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37 Corrosion as a process variable

43 Lubrication and energy

With CLICK PLCs, you get a lot of application control in a


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4 DC In / 4 DC Out (sinking), 2 analog in, 2 analog out
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AC input module, eight 100-120 VAC points

(two in Basic CPUs, three in Standard and Analog CPUs)


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52*5$0'2&80(17$7,216725(',1!
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http://www.automationdirect.com/click-plc or www.clickplc.com

input #1 at plantengineering.hotims.com

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input #2 at plantengineering.hotims.com

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input #3 at plantengineering.hotims.com

June 2011

D EPARTMENTS

Volume 65, No. 5

7 Online
9 Forum
21 Best Practices
61 Product Mart
62 Internet Connection
63 Advertiser Contacts
64 Comment

13 Product Exclusive
PLANT ENGINEERING (ISSN 0032-082X,
Vol. 65, No. 5, GST #123397457) is published 10x per year, monthly except in
January and July, by CFE Media, LLC, 1111
W. 22nd Street, Suite #250, Oak Brook,
IL 60523. Jim Langhenry, Group Publisher /
Co-Founder; Steve Rourke CEO/COO/Co-Founder.
PLANT ENGINEERING copyright 2011 by CFE
Media, LLC. All rights reserved. PLANT ENGINEERING is a registered trademark of CFE Media, LLC
used under license. Periodicals postage paid at
Oak Brook, IL 60523 and additional mailing offices.
Circulation records are maintained at CFE Media,
LLC, 1111 W. 22nd Street, Suite #250, Oak Brook,
IL 60523. Telephone: 630/571-4070. E-mail:
customerservice@cfemedia.com. Postmaster:
send address changes to PLANT ENGINEERING, 1111 W. 22nd Street, Suite #250, Oak
Brook, IL 60523. Publications Mail Agreement No. 40685520. Return undeliverable
Canadian addresses to: 1111 W. 22nd
Street, Suite #250, Oak Brook, IL 60523.
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Rates for nonqualified subscriptions, including all
issues: USA, $ 145/yr; Canada, $ 180/yr (includes
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International air delivery $318/yr. Except for special
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foreign. Please address all subscription mail to
PLANT ENGINEERING, 1111 W. 22nd Street, Suite
#250, Oak Brook, IL 60523. Printed in the USA.
CFE Media, LLC does not assume and hereby
disclaims any liability to any person for any loss or
damage caused by errors or omissions in the material contained herein, regardless of whether such
errors result from negligence, accident or any other
cause whatsoever.

Cover Story
29 What is your relay telling you?
Troubleshoot your motors by understanding your relays.

32 Find the right data to justify electrical

system upgrades
34 How not to install a high-efficiency motor
,WWDNHVPRUHWKDQMXVWWKHPRWRUWRGHOLYHUDQHIFLHQWRXWFRPH

Best Practices

21 Propane-fueled forklifts deliver

savings and performance


22 Are MERV ratings the right

measure for dust collectors?


PLANT ENGINEERING

June 2011 3

YOUR OPERATION NEEDS TO BE MORE EFFICIENT THAN EVER.


YOU NEED TO CUT COSTS AND INCREASE PRODUCTIVITY.
AND THERES NO ROOM FOR ERROR.

Todays business climate demands you


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2010 Copyright Hyster Company. Hyster and

are registered trademarks of Hyster Company.

input #4 at plantengineering.hotims.com

hysteramericas.com

Maintenance Solutions
PlantEngineering.com
1111 W. 22nd St. Suite 250, Oak Brook, IL 60523
Ph 630-571-4070, Fax 630-214-4504

37 Treating corrosion as

a process variable

CONTENT SPECIALISTS/EDITORIAL
BOB VAVRA, Content Manager
630-571-4070, x2212, BVavra@CFEMedia.com
AMANDA MCLEMAN, Managing Editor
630-571-4070, x2209, AMcLeman@CFEMedia.com

41 Delivering savings through energy

monitoring

MARK HOSKE, Content Manager


630-571-4070, x2214, MHoske@CFEMedia.com
PETER WELANDER, Content Manager
630-571-4070, x2213, PWelander@CFEMedia.com
AMARA ROZGUS, Content Manager
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PATRICK LYNCH, Project Manager/POY
630-571-4070, x2210, PLynch@CFEMedia.com

PUBLICATION SERVICES
JIM LANGHENRY, Co-Founder and Publisher, CFE Media
630-571-4070, x2203; Jlanghenry@CFEMedia.com

Mechanical Solutions

43 Proper lubrication plays

a role in energy efficiency


Choosing the correct lubricant can improve
energy efficiency and reduce costs.

STEVE ROURKE, Co-Founder, CFE Media


630-571-4070, x2204, SRourke@CFEMedia.com
TRUDY KELLY, Executive Assistant
630-571-4070, x2205, TKelly@CFEMedia.com
ELENA MOELLER-YOUNGER, Marketing Manager
630-571-4070, x2215; EMYounger@CFEMedia.com

45 Calculate true savings when

reducing air system pressure

MICHAEL SMITH, Creative Director


630-571-4070, x2209, MSmith@CFEMedia.com
PAUL BROUCH, Web Production Manager
630-571-4070, x2208, PBrouch@CFEMedia.com
MICHAEL ROTZ, Print Production Manager
717-766-0211, Fax: 717-506-7238
Mike.Rotz@frycomm.com
JEFF ADEE, Direct Mail List Services
630-288-8323; Jadee@mardevdm2.com

Electrical Solutions

49 In seeking arc flash solutions,

dont overlook validation

RICK ELLIS, Audience Management Director


Phone: 303-246-1250; REllis@CFEMedia.com
LETTERS TO THE EDITOR
Please e-mail your opinions to
BVavra@CFEMedia.com or fax us at 630-214-4504.
Letters should include name, company, and address,
and may be edited for space and clarity.
INFORMATION
For a 2011 Media Kit or Editorial Calendar,
email Trudy Kelly at TKelly@CFEMedia.com.
REPRINTS
For custom reprints, electronic usage or content licensing,
contact: The YGS Group
Phone: 800-290-5460 x100
email: PlantEngineering@theygsgroup.com

PUBLICATION SALES
Tom Corcoran, West, TX TCorcoran@CFEMedia.com
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Karen Cira, Southeast
879 Autumn Rain Lane
Charlotte, NC 28209

Automation Solutions

53 Make sure MES delivers

data-driven value
Take advantage of measurement to make
better production decisions.

57 Optimizing your HMI


Taking time to re-evaluate workstations and
interfaces can uncover performance opportunities.

KCira@CFEMedia.com
Tel. 704-523-5466
Fax 630-214-4504

Kerry Gottlieb, N. Central KGottlieb@CFEMedia.com


1111 W. 22nd ST. Suite 250,
Tel. 312-965-8954
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Fax 508-590-0432
Stuart Smith, International Stuart.Smith@ssm.co.uk
SSM
Tel. +44 208 464 5577
Global Media Ltd.
Fax +44 208 464 5588 fax

9 Forum
 Entries open for Leaders Under 40, Top Plant
 Process variability pays big dividends
 CSIA members find value in certification, audits
 Product Exclusive: Battery-free wireless push button
 Delivering a culture of safety for 1,000 days
PLANT ENGINEERING

June 2011 5

input #5 at plantengineering.hotims.com

ONLINE

www.PlantEngineering.com

Register online for Plant Engineering events


Plant Engineerings three major industry recognition
programs will dominate the discussion this fall, but its
summer when the nominees for those recognitions will
come forward. Now its easier than ever to go online at
www.PlantEngineering.com and enter for these three
outstanding recognition opportunities:
Leaders Under 40: Were
looking for the top young people
making a difference in manufacturing. The online entry allows
for a few basic bits of information and the ability to upload
a photo at the same time. Entrants also are invited to
submit a video explaining why they chose a career in
manufacturing.
Entry deadline is Monday, Aug. 1, at 5 p.m. CST. All
entries are free, and all materials may be used in print
or online as part of the recognition process. The online
entry form is available by clicking on the Leaders Under
40 section under the Events and Awards tab on the PlantEngineering.com home page.
Product of the Year: The 24th
annual Product of the Year program
recognizes the outstanding innovation in the manufacturing sector.
Categories range from automation
2011
and control to maintenance systems
to safety and environmental management.
Entry into the 2011 Product of the Year program is
easy. Entrants can find the Product of the Year logo
on the home page at www.PlantEngineering.com and

can upload their product description and photo at the


Product of the Year section of the home page. They also
can electronically submit the entry fee, which is $295
in entries are received before June 30, 2011. After that
date, entry fees go back to the traditional $395.
The Product of the Year nominees will be announced
in the November issue. That issue is also a product guide
for plant managers, delivering all the best new products
in one issue, in print and online.
Plant Engineering readers also will be able to vote
online for the products they like the best. Winners will
be announced at the 2012 Manufacturing/Automation
Summit in Chicago.
Top Plant: Now in its seventh
year, Top Plant recognizes the outstanding manufacturing facilities
in the U.S. Nominations are now
open through Sept. 15, 2011, for
manufacturing plants who believe
they have earned the right to be
called a Top Plant.
Entry forms are available online at www.PlantEngineering.com, and plant managers can download the
form and fill out the data.
Top Plant also allows for benchmarking a plants record
on safety, productivity, environmental and energy issues
and other factors required of an outstanding manufacturing facility.
Entrants for all three recognition programs can also
review past winners and past nominees at www.PlantEngineering.com. Its a great way to review past success
as you look forward to future entries.

This months POLL:


What new Plant Engineering online service would you use?
Your responses at PlantEngineering.com:
44%

Video tutorials

22%

Animated process tutorials

14%

More industry data

11%

Audio/video plant tours

4%

Online discussion boards

1%

None of these would be helpful

Steam Guide a click away


The new Steam Guide developed by Plant Engineering and Swagelok,
has proven to be a popular place for plant
managers to get actionable tips on how to
better maintain their steam system and
how to better optimize steam quality. The
Steam Guide is one of many reference
tools available whenever you need it at
www.PlantEngineering.com.

Check out this months survey at PlantEngineering.com


PLANT ENGINEERING

June 2011 7

Give your next pneumatic conveyor


the PNEUMATI-CON advantage:

The pneumatic conveying expertise you need for


top efficiency, plus the broad process experience
you need for seamless integration with your
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It takes more than a great pneumatic
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with top efficiency. It also takes process
engineering experts who know, in advance,
how your process equipment, storage
vessels, and material will affect your
conveying results.
Which is why you should rely on Flexicon.
Under one roof you will find a comprehensive line of robust pneumatic conveyor
components from filter receivers and
rotary airlock valves to cyclone separators
and blowers, and the in-depth pneumatic
experience it takes to size and configure
them to yield maximum efficiency, longevity
and cost effectiveness.

As importantly, you will find experienced


process engineers who draw on Flexicons
15,000+ installations integrating conveyors,
screeners, grinders, crushers, blenders,
weigh hoppers, bulk bag unloaders/fillers,
bag/drum dump stations, and/or storage
vesselsexperts who understand how your
upstream and downstream equipment can
impact, and be impacted by, the operation
of your pneumatic conveyor.
Going the extra mile to outperform
competitive pneumatic conveyors is what
the PNEUMATI-CON advantage is all about.
Its what enables Flexicon to guarantee top
results, and you to make pivotal improvements
to your process with absolute confidence.

When you convey with Flexicon,


you convey with confidence

.com

See the full range of fast-payback equipment at flexicon.com: Flexible Screw Conveyors, Pneumatic Conveying Systems, Bulk Bag Unloaders, Bulk Bag Conditioners,
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2010 Flexicon Corporation. Flexicon Corporation has registrations and pending applications for the trademark FLEXICON throughout the world.

input #6 at plantengineering.hotims.com

Z-0282

USA
sales@flexicon.com
1 888 FLEXICON

FORUM
Who are manufacturings
Leaders Under 40?
Nominate someone today
Plant Engineering to honor outstanding young
manufacturing professionals in September issue.
The most significant issue facing
manufacturing is the lack of an emerging skilled workforce to help U.S. manufacturing reach its potential in the global
manufacturing economy. To call attention
to this issue, Plant Engineering will again
honor the outstanding young manufacturing personnel as part of a special issue
in September.
Entries are now being accepted at www.
PlantEngineering.com for the 2011 Leaders Under 40 recognition. To be eligible,
the nominee must be a working professional in manufacturing under the age of
40. Nominees will be evaluated based on
their background, recommendations from
their supervisors, and the completion of

an essay question about what has attracted them to a career in manufacturing.


Our readers have consistently told
us that a skilled workforce is vital for
manufacturing to continue to rebound,
said Plant Engineering content manager
Bob Vavra. We hope that in looking at
how and why these exceptional young
manufacturing personnel chose a career
in this business, we can inspire other
individuals, and perhaps other companies, to make the recruitment, training,
and development of the next generation
of manufacturing professionals a higher
priority.
The September issue also will feature
articles about how some of Americas

best manufacturers have attacked this


problem head-on. It also will take a look
at how public-private partnerships have
helped to create regional hubs of excellence in the workforce development area.
Entrants also are invited to submit a
video explaining why they chose a career
in manufacturing. Entry deadline is Monday, Aug. 1, at 5 p.m. CST. All entries
are free, and all materials may be used
in print or online as part of the recognition process.
For an entry form or for more information, please call content manager Bob
Vavra at 630-571-4070, ext. 2212, or
email him at bvavra@cfemedia.com.

Is your plant a Top Plant?


Enter now to find out
2011 applications are now available;
Entry deadline is Sept. 15, 2011.
2 0 11
Applications are now being accepted
for the 2011 Top Plant Award, which
honors the outstanding manufacturing
facilities in North America. The 2011 Top
Plant Award is featured in the December
issue of Plant Engineering and will be
formally honored at the 2012 Manufacturing/Automation Summit next March
in Chicago.
Top Plant has become synonymous
with excellence in production, maintenance, productivity, and safety, said
Plant Engineering content manager Bob
Vavra. Our past winners, including 2010

recipient Toyota Industrial Equipment


Manufacturing, exemplify the best of
U.S. manufacturing, and what all manufacturing plants aspire toa commitment
to quality in all areas of their operation.
First presented in 2005, Top Plant
honors up to five manufacturing plants
each year. The 2011 application form is
available exclusively at www.PlantEngineering.com. Entries must be received by
Monday, Sept. 15, at 5 p.m. CST.
Beyond the recognition is an opportunity for manufacturers to conduct an
internal audit of operations against the

criteria in the Top Plant entry form.


Entrants also can benchmark their plants
performance against other entrants.
Past entrants have told us the most
valuable part of the process has been the
ability to quantify their operation against
the Top Plant criteria, Vavra said. This
process allows manufacturers to take stock
of their work, their metrics, and their
year-over-year improvements.
For more information or questions
about Top Plant, contact Bob Vavra at
630-571-4070, ext. 2212, or via email
at bvavra@cfemedia.com.
PLANT ENGINEERING

June 2011 9

FORUM
Process availability pays big dividends
Does a making an investment in process improvement to increase system
integrity during an era of reduced operat-

ing and capital budgets make sense? Yes,


economic downturns are an ideal time to
reduce expenses, including capital and
operating expenses.
Investments in process availability are

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Its important to weigh price vs. benefits


when looking at the issue of process
availability.

an asset that will continue to provide savings to your facility over the lifecycle of
the plant. In process plants all over the
work are striving now more than ever to
reduce operational expenditures while
increasing productivity and efficiency.
Process engineers place a tremendous
amount of emphasis on system integrity
requirements. Why? Because its a variable that can be controlled when the right
equipment is in place.
The time value of money is also being
affected by the recession. Most investment institutions are paying half of 1%
for savings accounts, and maybe 3% for
the long term of a certificate of deposit.
Consider the cost associated with an
unplanned shutdown: The oil and gas
and petrochemical industry estimates
an unplanned process shutdown runs
on average of more than $100,000 per
day. What is the return on investments to
avoid an unplanned shutdown?
The decision to invest in process integrity typically follows a few logical steps:
Pricing comparison of components
available
Weighing the price difference
against benefits
Past performance
Estimated return on additional
investment.
Today modern industrial process
facilities rely tremendously on the bulk
power supplies that provide power not
only the control system architecture but
also to bus powered control and mea-

input #7 at plantengineering.hotims.com

10  June 2011

PLANT ENGINEERING

surement instruments. These continuous


production process applications require
more than off-the-shelf industrial grade
power supplies. A single power supply
failure could have a catastrophic effect
that equates to a tremendous amount of
lost revenue.
This need for system integrity and
guaranteed performance in these
demanding conditions necessitates power
redundancy. In the simplest terms, N+1
is a robust and affordable power supply redundancy method that guarantees
continuous system functionality in the
event of a single power supply failure.
With redundancy a supply failure will

easily expandable in 15A increments just


by adding another module when the load
requirement increases. The end result is a
highly available and affordable redundant
power solution.
A minimal investment spent for key
components designed for system integrity results in an exponential ROI. This

investment results in net present value


increase that blows away any alternative
uses of the funds.
If the local bank was offering a 28%
interest rate on a CD, we would all be
getting speeding tickets on the way to
the bank to take advantage of this
great ROI.

