative minimum reinforcement 52 

3.2.2 
Other reinforcement rules 
53 

3.2.2.1 
Bending reinforcement in beams 
53 

3.2.2.2 
Shear reinforcement in beams 
54 
6
Content
3.2.2.3 
Torsion reinforcement in beams 
55 

3.2.2.4 
Massive slabs 
55 

3.2.2.5 
Columns 56 

3.2.2.6 
Reinforced walls 56 

3.3 
Spacing 57 

4 
Beams with bending and axial force 59 

4.1 
General 59 

4.2 
Linear Elastic conditions 
60 

4.2.1 
Uncracked cross sections 
61 

4.2.1.1 
Bending 61 

4.2.2 
Generel eguations for cracked cross sections 
64 

4.2.2.1 
Bending 64 

4.2.2.2 
Bending with axial forces 
66 

4.2.3 
Rectangular cross sections 
68 

4.2.3.1 
Bending without compression reinforcement 
68 

4.2.5 
Serviceability limit states 
72 

4.2.5.1 
Stresses 72 

4.2.5.2 
Deflections 73 

4.2.5.3 
Load induced cracking 
76 

4.3 
Ultimate limit state calculations 
79 

4.3.1 
Bending 82 

4.3.1.1 
Rectangular cross sections without compression reinforcement 82 

4.3.1.2 
Rectangular cross sections with compression reinforcement 86 

4.3.1.3 
Tcross section 
88 

4.3.2 
Bending with axial load 
90 

4.3.2.1 
Simple method for normally reinforced cross section 
90 

4.3.2.2 
Rectangular cross section without compression reinforcement 92 

4.3.2.3 
MN interaction diagrams 
96 

5 
Beams and shear 99 

5.1 
Shear reinforced beams 
100 

5.1.1 
Shear theory for shear reinforced beams 100 

5.1.2 
Practical calculations of shear reinforced beams 
104 

5.1.2.1 
The general approach 104 

5.1.2.2 
Dimensioning 107 

5.1.5 
Using different angles for the diagonal concrete strut 
112 

5.2 
Non shearreinforced beams 113 

5.2.1 
Calculation in accordance with DS/EN 199211 
114 

5.2.1.1 
Shear resistance 
114 

5.2.1.2 
The shear force 
115 

5.2.2 
Calculation with great influence from the archeffect 
118 

5.3 
Reinforcement of Tbeams flanges 
120 
Content
7
6 
Torsion 127 

6.1 
Inplane stress conditions in diaphragms 
127 

6.2 
Tensions from torsion 131 

6.2.1 
Thinwalled cross section 
131 

6.2.2 
Massive cross sections 132 

6.2.3 
Complex cross sections 133 

6.3 
Dimensioning of torsion 
134 

6.4 
Combined stresses 137 

6.5 
Assignments 144 

7 
Columns 147 

7.1 
Centrally loaded columns 
148 

7.1.1 
Nonreinforced columns 
149 

7.1.2 
Reinforced columns 151 

7.2 
Unreinforced, eccentric loaded columns 
154 

7.2.1 
Unreinforced columns using formula in 

DS/EN 199211 154 

7.2.2 
Nonreinforced columns after the element formula 158 

7.3 
Reinforced, eccentric loaded columns 160 

7.3.1 
Method based on nominal stiffness 161 

7.3.2 
Simplified method II 166 

7.4 
Biaxial bending with 2 ^{n}^{d} order effects 167 

7.5 
Taking into account the eccentricities 169 

8 
Casting joints 
171 

8.1 
Theoretical resistance 171 

8.2 
Execution of casting joints 
173 

8.2.1 
Indented casting Joints 173 

8.2.2 
Rough, smooth and very smooth casting joints 
174 

8.3 
Casting joint calculations in practice 174 

8.4 
Particular characteristics of element joints 
178 

9. 
Concentrated loads 183 

9.1 
Punching 183 

9.1.1 
The basic control perimeter 
184 

9.1.2 
Resistance without shear reinforcement 
186 

9.2 
Bearing stress 
189 

9.2.1 
General 189 

9.2.2 
Calculation in accordance with DS/EN 199211 
190 

9.2.2.1 
Local crushing 
190 

9.2.2.2 
Transverse tensile forces 
191 

9.2.3 
Calculating in accordance with newer method 
192 

9.2.3.1 
Splitting 192 

9.2.3.2 
Local crushing 
193 

10 
Continuous beams and slabs 
197 

10.1 
Continuous beams 197 

10.2 
Indirect supported beams 
204 

10.3 
Beams and slabs that are casted together 
204 

10.4 
Slabs spanning in one direction (oneway) 
206 
8
Content
10.5 
Slabs spanning in two directions 211 

10.5.1 
A lower bound method 
211 

10.5.2 
Practical approach 214 

11 
The strut and tie model 
221 

11.1 
Method description 221 

11.2 
Corbels 221 

11.3 
General about strut and tie models 223 

11.3.1 
Nodes 223 

11.3.1.1 
Node with hydrostatic pressure 
223 

11.3.1.2 
Node with shear along the reinforcement 226 

11.3.2 
Ties 227 

11.3.3 
Struts 227 

12. 
Stringer Calculations 
229 

12.1 
Description of Method 
229 

12.2 
Tensile stringers 
242 

12.3 
Compression stringers 
245 

12.4 
The shear fields 
246 

12.5 
Serviceability limit state 
249 

12.6 
Exercises 250 

13 
Literature 253 

13.1 
General literature 
253 

13.2 
Literature about specific subjects 253 
9
1
Properties of materials
1.1 Concrete
The previous part of this section is intentionally not translated
1.1.4 Breach condition by multiaxial tension conditions
Not all stress conditions are uniaxial pull or uniaxial pressure. Since it is impossible to test a material for all of the tension combinations that may be present, one uses a breaking condition. A breakage condition predicts which tension combinations leads to breakage. As breakage condition for concrete, the friction hypothesis with limited tensile strength is used, also called Coulomb modified breach hypothesis. After the friction hypothesis, breaches in sections occur where
(1.7)
where
shear stress in the breach section
c cohesiveness the friction coefficient the angle of friction
normal stress in the breach section
c, and are material constants.
c c tan
The break condition, consisting of the friction hypothesis and the lim ited tensile strength, is depicted in fig. 1.1.
Figure 1.1:
Coulombs modified breach hypothesis and compression tests
Is the breach the condition known, random stress conditions can be ex amined by plotting Mohr tension circles along with breach hypothesis. In fig. 1.1. are written Mohr's circle for the uniaxial compressive that just gives compressive failure.
10
1. Properties of materials
The figure shows that the breach section at a uniaxial compression tests, forms the angle π/4 – /2 with the thrust direction. As it turns out that is almost constant 37 ^{0} , it is seen that the height of the test body must be two times the cross dimension, in order a breakage freely can be developed.
From fig. 1.1 one can find
f c
cos sin
c
1 2
(1.8)
As mentioned above, it turns out that remains almost constant 37 ^{0} . For a concrete, where the compressive strength are known, one is therefore capable of determining the breach condition. With _{} = 37 ^{0} (1.8) becomes to
fc
4c
On the main tension form the breach condition will be
4
1
3
1
f
t
f
c
where _{1} = the largest main tension
_{3} = the smallest main tension
f _{c} 
= compressive strength 
f _{t} 
= tensile strength 
(1.9)
The main Tensions are positive by tensile. In practical calculations, the starting point is the characteristic concrete strengths as described in section 2.2. Particularly interesting is the plane stress conditions where the ten sile strength is set to zero. In this case, the breach condition plotted as in fig. 1.2, and it is noted that the compression strength in one direction is independent of the transverse compression. More about breach con ditions for concrete can be found in [2], [4] and [5].
Figure 1.2:
Break condition by plane stress and tensile strength f _{t} = 0
1. Properties of materials
11
1.1.5 Stressstrain relations for compression and modulus of elasticity
