Sei sulla pagina 1di 8

BLOCK 3

3.1 BASIC COGNITIVE PROCESSES DEVELOPMENT


Cognitive processes
Cognition: mental operation through which we become knowers (experts) of the
objects and life. (Appropriation).
Processes through which the sensorial inputs is transformed, reduced, elaborated,
stored, retrieved and used in a context.
Basic and superior Cognitive Processes
Perception, attention, memory Language, Thinking Process, Solving Problems.
1. SENSATIONS
Stimulus reception
Immediate effect of the stimulus on the organism.
Fundamentally biological phenomena (physiological processes senses organs)
Stimulus processing
External stimulations are transmitted (CNS) and are transformed on life experiences.
2. PERCEPTION
Information organization information interpretation representation
Perceptive predisposition: we perceive what we expect to see or what fits with our
preconceived ideas about what has meaning.
Perceptual constancy: the perceptive patterns are maintained.
Perception Laws (Gestalt psychology):

3. ATTENTION
We focus the thought in one specific task, is motivated to develop a task, and to reach
a goal

To pay attention: selective recompilation of information of optimal usefulness for the


task that is being developed, resulting an efficient and economic perception for the
actuation.
Select the sensorial information-focus the cognitive activities towards a goal pay
attention

4. MEMORY
Codification: Information is initially registered in a way that the memory can use.
Storage: Mainting of the stored material in the memory.
Retrieval: Localization of the storage material, consciousness and utilization.
Types of memory:
Declarative memory for the objective information (decontextualized) Ex. Names,
faces, dates, etc.
Semantic memory for the general knowledge of the facts related with the world. Ex.
Concepts.
Episodic memory of the individual/personal facts of our life. Ex. A trip, a date
Procedural memory for the motor and executive skills needed to undertake a task.
Reproductive Strategies
Successive repetitions
Mechanical associations
Short-term memory

Elaborative strategies
Include the information in a
reference
framework
(CATEGORIZE)
Relation with other memories
(GROUP)
Conversion
in
an
image
(mnemotic method)
Long-term memory
3.2 DEVELOPMENT OF THINKING: FORMATION OF CONCEPTS AND PROBLEM
SOLVING
Basic and superior cognitive processes
Perception, attention, memory Language, Thinking process, Solving problems
(Scientific and Critical thinking)

Evolutive aspects Theories that explain cognitive changes


Piaget (stages) Vygotsky (loops)
Learning
How and why these changes happen?
-Leaded by age (maturation)
-Leaded by context and experiences (interactions)
Assimilation New information fits on mind structures
Appropriation Use of knowledge in a social context
Mental vs. socio-emotional
Cognitive processes according to Piaget
Scheme: structure that exist in a subjects mind to organize and interpret the
information
Assimilation: mental process that happens when the child incorporates new
knowledge to the previous knowledge.
Accommodation: mental process that happens when the child adjust the information
towards new schemes.
Piagets genetic epistemology:

Highlighting differences
Formal thinking vs. critical and meaningful thinking
Individual discovering vs. social interaction
Self-learning vs. Scaffolding
Assimilation and accommodation vs. appropriation and internalization
Language as a communications of what exists vs. language as thinking tool
Cognitive change
Simple structures and strategies are replaced by more complex
Isolated knowledge towards integrated knowledge

Progressive reorganization of knowledge and a higher capacity to solve problems and


to interact with the context.
Loops (Overlaping Waves Model-Siegler)
Learning implies advances and retreats and depends both on qualitative and
quantitative aspects.
Substantial variability of representations
Progressive introduction of new approaches
Different strategies among children
Different strategies from and individual to solve problems
Changes in the frequency and priority
Learning dimensions
Path of learning
Rate of learning
Breadth of learning
Source of learning
Variability of learning
Cognitive Skills (Sincoff y Stenberg, 1989)

Factors of cognitive change


Combination of different functions, executive and metacognitive process
Experience exert an important influence on how children reorganize knowledge
Metacognition is particularly relevant in school-aged children
Feedback is also central

Critical thinking
Is a way of approaching and solving problems based on arguments persuasive, logical
and rational.
Involves verifying, evaluating and choosing the right answer to a given task and
reasoned rejection of other alternatives solutions
An active process, coordinated, complex, which involves thought.
Stages of development of critical thinking are: Evocation, Realization of meaning,
Reflection
Problem solving
a)
Determining the nature of the problem
b)
Selecting the components of the appropriate performance to solve the problem
c)
Selecting an adequate strategy to combine the components of the performance
d)
Selecting one or more representation of the relevant information to solve the
problem in a limited time
e)
Decide how to use their sources of a processing
f)
Monitoring their performance
g)
Interpreting the feedback about the efficacy of their efforts
h)
Deciding how to act according to the feedback received
i)
Change their performance according to the feedback received.
Steps in school activities
To create previous conceptions of the task in a meaningful and challenging situation
(situated and contextualized learning)
Understand the situation and the sense of it
Evaluate different strategies, explore alternatives and experience in an interactive
situation.
Domain of the action, internalization, automation.