Process engineers place a


tremendous amount of emphasis on system integrity. Why?
Because its a variable that
can be controlled when the
right equipment is in place.
not initiate an emergency repair situation and can be replaced without shutting
down the power system or the process.
The balanced load sharing of an N+1
power supply enables all of the modules to share the load evenly. This load
sharing functionality is built-in to each
power supply, without the need for an
external diode module. Balanced load
share ensures that one power module is
not working harder than another, adding to the longevity of the power supply modules. N+1 power supplies are

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Visit idealheatseeker.com and get started stopping problems.

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PLANT ENGINEERING

June 2011  11

input #8 at plantengineering.hotims.com

FORUM
CSIA members find value in
certification, audits
Organization charts new goals at CSIA Executive Conference.
By Bob Vavra, CFE Media

New board chairman Steve Goldberg at the CSIA Executive


Conference in Orlando, Fla.

input #9 at plantengineering.hotims.com

System integrators are the experts who connect automation


and control systems throughout a manufacturing facility. Now
the system integration association is ready to make a connection
between those integrators and the people they serve.
The Control System Integrators Association (CSIA) laid
out its goal of creating greater outreach to end users at the
plant floor level during the 2011 CSIA Executive Conference
in Orlando last week. The goal will be achieved by delivering
more information to the end user community and by increasing certification and educating end users and members about
its importance.
Bob Lowe, the CSIAs first full-time executive director and
former system integrator, cited several areas where the association needed to make progress:
Marketing to the end users. Our partners promote the
value of CSIA and how CSIA can help end users understand
the importance of CSIA membership.
End users dont know CSIA even exists. This is something
identified in our marketing study. What need is to get articles,
and we need your help in doing that. Lowe said CSIA needs to
deliver valuable content to the end-user community. In a major
step toward accomplishing this, CSIA has a content partnership with CFE Media, which publishes Plant Engineering and
Control Engineering magazines.
Some end users dont understand what a system integrator is. Maybe were too close to the situation, said Lowe.
Maybe we need to go back to Automation and Controls 101.
Whats important to our customers? Why do they value
CSIA certification? They want to seek more input from the user
community. As an association, we dont have direct access
to end users.
CSIA has seen membership rise steadily in the past few
years, climbing almost 10% from 2009 to 2011. While certified
members have fallen slightly in the same period, most of that
was attributed to mergers in the market.
CSIA board chairman Ed Diehl said the association has the
goal of increasing membership to more than 600 by 2015 while
increasing the number of certified members to 150 and growing international membership in the same time period. Diehl
is being succeeded by Steve Goldberg for a three-year term as
CSIA board president.
The association has five immediate goals in its efforts to
market to the end user audience:
Raise online profile
Expand media relationships
Forge partnerships with other associations
Provide more tools to certified firms
Increase membership/certification.

12  June 2011

PLANT ENGINEERING

Product Exclusive: Battery-free wireless push button


s first reported at www.PlantEngineering.com,
Schneider Electric has released a product line of
wireless and batteryless push buttons. Offering
maximum freedom and mobility for plant personnel by
eliminating wires, this functionality becomes invaluable
in industrial environments, where
personnel and equipment rarely
stay stationary, such as conveyance
machines in automotive, mining, and
logistics applications, and palletizers
and bottling machines in food and
beverage applications.
Schneider Electrics new Harmony XB5R offers users:
Enhanced mobility and protecCourtesy: Schneider Electric
tionAs the wireless signals can
be passed through doors, walls, and floors, the operator
can now remotely control machines at a distance of up to
25 meters. Equipment operators have the added option to
send a one-time radio message to one or multiple receivers, or sync up to 32 push buttons with one receiver. In
harsh industrial environments, remote operation provides
added protection for both users and equipment.

Continuous operation and a greener environmentThe


batteryless solution offers permanent availability, contributes to a greener environment, and eliminates the need
for battery maintenance, recharging and reloading, and
recycling costs.
20% savings on installation
costs as compared to traditional
wired solutionsThe wireless technology featured in the Harmony
XB5R eliminates cable and associated accessories between the push
button and the electrical cabinet.
Ready-to-use wireless solutionReady-to-use packages, with
transmitter and receiver already
paired, make the ordering process
simple and contribute to the fast implementation.
Additional transmittersAdditional ZB4 and ZB5 transmitters are available as components. An external antenna,
to extend the signal transmission, and an ergonomics box
for remote use are available as accessories.
For more information on the Harmony XB5R, please
visit: www.schneider-electric.us/go/wireless.

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input #10 at plantengineering.hotims.com

FORUM
CSIA seeks greater connection
with end user community
By Bob Vavra, CFE Media

Association certification can be seen


as an association benefit. The Control
System Integrators Association (CSIA)
members who have earned CSIA certification see their customers and their
business getting the greatest benefit from
certification.
Certification is the driver for value
in our organization, said Ed Diehl,
the outgoing chairman of the board of
CSIA and president of Concept Systems
in Albany, Ore. Certification is not an
event; it represents a culture of quality
and continuous improvement. Certification makes sense whether your customers
are asking for it or not. If your customers
are not asking for it, they will be.
According to its website, the CSIA
Certified member program began in 2000.

To become a CSIA Certified member


requires passing an audit that includes
76 criteria in the CSIA Best Practices
manual.
Im continuously improving our certification score. Our goal is to be auditready at any time, said Diehl. I look
forward to the auditor and theres at least
10 things I get out of that audit. Its an
independent evaluation of what were
doing right and wrong.
Diehl said the audit helped identify
were ways to implement a training program for new employees. Weve cut
down on our hiring mistakes, Diehl
said. The productivity of our new hires
has increased.
Bill Pollock, CEO of Optimation Technologies in Rush, NY, said he first learned
about CSIA certification in Control Engineering magazine. Now it is a core part

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of his system integration business.


There are places where CSIA certification is in the spec. If we do it correctly,
certification has huge value.
He cited five ways CSIA best practices
and audits are of value to his organization:
Best practices should be a way of life
and company culture.
Live it daily
Have internal audits monthly
Have external audits annually
Include a continuous improvement
cycle that drives it.
It has helped his business in tangible
ways, too. Our EMR (Experience Modification Rating) dropped from 1.1 in 2007
to .77 in 2011, Pollock said. Our workers comp premium dropped from over
$700,000 in 2009 to just over $200,000.
Theres a $500,000 savings leveraged in
CSIA audits.
But the question was asked directly
during the meeting on certification
whats the real value of certification?
CSIA members said the cost of the audit
and certification has been more than
made up in making their own business
better, making themselves more attractive
to potential customers, and in creating
value that can be sold to new clients.
Its not about brand power; its about
getting better performance out of your
company, said Ray Bachelor, president
of Bachelor Controls in Sabetha, Kan. It
looks like its a daunting task, but dont
be afraid to fail. We are a better company
today because of the audit. If you do crash
and burn the first time, youre not going
to be the first company.
I dont think I ever had an audit where
I didnt learn something, he said. We
want to raise the bar for system integration. You find yourself competing
with people who dont have a clue what
theyre doing. We want to promote
our value to the end users.

14  June 2011

PLANT ENGINEERING

2011 Product of the Year features early entry discount


here is no deadline for innovation, but there is a
We think this second deadline will be attractive to those
deadline to share your innovative new products in
companies who may have new products coming out now
manufacturing with the world. And this year, there are
but who may forget to enter them when the September
two deadlines.
deadline draws closer, said Plant Engineering
The 24th annual Plant Engineering Product of the
content manager Bob Vavra. It also creates an
Year entries are now being accepted at www.
incentive for early entry for any of the products.
PlantEngineering.com. The most sought-after
We will be reporting on this new entry progress
honor by manufacturing suppliers, Product
as the summer goes along.
of the Year is unique in the industry because
The other rules for Product of the Year
Plant Engineerings global readers vote on the
remain the same. An eligible product must
2011
Product of the Year award winners from entries
have been introduced in the U.S. market
received.
between Oct. 1, 2010, and Sept. 30, 2011. It must
Winners will be announced at the 2012
be substantially new; next-generation entries of past
Manufacturing/Automation Summit next March
products must demonstrate how the product is significantly
in Chicago, and in the April issue of Plant
different than past versions.
Engineering magazine, as well as online. Entries now open to honor
There are 18 categories of product
All entries must be submitted online. innovation with 24th annual
entries, and companies may enter as
In 2011, the Product of the Year entry
Product of the Year contest many eligible products as they would like
deadline is Friday, Sept. 12, at 5 p.m.
in any category.
CST, and entry fees are $395. For the first time, 2011 will
feature an early entry opportunity, and a $100 discount
For more information about Product of the Year, call
on entry fees. All submissions received before June 30,
content manager Bob Vavra at 630-571-4070, ext. 2212, or
2011, will be able to enter for just $295.
email him at bvavra@cfemedia.com.

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input #12 at plantengineering.hotims.com

FORUM
OSHA asking for views on
health and safety
OSHA will conduct a wide-ranging survey of employer
CFE: What is OSHAs timeframe for reporting the results?
health and safety practices beginning this month. The
survey will be sent to about 19,000 health and safety
OSHA has not yet announced a deadline for the first reportprofessionals and culminates a nine-month process to ing of results. The survey itself will conclude in August.
get the survey and its funding approved.
CFE: What are the expected outcomes? How does OSHA
The Baseline Survey of Safety and Health Practices
will be sent to private sector employers of all sizes and intend to use the results to improve workplace health and
across all industries under OSHAs jurisdiction. Questions safety?
include whether respondents already have a safety
OSHA believes the survey will be useful in providing
management system, whether they perform annual
a better idea to everyone in the occupational safety
N
inspections, who manages safety at their establishand health community concerning how occupational
ments and what kinds of hazards they encounter
safety and health is managed and what hazards are
EPTH: perceived
at their facilities.
by employers across industries and sizes
Participants either can complete the online survey
of firms. OSHA will use the data to more accurately
or get a paper copy sent to them. The research group
estimate the costs and paperwork burdens of regulaconducting the survey will have results returned to OSHA tion and to better design and direct outreach and guidance
by August 2011, one year after the intent to conduct the efforts.
survey was first announced.
CFE: Have there been past surveys that would help
CFE Media asked OSHA officials about the study and
benchmark
this new data?
what the goals of this new outreach will be:
OSHA collected similar data in a 1993 survey in order
to develop a baseline of safety and health practices. About
Chemical
Food
Pharmaceutical
Plastics
Powders
Construction
Laboratory
Textiles
Metals
Ceramics
3,500 establishments were surveyed. OSHA will consider
this date to assess historical change. However, the 2011
survey was designed to collect data for what OSHAs needs
to know today and tomorrow rather than as an attempt to
estimate historical progress. OSHA may use similar surveys
in the future to assess regulatory and outreach efforts.
How could those people who want to let their views be
known on occupational health and safety do that if they
dont get the survey mailed to them?
Vibratory products from Cleveland Vibrator integrate with material
The survey is designed as a mechanism for collecting
handling operations to enable the reliable ow of bulk solids in demanding
facts about industries and firms in statistically valid wayit
applications. Items include:
Portable Vibrators for small bins, hoppers and more
is not intended for the collection of data on stakeholder
8 &1/0(!".!-1!*5
views or opinions. The participants were selected at random
8),0+.%.1/$%+*! 2!./%+*/3%0$  +. 9,%/0+* %)!0!./%6!/
from a database of millions of establishments.
800$!/%(5* %*0!.$*#!(53%0$/(!!2!05,!.'!0/3!( ! %*

(1 *, 1( (5 (' )2 53 (5 )2 50 $1 &(

various locations
Rotary Electric Vibrators for screeners, conveyors and more
8.#!/0+'+"
)+0+./%*(1 %*# * ,+(!2!./%+*/
8 &1/0(!"+.!+10,10/".+)
0+


(/
Air Piston (Pneumatic) Vibrators for bins, hoppers and more
81,,+.0,%0%!/".+)
(/'#0+

0+*/

8!0((%%),0(%*!"!01.!/(%#$03!%#$0+*!,%!!)+ !(/3%0$0+1#$
10%(!$+1/%*#/* +0%*#+,0%+*/"+./,!%(%6! ,1.,+/!/
!00$!-1(%05/!.2%!* .!(%%(%055+1!4,!0".+)5!./+"
!*#%*!!.%*#* )*1"01.%*#!4,!.%!*!+*001/0+ 5

CFE: How could those people who want to let their views
be known on occupational health and safety do that if they
dont get the survey mailed to them?
OSHA: The survey is designed as a mechanism for
collecting facts about industries and firms in statistically valid wayit is not intended for the collection of
data on stakeholder views or opinions. The participants
were selected at random from a database of millions
of establishments.

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For more information about the survey and to view a


copy, visit www.osha.gov/national-survey/national-survey-announcementbaseline-survey.html.

800.221.3298  fax 216.241.3480  www.clevelandvibrator.com  Made in the USA

input #13 at plantengineering.hotims.com

16  June 2011

PLANT ENGINEERING

Half the fuel.


Twice the runtime.
Without hydraulic headaches.

THE NEW CS7000 SERIES. Greener. Cleaner. Smarter.


The industrys rst Hybrid and ePower Drive Combination Sweeper-Scrubbers
slash your Total Cost of Ownership.
The new green class of industrial cleaning technology has arrived. The Advance CS7000 Combination
Sweeper-Scrubber reinvents an entire class of equipment by reducing total cost of ownership, while
effectively doubling fuel economy and runtime. Available in three models, LPG-Hybrid, Diesel-Hybrid and
ePower Battery, the CS7000 delivers unparalleled performance, replacing 98% of
high-maintenance, leak-prone hydraulic components with an intelligent system of
electronically-controlled, low-maintenance electric drives. This technology shift alone
will save the average owner thousands of dollars in reduced maintenance costs.
Not to mention cutting fuel costs in half, and in many cases, doubling runtime.
Now, the most ecological solution is also the most economical.
To learn more, go to advance-us.com/CS7000
ePower BATTERY EXTENDS RUNTIME BY 64%

Competition

t t t t t

Competition

CS7000

ePower
t t t t t

t t t t t

t t t t t

Single charge runtime (in hours)

A Nilsk-Advance Brand
2011 Nilsk-Advance

HYBRID TECHNOLOGY DOUBLES FUEL EFFICIENCY

HYBRID

t t t t t

CS7000

t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t

Relative operational runtime (on identical fuel)

800-850-5559 www.advance-us.com

One-pass cleaning power with dedicated

sweeping and scrubbing functions keep dry


debris dry without introducing scrub solution
into the debris hopper.

The most advanced cleaning platform. Ever.