Pressure tests are normally performed as shortterm tests, i.e., tests lasting only a few minutes. Shortterm strength and shortterm stress strain relations are found using such tests. At very small tensions, there is an almost linear correlation between stress σ and strain ε. However, there is a tendency for the stressstrain relation to be curved. The trend becomes clearer at higher tensions. The maximum tension (compressive strength f _{c} ) is achieved for a strain of approx. 2 ‰. For strain beyond the strain that corresponds to the maximum ten sion, the tension drops. When strain reaches the ultimate strain, ε _{c}_{u} , fracture occurs. DS/EN 199211 sets ε _{c}_{u} at 3.5 ‰ for all concrete strengths less than or equal to 50 MPa, while its value decreases for in creasing strengths of high strength concrete. Experiments show, how ever, that there is a very large spread for ultimate strain, which can be come especially great in weak concrete.
Figure 1.3:
Stressstrain relation for concrete in compression
The principal shape of the stressstrain curve is shown in figure 1.3. Through time, various equations have been implemented for this shape. Test results show many variations, and give no indication of one equation being significantly better than the others. The influence from the type and size of aggregates, additives, etc, has a huge impact on the shape. If one is designing a concrete structure where the stressstrain relationship has a significant influence, tests must be carried out in or der to determine the stressstrain curve for the type of concrete speci fied. For a given stressstrain relationship, an initial modulus of elasticity, a secant modulus of elasticity and a tangent modulus of elasticity is de fined, see figure 1.3. DS/EN 199211 has chosen a stress – strain relation given by
12
1. Properties of materials
c
k
c
c 1
c
c 1
2
1
(
k
2)
c
c 1
f
cm
(1.10)
where _{c} is the compressive stress in the concrete _{c} is the strain in the concrete _{c}_{1} is the strain in the concrete at maximum stress
The factor k is determined from
k 1,05 E
cm
c 1
f
cm
(1.11)
where E _{c}_{m} is the secant modulus of elasticity The modulus of elasticity can be determined as
E c
k
c
c
c 1
2
c 1
c
1
(
k
2)
c
c 1
f cm
(1.12)
Decreasing the value of ε _{c} and inserting the expression for k shows that the initial modulus of elasticity is 1,05 times the secant modulus of elasticity. The secant modulus of elasticity is in DS/EN 199211 determined
as
E
cm
22
10
f
cm
0,3
; f _{c}_{m} and E _{c}_{m} in MPa
(1.13)
The value is given as a secant value for a concrete stress equal to 0,4f _{c}_{m} At the same time it is pointed out that the values are for concrete with quartzite aggregates and that the values are approximations, because of the variations in stressstrain relations for different concrete mixtures The modulus of elasticity´s variation with time can be estimated from
E
c
0
k
( ) E
t
c
0
k
f
cm
t
f
cm
0,3
(1.14)
where E _{c}_{0}_{k} (t) and f _{c}_{m} (t) are the values for an age of t days, and E _{c}_{0}_{k} and f _{c}_{m} are values at 28 maturity days. For small tensions, Poisson's Ratio v is usually is set to 0.2. The stressstrain relation for compression depends a lot on the load speed, since creep initially plays a role. Even for very small tensions,
1. Properties of materials
13
permanent deformation is found, and that is why the elasticity limit must be set to zero. Fig. 1.4 shows a typical example of the impact of creep. Curve 1 is the normal shortterm stressstrain relation up to fracture. If we impose a load to a particular stress and let the load remain, the strain will grow. Curve 2 shows the strain after 100 min. and curve 3 is the creep limit (Point A). For tensions above 0.8f _{c} , the creep limit is never accomplished, since fracture occurs before this point (Point B).
Figure 1.4:
Stressstrain relation for compression
For the illustrated example, the longterm strength is 80% of short term strength. The curves are valid for concrete with specific concrete creep conditions. If these are altered the creep limits are altered, and you find other stressstrain relations for different load speeds. Stressstrain relations depend, therefore, on many factors, and the relation to be used in calculations depends on the type of calculation, since different approximations must also be made to facilitate these calculations. To calculate the fracture loadbearing capacity in cross sections, DS/EN 199211 introduces three different stressstrain dia grams for one to choose from; see section 4.3.
1.1.6 Shrinkage
Concrete will usually shrink over time, ie. its volume will be reduced. Four factors are particularly important for shrinkage. The concrete composition, body size, time and the surrounding humidity. There is no generally accepted theory for calculating shrinkage. One is there fore referred to empirical calculations and hence there are many differ ent methods to calculate shrinkage, with a consequent significant dif ference in the calculated results. Thus, it is also indicated that the cal culations are not very accurate. When you refer to the empirical data and have many factors to con sider, on seek often to establish empirical formulas after additions or multiplication principle. For shrinkage DS / EN 19921 1recommend an equation for a combination of addition and multiplication principle by dividing the total shrinkage strain in the strain from drying shrink age and strains of autogenous shrinkage, ie.:
14
1. Properties of materials
cs cd ca
(1.15)
where ε _{c}_{s} is the total shrinkage strain ε _{c}_{d} is the strain from drying out shrinkage ε _{c}_{a} is the strain from the autogenous shrinkage
Desiccation shrinkage The strain from drying out shrinkage develops slowly because it is a function of capillary water migration through the concrete and its evaporation to a state of equilibrium with ambient (surrounding) air humidity. The basic amount of strain due to desiccation shrinkage ε _{c}_{d}_{,}_{0} is calculated by
cd ,0
1,32
220
110
ds 1
exp
ds 2
f
cm
10
1
where f _{c}_{m} is the middle strength in MPa
100 RH
3
10
6
(1.16)
α _{d}_{s}_{1} is a coefficient that depends on the type of cement
= 3 for cement class S
= 4 for cement class N
= 6 for cement class R
α _{d}_{s}_{2} is a coefficient that also depends on the type of cement
= 0,13 for cement class S
= 0,12 for cement class N
= 0,11 for cement class R
RH is the ambient relative humidity in %.
For the relative humidity, may be used as a reasonable estimate:
In water 
RH = 100 % 
Of water 
RH = 90 % 
Outdoor 
RH = 70 % 
Indoor 
RH = 50 % 
Very dry 
RH = 30 % 
The desiccation shrinkage development over time ε _{c}_{d} (t) can be ter mined by
(1.17)
cd
tds
t,ts khcd,0
ds
,
t t
s
t t
s
t
t s
0,04
(1.18)
where
t is the concrete age in days at the viewed time
1. Properties of materials
15
t _{s} is the concrete age at the beginning of desiccation shrinkage, ie. usually the time when the plastic cover is removed and/or curingens cease to have effect. h _{0} is the theoretical size of the cross section in mm k _{h} is a factor which depends on h _{0} , see Table 1.1.
Crosssections theoretical sizes can be found by
h
0
2 A
c
u
(1.19)
where A _{c} is the crosssectional area of the concrete u is the circumference (the perimeter) of the part of the cross section, which is subjected to desiccation.
Table 1.1:
Value of k _{h} in (1.17)
h 
_{0} in mm 
k h 
100 
1,0 

