Sei sulla pagina 1di 37

Isaac Gamble

HUSH/Fall 15
Mrs. Giresi
Portfolio Narrative

a. Explain Virginias development, including the Virginia Company, tobacco cultivation
b. Explain the reasons for French settlement of Quebec. (41)
c. Analyze the impact of location and place on colonial settlement, transportation, and
economic development; include the southern, middle and New England colonies.
d. Explain the development of mercantilism and the trans-Atlantic trade. (75-76)
e. Describe the Middle Passage, growth of the African population and African-American
culture. (68-71)
After European colonists started to arrive in America, they started settling in colonies like
Virginia. Jamestown (which was in Virginia) was the first successful English colony. It
was started by a joint-stock company owned by wealthy businessmen called the
Virginia Company, who were looking for gold. No gold was found, and the colony
almost failed completely until the cash crop tobacco became profitable and saved the
colony. This process of using colonies for profit was the first example of mercantilism in
America. The colonies in New England had poor soil, which made farming hard, so they
developed a fishing-based economy. The middle colonies were also called the bread
colonies due to the great amount of grain they produced. The southern colonies main
products were rice, indigo, and tobacco. They utilized African slave labor to maximize
production and profit. Slaves were coming to America from Africa through the Middle
Passage, the grueling ocean journey that many Africans died on. This increase in slaves
also brought over a rich and unique African culture. Meanwhile, the French were settling
in Quebec largely due to fur trading, but also to find a new passage and to spread
Catholicism. The British did not want any of their colonies to trade with other countries,
but the Dutch violated this rule, which resulted in the Navigation Acts. Eventually, the
American colonists started getting fed up with the British rule and all of their acts, such
as the Stamp Act and the Intolerable Acts.

Joint Stock Company
Virginia Company
Cash Crop
Middle Passage
Navigation Acts
Stamp Act
Intolerable Acts
Staple Crop

a. Explain the development of the House of Burgesses, Bacons Rebellion
b. Identify Benjamin Franklin as a symbol of social mobility and individualism
c. Explain how the end of Anglo-French imperial competition as seen in the French
and Indian War and the 1763 Treaty of Paris laid the groundwork for the
American Revolution.
The first representative body in colonial America was being formed at this time, called
the House of Burgesses. Its first meeting was in 1619 in Jamestown, Virginia. In 1676,
Nathaniel Bacon led Virginia settlers in Bacons Rebellion against governor William
Berkeley. A large factor that led to the rebellion was Berkeleys refusal to react to Native
American attacks against settlers. Benjamin Franklin spread the concept of social
mobility through his own life story of being born into a poor family and eventually
becoming a founding father of the US. The Treaty of Paris(1763) ended the territorial
dispute between Great Britain and France in North America, however the treaty gave the
British government control over all the colonies, angering many colonists. Also
happening was the Proclamation of 1763, another factor in the colonists starting to think
of a revolution. Now colonists could not settle past a line drawn along the Appalachian
Mountains. The colonies were getting more and more restricted by England, and they
were getting more and more frustrated.

House of Burgesses
Bacons Rebellion
Benjamin Franklin
Social Mobility
Treaty of Paris
Proclamation of 1763
Halfway Covenant
Mayflower Compact
Royal Colony
Salutary Neglect
Albany Plan of Union
Committees of Correspondence

a. Describe the settlement of New England including religious reasons, religious
tensions that led to colonies such as Rhode Island, the half-way covenant, Salem
Witch Trials, and the loss of Massachusetts charter.
b. Explain the significance of the Great Awakening.
c. Explain the importance of Thomas Paines Common Sense to the movement for
Puritans started to settle in the New England colonies, however their life style was very
strict and demanding. The Puritans also were not tolerant of other religions than their
own. These factors led to the creation of Rhode Island, which was more tolerant and less
strict than other New England colonies. In response to this, Puritan ministers issued a
Half-Way Covenant to get more people back in the pews. This was aimed at children
and grandchildren primarily. The Salem Witch Trials occurred in the 1690s, where over
100 people were accused of witch craft and 19 of which were hanged. This infamous
event happened due to the extreme faith of the colonists. Four years before these events,
the Massachusetts Charter was cancelled by the king of England, which would have
made it an independent colony. This also resulted in a more centralized authority, which
angered the colonists. The Great Awakening started to happen in the 1700s, which
caused even more people to become extremely religious, believing that natural rights
came from God and that it was only possible to be blessed by God if you admitted your
sins. In 1776, author Thomas Paine wrote the famous Common Sense. It sparked many
colonists to support the independence movement from Great Britain, with the primary
argument being that no mother(Great Britain) would ever treat their child(the
colonies) so poorly.
Half Way Covenant
Salem Witch Trials
Massachusetts Charter
Great Awakening
Common Sense
Boston Massacre