AVAILABLE IN THREE
HIGH-EFFICIENCY MODELS:
Extended Runtime Battery

Large ergonomic operator


compartment with ClearView
sightlines increases comfort,
safety and effectiveness

Optional dual-tank EcoFlex


system provides the most exible cleaning
solution for industrial applications

CS7000 LPG-Hybrid
CS7000 Diesel-Hybrid

Tools-free tilt-out/
lift-off recovery tank
with debris cage is easy
to inspect and clean

High impact-absorbing polymer body panels


wont dent, corrode or damage facility

High-capacity 75 gallon
corrosion-proof solution
and recovery tanks

Hybrid Drive backup battery power


adds user convenience to drive to
refueling station

Powerful, dual,
three-stage vacuum
motors deliver high
water lift and
airow to ensure
a safe, dry oor

High-capacity 4.0 ft3 front


dry sweeper debris hopper
with high-lift system
High performance
Donaldson PowerCore
nanober lter with
variable-frequency
shaker

Heavy-gauge industrial
steel unibody frame

48-inch pivoting scrub deck for


edge scrubbing effectiveness

Available with patented


DustGuard airborne dust
suppression technology

COMPARED TO OTHER SWEEPER-SCRUBBERS


IN ITS CLASS, THE CS7000 OFFERS:

Electronically-controlled electric drives

Lower total cost of ownership.

t100% indoor emission-free ePower


battery operation

The CS7000 eliminates large hydraulic


reservoirs, lters and oil coolers as well as
98% of the leak-prone, hydraulic hoses,
pumps, motors and valves. Weve replaced
noisy, high-maintenance components with
IP55 rated electric drives that deliver the
high levels of performance you expect with
unprecedented efciency and runtime, plus
much lower maintenance and fuel costs.

t64% increased battery runtime vs.


competitors

Dedicated dry sweep and wet


scrubbing for one- pass cleaning.

tOne innovative platform with dedicated


sweeping and scrubbing functions

Like other combination sweeper-scrubbers,


the CS7000 lets you sweep and scrub in a

tUp to 50% reduced LPG / diesel fuel


consumption and costs
tTwice runtime on the same fuel
tUp to 50% less emissions of comparable
LPG or diesel-fueled machines

A Nilsk-Advance Brand
2011 Nilsk-Advance

800-850-5559 www.advance-us.com

single pass. But thats where the similarities


end. Compared to competitive dual
cylindrical sweeper-scrubber designs, the
CS7000 utilizes dedicated sweeping and
scrubbing functions with one-pass cleaning
power to keep dry debris dry without
introducing scrub solution into the debris
hopper. Under the hood youll nd standard
dual side brooms and a cylindrical main
broom for dry sweeping, and a 48-inch triple
disc scrub deck that delivers more effective
cleaning at up to 400 lbs. of scrub pressure.
With the CS7000, youll nd everything
just works better. Just like you will. Learn
more at advance-us.com/CS7000

Economist: Two years of opportunity


in economy for manufacturing
Alan Beaulieu addressed the CSIA Executive Conference in Orlando, Fla.
again. Try to make a note as
With looming inflation in many areas,
to how happy you were in Beaulieu said business leaders will have
One of the first things
2007.
to make some fundamental changes.
economist Alan Beaulieu
The key, Beaulieu notes, is The bottom line is simple. Number
pointed to in his keynote to
rapid job creation, but theres one: Sometime later this year, find a
the CSIA Executive Conferlittle hope of a rapid return way to raise your prices. Number two:
ence in Orlando in April was
to robust employment. If Raise your wage rate. Pay your people
a quote from Time magazine
were creating 200,000 jobs more. Inflation is going to make people
talking about the multiple
a month, thats good. As feel uncomfortable. (In an aside, Beaucrises faced by the coun- Economist Alan
we continue to create jobs, lieu said, My staff always asks, Did
tryrunaway federal debt, Beaulieu addressed
thats the sign of a healthy you tell them about raising wages?).
a shaky overall economic the CSIA Execueconomy. We have to create Number three: Invest in yourself. Look
climate, a weak real estate tive Conference in
200,000 jobs a month for 10 for process bottlenecks. Ruthlessly. Ask
market, large amounts of Orlando.
years to be the country we yourself, Can I do something that will
personal debt, and spiraling
were. This is going to be a enhance my productivity?
health care costs. Then Beaulieu revealed longer, slower climb than people wanted.
Yet despite the warning signs, espethe Time magazine quote was from 1992.
Those who refuse to get trained are cially on the federal budget and inflation,
His point was that no matter how going to be disappointed, he added. Beaulieu said he was generally optimissevere a recession seems at the time Those who want the next 10 years to tic about the economic future. I am
and Beaulieu, president of the Institute be like last 10 will be disappointed.
convinced in my soul we will deal with
for Trend Research, called the past one a
Beaulieu was critical of Fed Chair- these issues, and we will find a politimanly recessionweve been through man Ben Bernackes monetary policies, cal decision and business decision, he
this all before.
but said anything
said. Net worth
He sees the same kind of cyclical econ- happening today We can see whats going to
in the household is
omy coming for the rest of this decade, is simply the end
happen and we can adjust to it. same as its been.
but makes one pointed observation about result of a long
Were the same
how the recession actually changed the p r o c e s s . T h i s We can do more than survive.
people we used to
game this time. Whatever you used to problem is bigger
be; weve just had
- Alan Beaulieu, Institute for Trend Research
get where you are today, he said, how than either party.
two huge bubbles.
you thrived in the last 10 years is not This is a national crisis. Our nation has a Thats like a great weekend at college. We
going to work in the next 10 years.
budget shortfall of $1.673 trillion. Thats dont want bubbles; theyre dangerous.
Beaulieu told the 400 attendees at the larger than the GDP of Canada. We are They came from the stock market and
CSIA conference that there is plenty of in so much trouble, and weve known it housing market.
growth in the market right now, but that was coming for a generation and have
Now is the time to be laying the
the economy wont sustain the breakneck done nothing about it. This is an Ameri- seeds, Beaulieu added. And number
pace indefinitely. The economy is cool- can problem.
one is customer service. Surveys indicate
ing off and will continue to cool, he said.
He sees two immediate impacts from only 6% to 8% of clients are happy with
The economy will continue to expand, this problemhigher interest rates and the customer service they receive. And
but just not at the same pace. Then the higher taxes. There are also fundamental 59% of the time, the customer leaves a
economy will speed up in 2012. There changes in the banking industry. Banks vendor because of customer service. You
will be a mild recession in 2014, but pos- are lending again. It takes two to three have to know what youre doing right and
sibly something possible stronger.
years to get back to normal. Let me wrong. You have to know your competiThere are two years of opportunity in define normal. Its not going to be where tive advantages. What is it that you do
front of us, he added. Most of you, no you have a pulse and get a loan. Youre that makes you stand apart?
matter where you are, are seeing pickup going to need money down to buy a
Beaulieu, an annual presenter at the
in activity. If you asked yourself after house. Im not seeing housing coming CSIA event, said his message hasnt
this recession, What would I have done back until 2014. If youre looking to get really changed much. We can see whats
differently? write it down and put in a kids out of the house, I suggest you buy going to happen and we can adjust
drawer, because youre going to need it them a house.
to it. We can do more than survive.

By Bob Vavra, CFE Media

PLANT ENGINEERING

June 2011 17

FORUM

Courtesy: Eriez Manufacturing Co.

Developing a culture of safety for 1,000 days


Eriez world headquarters in Erie, PA
Meyers: A couple of years ago, we
is closing in on three years without a lost made a number of changes designed to
day of work due to injury. The company, better integrate safety in Eriez day-towhich manufacturers magnetic,
day operations. We revamped our new
IN
vibration and inspection technolemployee safety orientation to betogy, passed 1,000 days of produc- DEPTH: ter emphasize safety and increased
tion without a lost-time injury on
safety training for all employees. We
May 19. These milestones are recogalso incorporated safety into our health
nized within facilities, but the culture that and wellness program and added safety
creates such safety records also needs to updates to company meetings. To serve as
be examined. CFE Media discussed the a constant, visual reminder of our safety
Eriez safety strategy with Process Safety progress, we mounted a large sign in the
Manager Tina Meyers, who talked about plant that clearly displays the number of
some of the factors involved in creating days our plant has worked without a lost
and maintaining a safe workplace:
time accident. The safety culture begins
with the emphasis the management team
puts on safety, but its really driven by the
CFE: Whats the key factor in reach- employees. Our employees take personal
ing 1,000 consecutive days without a lost accountability when it comes to safety.
time incident?
CFE: How do you get effective
Meyers: It truly comes down to the
people. Eriez employees have really employee involvement with safety on
taken ownership of preventing lost time the plant floor?
accidents. They deserve the credit for this
Meyers: We believe that awareness
remarkable achievement.
is the most essential aspect of any
safety program. By keeping employCFE: Was there a turning point at ees informed and continuously reitEriez to where safety became a more erating the importance of safety, they
visible part of the companys culture? become invested in maintaining a safe
Today, what drives that culture?
environment.

18 June 2011

PLANT ENGINEERING

CFE: What areas of your safety effort


still need attention?
Meyers: We have done a great job of
weaving safety into day-to-day operations, but there is always room for
improvement. The management team
maintains an ongoing discussion about
increasing and improving safety training and new approaches for keeping our
employees involved.
CFE: Define safety in a manufacturing environment. How do you and your
employees know Eriez is a safe place
to work?
Meyers: A safe manufacturing environment is one in which the potential for danger, risk and injury is minimized as much
as possible. We believe the key to reducing danger, risk and injury comes from
safety training, education and awareness.
Our safety program gives employees the
proper knowledge to successfully avoid
danger, risk and injury in their work environment. It is our comprehensive safety
program and its demonstrated effectiveness that gives Eriez management and
employees the confidence that Eriez
is a safe place to work.

Stanley Black & Decker, Inc. 2011

T HERE ARE S TANDARDS


WAY T OUGHER T HAN

ANSI OR ASME.

MINE.

We spend time on factory oors. We see what


tools have to stand up to punishment not
even a testing lab can think up. Knowing that,
we make our tools to exacting standards, often
exceeding those set out by testing labs and tool
associations. The proving ground for a tool isnt
a laboratory, its your hand.

input #14 at plantengineering.hotims.com

Clear the way for quality air

Hi, Im Michelle and I have been working with our customers across the United States for the
last 10 years. Products that optimize quality in your air supply are not just accessories we
offer; they are a way of life for us at Atlas Copco. Thats why we produce such a wide variety
of dryers, aftercoolers, filters and oil-mist eliminators just to name a few.
We all perform best when working within our optimum environment, right? And, manufacturing
environments are no different. Moisture in your air supply is something that should be avoided
at all costs. Water is a by-product of compressing air. But there are ways to ensure this
moisture doesnt get downstream and cause equipment malfunction. And more importantly,
moisture can lead to contamination of your end products, leading to costly product failures
and potentially harming your hard-earned reputation.
Our mission is to continue to bring sustainable productivity through safer, cleaner, more
energy-efficient, and cost-effective compressed air technology. Simply log onto
www.atlascopco.us/michelleusa or call 866-688-9611 to learn more about us, our products,
and how we have earned and will continue to earn our reputation.

input #15 at plantengineering.hotims.com

Copyright 2011 Atlas Copco Compressors LLC. All rights reserved.

 BEST

PRACTICES

Propane-fueled forklifts
deliver savings, performance

Courtesy: Propane Education & Research Council

By Brian Feehan, vice president, Propane Education & Research Council

here are more than 600,000


Propane is an approved clean
propane-fueled forklifts in
alternative fuel under the Clean
operation in U.S. manuAir Act of 1990. Propane-fueled
facturing facilities, wareforklifts also cut greenhouse gas
houses, and distribution centers,
emissions by 19% compared with
according to Propane Education
gasoline-fueled counterparts and
& Research Council (PERC) data.
7% compared with diesel-fueled.
There are many reasons for such
Since an efficient refueling infrawidespread use: propane-fueled
structure is already in place,
forklifts maintain consistent, 100%
capitalizing on the sustainability
power throughout operation; reduce
characteristics of propane-fueled
greenhouse gas emissions comforklifts is easy.
pared to gasoline and diesel modSafety a big issue
els; and have a well-established
With manufacturing facilfuel delivery and cylinder exchange
Some propane-fueled forklift models, like the
ity managers identifying the next
structure.
Toyota 8-Series IC Pneumatic from Toyota Mategeneration of forklift operators, its
Economic performance also
rial Handling U.S.A., feature a swing-down brackalso critical that appropriate trainplays a role. For example, a proet that makes propane cylinder changes fast and
ing and safety measures are continpane fuel tax credit of 50 cents per
easy, and help reduce back strain.
ually addressed. While exchanging
gallon through Dec. 31, 2011, due
an empty forklift propane cylinder
to the passage into law of the Tax
Relief, Unemployment Insurance Reau- There is no slowdown as a shift progress- isnt difficult, entities like PERC and the
thorization, and Job Creation Act of 2010, es when operating a propane-fueled fork- Railroad Commission of Texas maintain
is enhancing the cost-effectiveness of liftthe power level an operator experi- that all cylinder exchanges should be conpropane-fueled forklifts. The propane ences when a new propane cylinder is ducted by appropriately trained personnel, using proper safety procedures.
installed will be the same over a shift.
fuel tax credit is retroactive to 2010.
In fact, personnel that have not been
That fact weighs heavily in maintainThese facts are proving important to
owners and managers of manufacturing ing efficient throughput. Just as impor- appropriately trained should never
facilities across the United States. Not tant is propane-fueled forklifts faster attempt to exchange a propane cylinonly do they demand robust material han- ground speeds than those that operate der, and must defer to coworkers with
dling equipment that comes with reliable on other fuels and power technologies. appropriate training. Forklift manufacservice and good value, those needs are This means the time to transport pallets turer safety training courses are critical
magnified due to an improving global of products and materials to and from to achieving that end. Mandates within
various areas within a manufacturing OSHA Standard 1910.178 (I)(2)(ii) and
economy and increasing throughput.
facility is reduced. That time savings ANSI/ITSDF Standard B56.1-2009
Performance, sustainability
compounded over weeks, months, and 4.19.2 should also be considered.
According to OSHA, several forklift years can provide facility owners and
Introducing propane-fueled forklifts to
classes use propane as a fuel source, managers an edge as business conditions a manufacturing plants fleet is a simple
including:
improve. The high-performance charac- matter of contacting a trusted equipment
 Class IV: Internal Combustion teristics of propane-fueled forklifts can dealer or a local propane provider. FurEngine Trucks with Solid/Cushion Tires play an integral role in business growth ther information can also be found at
 Class V: Internal Combustion Engine going forward.
www.poweredbypropane.org.
Trucks with Pneumatic Tires.
In addition to maintaining efficient
With orders ramping up in many throughput to meet customer orders,
The Propane Education & Research
facilities after years of sluggish business many owners and managers of manu- Council was authorized by the U.S. Conconditions, the fact that propane-fueled facturing facilities are keeping a close gress. The mission of the Propane Educaforklifts maintain consistent operational eye on sustainability and green-related tion & Research Council is to promote
power is crucial for facility owners and issues. Propane-fueled forklifts are a the safe, efficient use of odorized propane
managers who demand efficiency. Why? major contributor in this area as well.
gas as a preferred energy source.
PLANT ENGINEERING