200 
0,85 

300 
0,75 

≥100 
0,70 
It should be noted that the factor β _{d}_{s} (t,t _{s} ) goes toward 1 when time goes toward infinity, ie. Final desiccation shrinkage no matter what time you let the drying commence, are:
(1.20)
ud
khcd,0
Autogenous shrinkage The strain of autogenous shrinkage develops when the concrete hard ens, ie. the fastest developing the first days after casting. The strain is a linear function of the concrete strength and its development over time can be found by;
(1.21)
ca tas tca
ca
as
t
2,5 fck
10 10
1 exp0,2 t
6
Where t is time in days
(1.22)
(1.23)
Example 1.2: 
Given: 

Calculating of 
A cross section of 
800300 
mm is made with concrete C40 and ce 
shrinkage 
ment class N. The member is located outside. After being casted the member is covered in plastic and insulations for 14 days. 
16
1. Properties of materials
Desired:
Final drying shrinkage and the total shrinkage after 2 months (= 60 days).
Solution:
C40, so
fck 40 MPa
fcm fck 8 408 48 MPa
Desiccation shrinkage Outdoor environment: RH = 70 % Cement class N:
ds 1
4
ds 2
0,12
cd
,0
1,32
220
1,32
220
0,32 10
3
110
ds 1
exp
ds 2
f
cm
10
1
110
4 exp
0,12
f
cm
10
1
RH
100
3
10
6
RH
100
3
10
6
h
0
k
n
2 A
c
2 800 300
u
2 800
300
218mm,
and from table 1.1 is
0,85
0,85
0,75
218
200 200
300
0,83
Final strain:
ds
t , t
s
ud
khcd,0
0,83 0,32 10
3
0,27 10
3
t
t s
60
14
t
t s
0,04
60
14
0,04
0,26
Strain after 60 days
cd
60
ds
t,ts khcd,0
0,26
0,83 0,32 10
3
0,07 10
Autogenous shrinkage Final strain:
ca
2,5 fck
10 10
6
2,5 40
10
10
6
0,075 10
as 
60 1 
exp 0,2
t