SSUSH3 The student will explain the primary causes of the American Revolution
a. Explain the importance of Thomas Paines Common Sense to the movement for
b. Explain the Northwest Ordinances importance in the westward migration of
Americans, on slavery, public education, and the addition of new states.
Common Sense by Thomas Paine was an impactful piece of writing that affected the
American Revolution greatly. Many colonists were convinced by this pamphlet to fight
for independence against Great Britain. Paine appealed to the American people with logic
and reasoning, rallying colonists to fight for freedom. He used arguments pointing out
that an island should not rule a continent, and parents (Britain) should not treat their
young (America) as poorly as they have been. Colonists were already beginning to
think this way, after such events as the Boston Massacre, Boston Tea Party, and the
Intolerable Acts. When new territory was introduced by the US through the Northwest
Ordinance, it encouraged more people to settle in these areas. Slavery was prohibited in
these areas, and public school was mandatory. The US also began to introduce new states
during this period as equal members of the Union, further encouraging migration to these
Valley Forge
Sons of Liberty
Committees of Correspondence
Common Sense
Boston Massacre
Popular Sovereignty
Alien and Sedition Acts

SSUSH4 The student will identify the ideological, military, and diplomatic aspects of
the American Revolution.
a. Analyze George Washington as a military leader, including the creation of a
professional military and the life of a common soldier, crossing the Delaware
River, and Valley Forge
b. Explain Yorktown, the role of Lord Cornwallis and the Treaty of Paris, 1783.
SSUSH5 The student will explain specific events and key ideas that brought about
the adoption and implementation of the United States Constitution.
a. Explain how weaknesses in the Articles of Confederation and Daniel Shays
Rebellion led to a call for a stronger central government.
b. Explain the key features of the Constitution, specifically the Great Compromise,
separation of powers, limited government, and the issue of slavery.
c. Explain major reasons for the War of 1812 and the wars significance on the
development of a national identity.

The Articles of Confederation were very important, yet flawed. Through this document,
the states of America became too powerful, having more power than the national
government. This caused many problems throughout the states, including issues
regarding currency and weakening of the nation when states disagreed on a subject.
Theses problems were further exposed when Daniel Shay rallied up around a thousand
farmers who were in debt and unable to sell their goods. Many were jailed for their debts,
and felt that this was a new form of tyranny. They rebelled against the government in
Shays Rebellion, but were eventually shut down by a makeshift Massachusetts army.
After these events, president George Washington started to work toward a stronger, more
central government. This led to the Constitution, however even this had issues within it
as well. These problems included how states would be represented equally. This led to the
Great Compromise, adding a House of Representatives (based on states population) and
a Senate (equal representation through states). The Great Compromise also presented a
new problem, states with more slaves would be more represented. This led to the
Three/Fifths Compromise, which counted every slave as 3/5ths of a man. Also, a
system of Checks and Balances was instituted to balance out the power between the
three new branches of government. Things like Americans wanting British out of
America and Britain assisting Native Americans in helping stop Americans settle west of
the Appalachian Mountains led to the War of 1812. By the end of this war, America and
Britain never fought against each other again, and American nationalism and pride was
sky high.

Checks and Balances
Separation of Powers
Shays Rebellion
Treaty of Paris 1783
Constitutional Convention
Three-Fifths Compromise
Bicameral Congress
First Continental Congress
New Jersey Plan
Loose/Strict Construction
Virginia/Kentucky Resolutions
War of 1812

STANDARD 6: Analyze the nature of territorial and population growth, and its
impact in the early decades of the new nation.
a. Describe Jeffersons diplomacy in obtaining the Louisiana Purchase from France
and the territorys exploration by Lewis and Clark.
Around 1800, James Monroe was sent on behalf of United States President Thomas
Jefferson to France. This resulted in the Louisiana Purchase, where Napoleon sold the
Louisiana Territory, which doubled the size of the United States, for 15 million dollars.
The Louisiana territory went from the Mississippi River to the Rocky Mountains, a
massive increase in land. This purchase was very important for the United States
economy, and America as a whole. The Louisiana Purchase doubled the size of the
United States, which meant that more people would eventually migrate west to this new
territory. Meriwether Lewis and William Clarke went on a long expedition to this new
territory. They scouted out all of the newly owned areas, looking for new routes and
passages that could be used to trade with other countries and regions. Lewis and Clarke
also documented plant life and other various traits that the areas of the Louisiana
Purchase contained.
Stamp Act
Intolerable Act
XYZ Affair
Lewis and Clarke Expedition

STANDARD 7: Explain the process of economic growth, its regional and national
impact in the first half of the 19th century, and the different responses to it.
a. Describe the reasons for and importance of the Monroe Doctrine
b. Describe the westward growth of the United States including the emerging
concept of Manifest Destiny
c. Describe reform movements, specifically temperance, abolitionism, and public
d. Explain womens efforts to gain the suffrage, including Elizabeth Cady Stanton
and the Seneca Falls convention.
The Monroe Doctrine was an important step in Americas goal to become a world
power. They established that they would not interfere with Europes issues, but if they
came to our side of the world (specifically Latin America) the US would take action. The
concept of Manifest Destiny was also becoming very popular at this time, everybody
wanted the US to keep growing and growing. This led to racism against Native
Americans and Mexicans as America was constantly expanding into their territory (that
the US people saw as rightfully theirs). There were many reform movements during this
time, all of which were revolutionary for diversifying America even more. Such
movements included the Temperance Movement that encouraged alcohol moderation,
the Abolitionist Movement that pushed for the end of slavery, and the Public School
Reform, which made school the way it is today and has been since this movement was
created. This period was also one of the most revolutionary time periods for women, as
well, with Suffrage finally happening. Elizibeth Cady Stanton was an important leader
in this movement, challenging and questioning why women had so few rights.
Eventually, Stanton organized the Seneca Falls Convention, and women finally were
granted the right to vote.
Adams-Onis Treaty
Monroe Doctrine
Indian Removal Act
Trail of Tears
Second Great Awakening
Seneca Falls Convention