June 2011 21

 BEST

PRACTICES

Are MERV ratings the right


measure for dust collectors?
By Matt Kalis, The Donaldson Company

22 June 2011

Courtesy: The Donaldson Company

tandards to approprito measure the performance of


ately and accurately
general ventilation air cleaning
measure the effectivedevices. While general ventilaness of industrial dust
tion air cleaning systems and
collector systems have never
industrial dust collector systems
existed. Since many dust colboth remove particulate from an
lector and filter manufacturers
airstream, they have little else
make claims about their prodin common. The differences are
ucts performance, many end
addressed below.
users find themselves lost in a
Operating flow rates
world of boasts and promises. In
The 52.2 standard was estaban effort to implement a basis for
lished to test the efficiency of
comparison, MERV ratings are
static air filters used in general
being applied. These ratings were
ventilation systems, such as
established by ASHRAE 52.2 for
room and building air filtration
the general industrial ventilation
systems. By contrast, industrial
cleaning industry.
dust collection air filters function
Is this an appropriate measurein a very dynamic environment,
ment of effectiveness for induswith dust continuously building
trial dust collectors? Applying
on and being cleaned from the
the MERV rating system to meamedia as needed. Most industrial
sure the effectiveness of industridust collectors include a selfal dust collectors is problematic
cleaning system that allows the
for the following reasons:
filters to continue performing
 MERV tests at stipulated
much longer than if they were
media flow rates are much difnot cleaned repeatedly. Someferent than the typical operating
flow rates of industrial dust col- If one tried to calculate emissions over time times the filters are cleaned
lectors;
based on MERV efficiency levels, the emis- when there is no airflow, but
often the cleaning occurs dur MERV ratings indicate minimum filter efficiency (typically sions would be greatly overstated. The mis- ing normal operation.
The ever-changing dust cake
at start-up) rather than typical fil- calculation occurs because a filter in a dust
(and its associated pressure
ter emissions over the filter life;
drop) means that the efficiency
 MERV measures the effec- collector becomes seasoned with dust and
of the filter is also ever-changtiveness of the filter media rather generates dust cakes over and over.
ing. Each time a filter is cleaned,
than the entire dust collection
the efficiency of the filters changes. The static conditions used in
system and its self-cleaning system; and
 MERV identifies pressure drop but doesnt address overall ASHRAE 52.2 cannot be appropriately applied to the dynamic
conditions within a dust collector.
energy consumption.
Industrial manufacturing processes produce dustin amounts
What is MERV?
not expected in general ventilation cleaning systems. The airMERV stands for Minimum Efficiency Reporting Value. It streams within the processes at saw mills, grain handling faciliis a rating system incorporated into the test specification of ties, metal fabrication shops, and thermal spray booths typically
ASHRAE 52.2. It assigns a single number to a filter in an effort produce 0.5 to 20 grain/cu ft of particulate. Manufacturers
to identify its minimum performance in removing particulate cannot afford to stop production to change the filters on a frefrom an airstream. Higher numbers are intended to indicate quent basis, so they rely on dust collectors with self-cleaning
higher filtration efficiency, but many industrial dust collection systems. The self-cleaning systems allow a filter to remain in
industry experts would argue that they dont.
use for a longer period of time.
ASHRAE 52.2 was initially written to establish a method
In contrast, an ASHRAE 52.2 test inserts relatively little dust
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input #16 at plantengineering.hotims.com

PRACTICES


Courtesy: The Donaldson Company

 BEST
into the airstream. It uses about 0.005
grain per cubic foot of air. This is 100
to 4,000 times less dust concentration
than in a typical industrial dust collector
airstream.
Another critical factor to consider is
that media face velocity differs greatly
between general ventilation and industrial
dust collection. A typical dust collector
will have a media face velocity in the
range of 0.5 to 12 feet per minute. By
contrast, ASHRAE 52.2 tests airflow
velocities in the 118 to 748 feet per minute range. That means the magnitudes
are 10 to 1,500 times higher in a MERV
test than in a dust collector. Since media
velocity can affect efficiency, the applicability of the MERV test for an industrial dust collection application should
be questioned.

Initial vs. life efficiency


The goal of ASHRAE 52.2 is to measure the efficiency of a general ventilation
cleaning system. The goal of a dust collector is to control emissions over time.
Upon first glance, it would appear that
a filters efficiency would be directly
related to the emissions that the filter
allows to escape the system. However,
a filters efficiency cannot be directly correlated with emissions in an industrial
dust collector. If one tried to calculate
emissions over time based on MERV
efficiency levels, the emissions would
be greatly overstated. The miscalculation
occurs because a filter in a dust collector
becomes seasoned with dust and generates dust cakes over and over.
The operating principle of an industrial dust collector uses the accumulation of the dust cake to provide additional
filtration. Since the dust cake provides
a resistance to airflow, the resistance
across the filter media of a dust collector
is typically in the range of 2 to 5 inches of
water. During that time, the dust cake is
constantly being replaced as the filters are
cleaned and then the dust rebuilds. The
ASHRAE 52.2 test operates in a totally
different range of resistance. The test
will stop at a maximum resistance of 1.4
inches of water (or sooner depending on
the level of efficiency being obtained).
The testing for MERV is tied simply to
the filter medias ability to capture dust,
while a dust collectors operating cycle
uses the accumulation and release of the

24 June 2011

PLANT ENGINEERING

dust cake as a significant contributor to


performance efficiency.
These differences in the function of
a dust collector versus the application
of an ASHRAE 52.2 test will make the
approach to engineering media significantly different. For a static filtration system, it would be advantageous to have
depth-loading media that allows the particulate to load throughout the depth of
the media without actually penetrating the
filter element. The media that allows dust
to load in the filter without building up a
dust case will handle more particulate and
will last longer in a static environment.
However, this is not ideal when trying
to clean the media in a dynamic environment. The more dust retained on the
surface of the media (surface-loading),
the easier it is to clean it off. It is very
advantageous to have a surface-loading
media in a dust collector to ensure longer
filter life.
A filter manufacturer could easily
design a depth-loading media to ensure
a higher MERV rating for its filters, and
consumers might likely assume the higher
MERV rating means a better filter. However, these depth-loading media often
sacrifice the ability to release particles
during the cleaning. An industrial dust
collector consumer who buys a filter

based strictly on the MERV rating might


not be aware that he is sacrificing a significant area of performancethe ability
to be cleaned. The best filter for industrial
dust collectors would offer better efficiency and better cleaning performance.
Given the number and complexity of
factors that go into industrial dust collector performance, one could argue that
it is ineffective to base dust collection
purchasing decisions on a MERV rating
that is based solely on initial efficiency.
The conditions that separate a MERV
13 performance rating from a MERV 14
performance rating represent only a brief
portion of the dust collector filters life.
The MERV rating that is established
during the initial few minutes of the filters
life cannot predict the effectiveness of the
remaining 6 to 24 months of the filters
life. Again, the efficiency characterization of 52.2 is not reliable. Actual industrial dust collector performance is more
accurately based on the engineering in the
cleaning system, surface loading media
technology, and airflow management.

Media vs. system performance


The MERV rating system is also inadequate in identifying the effectiveness
of an industrial dust collection system
because it gauges the media, rather than
the entire filtration system. Ideally, a
standard would allow the end user to
compare what the emissions would be
during regular operation. It would gauge
the effectiveness of the entire filtration
system. Airflow management within a
dust collector is critical to its overall performance. The design of it should manage
the airflow so that most of the dust never
reaches the filters in order to enable the
media to last longer. The airflow should
also be managed so that the collected dust
settles without getting re-entrained in the
airflow or being permanently suspended.
There are many approaches to cleaning
mechanisms, but the design of the cleaning system and the media should go hand
in hand. The dust collector user is concerned only with the total performance,
so the measurement of one or the other
is incomplete.

Pressure drop
Another issue is that ASHRAE 52.2s
notation of pressure drop does not
acknowledge the broader performance

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input #17 at plantengineering.hotims.com

 BEST

PRACTICES

Courtesy: The Donaldson Company

characteristic of increasing concern to


so many end users: energy consumption
and its cost. Higher restriction in a filter requires more energy to maintain the
proper airflow.
The cleaning energy is also very important. A dust collector can have a great
cleaning system and a low pressure drop
but may require a massive amount of
cleaning energy. Few would consider that
scenario acceptable. Yet MERV ratings
do not provide guidance to end users on
this critical performance characteristic.

Whats next?
Given all the reasons the MERV rating system is inappropriate for industrial
dust collectors, where does that leave
us? If there were a new standard, it
should consider many of the main performance characteristics that an end user
is concerned aboutprimarily those
discussed in this article. Other considerations end users have for choosing an
industrial dust collector may also need
to be considered. Size, cabinet integrity,
noise, and the ability of the filter system
to recover from an upset condition are
other characteristics that end users typically want to know about.

26 June 2011

PLANT ENGINEERING

Leaders in the industrial dust collection industry, ASHRAE, and ISO are currently working together to address this
issue. ASHRAEs technical committee
5.4 has recently completed a research
project (RP1284) to determine the best
way to develop a test specification for

Consider being a part of the


public reviews before the
standards are published so
that your feedback can help
ensure the end users needs
will finally be met.
dust collectors, and there is a special
projects committee working to write a
test specification based on this research.
ISOs Technical Committee 142 is also
busy writing a similar test specification
to be used on an international level.
Both may be several years away from
being fully written and developed, but
at least they are addressing the needs
of the industrial dust collection market that MERV was never intended to
address. Those interested should get

involved. Consider being a part of the


public reviews before the standards are
published so that your feedback can
help ensure the end users needs will
finally be met.
In the meantime, when confronted with
a dust collection filter system selection
choice, ask the manufacturer questions
regarding the applicability of MERV to
the situation at hand. More importantly,
spend the time asking about characteristics that will better predict the effectiveness of the dust collection system,
such as: operating flows, expected filter life, media design, airflow management, cleaning system design, and energy
usage. Your bottom line will reflect
your more discerning choice.
Matt Kalis is an engineering manager
at The Donaldson Company, Inc. Kalis
has five years of experience in industrial air filtration. He serves on ASHRAE
Technical Committee 5.4 and is involved
with the writing of SPC199. Kalis also
serves on ISO Technical Committee 142,
WG5, leading the development of a test
specification for industrial dust collectors. He can be contacted at (952) 8873479 or matt.kalis@donaldson.com.

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input #18 at plantengineering.hotims.com

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800.365.1331
2011 Donaldson Company, Inc.

input #19 at plantengineering.hotims.com

Torit PowerCore TG Series

COVERSTORY

What is your relay


telling you?
Troubleshoot
your motors by
understanding
your relays.
By Mark Pollock
Littelfuse Startco

major industrial company recently


installed microprocessor-based
motor-protection relays to replace
the original electromechanical
overloads on a number of motors.
Wishing to take advantage of all the
features of the new units, it enabled the current
unbalance functiononly to have the relays trip
out almost immediately. What was going on?
After doing some investigating, the company found the cause: Pitted contacts on the
motors starting contactor were reducing the
current to one motor phase. Had the problem
persisted it eventually would have caused
overheating in the motor, potentially shortening its life. Not knowing that the phase
currents were unbalanced might have led to
needless examination of the motor, which was
not at fault, or even a reduction in load to try
to reduce the heating. The digital relay made
it possible to find the true cause quickly.
Many features of digital motor-protection
relays can be used to troubleshoot motor problems, but they may be unfamiliar to operators
who are used to simple, traditional thermal
motor overloads.
The basic protection for a motor, required by

most electrical codes, is provided by a relay.


Two types are common: an electromechanical
device, such as a traditional overload relay,
and a digital relay. An electromechanical relay
is a single function device, but a digital relay
typically protects against multiple threats such
as overload, phase loss, overcurrent, etc.
A digital motor-protection relay is a more
complex beast, but it provides a higher level
of protection than the traditional electromechanical relay. Because one device takes all
the measurements and can do very fast calculations, complicated parameters can be monitored and acted on intelligently. The digital
motor-protection relay can communicate to
a control system for monitoring and predictive maintenance, and it has alarms that give
descriptive information that can be used to
speed troubleshooting. As the prices of digital motor-protection relays have decreased
in recent years, more people are using them,
often on smaller horsepower motors than in
the past. However, because users may not have
much experience with these relays, they may
not be familiar with the best ways to use them.

Thermal overload
When a relay displays this message
about high motor temperature and shuts off
the motor, look for changes that may have
increased the load, such as a torn conveyor
belt, stuck raw material, or failed bearing.
Thermal overloads detected by digital relays
are not really a result of high temperature.
The cause is the motor current exceeding the
normal motor current and service factor settings, which is then tracked by the thermal
model programmed into the relay.
This model estimates the motor temperature based on the current. Some sophisticated
relays use input from temperature sensors on
the windings, but often only to bump up the
thermal model if the calculated temperature is
less than what is being measured by the sensor.
Too-frequent starts are another cause of
overtemperature, and relays having dynamic
thermal-overload capability will protect the
motor. A motor built to NEMA standards is
designed to provide two starts from cold without damage. To relate this to a thermal model,
the motor uses approximately 50% of its available thermal capacity (I2t) with one start.
Therefore, if the motor is interrupted during a
start, it will soon be in danger of damage and the
relay should trip. Thermal capacity is based
on motor specifications entered into the relay by
the user and can be customized for fan-cooled
PLANT ENGINEERING

June 2011 29

COVERSTORY
motors that do not require the full 50% of the
thermal capacity to complete a start.
The advantages of the dynamic thermal
model are that it is more accurate than winding
temperature sensors alone, it is not confined
to discrete spots in motor windings, and it
reacts faster to sudden changes. Also, because
it tracks the motor temperature so accurately, it
can keep the operator from restarting the motor
when it is still too hot. In contrast, electrome-

chanical motor overloads cool faster than the


motor, which may allow the operator to restart
the motor at an unsafe temperature.
In addition, a digital motor-protection relay
specifies the time to reset so the operator
will know when the motor is cool enough to
restart. This avoids the frustration of continually checking to see if a restart is permitted,
and allows other duties to be performed in
the meantime.

Table 1: Troubleshooting
Alarm

Possible cause

Recommended action

Motor is running above rated current, or has


been started multiple times without adequate
cool-down time between starts.

Let motor cool down to safe level before restarting; check relay for time-to-reset to plan
restart time. After restarting, ensure motor is operating at or below rated current, reducing
the load if necessary. If this is a multiple-motor application (i.e., conveyor belt), ensure
motors are balanced and working together properly. (See Littelfuse Startco white paper:
Motor Selection for Belt-Conveyor Drives.) In relay data log, check thermal capacity
required to start motor and ensure relay is set to allow reset as soon as it is safe.

Overcurrent

Insulation failure in the motor windings or a


damaged/shorted cable.

Immediately de-energize the motor and look for evidence of short-circuit damage in the
cabling and motor. Test insulation and check for blown fuses prior to re-energizing.

Current
unbalance

A winding fault, a poor wiring connection, or


damaged conductor. It could also signal a problem with the supply.

Check motor terminals and other locations for bad connections, inspect and/or test motor
windings for faults, check supply power.

Phase loss,
current

Motor is not receiving current from one of the


phases, which could be a problem with the
power supply, wiring, or fuses.

Inspect fuses on the feeder and/or motor for the phase in question. Check cable for opencircuit. Check connection to motor terminals. Safely check to see if voltage is present on
the phase.

Problem with the power supply, wiring, or fuses.

Safely check to see if voltage is present in the main feeder or supply panel for the phase in
question. Check upstream cabling and fuses for open-circuit.

Incorrect connection of phase cables to motor


terminals.

Inspect the connections to the motor terminals. Confirm the phase sequence, and correct
wiring problem.

Phase-to-ground short.

Inspect cabling, terminal box connections, and motor windings for damage or evidence of
short to ground. Test insulation resistance for confirmation of fault.

Thermal
overload

Phase loss,
voltage
Phase reversal
Earth leakage
Overvoltage

Power quality issues from the power supply.

Check power quality monitors. Do not start motor if possible.

Undervoltage

Power quality issues from the power supply,


overloaded transformer, very long cable lengths,
too many motors starting simultaneously.

Check power quality monitors. Start motors one at a time. Review system design to
ensure transformer is sized properly and cable lengths are appropriate.

Overtemperature

Temperature sensors can indicate extreme


motor, ambient, or bearing temperatures. Channels for air ventilation could be plugged, motor
current could be fluctuating, or an unbalance
condition could exist. Bearings could be worn
out or causing excess friction.

Ensure motor cooling fins and any other cooling measures/channels are operating as
expected. Clean the motor of excess dust and debris. Check current and unbalance readings on relay. Fix room ventilation if required. Inspect the bearings; lube if necessary or
replace if damaged.

Jam

Load has increased beyond the motors capability or a mechanical jam has occurred.

Check the motor for mechanical jams, failed bearings, or other problem that would prevent the rotor from turning. Inspect the load to determine if it has changed.

Undercurrent

The motor load has been drastically reduced, or


in a pump application it may have run dry.

Check the motor for mechanical jams, failed bearings, or other problem that would prevent the rotor from turning. Inspect the load to determine if it has changed.

Motor
differential

Differential protection is typically used to provide


full winding protection, and detect winding-towinding faults quickly.

Check if the motor protection relay is measuring a small ground-fault current. If so, check
the motor windings for a fault near the edge of the winding. Inspect the rest of the windings for any phase-to-phase faults.

Problem with the supply.

Check motor relay frequency setting, and ensure the correct supply is connected to the
motor. To ensure metering and protection measurements are not distorted when using a
variable frequency drive (VFD), enable Frequency Tracking on the motor protection relay.
This allows the calculated values to be adjusted based on the output frequency of the VFD.