1 

Strain after 60 days ca t as t 
ca 0,79 

0,79
0,075 10
3
0,06 10
3
3
3
1. Properties of materials
17
Accumulated strain After 60 days
cs
60
d
Final strain
cs
cd
60
ca
ca
60
0,07 10
0,27 10
3
3
0,06 10
3
0,075 10
3
0,13 10
3
0,35 10
3
1.1.7 Creep
As mentioned in section 1.1.5 concrete creeps. In figure 1.5 the strain is shown as a function of time. The time t = 0 is applied the load σ and strain grows momentarily to _{c}_{0} . For small tensions; _{c}_{0} = σ/E, and over time the growth of strain as illustrated in fig. 1.5 (and in fig. 1.4).
Figure 1.5:
Strain as a function of time
The growth _{c}_{c} is the creep strain that can be attributed
cc
E
where φ is creep figure
The total amount of strain is found as
c
co
cc
E
1
(1.24)
(1.25)
The effective modulus of elasticity E _{c}_{,}_{e}_{f}_{f} defined in terms of total strain _{c} can be found through (1.25) of
E
c eff
,
E
c
1
(1.26)
In practical calculations used secant modulus of elasticity, ie. in (1.26) is added E = E _{c}_{m} given by (1.13). Is the creep coefficient known, the effective modulus of elasticity can be found. The value is then used in the calculation of, for example, deflection of beams. The creep coeffi cient (t,t _{0} ) at the time t, when the load is applied at the time t _{0} , can according to DS/EN1992 be estimated as:(notice the word: estimate – this tells that we can expect great variations in concretes behaviour)
18
1. Properties of materials
t,t0
t,t0
(1.27)
where
φ _{∞} is the final creep coefficient, or the theoretical creep coefficient, as it is called in DS/EN 199211 (t,t _{0} ) is a coefficient to describe the development of creep with time after loading.
The final creep coefficient is estimated from
(1.28)
RH
fcm
t0
The first factor is taking into account the relative humidity in the sur rounding environment by
RH
1
1
for f
cm
for f
cm
35MPa
35MPa
(1.29)
where RH is the relative humidity in the surrounding environment in %.
Usually one assumes RH = 50 % for dry indoor environment RH = 80 % for outdoor environment h _{0} is the theoretical size of the crosssection (see 1.19) and α _{1} and α _{2} are coefficients given by
1
2
35
f
cm
0,7
35
f
cm
0,2
f
cm
f
cm
inMPa
inMPa
(1.30)
(1.31)
The second factor takes into account the concrete strength by
f
cm
16,8
f
cm
inMPa
(1.32)
The third factor takes into account the concretes age when applying the load at the time t _{0} in days from
t
0
1
0,2
0
0,1 t
(1.33)
One is usually interested in the final creep coefficient. If you want to follow the time flow or want to find the creep coefficient at the time t, it is possible to find a useful expression for (t,t _{0} ) in DS/EN 19921.1.
1. Properties of materials
19
The above standing is valid for cement class N. In DS/EN 199211 there is given a possibility to adjust to another cement class and a pos sibility to find a temperature adjusted age at the time of loading. As mentioned in the description of modulus of elasticity and creep coefficient, the variations can be significant and describing concrete to tally only by its strength alone is not possible. The determination of de flections is therefore not very accurate, but for a normal assessment of structures ,the long term deflection can be estimated on the safe side, if the final creep coefficient is set to 3, so one can use
E
c eff
,
E
c
E
cm
4
(1.34)
This rule is usually on the safe side, meaning that the found deflections are too big, especially for outdoor structures and stronger types of con crete. In these cases it is possible to find a more accurate deflection by determining the final creep coefficient as described here, but the best solution is to test the actual type of concrete.
Example 1.3:
Given: 

A cross section of ment class N. 
800300 
mm is made with concrete C40 and ce 
Desired: 
The final creep coefficient when the member is located indoor and outdoor, and the load is applied after 28 days.
Solution:
First find the two α factors
1
2
35
f
cm
0,7
35
f
cm
0,2
40 35
8
0,7
40 8
35
0,2
0,80
0,94
h _{0} = 218 mm, see example 1.2
Then φ _{R}_{H} is found for RH = 50 % and RH = 80%
RH = 80 %:
20
1. Properties of materials
RH
Influence from concrete strength
1,19
And finally the influence from the time of applying the load:
t
0
1
1 0,49
28
0,2
0,2
0
0,1 t
0,1
Thereafter the final creep coefficients are found
RH 50 %: 

RH 

fcm 
t0 
1,56 2,42 0,49 1,85 
RH 80 %: 

RH 

fcm 
t0 
1,19 2,42 0,49 1,41 
1.1.8 Thermal expansion coefficient
Concrete's thermal expansion coefficient is normally set to
10
5
m m K
For steel’s thermal expansion is normally used 1,2 · 10 ^{}^{5} m/(m · K). The difference is so small that you can ignore the tensions caused by differen tial expansion. One should rather be aware of coercion forces (forced forces) from un even heating. These temperature tensions can be significant.
1. Properties of materials
21
1.1.9 Overview
Concrete strength divided into strength classes corresponding to the characteristic cylinder strength. Calculations are carried out with con crete strengths corresponding to these strength classes. table 1.2 shows values for the different strength parameters corresponding to these strength classes.
Strength class f _{c}_{k} (MPa) 
12 
16 
20 
25 
30 
35 
40 
45 
50 
55 
60 
70 
80 
90 
f ck,cube 
15 
20 
25 
30 
37 
45 
50 
55 
60 
67 
75 
85 
95 
105 
(MPa) 

f cm 
20 
24 
28 
33 
38 
43 
48 
53 
58 
63 
68 
78 
88 
98 
(MPa) 

f ctm 
1,6 
1,9 
2,2 
2,6 
2,9 
3,2 
3,5 
3,8 
4,1 
4,2 
4,4 
4,6 
4,8 
5,0 
(MPa) 

f ctk, 0,05 
1,1 
1,3 
1,5 
1,8 
2,0 
2,2 
2,5 
2,7 
2,9 
3,0 
3,1 
3,2 
3,4 
3,5 
(MPa) 

f ctk, 0,95 
2,0 
2,5 
2,9 
3,3 
3,8 
4,2 
4,6 
4,9 
5,3 
5,5 
5,7 
6,0 
6,3 
6,6 
(MPa) 