Manifest Destiny

SSUSH8 The student will explain the relationship between growing north-south
divisions and westward expansion
a. Explain the Missouri Compromise and the issue of slavery in western states and
b. Describe the Nullification Crisis and the emergence of states rights ideology;
include the role of John C. Calhoun and development of sectionalism.
c. Describe the war with Mexico and the Wilmot Proviso
d. Explain how the Compromise of 1850 arose out of territorial expansion and
population growth
Slavery, during this period, was a major political issue. Missouris state constitution
stated that it would allow slavery. This made the ratio of free slaves to slave states
unbalanced, and as a result, the Missouri Compromise declared that Missouri would be
a slave state, and Maine would be a free state. Another political issue during this period
was the Nullification Crisis. John C. Calhoun, the vice president, and Andrew
Jackson, the president, disagreed about American states rights, specifically their ability
to nullify federal law. States like South Carolina actually did declare federal law
unconstitutional. Calhoun stepped down from his vice president position to lead his home
state of South Carolina through this issue (a prominent example of Sectionalism). War
with Mexico started after the United States annexed Texas. The Wilmot Proviso was
proposed during the war, and would have prohibited slavery in new territories from
Mexico, but was never passed. America would go on to win, and through the Treaty of
Guadalupe Hidalgo, received California and parts of Arizona, New Mexico, Nevada,
Utah, Wyoming, and Colorado. The Compromise of 1850 had a big impact on the US. It
allowed California to become a free state, banned the slave trade in Washington, and Utah
and New Mexico were able to decide through popular sovereignty whether they wanted
to be a free state or a slave state.
Spoils System
Jacksonian Democracy
Compromise of 1850
Missouri Compromise
Nullification Crisis
Mexican American War
Wilmot Proviso
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo

Gadsden Purchase

STANDARD 6: Analyze the nature of territorial and population growth, and its
impact in the early decades of the new nation.
STANDARD 7: Explain the process of economic growth, its regional and national
impact in the first half of the 19th century, and the different responses to it.
a. Describe the construction of the Erie Canal, the rise of New York City, and the
development of the nations infrastructure.
b. Explain the impact of the Industrial Revolution as seen in Eli Whitneys invention
of the cotton gin and his development of interchangeable parts for muskets
More people started to move across the country, or to different areas and new American
territories. Their journey took upwards of a week, and was difficult for people.
Eventually, companies started to build National Roads, Turnpikes, and canals to make
transportation and moving easier for the American people. It took eight years to create the
greatest and perhaps most important of these canals, the Erie Canal. It connected Lake
Erie to the Hudson River (that leads into the Atlantic Ocean), which increased the amount
of people settling in New York and transformed it into a major city on the east coast. The
Industrial Revolution took off in the 19th century, with machines replaces manual labor.
Eli Whitney was an entrepreneur whose inventions greatly impacted America during the
industrial revolution. These inventions included Interchangeable Parts, which
conveniently introduced parts that could be replaced when one of them breaks instead of
previous method of completely buying a new product. Another important invention of
Whitneys is the Cotton Gin, which increased cotton production and profits, and also
inadvertently resulted in the increase of slavery due to the rising demand for cotton.
National Road
Erie Canal
Industrial Revolution
Interchangeable Parts
Lowell Girls
Labor Union
Cotton Gin
California Gold Rush, Forty-Niners


STANDARD 9: Identify key events, issues and individuals relating to the causes,
course, and consequences of the Civil War.
a. Describe the significance of the Emancipation Proclamation
STANDARD 10: Identify legal, political, and social dimensions of Reconstruction
a. Explain efforts to provide advanced education to African Americans such as
Morehouse College, and the Freedmens Bureau
The Emancipation Proclamation was a very important document during the Civil War
era. Passed by Abraham Lincoln, it freed all slaves in America. However, a large majority
of slaves in the Confederacy were not freed, as the war was still happening and the
Confederacy did not believe they were under Union rule. Slaves started to attempt to
escape the plantations they were forced to live on after word got out about the
Emancipation Proclamation, which resulted in a decrease in cotton and food production
for the Confederates. Also, African Americans were now allowed to join the Union army,
granting them an even greater advantage over their Confederate counterparts. African
Americans were slowly being granted more opportunities during Reconstruction. New
schools and colleges, such as Morehouse College, were being created just for African
Americans. The Freedmens Bureau also helped former slaves make social progress,
providing necessities such as clothes, medicine, jobs, and food.
Dred Scott v Stanford
Emancipation Proclamation
Freedmans Bureau
Ku Klux Klan
Underground Railroad
Harpers Ferry
Morehouse College


STANDARD 9: Identify key events, issues and individuals relating to the causes,
course, and consequences of the Civil War.
a. Describe President Lincolns efforts to preserve the Union as seen in his second
inaugural address and the Gettysburg speech and in his use of emergency powers,
such as his decision to suspend habeas corpus
b. Explain the importance of Fort Sumter (353), Antietam (368), Vicksburg (380-381),
Gettysburg (382-384), and the Battle for Atlanta
STANDARD 10: Identify legal, political, and social dimensions of Reconstruction
a. Compare and contrast Presidential Reconstruction with Radical Republican
b. Analyze how the presidential election of 1876 and the subsequent Compromise of
1877 marked the end of Reconstruction.