Mechanical jam, excess friction, or loading the


motor beyond its capability.

Check the motor relay for related events (overload or jam trips). Check the motor for
mechanical jams, failed bearings, or other problems that would prevent the rotor from
turning. Inspect the load to determine if it has changed.

A load pushing or pulling on a motor. A conveyor


belt is one such application.

Check the load to ensure it is functioning as expected. In a multiple-motor system, ensure


motors are matched properly. (See Littelfuse Startco white paper: Motor Selection for
Belt-Conveyor Drives.)

Underfrequency/
overfrequency
Failure to
accelerate
Underspeed/
overspeed

Courtesy: Littelfuse Startco

30 June 2011

PLANT ENGINEERING

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Monitoring

Design

input #20 at plantengineering.hotims.com

Repair

Learning

Inventory

COVERSTORY
in a resistance grounded system, newer digital
motor-protection relays have the option to accept
inputs from sensitive current transformers.
Another method of detecting a phase-toground fault is using an insulation monitoring
relay. Traditional ground-fault relays detect
a fault by measuring the current with a transformer, and some damage to the motor may
occur before the relay trips.
An insulation monitoring relay prevents the
motor from starting if it detects a ground fault,
avoiding that potential damage. However, on a
grounded system, the insulation monitor cannot be used while the motor is energized.
Courtesy: Littelfuse Startco

Jam

Other relay alarms

This message displays if motor current


exceeds a set amount (less than starting current) while in Run mode. It directs operators
to look for a problem with the load, rather than
with the motor. The setpoint for this function
(like all relay setpoints) can be password-protected, preventing operators or others from
changing it.
With jam protection, the relay must be
smart enough to know when the motor is in
Startup mode, when it temporarily disables
the jam protection. Without this ability, one
must specify a time delay after which one
assumes the motor has started. Jam protection
can detect a mechanical jam in the motor or
a severe overload that has stopped the motor
and will cause extreme damage in a short time.
Some motor-protection relays have a
Reduced Overcurrent mode that is separate
from the Jam mode. It can be engaged to temporarily reduce the overcurrent setpoint when
performing maintenance in a motor circuit
when the motor is running. Because it has a
fast response time, it may reduce arc-flash
energy released during a short circuit.

Electronic motor-protection relays have


many alarms that can assist with troubleshooting. Here are some other common messages:
 Current unbalanceAn unbalance
between the three phases. A typical cause is
if you have a contactor and one of the contacts
is pitted and reducing current on one phase.
 Phase Loss, CurrentOne phase has zero
current. The two remaining windings have to
work harder and get hotter, which can cause
damage quickly.
 Phase Reversal, CurrentThis happens
if a worker connects the wrong phase to a
terminal.
 UndercurrentIndicates loss of load or
a pump run dry.
 Undervoltage or OvervoltageIf voltage
is too low, it can damage the motor. If voltage
is too high, it will stress the insulation.
 Voltage UnbalanceIndicates one phase
has a voltage different from the others, often
caused by power supply or transformer issues.
 Underfrequency or OverfrequencyThe
frequency of the input voltage (VA) is below/
above the setpoint.
 Failure to Accelerate and Underspeed
Uses input from a tachometer to provide information about the motor and load, such as
knowing when the motor is rotating too slowly.
 Motor Differential, CurrentUses additional current transformers to detect small current losses in the windings that could lead to
ground faults.

Earth leakage current


If the relay reports earth leakage, also called
a ground fault, the cause is likely to be a
short in the windings or input wiring, or worn
or melted insulation. When the motor is deenergized, check the resistance of the motor
wiring. If that does not show a problem, then
cautiously check the input wiring for a ground
fault, being sure to wear the proper personal
protection equipment.
Many plants are upgrading to resistance
grounded systems to reduce the risk of arc-flash.
Many traditional ground-fault relays were not
designed for this type of system and assume large
ground-fault currents. To detect ground faults

32 June 2011

PLANT ENGINEERING

Summary
Plant managers can save troubleshooting
time and better protect motors using digital
relays. As relay prices fall and plants remain
understaffed, managers have a decent argument for upgrading older thermal-style
overloads with modern devices.

Find the right data to justify


electrical system upgrades
By Craig Resnick, ARC Advisory Group

as part of their power equipment replacement, especially


n recent years, it has been notoriously difficult to juswhen this was done as part of a scheduled shutdown
tify and obtain approval for electrical power systems
based on preventive maintenance, equipment upgrade, etc.
projects, and the global recession has only made this
These protection and control systems typically would not
situation worse. While the sizeable and rapidly aging
be replaced earlier, as the time, cost, and effort to replace
installed base must be upgraded, management teams
generally only approve projects that have specific beneficial these systems, along with potential production downtime,
do not justify early replacement, especially if the reason for
econometrics associated with them. That is why 41% of all
replacement is solely for upgrade versus equipment failure.
respondents in a recent ARC Advisory Group survey cited
ARC recommends that users establish lifecycle managelost production and failure costs as the primary justificament policies by establishing a team with representatives
tion for projects to upgrade electrical power systems.
from multiple disciplines ranging from plant management to
Justification based simply on upgrading to the latest veroperations, engineering, and maintenance.
sion is not a successful strategy, nor is replacing electrical
Users should also upgrade their protection and control
power systems based on asset amortization. Almost all
systems based on devices that are currently made or supthe end users ARC spoke with use the electrical power
ported by the suppliers to ensure accessibility to spare
systems well past the point of full depreciation, so only 6%
parts, and they should replace their obsolete protection and
of the respondents cited amortized cost as a justification to
control systems as part of their power
upgrade.
Justification based
equipment replacement.
In the current environment of scarce
funds for capital expenditure, ARC recomsimply on upgrading to
mends that users justify electrical power
Project scope
systems upgrades or replacements by
The scope of a migration or upgrade
the latest version is not
emphasizing the costs of lost production
project is another key issue. For example,
a successful strategy.
and the cost of failure. This is a far more
roll-in replacement options for switchgear
effective strategy with the CEO or CFO
are well accepted by 64% of the responthan focusing on amortization costs, or even trying to use
dents, who feel that this offers a good balance of installaarguments regarding obsolescence, improved performance, tion ease and lower costs, without compromising the integor failure frequency.
rity of the solution. Also, 74% of respondents do conduct
a systems and equipment condition assessment before
an upgrade as an essential step to take advantage of the
Planning a project
scheduled downtime.
Planning a migration project can be tricky. Some industry
Many users found that projected failure rates can be corleaders will have lifecycle management policies to facilitate
related somewhat to the results found based on a condition
the planning process. However, the majority of the responassessment, offering the opportunity to plan proactively,
dents, 72%, did not have such a lifecycle management
preventing future loss of production.
policy, and lost production was the primary reason cited
Many plants have multiple parallel processing trains,
by 28% of the respondents to trigger the upgrade planning
but 84% of the respondents will only consider upgrading
process.
one train at a time due to concerns over lost production
Another planning issue was upgrading protection and
time. This is consistent with the concern regarding the
control systems based on devices not currently made or
large impact that downtime has on profitability. Also, an
supported by the suppliers, such as electromechanical
overwhelming 95% of respondents prefer to do upgrade
relays. The survey found 63% of the respondents do plan
and migration projects in a phased manner versus an all-atto upgrade their protection and control systems with these
once or total rip-and-replace approach.
devices as long as those systems are based on devices
ARC recommends that users conduct condition assessthat can be replaced by identical form-function components,
ments before any upgrade in order to maximize the efficiensuch as relays. The current status of the devices is not a
cy of any planned downtime, and help prevent future costly,
deciding factor in the upgrade decision. The most important
unplanned downtimes.
factor is the reputation for reliability and durability of the
device, even if it is no longer manufactured, as the lifecycle
To view an accompanying ARC video on Electrical Power
of the device will be many years into the future.
Systems Lifecycle Management Strategies visit the ARC
One encouraging find was that 78% of respondents
channel on YouTube.
replaced their obsolete protection and control systems

PLANT ENGINEERING

June 2011 33

COVERSTORY

How not to install a


high-efficiency motor
It takes more than
just the motor
to deliver an
efficient outcome.
By Ray Hardee, PE
Engineered Software, Inc.

he Energy Independence and


Security Act of 2007 (EISA 2007),
which went into effect on December 19, 2010, mandates that all new
motors sold in the U.S. must meet
a minimum motor efficiency; however, this doesnt apply to motors in stock, or
rewound motors.
You would expect that by installing an EISA
motor with higher efficiency, one should see
a reduction in electrical power consumption
along with a decrease in equipment operating
cost. If you simply replace an existing motor
that was used to drive centrifugal pumps or a
fan with a higher efficiency EISA motor, you
might not see as much energy savings as you
would expect, and you may not achieve any
energy savings at all. Well find out how this
can happen.

Achieving motor efficiency improvements


The majority of electric motors in use are
3-phase ac induction motors. In a 3-phase
induction motor there are three coils on the

34 June 2011

PLANT ENGINEERING

stationary part of the motor, knows as the stator. As the alternating current flows into the
motors stator coils, a rotating magnetic field
is established.
The motors rotor consists of a shaft along
with three separate coils wound into the
motors rotor. The rotating magnetic field
developed by the alternating current flowing
through the stator creates an electric current in
the windings on the rotor. The current generated in the rotor windings creates a magnetic
field that follows the stator magnetic field,
resulting in a torque on the rotor that causes
it to rotate.
Since the current generated in the rotor
windings is created by the movement of the
stators magnetic field, there must be a difference between the rotational speed of the
stator, known as the synchronous speed, and
the rotational speed of the rotor. The difference
in rotational speed between the stator and rotor
is called slip, and the amount of slip depends
on the load on the motor. For example, a twopole motor connected to a 60 Hz power source
has a rotating magnetic field in the stator of
3,600 rpm. If the slip created by a load is 50
rpm, then the motor will rotate at 3,550 rpm.
Now how does this relate to EISA motors?
Higher efficiencies in electric motors are
accomplished by using more copper in the
windings of the rotor. The larger winding
in the rotor provides lower resistance to the
induced current in the rotor. This creates a
stronger magnetic field in the rotor, resulting
in less slip and a higher motor rotational speed.
For example, by reviewing the U.S. Dept. of
Energy MotorMaster Program, the average 75
hp standard efficiency motor has a rotational
speed of around 3,535 rpm with a full load
motor efficiency of 94%. A NEMA Premium
efficiency motor of the same size, meeting
the EISA requirements, has a rotational speed
of around 3,555 rpm with a full load motor
efficiency of 96%. Notice the NEMA Premium
efficiency motor has a 2% increase in full load
efficiency and rotates 20 rpm faster than the
older standard efficiency motor.
By replacing a standard efficiency motor
with an EISA motor of higher rotational speed
and higher efficiency on a centrifugal pumping
application, you do not see a 2% reduction in
pump operating cost that you would expect
with a more efficient motor.
The reason for this lack of energy savings
can be found in the system. This is what is
happening in the system:
 The EISA motor has less slip than the

standard efficiency motor, resulting in a higher


motor rotational speed.
 Since there is a direct connection between
the motor and pump, the pump also runs at the
higher rotational speed. This causes the pump
head and flow rate to increase based on the
pump affinity laws.
 Since the flow rate through the system
is controlled by a flow control valve, the
increase in pump head causes an increase in
pump discharge pressure, but the flow rate
remains the same.
 This results in a higher pump discharge
pressure, which creates a higher inlet pressure
at the control valve.
 The control valve has to throttle more
to limit the flow rate to 1,000 gpm, resulting
in a higher differential pressure across the
control valve.
When we look at the total system, the additional head developed by the pump (which
takes extra energy to produce) results in a
higher differential pressure across the control valve for the same flow rate. So, all the
additional energy put into the system by the
pump is removed by the control valve as heat,
noise, or vibration, which negates some of
the increased efficiency of the EISA motor.
Lets see what we need to do to the system to
achieve the 2% reduction in power consumption and operating cost that you would expect
to see by using the more efficient EISA motor.
If we reduced the pumps impeller diameter
when the pump is connected to the EISA motor
running at a higher speed, we could reduce
the pump head to the original 228 ft. needed
by the system.
By trimming the impeller, the pump produces the required 228 ft. of pump head.
This results in less energy consumption and
achieves the full 2% reduction in annual operating cost you expected to get by investing in
the new EISA standard motor.

Conclusion
When you replace an electrical induction
motor with a higher efficiency motor, the
motor improvements made to increase the
motor efficiency typically will reduce the
slip in the motor, resulting in a higher motor
rotational speed. If the motor is driving a centrifugal pump, the increase in rotational speed
results in an increase in the pumps head. This
additional head developed by the pump at its
new higher speed requires additional power
from the motor. The only way to take advantage of the higher efficiency motor is to adjust

the pumps impeller to produce the same pump


head at the higher motor speed. If this is done,
energy savings may be achieved.
If no change is made to the pump impeller,
then you will have paid for a high efficiency
motor but will not achieve the full savings in
operating cost.
When working with any pumped system, it is
important to evaluate the total system and
not focus on a single item in the system.
Ray Hardee, PE, is a founding principal of
Engineered Software. He has over 30 years of
experience in evaluating fluid piping systems,
with special emphasis on reducing energy consumption in piping systems and increasing
plant reliability. Mr. Hardee was a member of
the ASME EA-2-2009 Energy Assessment for
Pumping Systems. He is the author of Piping
System Fundamentals: The Complete Guide
to Gaining a Clear Picture of Your Piping System. In addition, he has been actively involved
with various Hydraulic Institute Pump System
Matters publications.

It is important to
evaluate the total
system and not focus
on a single item in
the system.

EISA 2007
General purpose motors (subtype I) manufactured after December 19,
2010, with a power rating of at least 1 horsepower but not greater than
200 horsepower, shall have a nominal full-load efficiency that is not less
than as defined in NEMA MG 1 (2006) Table 1212 (aka NEMA Premium efficiency levels).
General purpose motor (subtype II), with a power rating of at least
1 horsepower but no more than 200 horsepower, manufactured after
December 19, 2010, shall have a nominal full-load efficiency that is not
less than as defined in NEMA MG1 (2006) Table 1211. Subtype II
motors now include:
 U-Frame motor
 design C motor
 close-coupled pump motor
 footless motor
 vertical solid-shaft normal thrust motor
- tested in a horizontal configuration
 8-pole motor (900 rpm)
 poly-phase motor with voltage of no more than 600 volts
(other than 230 or 460 volts).
Fire pump motors manufactured after December 19, 2010, shall have
nominal full-load efficiency no less than as defined in NEMA MG-1 (2006)
Table 12-11.

n NEMA Design B, general purpose electric motor, with a power rating


at least 200 horsepower but no more than 500 horsepower, manufactured after December 19, 2010, shall have a nominal full-load efficiency
that is not less than as defined in NEMA MG1 (2006) Table 1211.
n The NEMA MG-1 (2006) Table 1211 referenced above can be
found in the NEMA Premium efficiency standard.
PLANT ENGINEERING

June 2011 35

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DIAGNOSTICS

PRESSING

PIPE & TUBE TOOLS

DRAIN MAINTENANCE

POWER TOOLS

MAINTENANCESOLUTIONS

INSIGHT

Treat corrosion as
a process variable
By Michael McElroy and Kristen Barbour
Pepperl+Fuchs, Inc.

here are changes constantly occurring within any process system,


both known and unknown. These
changes can affect the corrosiveness of a fluid on the pipe wall surface. If
these changes are known as they occur, then
treatment methods or processing techniques
can be designed to minimize the corrosive
effect, minimize maintenance costs, and
significantly reduce the potential for lost
product and environmental damage. The
difficulty has always been the inability to
see these physical changes in real time so
that process changes or preplanned maintenance can be effective.

Corrosion, when examined as a process


variable, can be both monitored and controlled in real time. There are some techniques for monitoring corrosion, such as mass
loss coupon analysis and smart-pigging, that
will give you a measurement of how much
material has been lost, but they only give you
this information after the fact.
When monitoring corrosion in a real-time
environment, upsets are picked up instantly
versus months later, thus reducing the overmaintenance cost as well as avoiding potential lost product. By reading back corrosion
information in real time, the implementation of a control strategy becomes possible,
allowing you to control your corrosion as
it is happening by optimizing the use of
neutralizing agents, for example, inhibitors.