Consolidation
Assessment and meaningful use of knowledge and transference.
Aspects to take into account when planning educational activities
ZDP (progressive process)
Individual differences (five dimensions)
Previous ideas (not wrong ideas)
Meaningful and authentic activities
Variety of experiences and time (quantity and quality)
Variety of contexts
Integration of emotions, judgement, values, physical and cognitive aspects.
Motivation, feedback and cognitive and metacognitive processes.
3.3 THINKING LANGUAGE
Development of the linguistic competence
Phonology
Semantic
Basic
units
of Meaning
sound (phonemes) symbols

Sintaxis
Pragmatic
an Grammatical rules Abilities
to combine words
efficiently
communicate

to

Human beings need to learn four kinds of knowledge to develop the linguistic
competence.
1. Language development
Development of the linguistic competence

Linguistic competences development


1. Pre-linguistic or pre-verbal development (0-2 years old):
Vowel expressions (babble) and verbal (echolalia)
2. Linguistic or verbal (from 3 years old):
Before express themselves, they understand

Sequential language
HolophraseTelegraphic
talkVocabulary
comprehensiongrammatikpragmatic (dialogue-conversation)

and

2. Thinking and language


Thinking and language are developed in a dialectical interrelation, the speech
structures become basic structures of thought.
Language development allows the development of the superior psychological functions
(self-regulation) Vigotsky.
PIAGET:
Differentiates the egocentric talk which is not directed to anyone neither is adapted to
the others comprehension.
Language illustrates the existing schemes, but it doesnt have a significant role on the
cognitive development, nether helps the child to construct new structures.
VIGOTSKY:
Talk moves form the social world to the private speech and afterwards, it becomes
clandestine transforming into internal speech, accomplishing the function of cognitive
self-direction.
The egocentric talk reflects the transition from the pre-linguistic reasoning to the verbal
one. The function of this kind of private or from oneself talk is to help the child to
regulate his/her behavior and to solve problems (regulative function of the language).
Transversal objectives of the curriculum to any learning
Representation
Analysis, synthesis, classification, abstraction
Logic reasoning
Critical thinking
Problem resolution
Comprehension and expression of thoughts and feelings
Self-regulation of the behavior (guide and plan the own actions)
School: language improvement
Increase vocabulary, morphologic knowledge and metalinguistic conscience
Grammatical rules and complex sintatical structures domain
Learning of concepts and symbols
Development of linguistic competences (oral and written expression)
Alphabetization
Educative influence mechanisms
Progressive construction of meaning systems:

The teacher must connect with the content representation that the students have and
help them to modify it.
Students should modify their initial representations so that the new ones become rich
and complex, and that can be learned and assumed.
Initially, the teacher strategically makes a renounce in order to reach a shared system
of meanings and representations.
This process is possible essentially because of the spoken language.
Vocabulary acquisition
Influencing factors
Educative strategies
Frequency in the use of words
Take profit of the quotidian situations
The words place in the context of Use the language in a diverse way
interactions
Enrich the vocabulary
Sensibility to the adequate moments
Use language in different interaction
Reachable difficulty level
contexts
Ask and listen, let them express, provide
feedback
Self-regulation through language
Influencing factors
Adults ability to act as a model
Ability to present problems that require
thinking
Ability in the transfer of a task realization

Educative strategies
-Metacognitive self-interrogation patterns
-Think in loud voice
-Ask aspects that require self-regulation
(procedures, games description, etc.)
-Talk about what they have done during
day
and
ask
for
a
temporal
sequence/order
-Talk about the consequences of
possible actions
-Organization of the free time; class
tasks, home collaboration, etc.
Audiovisual material recommended to study the development of the writing process.
Conclusions
Linguistic competences development start with the birth (natural conditionings) and
improve through education.
Language and thought are developed in a dialectical interrelation, talk structures are
converted into basic thinking structures (inter-intra).
The language improvement requires the learning of a variety of knowledge, which has
to be taught in interactive contexts through authentic tasks, with practical sense
(contextualized).