When Civil War broke out between the Union and the Confederacy, Lincoln strongly
believed that preserving the Union was the most important cause of the war, not slavery.
During Lincolns second inaugural address (when the Union was very close to winning
the war), he was upset that the American states that became the Confederacy couldnt
peacefully solve their issues. In the Gettysburg address, he stated that the US was an
indivisible country, and rallied the North. Fort Sumter was the first battle of the war,
when the Confederacy attack the Union. Antietam was the first major battle in the
Northern territory. Gettysburg was the bloodiest battle of the war, and a major
confederate victory. Vicksburg was a major Union victory, and a turning point in the war.
Atlanta completely demoralized the South, and locked up Union victory. People in favor
of Radical Republican Reconstruction were very opposed to the Presidential
Reconstruction idea of letting the confederate states back into the Union as fast as
possible. They wanted to exact revenge upon the southern states for seceding.
Reconstruction ended after the Compromise of 1877, which resulted from the
Presidential election of 1876 and took Union troops out of the South.
Kansas-Nebraska Act
Popular Sovereignty
States Rights
15th Amendment
Black Codes

Gettysburg Address
Compromise of 1877
Bleeding Kansa

STANDARD 9: Identify key events, issues and individuals relating to the causes,
course, and consequences of the Civil War.
a. Explain the importance of the growing economic disparity between the North and the
South through an examination of population, functioning railroads, and industrial
output. (360-361)

STANDARD 10: Identify legal, political, and social dimensions of Reconstruction

b. Explain efforts to redistribute land in the South among the former slaves
The Civil War was a long, brutal war with devastating effects on both the Unions
economy and the Confederacys economy. The Confederates were already at a
disadvantage, as soon as the war started at the Battle of Fort Sumter. Theyre army was
outnumbered heavily by the Unions army, and had a much weaker economy as well. The
North was much more industrialized than the South, providing them with better
equipment and supplies to fight the Confederacy. Also, the Unions railroad systems
accounted for 71% of all of Americas, which provided them with much faster and
efficient transportation of goods and soldiers than the Confederacy. The Souths economy
was more focused on agriculture, which did not help them nearly as much as the Norths
economic base helped them. The Unions massive advantages proved too much for the
Confederacy to overcome, and the Civil War was won by the Union. After the war was
over, all slaves were freed. Many of these slaves had nowhere to go, however. Many
former slaves had to be Sharecroppers, or Tennant Farmers to be able to live
Tenant Farming


STANDARD 12: Analyze important consequences of American industrial growth.
a. Describe Ellis Island, the change in immigrants origins to southern and eastern
Europe, and the impact of this change on urban America
b. Describe the growth of the western population and its impact on Native Americans
with reference to Sitting Bull and Wounded Knee.

STANDARD 13: Identify major efforts to reform American society and politics in
the Progressive Era.
a. Explain Upton Sinclairs The Jungle and federal oversight of the meatpacking
b. Identify Jane Addams and Hull House and describe the role of women in reform
c. Explain Ida Tarbells role as a muckraker
During this time period, Immigration to the United States started to increase. However,
there was a new wave of immigrants, mostly from Southern and Eastern Europe (most
immigrants before this period came from Northern and Western Europe). Many of these
immigrants were poor and did not speak English. They would arrive at Ellis Island, an
immigration station located in New York, and were tested on various aspects of their
health. Most of these immigrants started to live in urban areas with their same nationality,
not integrating well with the rest of society. As the US continued to grow, the desire for
more land also did. America was constantly expanding westward, into Native American
Territory. We believed that this territory was rightfully ours, so we fought Sitting Bull
and his Native American warriors. The conflict was over when the US massacred the
Native Americans at Wounded Knee. When The Jungle was published by Upton
Sinclair, Americas eyes were opened up to the unsanitary conditions of the meat
industry. Other Muckrakers in this time included Ida Tarbell, who exposed companies
like the Standard Oil Company for their unethical strategies. This resulted in laws being
passed that ended the unsanitary practices, and would ensure meat was safe to eat.
Women were a big part in various reform movements, including Jane Addams. She
established the Hull House, located in Chicago, to welcome European immigrants and
help them adapt to the United States.

Ellis Island
American federation of Labor
Hull House
Socialism Knights of Labor
Angel Island
Melting Pot
Gilded Age


STANDARD 13: Identify major efforts to reform American society and politics in
the Progressive Era.
a. . Describe the rise of Jim Crow, Plessy v. Ferguson, and the emergence of the
STANDARD 14: Explain Americas evolving relationship with the world at the turn
of the twentieth century.
a. Explain the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 and anti-Asian immigration sentiment on
the west coast.
African Americans in the South were enduring lots of discrimination and racism. Jim
Crow Laws were passed, which required African Americans to have different facilities
for every day activities (such as restaurants, schools, and even bathrooms). They were
often very low quality compared to the white facilities. In Plessey v Ferguson, these laws
were declared constitutional by the Supreme Court, so long as the facilities for white and
blacks were separate but equal. African Americans were obviously very upset with
this, and groups like the NAACP were formed to counter it. The Chinese Exclusion Act
of 1882, which prevented all immigration to the United States from China, occurred
because American workers were losing jobs to Chinese immigrants. Chinese workers
would work the same jobs as white workers for lower pay. Many Chinese people
emigrated from China to California, along with other parts of the west coast. They faced
racial prejudice in the US.
Jim Crow Laws
Direct Primary
18th Amendment
19th Amendment
Dawes Act
Poll Tax
Populist Party
Grandfather Clause
Homestead Act