Power monitoring
The PM3 power monitoring
and metering module monitors
the power of branch and main
circuit applications. The PM3
is a device that measures current and voltage, calculates
power and energy usage, and
provides breaker status. A ULlisted, add-on communications
device, the PM3 module monitors electrical system parameters and can be mounted to
the load side of all three-pole
Series G LG and all three-pole
Series C KD breaker frames.
Eaton Corporation
www.eaton.com
Input #200 at plantengineering.hotims.com

Actuator

Figure 1: The actual conditions present in a process can be drastically different than what
is shown in offline monitoring. This graphic illustrates why online variables are extremely
important to any process. Courtesy: Pepperl+Fuchs, Inc.

The ternary all-in-one


actuator merges mechanics
with intelligenceintegrating
controller, motor, amplifier,
and drive into one device. It
can be used alone or paired
with an alpha gearbox.
For linear requirements, a
ballscrew or slider is added to
the device. Depending on the
type of operation, the designer
can also write a program that
contains specific positions and
motion profiles.
Wittenstein
www.wittenstein-us.com
Input #201 at plantengineering.hotims.com

PLANT ENGINEERING

June 2011 37

MAINTENANCESOLUTIONS

Figure 2: This example shows a simple reaction of a metal (iron) dissolving in an


acidic solution. Courtesy: Pepperl+Fuchs, Inc.

Monitoring for corrosion in the process industry is largely accomplished


by using offline methods, such as
mass loss coupons and smart-pigging.
Analysis of the data collected from
these methods provides the user with
historical insight into what has already
happened.
These techniques provide effective
and accurate ways of determining how
much corrosion has occurred over the
sample period; however, they do not
provide information as to when corrosion rates were high, low, or varying
between the two. Most importantly,
these techniques do not correlate a
change in corrosion due to a changing
process parameter.

Traditional corrosion
monitoring techniques
There are four traditional corrosion
monitoring techniques: mass loss measurements, ultrasonic examinations,
resistance measurements, and polarization resistance determination. Mass
loss, commonly referred to as coupons,
are sacrificial pieces of metal that are
inserted into the process. The coupons
are made of the same properties as the
pipe or vessel being monitored. Coupons are weighed prior to insertion and

38 June 2011

PLANT ENGINEERING

then weighed again after extraction.


Typically, coupons are supposed to
be analyzed after a period of 90 days,
although this does not always happen.
Coupons are non-electrical and do
not provide any means to collect data
while in the pipe. Therefore, the corrosion rates provided by the analysis
are purely historical and only represent
the average corrosion rate.
Ultrasonic examinations use nonaudible acoustic waves to determine
metal wall thickness for pipes and vessels. By measuring how much time it
takes for the signal to travel from the
device to the pipe wall and then back
to the device, a measurement of mass
loss (corrosion) can be made. This
measurement must always be in reference to a prior data point, which is
initially done after the pipe is installed.
An example of a device that can use
this technology is called a Smart-Pig.
Often referred to as pigging, these
robots travel through the pipe taking
measurements at every desired increment.
Resistance measurements are similar to coupons in regard to interpretation. With resistance measurements, a
wire or probe elements are exposed to
the process. They start with a known
resistance, and as they corrode, the

resistance will increase. The change


in resistance is measured and then
interpreted as how much metal of the
pipe is remaining. Electrical resistance
probes rely on thin electrodes on the
probe tips to increase the sensitivity
of the technique.
As a result, the probe elements often
have a very short life. This type of
probe is not suitable for aqueous solutions as the result of a pitting attack
could destroy the measuring element.
Linear polarization resistance measures the electrical resistance between
the solution and the metal. To measure
the electrical resistance, there must
be at least two electrodes. When a
piece of metal corrodes, oxidation
occurs, which means that electrons
are released by the corroding metal.
By applying a controlled voltage, a
measurable current will flow between
the two electrodes.
This current is approximately linearly related to the potential difference
(hence the term linear polarization).
Through algorithms, these measurements become proportional to the
corrosion current, and thus, a rate of
general corrosion can be determined.
This technique is used in an online
environment where general corrosion
rates can be determined continuously.

A deeper look
All of the techniques listed above
have been successfully used in real-life
applications. The question would then
become Why change what works?
Consider the scenario in Figure 1.
These data points were collected
on a periodic basis, potentially by
using mass loss coupons, ER probe,
or pigging. Typically what happens is
a decision is made on how much corrosion inhibitor is to be used based
on the current data point with respect
to the prior point. The goal is to find
the acceptable balance of the rate of
corrosion versus the amount of inhibitor used. Not only is this process time
consuming, potentially taking a year,
but what is happening in between the
data points?
Figure 2 could represent the reality of the process. The cause for these
swings could be virtually anything

 There are too many other variables that


affect the corrosion rate. Other variables must
be controlled by other means.
Over the past 20 years, monitoring and
control technology has rapidly advanced.
Today, LPR-based corrosion monitors have
been vastly improved and are capable of providing outputs that are being used as primary
inputs for control logic. The chemical treatment of open-recirculating cooling water
systems, the ones with cooling towers, is
normally based upon feedback control of
pH by the feed of an acid or an alkali and
concentration of dissolved solids in the circulating water via conductivity by opening
and closing or modulating a blowdown valve
and control of chemical treatment materials
by various means.
Real-time corrosion
Systems that utilize oxidizing microbiomonitoring experiences
cides may use an ORP controller to mainLinear polarization resistance technology tain the Red-Ox potential of the circulating
was first applied in cooling water applica- water. To this combination, at least one water
tions about four decades ago. For most of the treatment service company has added both
ensuing years, it was used as a stand-alone LPR-based corrosion monitoring and foulmonitoring technology particularly in the ing monitoring as feed-forward inputs to
refining and petrochemithe control system. Such
cal industries. As such, it Corrosion can be monitored
systems are designated to
was a very useful tool in
be performance-based
detecting system upsets and controlled like other
because they are actually
and pinpointing transient
controlling the efficienprocess variables, such as
corrosion problems.
cy of the cooling water
That was at a time temperature, pressure and
system to reject heat and
when the HPI industry
protecting the life of the
had dedicated corrosion flow.... and can begin to
system by minimizing
specialists and supplier control the huge annual cost
corrosion.
water treatment personOne example of an
nel on-site to gather and associated with corrosion.
LPR measurement used
analyze the corrosion
for control was in the
data. These data were keys to pinpointing cooling water system of a methanol unit in
transient corrosion problems. For example, a petrochemical complex. This unit had expeLPR-based corrosion monitors are the only rienced severe localized corrosion (pitting),
means by which one may detect the increased while general corrosion remained within
corrosion rate resulting from the overfeed acceptable norms. Similar results appeared on
of an oxidizing microbiocide, which may both corrosion coupons and LPR electrodes.
last only for a few minutes yet may cause
At the same time, the ORP monitor detectthe stripping of a corrosion inhibiting film ed an environment that was very conducive
from a heat transfer surface. It is a good way to the growth of microorganisms. The probof detecting the loss of feed of a corrosion lem was traced to periodic and unpredictable
inhibitor before too much damage may occur. process contamination. When the ORP was
There were a number of attempts to raised by increasing the feed of an oxidizing
directly control the feed of water treatment microbiocide, the localized corrosion rate
chemistries to inhibit corrosion directly from decreased and at one point came to a near
LPR-based corrosion monitors. None of them halt. Control logic was used to detect the
were successful, for two reasons:
localized corrosion with LPR and adjust the
 There is no direct relationship between oxidizing microbiocide feed rate by monitorthe corrosion rate and the amount of corro- ing ORP. The result was consistent control and
sion inhibitor required in the system, and
elimination of the pitting problem.
from changes in temperature, pressure,
or flow to impurities in the product or an
undetected upset. If Figure 2 is reality and
corrosion was monitored per Figure 1, when
the metal loss is above the data point, not
enough inhibitor is being used, and when
it is below the data point, inhibitor is being
wasted.
On the other hand, if corrosion was monitored continuously like all other process
variables, the corrosion engineer would have
a wealth of data available. From this data,
the correlation between process events and
rate of corrosion can be made. This gives a
corrosion engineer the ability to inject the
exact amount of inhibitor needed to keep the
rate of corrosion at a defined value.

INSIGHT

Encoder
The A3M encoder with
integrated Profibus output is
a rugged, absolute multiturn
encoder with 31-bit output
(14-bit singleturn and 17-bit
multiturn), where the absolute
positions are native to the
encoder, without an internal
power source. Applications
include packaging, cranes
and outdoor warehousing systems, robotics, motion control
applications, and general
manufacturing.
SICK, Inc.
www.sickusa.com
Input #202 at plantengineering.hotims.com

Walk-behind
scrubbers
The SC750
and SC800 walkbehind scrubbers
pair a low-maintenance design with
flexible performance to handle
everyday cleaning, tough
soils, and spills in industrial
environments. These mid-size
scrubbers are optimized for
productivity, with high-capacity solution/recovery tanks21
gal on SC750 models and 25
gal on SC800 models. These
scrubbers allow for 84 minutes of continuous scrubbing
to yield a fast ROI for owners.
The scrubbers also come
equipped with Advances SoftTouch paddle system, which
provides users with maximum
control while preventing finger pinching that may occur
between the machine and an
obstruction.
Advance
www.advance-us.com
Input #203 at plantengineering.hotims.com

PLANT ENGINEERING

June 2011 39

MAINTENANCESOLUTIONS
An example of
Conclusion
Corrosion moniperformance-based
toring is slowly
control application
undergoing a
was in a producchange from manual
tion unit of a large
methods to online
chemical complex
methods. This could
in the southeastern
be compared to the
U.S. Previously, the
changes that started
cooling system was
about 25 years ago
controlled with a
in pH monitoring,
traditional pH/conwhich went from
ductivity controller
manual to online
with separate chemwith the developical feed pumps
ment of new elecfeeding each of the
trode technology
treatment materiand new microproals. There was no
cessor-based transonline corrosion
mitters.
monitoring. Only
Traditional corcorrosion coupons
rosion monitoring
were used.
techniques provide
Due to the proproven ways to
duction process,
determine corrosion
there was signifirates. Determining
cant variability in
corrosion rates by
the heat load to be
only using these
rejected by the cooltechniques does
ing water system.
not allow processes
That variability
Online corrosion monitoring enables users
to be controlled as
affected the temto determine the effectiveness of their cora process variable.
perature of the cirrosion inhibitors, and to detect and correct
This information
culating water, the
corrosion issues through upkeep and preis static and canrate at which heat
ventative maintenance, before they become
not be correlated to
was rejected in the
a costly problem.
events occurring in
cooling tower, and
the process.
the corrosivity of the
General corrosion or localized corrowater. That in turn varied the demand for
each of the treatment materials. The control sion can be monitored online and in real
system was inadequate for the application. time without additional hardware and
In fact, the system suffered from excessive software. The addition of HART protocol
enhances the functionality of this standard
corrosion and fouling.
It was then replaced with a performance- 4-20 mA signal. As a result of this innobased system that utilized the monitoring vation, corrosion can be monitored and
of five variables: pH, conductivity, ORP, controlled like other process variables,
corrosion (LPR), and fouling. In addition, such as temperature, pressure, and flow.
the treatment program was changed by the For the first time, corrosion monitoring
new supplier. Following an initial cleanup can be achieved and can begin to conand repassivation period, corrosion rates set- trol the huge annual cost associated with
tled down well within the range of industry corrosion. Corrosion monitoring has now
entered the world of process control
norms.
General corrosion dropped to below 2 and automation.
MPY on carbon steel and localized corroMichael McElroy is the business develsion (pitting) decreased dramatically. Fouling
also decreased to well below heat exchanger opment manager for CorrTran. Kristen
design allowances. The control system auto- Barbour is product marketing manager
matically adjusted the treatment chemistry for Pepperl+Fuchs, Inc., Twinsburg, Ohio.
www.pepperl-fuchs.us.
to swings in heat loads

40 June 2011

PLANT ENGINEERING

INSIGHT

Solenoid valves
NITRA pneumatic BVS
series modular solenoid
valves are body ported, threeport, two-position poppet
valves available in normally
open or closed configurations.
Models are available with
removable flying leads or 8
mm micro DIN connectors,
are DIN rail mountable when
used with BVM series manifolds, and feature flow coefficients from 0.02 to 0.05. Units
are available with 12 or 24
Vdc, or 120 Vac solenoid coils
and a pushbutton manual
operator.
AutomationDirect
www.automationdirect.com
Input #204 at plantengineering.hotims.com

Retaining rings
The Ventus spiral retaining
rings are designed to withstand the rigors and functional
stresses of the wind power
industry. A machined lughole
makes field installation and
removal far easier than traditionally designed spiral rings.
Rotor Clip Company, Inc.
www.rotorclip.com
Input #205 at plantengineering.hotims.com

Flowmeters
The TVA Target Variable
Area flowmeter is designed
for use on saturated steam.
It available in DN50, DN80,
and DN100 sizes. With a wide
flow range turndown of 50:1,
it is ideal for applications with
large variations in flow rates.
Spirax Sarco, Inc.
www.spiraxsarco.com/us
Input #206 at plantengineering.hotims.com

Delivering savings through


energy monitoring
Energy efficiency is a critical issue for plant managers,
so suppliers are working hard to come up with new ways
to deliver solutions and strategies and deliver a return on
investment. In an interview with CFE Media, Opto 22s
marketing communications manager David Crump said the
challenges of energy monitoring extend beyond the devices.

CFE: When your customers have had success at changing, whats been the common element in that change?
Crump: It varies. Many customers make adjustments to
processes and systems in their plant to reduce energy usage.
Heating processes (like those taking place during curing or
autoclave or industrial furnaces operations) immediately
CFE: In what industries have you seen the greatest interest come to mind. If they can be made more efficient, theres a
in energy monitoring? Whats driving that interest?
huge potential for cost savings.
Crump: Several industries, including commercial buildFor example, there was a refrigeration system (at an old
ings, cold storage (such as for food and beverage), and meat packing plant) that had an automatic defrosting system
government. But interest is growing in all industries as
for its freezer coils. The way it was supposed to work was
facility owners and managers realize that energy use can
that periodically, hot refrigerant would blow through the
IN
be managed just the same as their other costs.
coils so ice buildup on the surface would melt and
DEPTH: cold
As for whats driving the interest in energy monitoring,
evaporate. The hot gas for this procedure came through
its the same thing that drives manufacturing plants and
piping, and old automatic valves at each coil regulated
other large facilities to deploy any technologyan oppor- the defrosting process.
tunity to improve efficiency and increase profitably, in this
This plant implemented Opto 22 energy monitoring hardcase, through cost cutting. As it stands now, energy represents ware and found that the cooling coils in the freezers werent
one of the single largest opportunities for businesses (in all working properly and the hot gas was continuously leaking
industries) to reduce costs.
to the coils in the freezers. So too much heat was being
introduced, and to counteract this, the refrigeration system
CFE: What should manufacturers reasonably expect in was running a lot more (using much of its capacity just to
terms of savings and ROI?
support itself) and costing literally thousands of dollars
Crump: Its a tricky question. Youre asking, How much per month. So in this case, changes involving maintenance
can I save if I purchase an energy monitoring system and issues produced ROI for the monitoring system.
start measuring? And the answer is, Youll never know
And sometimes change comes in the form of simple, comyour potential for energy savings until you actually begin mon sense business practices. There was a manufacturer in
monitoring and measuring. Ive seen it range from hun- the automation industry that began energy monitoring and
dreds, all the way up to hundreds of thousands of dollars.
quickly discovered that a lighting system in one area of its
One statistic I can share is that the recent study Efficiency factory areas was continuing to operate two hours past the
and Innovation in U.S. Manufacturing Energy Use (pre- time when all the employees that worked in that area had
pared in part by the U.S. Department of Energy) noted that punched out and gone home for the day. In this case, its
many manufacturing plants can easily reduce their energy easy to see the simple change that was made to cut costs.
consumption by 10% to 20%.
So my point is, there may be no common element in terms
of what the change is. The common element is that gaining
CFE: Its one thing to measure energy usage; its another access to energy data almost always reveals things that
to change manufacturing processes to reduce energy usage. were previously unknown. This, in turn, leads to a variety
Crump: True. But is it prudent to change any manufactur- of changes, both in corporate philosophy and policies, as
ing process without first understanding whats going on? well as to manufacturing processes and other business
The first step has to be information gathering. You need the operations.
data first because (as we are fond of saying around here)
CFE: Are these devices really just a means to an end of
you can only intelligently control what you can ably meahaving
a sound energy strategy?
sure. Once plant personnel, energy managers, and facility
operators begin aggregating the real-time data they need to
Crump: Yes. Energy monitoring devices are the means to
correlate their energy use with specific business operations, an end. They are what enable personnel in plants and other
its then that they can begin effectively identifying specific facilities to acquire the data they need to make competent
problems, designing energy management initiatives that decisions. Thats the keydecision making. The fresher and
reduce costs, and exercising control over their processes, more comprehensive the energy data youre gathering is,
machinery, systems, and equipment.
the better decisions youll be able to make.
PLANT ENGINEERING