E cm 
27 
29 
30 
31 
33 
34 
35 
36 
37 
38 
39 
41 
42 
44 
(GPa) 

E c∞ 
6,8 
7,2 
7,5 
7,9 
8,2 
8,5 
8,8 
9,0 
9,3 
9,6 
9,8 
10,2 
10,6 
10,9 
(GPa 
Tabel 1.2: Concrete’s strength parameters.
22
1. Properties of materials
1.2 Reinforcement
The reinforcement can be divided into two main groups. Reinforce ment for prestressed concrete structures and reinforcement for tradi tionally reinforced concrete structures. The reinforcement of prestressed concrete comes in two forms. Strings are used to pretensioned concrete and cables used for post tensioned concrete. The steel used in prestressed concrete is a special steel with very high strengths. The strengths of reinforcement for prestressed concrete is so high that they cannot be used in ordinary concrete structures, so one have to carry out tensioning in order to get benefit from the high forces. In ad dition, prestressed reinforcement types very diverse and are often pa tented with special systems for clamping and fixing of the prestressed reinforcement. For further details, please refer to the companies. Pre stressed reinforcement is dealt with in the DS / EN 10138 and DS / EN 199211, and will not be further discussed here. For other (traditionally) reinforced concrete structures, one distin guished between rib steel, surface corrugated profiled steel and smooth structural steel. The DS / EN 199211 only applies to ribbed and weldable rein forcement, including welded mesh. Welded mesh is rebar’s delivered "readybonded" by tack welding. Surface Corrugated steel bars can be used in precast concrete where the detailed rules for their use can be found in the relevant product standards. Plain (smooth) structural steel was previously widely used for rein forcement of concrete structures, but ae now more or less been discon tinued. With the European concrete standard DS / EN 199211 the fi nal step to leave the plain reinforcing was taken. Plain reinforcement was provided typically as what is known as mild (soft) steel, ie. with low forces, but with very large elongations to break. The additional price and the advantages of using reinforcement with higher forces are so great that the reinforcement of such types is in use today mostly. However, the plain reinforcement ability to be bent on small bending radii and its ability to bend back and forth several times is being missed now and then. That is why the National Annex from 2011 in troduced rules for the use of reinforcement with plain surfaces, see sec tion 1.2.1. However, the economically advantageous higher reinforce ment strengths, requires better anchoring conditions than we have for plain rebars. Hence why reinforcement with high strengths are made of of ribbed steel with associated anchoring, according to rules in DS / EN 199211, see chapter 3. Reinforcing the standard DS / EN 10080 states the properties that characterize reinforcement and the test methods to be used to demon strate the properties. The requirements for the properties of the rein
1. Properties of materials
23
forcement can be used in conjunction with DS / EN 199211 is indi cated in DS / EN 199211. The slack reinforcement is also characterized by
• the tensile yield strength or 0.2 percentage tension
• ductility
• anchorability
• allowable bending diameter
• manufacturing process.
For reinforcement with distinct yield strength the tensile strength f _{y} is specified as the upper limit of the tensile yield strength, see figure 1.6. After some yielding tension increases again  the occurrence of a strain hardening happens. After the maximum tension (= tensile strength f _{t} ) is achieved, a decrease in the tension of growing strains happens. The strain at maximum force is described as Ԑ _{u} .
Figure 1.6:
Typical stressstrain diagram for steel with a distinct yield strength
For reinforcement without distinct yield strength, apply f _{0}_{,}_{2} tension as ten sile yield strength f _{y} . f _{0}_{,}_{2} is the tension there by a unloading would provide 0.2 % permanent elongation, see figure 1.7.
Figure 1.7:
Typical stressstrain diagram for steel without a distinct yield strength
On the basis of multiple measurements of yield stresses f _{y} , tensile strengths f _{t} and strain at maximum force Ԑ _{u} the corresponding characteristic values
24
1. Properties of materials
of 5% and 10% fractile is determined, as defined in section 1.1.2 for con crete compressive strength. It is to such values being required in DS/EN
199211.
When speaking about the strength of reinforcement  whether in the case of yield strength or breaking strength  the tension is calculated from nominal diameters. That is, it is the nominal diameter used in the calcula tion of strengths etc. regardless of the actual diameter that naturally may vary due to manufacturing tolerances. DS / EN 199211 is working with reinforcement in three classes called class A, class B and class C. Some of the requirements are given in Table 1.3.
Table 1.3:
Overview of some of the requirements for reinforcement
Product 
Rebars, straightened 
Fractile 

Reinforcement and welded mesh 
(%) 