STANDARD 11: Describe the growth of big business and technological innovations
after Reconstruction.
a. Explain the impact of the railroads on other industries, such as steel, and on the
organization of big business
b. Identify John D. Rockefeller and the Standard Oil Company and the rise of trusts and
c. Describe the inventions of Thomas Edison, including the electric light bulb, motion
pictures, and the phonograph, and their impact on American life.
The use of railroads in America was greatly increasing. They growing demand for
railroads also resulted in a growing demand for steel, since railroad tracks are made out
of steel. The Steel industry was constantly developing new, more efficient ways to make
and sell steel. The rapid growth of the steel industry sparked the rise of big businesses
such as the Standard Oil Company, as well. This company was founded by John D.
Rockefeller, who became one the richest people of all time. His strategies were
controversial, as he used trusts to acquire smaller oil companies and strengthen his own.
This strategy resulted in Rockefeller having a Monopoly on the oil industry. Another
entrepreneur during this period was Thomas Edison. His revolutionary inventions
impacted American life greatly. The phonograph was one of Edisons first inventions, and
gained him popularity as people were amazed by it. The electric light bulb provided light
to many homes across America, and motion pictures would eventually became what we
know as movies.
Robber Baron
Social Darwinism
Laissez Faire
Bessemer Process


STANDARD 15: Analyze the origins and impact of U.S. involvement in World War
A. Describe passage of the Eighteenth Amendment, establishing Prohibition, and the
Nineteenth Amendment, establishing woman suffrage.
STANDARD 16: Identify key developments in the aftermath of WWI.
A. Explain how rising communism and socialism in the United States led to the Red
Scare and immigrant restriction.
The 18th Amendment and 19th Amendment were both very important and impacted the
United States greatly. The sale and manufacture of alcohol was set into place by the 18th
amendment after prohibition movements and protests against alcohol started to increase
in the United States. It resulted in lots of organized crime and smuggling of alcohol,
especially in cities. It was the only amendment to be completely repealed. The 19th
amendment was passed through similar circumstances, lots of protesting and women
rights movements gaining popularity across the United States. Soon, the womens
suffrage movement was too large to ignore and the 19th amendment was passed, granting
women the right to vote. The Red Scare came into place when communism started to
become more known and popular across, the world, notably the Bolshevik Revolution in
Russia. This sudden uprising and beliefs of communism resulted in the American people
fearing Communism, and certain restrictions on immigration.
Yellow Press
Great Migration
Palmer Raids
Social Darwinism
Anti-Defamation League
Conscientious Objector
Sacco and Vanzetti
Boxer Rebellion


STANDARD 14: Explain Americas evolving relationship with the world at the turn
of the twentieth century.
B. Describe the Spanish-American War, the war in the Philippines, and the debate over
American expansionism
C. Explain U.S. involvement in Latin America, as reflected by the Roosevelt Corollary
to the Monroe Doctrine and the creation of the Panama Canal.
STANDARD 15: Analyze the origins and impact of U.S. involvement in World War
B. Describe the movement from U.S. neutrality to engagement in World War I, with
reference to unrestricted submarine warfare.
The Spanish-American War was set into place when Spain refused to grant Cuba and
the Philippines independence. Many people of the American public wanted to expand,
increase the United States territory. The war was short, lasting around 4 months. It
resulted in Cuba becoming an independent nation, however it was still under US
influence as seen in the Platt Amendment. The Philippines became an American
territory, but ended up fighting against the US for independence (and lost). The Roosevelt
Corollary was an expansion of the Monroe Doctrine, which stated that the United States
would get involved with Latin American countries if and European countries tried to
intervene. Now, the US could get involved during economic troubles of Latin American
countries. The United States built the Panama Canal, which connects the Atlantic Ocean
to the Pacific Ocean. The US was set on being neutral as World War 1 started to heat up,
but they entered the war after Germany resumed unrestricted submarine warfare.
Open Door Policy

Red Scare

Big Stick Diplomacy

Central Powers

Moral Diplomacy

Selective Service Act

Roosevelt Corollary

Treaty of Versailles


Square Deal

Espionage Act

Rough Riders

League of Nations

Alsace Lorraine


STANDARD 15: Analyze the origins and impact of U.S. involvement in World War
A. Explain the domestic impact of World War I, as reflected by the origins of the Great
Migration, the Espionage Act, and socialist Eugene Debs.
World War 1 had a great impact on the economy of America. More materials for the war
were needed, which resulted in more jobs in factories available. While most white men
were out at war, women and minorities took over their places in the work force. They
were inexperienced and not as skilled as the men that were now at war, however their
contributions were important to the war effort and the economy. While more jobs were
opening up in the North, the South was comparatively unchanged. This caused the Great
Migration, when a large amount of African Americans in the South moved to Northern
cities with more economic opportunity and less racial discrimination. Chicago, New
York, and other big cities in the North were the primary destinations for around six
million African Americans. Many people believe that World War 1 led to the Roaring 20s,
one of the greatest economic periods in the history of the United States.
Dollar Diplomacy
Panama Canal
Extractive Economy