June 2011 41

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MECHANICALSOLUTIONS

Proper lubrication
plays a role in
energy efficiency
Choosing the
correct lubricant
can improve
energy efficiency
and reduce costs.
By Hermann Siebert
Klber Lubrication

any factors come into play when


selecting a lubricant, including the
projected life of a gearbox, its seals,
and the desired performance of the
gearbox within an application.
As manufacturers continue to push the limits
of machine performance to increase productivity and reduce downtime for greater customer
satisfaction, suppliers are called upon to offer
increasingly creative solutions. Interestingly,
one of the most effective ways to achieve these
performance levels is also one most frequently
overlooked: proper lubrication.
Choosing the right lubricant can be an
especially tricky task. Not only do industrial
lubricants come in many varieties and formulations, but many industries also have their
own industry regulations and standards. As
a result, choosing the proper lubricant for an
application is critical.
Typically, end users rely on their OEMs to
determine the best lubricant, so it is important
for OEMs to value lubricant as a machine element much in the same way that they value
hardness of the gears, bearing selection, mate-

rials, and geometry. Like all of these other


physical components of a gearbox, the right
lubricant will allow the gearbox to achieve
optimum performance. As a result, end users
will enjoy the benefits of lower wear rates,
lower operating temperatures, and greater
energy efficiency.
For decades, lubricant suppliers have been
developing and manufacturing specialty lubricants tailored to the requirements of industrial applications. There are general technical
requirements that all lubricants must meet,
but, depending on the operating conditions
and manufacturing processes in your plant,
lubricants may also be expected to provide a
host of additional properties.
Oils, greases, pastes, and waxes represent
the most common categories of industrial
lubricants. Typically, an oil lubricant contains 95% base oil (most often mineral oils)
and 5% additives. Greases consist of lubricating base oils that are mixed with a soap
to form a solid structure. Pastes contain base
oils, additives, and solid lubricant particles.
Finally, lubricating waxes are comprised of
synthetic hydrocarbons, water, and an emulsifying agent, which becomes fluid when a
certain temperature level is exceeded.

Choosing the best lubricant


The key requirement for selecting the proper
lubricant is the base oil viscosity. To select the
appropriate viscosity, consider the following
information about your application:
 Operating speed (variable or fixed)
 Specific type of friction (e.g., sliding or
rolling)
 Load and the environmental conditions
 Industry standards
For example, some lubricants, like polyalkylene glycol (PAG) oils, are good for sliding
friction but are not well suited for rolling friction. Likewise, polyalphaolefin (PAO) oils are
used for rolling friction and can handle some
sliding friction, whereas silicon and PFPE
lubricants are typically used for extremely
high temperatures.

Synthetics and mechanical applications


When synthetic oil is selected, it is generally to provide mechanical and chemical
properties superior to those found in traditional mineral oils.
Synthetic base oils have many benefits,
including:
 Low/high-temperature viscosity performance
PLANT ENGINEERING

June 2011 43

MECHANICALSOLUTIONS

How often a manufacturer is required to change gear oil depends


on the chemistry of the lubricant being used.
 Decreased evaporative loss
 Reduced friction
 Reduced wear
 Improved efficiency
 Chemical stability
 Resistance to oil sludge problems
 Extended drain intervals
 Reduced operating costs resulting
from less downtime
 Improved labor utilization (less
time required for lubrication and maintenance)
 Measurable energy savings and
increased output.
Despite their many benefits, synthetic
lubricants are also known for one distinct disadvantage: cost. But the cost
may be mitigated by extended change
intervals, as synthetic and specialty
lubricants can last five times longer or
more than nonsynthetic lubricants when
a high-quality base oil is used.
The majority of oil lubricants, including many motor oils, are mineral oil distillates of crude oil (petroleum), while
synthetic oil lubricants are also used.
Synthetic oils, such as PAOs or synthetic esters, are produced artificially
from other compounds. Because of this,
the composition is quite different from
petroleum oil. Their higher purity and
uniformity provide for several enhanced
properties, such as viscosity index, oxi-

44 June 2011

PLANT ENGINEERING

dation stability, and color.


There are also semisynthetic oils (also
called synthetic blends), which are a
blend of mineral and synthetic oil. This
class of lubricants provides many of the
benefits of synthetic oil at a fraction of
the cost.
Most OEMs find that for ease of distribution, it is beneficial to use an H1
product because H1 synthetic gear oils
are high-performance lubricants with the
added benefit of being food-grade. Thus,
they can be employed in both food and
industrial environments. It is important
to note that standards for food-grade
gear oils are just as high as for other
gear oils, and the synthetics perform
better than standard mineral oils.

Synthetics and energy efficiency


With regard to energy efficiency, some
gear oils are more energy efficient than
others due to their lower coefficient of
friction. Polyglycols, for example, absolutely shine as the most efficient and
lowest wear type of oils, particularly in
high-sliding applications such as worm
and hypoid gears. In these applications,
PAGs offer a lower coefficient of friction within the gearbox, resulting in less
power loss.
Synthetic oils are more energy efficient because they have better oxidation

and thermal stability, which means the


gear oil lasts much longer. One could
expect to change a mineral oil every
5,000 hours, whereas PAOs or synthetic
hydrocarbon oils can last approximately
15,000 hours before a change-out. In
addition, PAGs can last as long as 25,000
hours at the same temperature.
As you can see, how often a manufacturer is required to change gear oil
depends on the chemistry of the lubricant being used. The 10K rule dictates
that for every 10 degrees you increase
the temperature of the lubricant, you
halve its performance life.
Also, remember that oxidation causes
degradation of oil over time. The Total
Acid number changes, and the additives
are being used up. While changing the
gear oil replenishes these additives and
removes wear materials, it also adds
maintenance downtime to the equation.
Choosing a high-performance gear oil
from the start will automatically reduce
the amount of oxidation within the oil
and decrease the required number of oil
changes and downtime for equipment
maintenance.
For OEMs, gear oil affects several
design considerations, including the reliability of their final product. How much
a manufacturer will increase the energy
efficiency of a gearbox by using highquality gear oil depends on the gear type.
The biggest increase can be realized
in gear types that are challenged in normally lower efficiencies such as worm
drives. With the efficiency increases, the
temperature of the gearbox drops. This
decrease in temperature increases the
life of the gear system. This may not
sound like a big deal if you have one or
two gearboxes in your plant, but if you
have hundreds of gearboxes, then that
energy usage really adds up.
In summary, most OEMs and end
users find that the extra cost of highquality gear oil is worth the investment
and that synthetic oils are proven to be
the best. By choosing high-quality synthetic gear oil, end users will save energy and reduce operating costs through
reduced maintenance, longer oil
change intervals, and less wear.
Hermann Siebert is head of application engineering at Klber Lubrication.

INSIGHT
Piping products

Calculate true
savings when reducing
air system pressure
By Mark Krisa, Ingersoll Rand

nergy conservation measures associated with compressed air have received


a significant amount of attention over
the years, mostly due to a reasonably
short financial return compared with other
energy consuming equipment. Over time
many of the corrective actions put forward
to reduce compressed air energy consumption have been simplified with the intention
of encouraging action.
Although this is done with the best of
intentions, sometimes simplifications and
generalizations do not necessarily lead to
positive results.

and a target pressure. In the context of this


article, the terms demand, supply, and volume
are all referring to a volume with respect to
time (flow).
If volume is discussed as a static value
(hydraulic volume) it will be stated as such.
Supply is flow from the compressors, and
demand is the flow of air consumed by various production and process constituents.

Calculating artificial demand

To calculate the artificial demand, divide


the density of the air at the target pressure by
the density of the air at the current pressure
and then multiply by the current demand.
This will represent the demand at the reduced
pressure with the difference between curPressure reduction
rent and proposed demand being the artificial
The benefits of lowering system pressure demand.
can be attributed to two separate actions:
Another way to calculate artificial demand
reduced pressure at
is to divide the absolute
When calculating artificial
the compressor and a
pressures in place of denreduction in pressure
sity. Absolute pressure is
demand, accurately deterdelivered to production
the gauge pressure plus
mining the current pressure
equipment. Each has
atmospheric pressure.
value and can be impleHowever, if all calculaand what percentage of the
mented quite easily, but
tions are being performed
demand is influenced by the relative to standard conthe savings associated
must be calculated accuditions (scfm), then the
change is critical.
rately before attemptatmospheric pressure at
ing to invoke an action that is normally not standard conditions must be used.
openly supported by production.
Currently, the values for standard condiReducing the pressure delivered to com- tions (scfm) are 14.5 psia, 68 F, 0% RH.
pressed air consuming equipment and pro- Therefore, a 100 psig (gauge pressure) value
cesses will reduce the volume of air con- would equal 114.5 psia (absolute). Using difsumed by the system. The energy savings ferent conditions in compressed air calculaassociated with network pressure results tions is a common error. As an example, one
from a decrease in demand but will only be cannot measure volume flow using a mass
realized if the compressors reduce power as flow meter calibrated in scfm yet perform
result of the demand change.
storage calculations based on an atmospheric
The portion of system compressed air pressure of 13.9 psia.
demand that is associated with operating at
If standard conditions are measured, it
a higher than necessary pressure is referred to also extremely important for any compresas artificial demand. This is a relative value sors added to the system to be specified in
associated with the current system pressure scfm based on site conditions.

Misumi has added a total


of 19 products to its sanitary
pipes, vacuum piping parts,
and tanks
product
category.
The new
products are
suitable for
use in liquid
pumping and
vacuum defoaming applications. Pressure tanks are
designed to handle operating
pressure ranges of 0.5 MPa
or lower, and offer capacities
ranging from 1 to 22.5 liters.
All tanks are constructed of
304 stainless steel, which provides resistance to a range of
chemicals. For most pressure
tank styles, users can specify
optionssuch as the number
and size of holes in the lid, as
well as inner and outer surface finishing grades.
Misumi USA, Inc.
us.misumi-ec.com
Input #207 at plantengineering.hotims.com

Compressed air filters


A new line of top-loading
compressed air filters was
designed to make element
change-out in even the most
space-challenged environments faster and easier. The
drain connections do not need
to be disrupted during the
element change-out process.
The proprietary, patented element design will remove up
to 99.995% of oil, water, and
solids from compressed air
and other gases. Other product features include robust
aluminum construction, top
threaded element design,
coalescing design to continuously trap and drain liquids,
and operation with minimal
pressure drop.
Parker Hannifin Corp.
www.cleancompressedair.com
Input #208 at plantengineering.hotims.com

PLANT ENGINEERING

June 2011 45

MECHANICALSOLUTIONS

Heat of compression dryers use the heat contained in the compressed air stream to
regenerate the dryer desiccant beds, utilizing what is often wasted energy. The dryer
requires no supplemental power to regenerate its dry beds.
Courtesy: Ingersoll Rand

Potential calculation errors


When calculating artificial demand,
accurately determining the current pressure and what percentage of the demand
is influenced by the change is critical.
If a piece of production equipment is
regulated at a pressure below the target
pressure and reducing pressure in the
system does not change the pressure on
the consumer side of that regulator, compressed air consumption for that piece of
production equipment will not change.
Inversely, if a reduction in system
pressure causes the pressure on the consumer side of the regulator to drop, the
volume consumed by that application
will be reduced. The reduction in flow
for that application will be based on the
change in pressures after the regulator,
not on the system pressure. Because artificial demand is a relative value, a 1 psi
reduction in pressure will have a larger
impact on volume in a 40 psi application
than a 100 psi application.
Localized pressure is one of the reasons generalized calculations for artificial
demand can be smaller or larger than the
implemented results. Consequently, arti-

46 June 2011

PLANT ENGINEERING

ficial demand calculations should take


into consideration point-of-use (localized) pressure changes, not just the average system pressure change based on the
largest measured demand.
If pressure changes occur at point-ofuse applications, the artificial demand
equation would need to be summed for all
different conditions. More specifically,
artificial demand would need to be calculated for each unique pressure application
based on the localized pressure change
and the localized volume. This can be
very difficult to accomplish and measure,
but is also the reason many people simply apply the general calculation for the
entire demand and hope it works.
Another important issue is to accurately determine the current or initial
pressure. A common error is to use the
highest observed pressure at the compressor discharge as opposed to the average system pressure in the network. At
the discharge of the compressor, the air
pressure is the highest because there are
no friction losses associated with moving the air through filters, dryers, and
pipe. The appropriate pressure used in

the calculation is based on where the air


is being consumed.
Discharge of the compressor represents where the air is being supplied.
Also, if average demand is utilized
for the volume, then average pressure
should be used for the calculation, not
the highest pressure. Typically, demand
changes with pressure for compressors
with controls that utilize proportional
logic where volume output is adjusted
as a function of pressure.
Assuming a constant supply volume
and a fixed number of compressed air
consumers operating, if demand does not
change as a function of system pressure,
there is no artificial demand. Figure 1 is
an example of how demand changes as
a function of system pressure.
For this specific example, one compressor is operating using a load/no-load
control where the compressor loads to
full capacity at a lower pressure setpoint
and then unloads at an upper setpoint at
which time the compressor output goes
to zero. When this data was recorded,
plant demand was at a steady state. For
the graph in Figure 1, pressure is on the
vertical axis and time is on the horizontal
axis. When the compressor is loaded,
100% of the compressor output is going
into the system. A percentage of that air
is being consumed by compressed air
users, and the surplus air is held in the
system as inventory.
This is analogous to a stack of boxes
kept in inventory. As you put more boxes
onto the pile as inventory, the stack of
boxes gets higher. As you start to use up
inventory, the stack becomes smaller as
boxes are taken away. Pressure changes
in a compressed air system in a similar
fashion, where pressure rises as excess
air is stored in the system, and then
decreases as air is removed.
Whenever there is a difference
between the rate of air entering the system and the rate of air leaving, the pressure will change. When the compressor
reaches the unload setpoint (pressure),
the compressor unloads and output goes
to zero. At this time demand is greater
than the supply and pressure falls as
compressed air is removed from inventory. Looking at the graph, one can see
the pressure rising and falling over time
as the compressor loads and unloads.

INSIGHT

Increasing pressure from 97 psi to 114 psi increases consumption 15%,


172 scfm (45hp)
110
P3 Pressure leaving
utility building

Rate of change @ 97 psi


2844 scfm demand

Rate of change @104 psi


3016 scfm demand

106
P4 Pressure at far
end of Finished Goods
building 0.65 psid

Palletizing robots

102
PSI

New high-performance
palletizing robots, a powerful
programming software and
three palletizing grippers,
complement existing products to address the market
demands for easy, fast, and
efficient robotic palletizing
options. The compact IRB
460 is capable of up to 2,190
cycles per hour. The IRB 760
is designed for high-output
and full-layer palletizing with a
payload capacity of 450 kilograms and a reach of 3.2 m.

98

94
Artificial Demand is the increase in demand assosciated with operating at a pressure higher than required. The two slopes
tangent to the pressure curve are an example of the level of artifical demand observed at the West Hershey facility.