Class 
A 
B 
C 

Characteristic yield strength f _{y}_{k} or f _{0}_{,}_{2} (MPa) 
400  600 
5,0 

Minimum value of k = (f _{t} /f _{y} ) _{k} 
1,05 
≥ 1,08 
≥ 
1,15 
10 

≥ 
< 1,35 

Characteristic strain at maximum force, ε _{u}_{k} (%) 
≥ 
2,5 
≥ 5,0 
≥ 
7,5 
10 
It is noted that it separates the three classes is their ductility. It is such that the class C reinforcement aim primarily of use in earthquake im pacts, where high ductility helps to provide high energy absorption and large strain at break. class B reinforcement is intended to apply in rela tion to DS / EN 199211 and calculations are based on the theory of plasticity. Class A reinforcement has a more limited use. It can be used in some cases and the issue is discussed in section 2.3.2. To all reinforcement types applies, that the computational basis for the characteristic line of work  according to DS/EN 199211  is as sumed to consist of two straight lines, as shown in fig. 1.8. It is stated in DS/EN 199211 that if this assumption is followed  what it has to according to the danish annexe  you do not need to control the strain limit.
Figure 1.8:
Characteristic stress strain relation for use in DS/EN 199211
The characteristic value of the modulus of elasticity of reinforcement is set to E _{s}_{k} = 200 ^{.} 10 ^{3} MPa.
1. Properties of materials
25
The strain at the beginning yielding _{y} corresponding to the charac teristic yield strength are by;
y
_{}
f yk
E sk
(1.35)
In order to prevent damage to the reinforcement, limits on how small bending diameters may be used in the design of the reinforcement of the structures are set. The minimum diameter as a reinforcing bar di ameter ø must be bent over the (dowel bar diameter) is given in DS/EN 1992  11 and are shown in Table 1.4.
Table 1.4:
Minimum dowel bar diameter to avoid damaging the reinforcement
Bar diameter 
Smallest dowel diameter 

ø ≤ 16 mm 
4 
ø 
ø > 16 mm 
7 
ø 
For welded mesh there are also limitations on the dowel diameters, depending on bar diameter and distance to the crossbar. Refer to DS / EN 199211.
1.2.1 Special conditions for reinforcement with plain surface
As previously mentioned the danish national annex has introduced rules, making it possible to use reinforcement with plain surface to gether with DS/EN 199211. Reinforcement with plain surface must be manufactured as structur al steel according to DS/EN 100252 or as reinforcement steel accord ing to DS/EN 10080. Structural steel must be of the types S235, S275 or S355. The lower limit for the yield strength described in table 1.3 is not valid for plain reinforcement and the yield stress must not exceed 250 MPa is forces are planned to be transferred from reinforcement to con crete by bonding. The characteristic yield strength for structural steel according to DS/EN 100252 can, for diameters up to and including 16 mm be set to respectively 235 MPa, 275 MPa and 355 MPa for the steel types S235, S275 and S355. For plain reinforcement according to DS/EN 10080 table 1.3 is also valid, except the limits for yield strength. The lower limit is not valid and the characteristic yield strength must be lower than 500 MPa. For plain reinforcement, it is necessary to introduce special rules for anchoring. As plain reinforcement is seldom used as main reinforce ment, this topic is not covered in this book. The rules are the same as the ones introduced in the exceeded Danish standards and can be found in e.g. Bjarne Chr. Jensen: Concrete Structures according to DS 411, 3, edition and Teknisk Ståbi 19. Edition (only available in Danish).
26
1. Properties of materials
As mentioned, it is possible to bend plain reinforcement more than ribbed reinforcement. Instead of table 1.4, one must use table 1.5.
Table 1.5:
Minimum dowel bar diameter for plain reinforcement
Bar diameter 
Smallest dowel diameter 

ø ≤ 12 mm 
2 
ø 
ø > 12 mm 
3 
ø 
1.3 Environmental conditions
The previous part of this section is intentionally not translated
1.3.3 Crack widths
In areas with tensile in steel reinforced concrete, cracks will occur in the concrete. In such load caused cracking is a kind of “selfhealing ef fect”, which among other things is due to unhydrated cement, contin ues to hydrates. However if the crack width is too large, there is a dan ger of corrosion of the reinforcement. Therefore, it is recommended that one limit the width of the loadcaused cracks. However, there is no clear relationship between the width of the cracks and the corrosion hazards. Therefore you see different countries many different proposals for maximum crack widths. Simultaneously there is very wide dispersal on crack widths, and they are very hard to calculate. DS / EN 199211 recommend some calculated maximum crack widths, depending on environmental classes and it also forward in structions on estimation of crack widths, see Section 4.2.5.3. The recommended calculated maximum crack widths from DS / EN 199211 is seen in table 1.7.
Table 1.8:
Recommended, calculated maximum crack widths
Environmental class 
Unstressed 
Prestressed 
reinfocement 
reinforcement 

Extra aggressive 
0,2 mm 
0,1 mm 
Aggressive 
0,3 mm 
0,2 mm 
Moderate 
0,4 mm 
0,3 mm 
27
2
Principles of calculation
2.1 Use and failure modes
Calculation of loadbearing structures include two different situations. Partly, by calculating, it is assessed whether structures behave ap propriately under normal use. E.g. a floor partition does deflect too much, or that there are no unwanted cracks in the structures. This situa tion is called the serviceability state. Partly, by calculating, assessing whether structures have the neces sary safety against failure. This is done by conducting a failure struc tural calculation. This situation is called the ultimate state. For calcula tions in ultimate state, securities are introduced, ie. the calculations are typically carried out with greater loads than those that occur and with material strengths that are lower than those that occur.
2.2 Safety
When theories or empirical formulas are established for bearing capac ities and these should be compared with tests, one must use the present forces. However, the present forces are not welldefined sizes. Two major problems arise immediately. How are strength parameters de termined and how large correlation is there between the measured strengths and the strengths of the current structure? Compressive and tensile strengths are determined after carefully de scribed methods (see, for example. Sections 1.1.2 and 1.1.3). Based on these average values are calculated as the best estimate of the present strength. These strengths are used, for example, when test results must be evaluated. Calculation methods and formulas are normally based on these "true" values. In order to take into account the random variation in the material properties, the standards are using, as a basis for calculations, the char acteristic strengths see section 1.1.2. These strength parameters are named with the index k. The strengths used in calculations, are called design strengths, and they appear as one of the characteristic strengths divided with partial factors. Together with the partial factors on the loads, is hereby granted a guarantee against breakage. The design strengths depend on the load combinations, the level and types of failure and hence whether it is re inforced or nonreinforced concrete structures. The design strength pa rameters are referred to with the index d (d = design). For concrete, the same partial factor for compressive strength and modulus of elasticity are used, while using a larger partial factor of tensile strength, see below. An example of the basic relationship be tween stresses and strains is shown in fig. 2.1.
28
2. Principles of calculation
Figure 2.1:
Principal stressstrain relation for concrete
Average
Characteristic
For reinforcement is used a design modulus of elasticity that is equal to the characteristic, whereby the design yield strain should be less than the characteristic yield strain. The design yield strain ε _{y}_{d} is thereby
yd
f yd
E sd
(2.1)
Fig. 2.2 shows the correlation between characteristic and design related work line.
Figure 2.2:
Principal working
lines for
reinforcement
The design strengths are generated by the characteristic forces by divi sion with a material partial factor γ _{M} , for reinforcing the index s and the concrete index c instead of M. Table 2.1 shows an overview of the de sign strengths. It is noted that the reinforcement tensile and compres sive forces are considered equal.
Table 2.1:
Design value of forces
reinforcement 
concrete 