STANDARD 16: Identify key developments in the aftermath of WWI.
A. Describe the impact of radio and the movies.
B. Describe modern forms of cultural expression; include Louis Armstrong and the
origins of jazz, Langston Hughes and the Harlem Renaissance, Irving Berlin, and Tin Pan


A. Identify Eleanor Roosevelt as a symbol of social progress and womens activism.
Following World War 1, the United States entered a period of joy and growth, known as
the Roaring Twenties. A big part of this decade was the emergence of radio and movies.
The radio established a national culture and identity, and movies provided a new,
revolutionary form of entertainment. Irving Berlin and other musicians made Tin Pan
Ally a hot spot for new music. Women started to cut their hair shorter, and wear more
clothing that was seen as not traditional. These women were called Flappers. African
Americans were welcome to express their culture for the first time in America, through
literary works and music. This era is known as the Harlem Renaissance. Langston
Hughes poems and Louis Armstrongs innovative Jazz music were iconic in this
period. Eleanor Roosevelt was a revolutionary first-lady, fighting for womens rights and
improving aspects of their life in America. Her success and influence inspired women all
across the United States.
Lost Generation
Harlem Renaissance
Wizard of Oz

A. Describe the creation of the Tennessee Valley Authority as a works program and
as an effort to control the environment. (736)

Explain the Wagner Act and the rise of industrial unionism. (744)

C. Identify the political challenges to Roosevelts domestic and international

leadership; include the role of Huey Long, the court packing bill, and the Neutrality
Act. (746, 739, 779)
Franklin Roosevelt had wanted to revitalize the American economy during the Great
Depression, and ended up putting in various programs through something he called the
New Deal. One of these programs was the Tennessee Valley Authority. A lot of the
southeast at this point didnt have things like running water or electricity, so the
Tennessee Valley Authority helped provide these things through dams, containing power
points and job opportunities. The Wagner Act came with FDRs Second New Deal, and
greatly benefitted unions and members of unions by allowing collective bargaining and
banning unfair business practices. Industrial unionism became much more common after
the passing of the Wagner Act. Although his attempts at fixing the economy were at least
partially successful, FDR was criticized like every other president. Huey Long was a
Louisiana senator, and one of the most popular critics of FDR. He wanted to replace him
as president. FDR wanted to pass the court packing bill, which would have given him
the power to add more justices to the supreme court.

Kellogg-Briand Pact

Second New Deal

Quota System

Social Security Act


Court Packing

Volstead Act

Wagner Act

New Deal

Welfare State

Bonus Army

Neutrality Act of 1939


STANDARD 16: Identify key developments in the aftermath of WWI.


Identify Henry Ford, mass production, and the automobile. (660-663)


A. Describe the causes, including overproduction, under-consumption, and stock
market speculation that led to the stock market crash of 1929 and the Great
Depression. (702-706)
B. Explain the impact of the drought in the creation of the Dust Bowl. (714-715)
Henry Ford revolutionized the automobile industry with the creation of the Model T,
and his method of constantly improving his technique of mass production and utilizing
the assembly lines. The Great Depression was one of the worst economic periods in the
history of the United States. It was caused by not just one thing, but many things that
contributed to this recession. In the Roaring 20s, the economy was soaring, however
overproduction was starting to occur and this was an important factor in the Great
Depression. The price for goods was increasing while workers wages did not increase.
This led to under-consumption. Speculation was also a big factor in the downfall of the
economy, and led to the infamous Black Tuesday, where there was a large stock market
crash in October of 1929. All of these were important factors that contributed to the Great
Depression. A drought in the plains region and overproduction of the farmers led to the
Dust Bowl, and resulted in lots of farmers migrating to states like California in search of
work. More often than not, they were turned away and had trouble finding jobs.
Mass Production

Great Depression

Model T

Dust Bowl

Bull Market
Buying on Margin
Teapot Dome Scandal
Dawes Plan

a. Explain A. Philip Randolphs proposed March on Washington, D.C., and President
Franklin D. Roosevelts response.
SSUSH21 The student will explain the impact of technological development and
economic growth on the United States, 1945-1975.
a. Describe the impact of competition with the USSR as evidenced by the launch
of Sputnik I and President Eisenhowers actions. (865, 895)
A Phillip. Randolph started to organize a March on Washington in 1941. Its cause was
to bring attention to discrimination towards African Americans across the US. President
Franklin D Roosevelt asked him to call off the march, however A. Phillip Randolph said
he would not. As a result, Franklin D Roosevelt passed an order to stop discrimination in
industry. The proposed march on Washington was then called off. When the USSR
launched the satellite known as the Sputnik 1, it set into a great series of events known as
the space race (along with increasing tension between the United States and the USSR).
The people of America began to think that the Russians launching their satellite was the
start of the United States falling behind the USSR. The United States put more money
into science and math, and started to focus on beating the Russians in space-related
accomplishments, including landing on the moon.