tension compression 
f yd f yd f yk s yk f 
f ctd f cd f ctk c f ck 

s 
c 

modulus of 
E sd E sk 
E E 
ck 
elasticity 
cd 
c 
2. Principles of calculation
29
Material partial factors γ _{M} laid down according to DS / EN 1990
(2.2)
where γ _{1} take into account the failure type (unwarned failure or warned fail ure with or without security reserve) γ _{2} takes into account the uncertainty of the calculation γ _{3} takes into account the control class γ _{4} takes into account the variation in the strength parameters or meas ured load bearing capacity.
M
12
34
The factor γ _{4} depends as mentioned by the random variability in the material properties. The variation is less for concrete in precast con crete elements than it is for concrete in situ cast concrete structures. Therefore, the partial factors for concrete in precast concrete are small er than they are for concrete in structures, cast on site. The variation of the concrete compressive strength is less than the variation of the ten sile strength of concrete, therefore, the partial coefficient for concrete tensile strength is greater than that of concrete compressive strength and modulus of elasticity. Failure type of concrete (γ _{1} ) in unreinforced structures is unan nounced as they are announced in reinforced concrete, so there is a dif ference between the partial factors for reinforced and unreinforced concrete. It is also possible to assess the prefabricated concrete elements safe ty by performance test. This eliminates uncertainty in the calculation models. You could say that one has come the elements usage even closer when the force is assessed. This means that the partial factors on the carrying ability found by functional tests of precast concrete ele ments is different from the partial factors used in calculating the bear ing capacities of precast concrete elements. In the concrete standard DS/EN 199211 the individual factors size is considered, so that only γ _{3} is determined in current projects.
2.2.1 Structures cast in situ
Partial factors for use in the calculation of concrete cast on site are found of
Compressive strength and modulus of elasticity of reinforced concrete 
γ _{c} = 1,45 γ _{3} 
(2.3) 
Compressive strength and modulus of elasticity of unreinforced concrete 
γ _{c} = 1,60 γ _{3} 
(2.4) 
Tensile strength of concrete 
γ _{c} = 1,70 γ _{3} 
(2.5) 
Reinforcement strengths 
γ _{c} = 1,20 γ _{3} 
(2.6) 
The factor γ _{3} takes into account the inspection level prescribed in the project. What is required of control in each level are described in
30
2. Principles of calculation
DS/EN 13670 and associated standards. Correlation between γ _{3} and in spection level is available in table 2.2.
Table 2.2:
γ _{3} in dependency of the inspectionlevel (KK)
Inspection level 
Tightened 
Normal 
Relaxed 

γ 
3 
0,95 
1,00 
1,10 
Structures located in high consequence class, must not be prescribed in relaxed inspection level. Structures cast in situ is usually performed in normal inspection lev el (γ _{3} )=1,0 and the partial factors are thus as shown in table 2.3.
Table 2.3:
Partial factors for normal inspection level and insitu cast concrete
γ _{3} for normal inspection level
Compressive strength and modulus of elasticity of reinforced concrete Compressive strength and modulus of elasticity of unreinforced concrete Tensile strength of concrete
Strength of reinforcement
1,45
1,60
1,70
1,20
2.2.2 Precast concrete elements calculation
Partial factors for the calculation of prefabricated concrete elements are found of
Compressive strength and modulus of elasticity of reinforced concrete 
γ _{c} = 1,40 γ _{3} 
(2.7) 
Compressive strength and modulus of elasticity of unreinforced concrete 
γ _{c} = 1,55 γ _{3} 
(2.8) 
Tensile strength of concrete 
γ _{c} = 1,60 γ _{3} 
(2.9) 
Reinforcement strengths 
γ _{c} = 1,20 γ _{3} 
(2.10) 
Table 2.2 concerning the inspection level also applies here. Precast concrete is usually performed in the tightened inspection level (γ _{3} = 0,95) and the partial factors are thus as shown in table 2.4.
Table 2.4:
Partial factors for prefabricated structures in tightened inspection level
γ _{3} for tightened inspection level
Compressive strength and modulus of elasticity of reinforced concrete Compressive strength and modulus of elasticity of unreinforced concrete Tensile strength of concrete
Strength of reinforcement
1,33
1,47
1,52
1,14
2. Principles of calculation
31
2.2.3 Precast concrete with functional test
Partial factors for use in the provision of prefabricated concrete ele ments carrying capacity when they are functionally tested, are found by
Performance testing with ductile fracture γ _{M} = 1,20 γ _{3} (2.11)
Functional testing of brittle fracture γ _{M} = 1,45 γ _{3} (2.12)
Table 2.2 for the inspection levels also applies in connection with the functional tests. Functional testing is rarely used in concrete, but as the rule of sepa rate partial factors for functional tested precast concrete is new, you might see a development where functional test is gaining ground. It should be noted that the partial factor for ductile fracture only ap plies to bending fractures if certain specified requirements are met, see DS/EN 199211. Other fracture modes are regarded as brittle frac tures.
2.2.4 Statistical evaluation of carrying capacity models
DS / EN 1990 contains an annex about design, based on experiments. It may be relevant in specific cases, where there are no computational models. The annex has also a section on statistical analysis of the car rying capacity models. On the basis of observations of elements behaviour in experiments and theoretical considerations, a computational model is worked out. This model's validity is checked by a statistical analysis of all test data. Thereafter, if necessary, the calculation model must be adapted until there is sufficient coherence between the theoretical values and the ex perimental data. A difference in the predictions by using the calculation model, should also be determined from experiments. It is necessary to com bine this deviation with the deviations of the other variables in the cal culation model, to get an overall indication of deviations and thus one can calculate the partial factor to be used in conjunction with the calcu lation model. The procedure is described step by step in DS / EN 1990 and it is new compared to standard systems in Denmark and is so far applied to a new model for unreinforced wall panels, see [17] and Section 7.2.2.
32
2. Principles of calculation
2.3 Dimensioning
2.3.1 Serviceability limit condition/state
The requirements for the serviceability state is called the serviceability limit state. It is worth noting that the DS / EN 199211 does not pro vide actual requirements for the serviceability limit state, but says that one should formulate requirements for serviceability state, and that it must be determined whether they are fulfilled or not. In the serviceability limit state it is therefore the designer himself who formulate the requirements, which usually occurs in conjunction with the owner of the structure. When calculating the serviceability limit state, the characteristic material strengths is used and there are no partial factors added on the loads. In some cases, only parts of the moveable load. DS / EN 199211 gives guidance on how deflections can be con trolled by calculation or respecting simple design rules are respected. DS / EN 199211 also recommends some limits on deflections of beams, slabs and cantilevers (see section 4.2.5.2) in its quasi permanent load combination (quasi = apparently). Serviceability limit states are normally assessed on the loads that are so small compared with the structure's load bearing capacity that it is reasonable to assume that the structures behave as linear elastic struc tures, ie. assessment of serviceability limit states is generally carried out by using the theory of elasticity.
2.3.2 Ultimate limit state
Fracture limit state calculations consist in calculating whether a de signs capacity is greater than the applied load, where the partial factors on the strengths is used according to DS/EN 199211 and on loads ac cording to DS/EN 1990. In assessing ultimate resistance one must partly find a cross sections bearing capacity and also find the actual internal forces. Both will be described in detail in the following chapters.
Section forces The section forces can be determined by both the theory of elasticity or the theory of plasticity. Elasticity theory has among other things the advantages that it is well known, it allows superposition (addition of different loads effects) and that it can be used to assess the serviceabil ity state. Disadvantages include that it can be expensive to use, since there seems to appear section force peaks which it is unreasonable to reinforce for, if not demands to crack widths or similar demands it. Fi nally, it should of course be noted that concrete is not a linear elastic material. As described in Section 1.1.5, the elastic modulus varies with the stresses, ie. it varies in the structure. Second area moments also
2. Principles of calculation
33
vary according to whether the cross sections are cracked or not, and it varies with the amount of reinforcement. A very accurate determina tion of internal forces by the theory of elasticity is not necessary, of course, one must simply ensure that internal forces are static permissi ble, ie. they must satisfy the equilibrium conditions. The theory of plasticity has especially the advantage that it is a cal culation of fracture condition. It provides significantly better potential for exploitation of the reinforcement, so it is usually cheaper to use than the theory of elasticity. Moreover, it is often simpler to use than the theory of elasticity. One drawback, however, is that the serviceabil ity limit state requires a different calculation, but according to the notes on the theory of elasticity, it does not need to be so accurate. Qualified estimate or simple approximation methods are often sufficient for the serviceability state. Finally, it should of course be mentioned that the theory of plasticity with its advantages may only be utilized when the required plasticity (ie yielding capacity) are present. According to DS/EN 199211 it re quires the use of reinforcement in Class B or C unless you can prove that a yielding capacity is present. If fatigue fractures or instability is essential for bearing capacity, the internal forces are determined by the theory of elasticity, since the use of yielding then cannot take place. In connection with the theory of plasticity must include some im portant concepts:
• Static permissible force distributions are section force distributions that meet the equilibrium equations and the static boundary condi tions.
• Secure internal force distributions are distributions that everywhere is less than or equal to the internal forces that may be included in the sections in which they appear
• Geometric possible failure figures are deformation conditions that meet compatibility conditions and geometric boundary conditions (compatibility = compatibility, ie. fracture figure must be compati ble with the material’s and the structure's physical conditions).
Upper bound theorem:
The load, which is found by the work equation for any possible geo metric fracture, is greater than or equal to the load of the body’s float load.
Lower bound theorem:
The, to a safe and static permissible distribution of forces, associated load is less than or equal to the bodys float load.
34
2. Principles of calculation
Uniqueness theorem:
If there to a load is a corresponding geometric possible fracture figure as well as a safe and static permissible distribution of forces, the load is equal to the bodys float load. By using the work equation are upper values of carrying capacities found, why it is important to find the one that gives the minimum ca pacity. The minimum is often flat so fracture figures that slightly differ from the one that gives minimum, provide useful values. By using lower bound theorem, lower values of bearing capacity are found, and in this case it is about finding the safe and static distribution of forces which provides the highest load bearing capacity. Lower bound theorem has in fact been used for many years. Many structural parts through th
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