Internment of Japanese Americans



Hollywood Ten

a. Explain the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor and the internment of JapaneseAmericans, German-Americans, and Italian-Americans.
b. Explain major events: include the Battle of Midway, D-Day and the fall of
SSUSH20 The student will analyze the domestic and international impact of the
Cold War on the United States
a. Explain the impact of the new communist regime in China, the outbreak of the
Korean War, and how these events contributed to the rise of Senator Joseph
The Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor was a very important moment in World War 2.
After it, the United States entered the war. The recent attack on Pearl Harbor combined
with the United States entering the war created feelings of distrust towards Japanese
Americans, German Americans, and Italian Americans. Over 100,000 of these people
were sent to internment camps due to fear that they may be a threat to the United States.
The Battle of Midway was a crucial American victory, and resulted in America going on
the offensive in the Pacific. D-Day was also very important, being the first day of the
invasion of France (that was ruled by Nazis). The Fall of Berlin was one of the final
battles in Europe. Following WW2, a Chinese rebellion took over and established
communism in China. They supported North Korea in the Korean War, and the US
supported South Korea. The increase in communism around the world led to
McCarthyism, started by Senator McCarthy constantly accusing people of being

Manhattan Project

Los Alamos



Allied Powers


Island Hopping

Axis Powers

Tuskegee Airmen


Truman Doctrine

Nuremburg Laws

Yalta Conference

United Nations



a. Explain the lend-lease program
b. Describe war mobilization, as indicated by the role of women in war industries
c. Describe Los Alamos and the economic implications of developing the Atomic
The Lend-Lease Act was enacted on March 11, 1941. It allowed President Franklin D.
Roosevelt to sell (or lend) war supplies such as guns and other weapons to other
countries. These countries needed to be important to the defense of the United States for
the selling to occur, however. Around 50 billion dollars worth of war supplies were sent
to the allies of the United States before we were a part of World War 2. When the men
went off to fight in World War 2, they left openings in their jobs back home that needed
to be filled. Many women filled these positions, and were vital to the United States
economy during World War 2. The famous nuclear bombs dropped on Hiroshima and
Nagasaki were created in a laboratory located in Los Alamos, New Mexico. This project
helped the American economy by creating nuclear power to provide to citizens across the

Lend-Lease Act
Marshall Plan
Arms Race


SSUSH21 The student will explain the impact of technological development and
economic growth on the United States, 1945-1975.
a. Describe the baby boom and its impact as shown by Levittowns
b. Analyze the impact television has had on American life; include the development
of the personal computer and the expanded use of air conditioning. (
c. Describe the impact television has had on American culture; include the
presidential debates (Kennedy/ Nixon, 1960) (897, 900, 953)

SSUSH24 The student will analyze the impact of social change movements and
organizations of the 1960s
a. Describe the National Organization of Women and the origins and goals of the
modern womens movement. (1023)
Following World War 2, the United States saw a massive increase in babies born. This
was largely due to all of the soldiers coming home, and lots of nationalism and pride.
This period is referred to as the Baby Boom. It was resulted in Levittowns being built,
which were large suburban developments to accommodate the growing size of the United
States. The radio created an American culture, but the television cemented it. When they
became popular, many families would watch their new television for many hours each
day. It changed how presidential elections worked, as well. The debates between
Kennedy and Nixon in the 1960 election were televised. The majority of people who
watched the debates on television though Kennedy was the better choice, but the majority
of people who listened on radios thought Nixon was better. The National Organization for
Women was founded in 1966, and fought for equality- as there was still much
discrimination against women.
Baby Boom
Air Conditioning
Personal Computer
Rock and Roll

Silent Spring
Black Power
Black Panthers


Inner City
Urban Renewal
Brown v Board
Generation Gap

SSUSH20 The student will analyze the domestic and international impact of the
Cold War on the United States
a. Describe the Cuban Revolution, the Bay of Pigs, and the Cuban missile crisis.
b. Describe the Vietnam War, the Tet offensive and growing opposition to the war.
(984-991, 995-996)
SSUSH23 The student will describe and assess the impact of political developments
between 1945 and 1970.
a. Describe the social and political turmoil of 1968, including the assassinations of
Martin Luther King, Jr. and Robert F. Kennedy, and the events surrounding the
Democratic National Convention. (996-999)

Communism started to rise in Cuba as a rebellion led by Fidel Castro overthrew the
government. John F. Kennedy authorized a secret invasion of Cuba to stop the rising
communist country by training Cuban exiles and attacking through the Bay of Pigs. The
invasion failed, as Castro thought it was a full invasion by the United States army and
sent everyone he had at the small group of exiles. The Soviet Union had missiles in Cuba
that were capable of destroying large American cities within minutes. It was a very
stressful and tense period of a couple days, however it ended when the Soviets agreed to
remove their missiles in Cuba if the United States removed their missiles in Turkey. This
exchange is known as the Cuban Missile Crisis. Americans thought the Vietnam war
was going to be a quick victory, based on the United States past success and the fact that
Vietnam was a small, poor country. However, the Tet Offensive made Americans realize
they were not going to be winning the war any time soon. This war was protested
immensely due to the fact that many Americans could see what was happening on
television, and that no one was really sure what we were fighting for. 1968 was a year
containing many tragedies and mishaps. Civil Rights leader Martin Luther King Jr was
assassinated, along with leading presidential candidate Robert Kennedy. The infamous
Democratic National Convention also occurred this year, where policemen assaulted
Domino Theory
Tet Offensive
Cuban Missile Crisis
Bay of Pigs
Vietnam War

1960 Presidential Debates

Warren Court
Johnsons Great Society
Conservative Movement
Democratic National Convention
Taft-Hartley Act
Fair Deal
Multinational Corporations
Gulf of Tonkin Resolution


SSUSH21 The student will explain the impact of technological development and
economic growth on the United States, 1945-1975.
a. Describe the impact of competition with the USSR as evidenced by the launch of
Sputnik I and President Eisenhowers actions. (865, 895)
SSUSH23 The student will describe and assess the impact of political developments
between 1945 and 1970.
a. Explain Lyndon Johnsons Great Society, including the establishment of
Medicare. (969-971)
When the Sputnik 1 satellite was launched by the Soviet Union in 1957, it set into a great
series of events known as the space race (along with increasing tension between the
United States and the USSR). The American people began to think that because the
Russians launched a satellite into orbit before the United States, the United States was
falling behind the Soviet Union. This led to increased spending in the math and science
areas of education. Lyndon B. Johnson sought out to improve the economy of the United
States through his idea of the Great Society. One important aspect of this improvement
of the economy was the creation of Medicare. Medicare provided health insurance for
people sixty-five or older. Another important program that was introduced through
Lyndon B. Johnsons Great Society was Medicaid. It differs from Medicare in that it
helps low income families instead of elderly people.
Interstate Highway Act
Informative Industries
Franchise Business


SSUSH25 The student will describe changes in national politics since 1968.
a. Explain the impact of Supreme Court decisions on ideas about civil liberties and
civil rights, including such decisions as Roe v. Wade (1973) and the Bakke
decision on affirmative action. (1026, 1083, 1062)
This period of the history of the United States was very significant with regards to new
civil liberties and civil rights.The Supreme Court had a large impact on how these new
aspects were formed and seen by the American people. The most important cases decided
by the Supreme Court were Roe v Wade, which occurred in 1973, and Bakke v Regents
of the University of California, which occurred in 1978. Roe v Wade had to do with a
womans decision to have an abortion. It resulted in womens privacy being respected and
made sure that abortions were not prohibited in any state. In Bakke v Regents of the
University of California, a man (Alan Bakke) was denied from medical school while
others with lesser accomplishments and credentials were accepted. The ones that got
accepted were minorities, and this was an example of affirmative action. This case ended
up with the ban of racial quotas.
Al Qaeda
No Child Left Behind
Christian Fundamentalist
Affirmative Action


SSUSH25 The student will describe changes in national politics since 1968.
a. Explain the Carter administrations efforts in the Middle East including the Camp
David Accords, his response to the 1979 Iranian Revolution and Iranian hostage
b. Explain the relationship between Congress and President Bill Clinton, including
the North American Free Trade Agreement and his impeachment and acquittal.
c. Analyze the 2000 presidential election and its outcome, emphasizing the role of
the Electoral College.
d. Analyze the response of President George W. Bush to the attacks of September
11, 2001, on the United States, the war against terrorism, and the subsequent
American interventions in Afghanistan and Iraq.
When Jimmy Carter was president, many important events were starting to happen all
across the world, and especially in the Middle East. Carter tried to bring peace to this
region, with acts such as the Camp David Accords. This act was a peace treaty between
Egypt and Israel brokered by Carter. However, bad events were happening as well. When
the United States allowed the Shah into Johns Hopkins Hospital for treatment, people in
Iran retaliated by capturing and taking Americans hostage from the US Embassy in Iran.
This is referred to as the Iranian Hostage Crisis. They were not freed until after Ronald
Reagan was elected. Bill Clinton had personality issues, but it didn't seem to matter as
the good conditions around him during his presidency (like the economy) canceled them
out. During Clintons presidency, NAFTA was created, which helped increase relations
with Mexico and Canada greatly. His affair with Monica Lewinsky (more specifically
him lying about it) caused him to be impeached. In the 2000 Presidential Election, Al
Gore won the popular vote but George Bush won the electoral vote, and Bush won the
presidency. After 9/11 occurred, Bush addressed the American public instead of hiding
for safety in case of another attack. This showed that America would not back down to
terrorists. This started the War on Terrorism, including invasions of Iraq and other
countries in the Middle East to destroy terrorist organizations like Al Qaeda.
Southern Strategy
25th Amendment
Executive Privilege
Conservative Movement

Helsinki Accords
Camp David Accords
New Right
Moral Majority
Iranian Hostage Crisis
Iran-Contra Affair
Bush v Gore
Operation Enduring Freedom
Strategic Defense Initiative
Operation Desert Storm


SSUSH25 The student will describe changes in national politics since 1968.
a. Describe President Richard M. Nixons opening of China
b. Describe domestic and international events of Ronald Reagans presidency,
including Reagonomics
Richard Nixon was very involved with the economy of the United States before he
resigned due to the Watergate scandal. He was the first United States President to go to
China. Nixon traveled there to improve conditions between the United States and China,
and many people will agree that he succeeded in doing so. The United States opened up
trade with China, a major accomplishment. Another aspect that contributed to Nixon
wanting to go to China was that the Soviet Union and China were not on good terms
during the period this was all happening. Another president very involved the economy of
the United States was Ronald Reagan. His method of improving the economy was using
Reaganomics, or another name for it: Supply Side Economics. This method consisted of
cutting government spending and taxes, and would result in economic growth. Both
Ronald Reagan and Richard Nixon helped contribute to the improvement of the United
States government in their time periods.
Supply Side Economics
Savings and Loan Crisis