90

11:36:00
AM

11:37:00
AM

11:38:00
AM

11:39:00
AM

11:40:00
AM

11:41:00
AM

11:42:00
AM

11:43:00
AM

11:44:00
AM

11:45:00
AM

11:46:00
AM

11:47:00
AM

11:48:00
AM

11:49:00
AM

Figure 1: Example of artificial demand. Courtesy: Ingersoll Rand

A view of artificial demand


The graph in Figure 1 has a blue and red
line moving together but separated by 0.65 psi.
This is because pressures on the graph were
recorded in two different locations, illustrating the difference between the pressure where
air enters the distribution network and the
pressure at the farthest end of the facility.
In this example the pressure loss across the
system is only 0.65 psi. Had the pressure difference across the network been significantly
larger, pressure and load would need to be
calculated for regions of the network since
assuming demand is evenly distributed along
the pressure gradient could create significant
error in the artificial demand calculation.
The volume of surplus compressed air
influences how quickly the pressure rises
when the compressor is loaded. As the volume of surplus compressed air decreases, the
rate of pressure rise in the network decreases.
Notice that the shape of this graph is not
linear. Had it been linear (straight lines, not
curved) that would indicate the system has
no artificial demand. The reason for the curve
is associated with an increase in demand as
the pressure rises. As the pressure increases,
the total demand from the system increases.
Since the amount of compressed air consumers has not changed, the difference is the
artificial demand. To illustrate the difference,

two lines are drawn tangent to the curve.


Notice the change in slope on the curve as
the pressure increases. For this system at
this system pressure, all of the compressed
air consumers were influenced by the same
pressure. This can be confirmed mathematically because the difference in demand based
on the two tangents to the curve equals the
calculated artificial demand based on the total
demand and the two pressure points. This in
turn illustrates one easier way to determine
artificial demand for a given system.
Note that if the unload pressure setpoint
for this compressor were raised another 10
psi, the compressor would run fully loaded
without unloading because the sum of artificial demand and production needs would
be equal to the total supply from the
compressor.
Mark Krisa is a business manager at Ingersoll Rand, leading its compressed air audit
program. A graduate with a degree in engineering science from the University of Western
Ontario in Canada, Krisa has worked in the
compressed air industry for over 20 years.
His experience in the industry is diverse,
ranging from compressor service technician
through engineering and compressed air system auditor. He can be reached by e-mail at
mark_krisa@irco.com.

ABB
www.abb.com
Input #209 at plantengineering.hotims.com

Mini-drag machines
The R-SF line of mini-drag
machines provides repeatable processes suited for a
range of components from
propellers and
golf clubs to
artificial joints
and dental
implants. The
machines
provide 40
times the
grinding power
of rotary vibrators yet eliminate impingement between
delicate components. They
include hydraulically powered
carousel assemblies allowing vertical movement for
versatile processing and are
equipped with up to four rotating work stations with independent drives.
Rosler
www.rosler.us
Input #209 at plantengineering.hotims.com

PLANT ENGINEERING

June 2011 47

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ELECTRICALSOLUTIONS

INSIGHT
Energy meter
The OptoEMU
Sensor energy
monitoring appliance connects to
utility meters, plant
equipment, and
facility systems to
gather real-time
facility and equipment energy usage data.
The sensors communication
capabilities now include support for Modbus/TCP, a standard, Ethernet-based industrial communications protocol.
This enhancement allows the
Sensor to effectively perform
in any Ethernet-based Modbus architecture-without need
for translators, software development, or other middleware.

In seeking arc flash


solutions, dont
overlook validation
By Pablo Medina, Walt Karstens, and Keith Flowers
Siemens Industry Inc.

rc flashes happen when an electric current passes through the air between
two conducting metalsan arc fault.
Almost instantly, an arc can superheat
the air around it to a temperature up to 35,000
Fabout four times the suns surface temperature. This extreme heat ionizes all nearby
materials, including copper, insulation, and
metal enclosures, creating explosive gaseous
plasma as those materials expand to many
thousands of times their solid volumes.
Under these conditions, the copper changes
to plasma, with a volume about 67,000 times
that of its solid form. Or, stated differently,
each cubic inch of copper converts to almost
39 cu ft of copper vapor.
Arc faults are different from bolted faults on
the load terminals of standard, metal-enclosed
switchgear. Switchgear equipment is designed

Opto 22
www.opto22.com
Input #210 at plantengineering.hotims.com

to withstand bolted fault currents until circuit


breakers or fuses interrupt the current flow.
When a bolted fault occurs, the voltage at the
point of the fault is virtually zero and the total
fault energy gets dissipated into the entire
power system, while any arcs are contained
and cooled within the circuit breakers interrupters or the fuses.
By contrast, the incident energy of an arcing fault is much more difficult to contain and
is concentrated almost entirely at the fault
location. Its flash can spread hot, ionized
plasma over a distance of 20 ft or more with
significant accompanying sound and shock
waves. This explosive force can cause significant injury, even death, to individuals in
the immediate vicinity.
Arc flashes are responsible for about 80%
of electrical accidents in the U.S. each year.
In human terms, they are responsible for hundreds of deaths, thousands of serious injuries,
and significant lost work time every year.

CNC control
The iAdaptS adaptive
control solution into the CNC
system for increased machine
tool productivity. The iAdaptS
improves material removal
and minimizes cycle time by
automatically optimizing the
cutting feedrate based on the
actual spindle load. Additionally, integration of the iAdaptS
product within the CNC
now eliminates the need for
mounting space, simplifying
installation while improving
the capabilities of the original
iAdapt product.
FANUC FA America
www.fanucfa.com
Input #211 at plantengineering.hotims.com

PLANT ENGINEERING

June 2011 49

ELECTRICALSOLUTIONS
Evolving safety standards
Arc faults have numerous causes that
fall into two categories: One comprises
intrusive environmental factors such
as cabinet moisture, insulation
failures, overvoltage, corroded
terminals, dust, dirt, and animals, including rodents and
snakes; the second category is
human error such as improper
work procedures, misplaced
tools, loose connections, and
inadvertent contact with energized components.
Inadequate maintenance
practices are often contributors to both categories. As the
number of arc flash incidents
suggests, they are a paramount
electrical safety concern, for
which a range of industry
safety standards have evolved.
In North America, the main
safety standard for working
with electrical equipment is
NFPA 70E: Standard for Electrical Safety in the Workplace.
It addresses electrical safety
requirements for workplaces to safeguard employees during such activities
as the installation, operation, maintenance, and decommissioning of electric
conductors, electric equipment, signaling and communications conductors
and equipment, and raceways in public
and private facilities.
Under NPFA 70E, employees whose
work may potentially expose them to
arc flashes are required to wear arcrated protective clothing. This clothing
is made of fabric that provides thermal
insulation and is also self-extinguishing to minimize burns, as prescribed
by ASTM F 1506-08, Standard Performance Specification for Wearing
Apparel for Use by Electrical Workers
to Momentary Electric Arc and Related
Thermal Hazards.
OSHA has said that clothing conforming to ASTM 1506 complies with
the OSHA 29 CFR 1910.269 (Electrical Power Generation, Transmission
and Distribution) directive regarding
the wearing of protective clothing that
will not contribute to severity of burns.
Personal protective equipment (PPE)
is a primary part of an arc flash injury

50 June 2011

PLANT ENGINEERING

second-degree burn caused by 1.2 cal/


cm 2 of skin exposure). When the incident energy level goes beyond 40 cal/
cm 2, it becomes exceedingly difficult
to provide any practical means of PPE.

Safer equipment, safer environments

PPE does not protect from being struck


by doors opening from an arc flash,
so manufacturers have taken steps to
design arc flash hazard mitigation and
arc-resistant features into their electrical
equipment. Courtesy: Siemens Industry

mitigation, which can also include


other equipment such as a helmet or
headgear, face shield, gloves, and ear
protection.
The amount of PPE required is
dependent on the calculated arc flash
incident energy on a workers body,
which depends on arc current, system
voltage, and duration and distance from
the arc. NFPA 70E defines five categories of PPE, each category providing
progressively greater protection against
higher and higher energy levels. The
energy levels correspond to specified
boundaries that define the degree of
danger and required protection.
The highest tops out at 40 cal/cm 2
skin exposure requiring the highest
levels of PPE (compared to a curable

Of course, the simplest and most


effective measure to prevent an arc
flash is to shut off all power to the
equipment to be worked on. Siemens
advises that individuals should work
on MCCs or other electrical equipment
only after all power to the equipment
has been turned off. In fact, this is often
done through mandated lock-out protocols.
Arc flash prevention, safety training,
and PPE can only go so far in keeping workers out of harms way should
an arc fault occur. Although PPE can
provide protection from an arc flash,
it still cannot protect an operator from
being struck by enclosure doors blown
off or open from an arc flashor from
fragments ejected from a disintegrating
enclosure.
That is why manufacturers have
taken steps to design arc flash hazard
mitigation and arc-resistant features
into their electrical equipment. These
features are designed to complement
each other. Arc flash mitigation features aim:
 To keep the workers beyond the arc
flash boundary or,
 To shorten the arc flash duration.
Arc resistant equipments goal is to
make sure that, in the event of an arc
flash when the MCCs doors are closed
and latched, the equipment will contain
the explosion, directing the arc blast,
including its heat, plasma, and pressure,
away from workers.
In addition, the industry has codified the performance testing of arcresistant features according to the
rigorous requirements set forth in the
IEEE Guide for Testing Metal-Enclosed
Switchgear Rated Up to 38 kV for
Internal Arcing Faults (ANSI/IEEE
C37.20.7 - 2007).
Taking Siemens type WL low-voltage
switchgear as an example, arc-resistant
features can include:
 ANSI/IEEE Type 2 arc resistance
to protect personnel at the front, back,

and sides of the equipment (Type 1 arc resis- mounting rack height (2 m) that do not cause
tant protection only applies to the front of ignition of the horizontally mounted indicathe cabinet.)
tors are ignored.
 UL Listed, performance tested, and
 Accessibility Type 1: That arcing does
classified as arc resistant per ANSI/IEEE not cause holes in the freely accessible front
C37.20.7
of the enclosure.
 Reinforced enclosure to withstand pres Accessibility Type 2: That arcing does
sure from internal arcing faults
not cause holes in the freely accessible front,
 Internal venting system with pressure sides, and rear of the enclosure.
dams and pressure vents to channel the flow
Criterion 4: That no indicators ignite as a
of arc fault gases and vent these gases out result of escaping gases. Indicators ignited
the top of the gear and away from personnel as a result of the burning of paint or labels,
 Reinforced front
glowing particles, and
with gaskets plus doors Individuals should work
so on, are excluded from
with extra hinges and on MCCs or other electrithis assessment. Highstronger latching systems
speed movies or video
 One-piece circuit cal equipment only after all
may be used to evaluate
b r e a k e r d o o r s w i t h power to the equipment has
the cause of indicator
insert panels for control been turned off.
ignition.
devices such as fuses,
Holes in horizontally
indicating lights, and circuit breaker control mounted indicators caused by particles that
switches when required
do not ignite the indicator are ignored. Sur Reinforced bolted rear covers
face discoloration or charring that does not
 Insulated bus bar system
result in glowing or flaming of the indicator
 Shutters in circuit breaker compartments cloth is allowed. Any indicator cloth with
 Sill channel with integrated arc plenum surface discoloration or charring shall be
 No configuration restrictions
replaced with new cloth before additional
 Suitable for solidly grounded or resis- testing.
tance-grounded configurations.
Criterion 5: That all the grounding connections remain effective.
There are five criteria listed in ANSI/IEEE
Conclusion
Std C37.20.7-2007 as follows:
Arc flashes present a serious safety risk.
Criterion 1: That properly latched or
secured doors, covers, and so on, do not While the best protection is prevention by
open. Bowing or other distortion is permit- enforcing strict safety rules, mandating
ted provided no part comes as far as the proper maintenance, and supporting that
position of the indicator mounting racks or with regular safety training, advances in
walls (whichever is closest) on any assessed technology have enabled electrical equipment
manufacturers such as Siemens to design and
surface.
Criterion 2: No fragmentation of the enclo- engineer much more arc-resistant safety feasure occurs within the time specified for the tures into their products and systems such as
test. The ejection of small parts, up to a indi- switchgear and MCCs.
While standards continue to evolve, they
vidual mass of 60 g, from any assessed external surface above a height of two meters and inherently follow these kinds of innovations.
from any external surface not under assess- Nonetheless, the proper performance testing
ment, is accepted. No restriction is placed on of new and innovative arc-resistant safety
features cannot await standards. At the same
the number of parts allowed to eject.
Criterion 3: Assessment of burn-through: time, it is important that the application testIt is assumed that any openings in the switch- ing of new safety features be validated by a
gear caused by direct contact with an arc will qualified third-party like the UL to ensure that
also ignite an indicator mounted outside of the safety features work as intended and
the switchgear at that same point. Since it to prevent tragic accidents.
is not possible to cover the entire area under
Pablo Medina is product manager, Walt
assessment with indicators, any opening in
the area under assessment that results from Karstens is product engineer for tiastar MCC,
direct contact with an arc is considered cause and Keith Flowers is program manager for
for failure. Openings above the indicator WL breakers, all part of Siemens Industry Inc.

INSIGHT

Control modules
The CS series of process
control modules provides PID
loop control without using
a PLC. The modules allow
control of temperature, flow,
and pressure; the single- and
dual-loop modules also provide ramp-and-soak controls.
Up to 16 of these modules
can be attached to any CS
series master to provide up to
32 independent control loops.
Choosing an advanced CS
master also gives you features such as a virtual HMI,
data logging, and web server.
Omega Engineering, Inc.
www.omega.com
Input #212 at plantengineering.hotims.com

CMMS analyzer
Bigfoot CMMS manages,
analyzes, and reports on all
aspects of system maintenance, ensuring maximum
efficiency, safety, and longevity. Features include scheduling unlimited preventive maintenance tasks and procedures
with automatic reminders and
analyzing historical maintenance issues to help predict
future events. It has been
upgraded to a Web-based
version, compatible with any
Internet browser.
Smartware Group
www.bigfootcmms.com
Input #213 at plantengineering.hotims.com

PLANT ENGINEERING

June 2011 51

Access all the educational and


insightful sessions from the in-person
Manufacturing/Automation Summit
held in March in virtual format
this September.
Control Engineering and
Plant Engineering are launching the
Virtual Manufacturing/Automation
Summit, September 8, 2011 with
the industrys hottest topics:
Maintenance as a Prot Center
The connection between
automation and maintenance
Electrical safety as a core principle
Building safety into
automation systems

Virtual Events are a powerful educational tool:


All that attendees need is internet access to attend
Virtual events eliminate travel, time, and
scheduling constraints
Attendees will have real-time access to top-notch
educational Webcasts, videos, information from
industry leading vendors, and networking opportunities
with all event participants

Find out more information at www.controleng.com and www.plantengineering.com

AUTOMATIONSOLUTIONS

A pulp and paper manufacturer used an


MES to drive greater productivity, but also
better order tracking and communications.
Courtesy: Honeywell Process Solutions

Make sure MES delivers


data-driven value
Take advantage
of measurement
to make better
production
decisions.
By Dan OBrien
Honeywell Process Solutions

ata is the lifeblood of every organization. Visibility of the right data at


the right time in the right context can
help improve the overall effectiveness of assets and performance of operations.
Good visualization provides a window into
plant activities to illustrate opportunities,
avoid problems, improve safety, mitigate
risks, meet deadlines, and reduce costs.
Examples range from seeing material usage
and energy costs, to what time the latest
shipment arrived or must leave, to knowing, monitoring, and alerting safe operating
parameters of plant conditions.
Data is acquired, examined, analyzed,
reported on, used collaboratively, and then
stored for future use. There are endless ways
data can be used, making it one of the more
valuable assets that plants can leverage.
An unfortunate challenge with data is that
more is not better, and process manufacturing

plants generate massive amounts of it. What


happens when there is too much data? When
the ever-increasing amount of numbers,
figures, and statistics begins to overwhelm
those who need it most? Without consistent
methods of analyzing and making sense of
the vast amounts of data that most plants
have locked away, there are missed opportunities that can negatively impact important
decisions, overlooked trends, and conditions
essential to plant safety.
To be useful and to avoid mistakes, data
must be delivered in context and at the right
time. To make an impact and drive good decisions, information and conclusions need to
be drawn and actions must be made based
on those conclusions to translate into better
results.
Complicating the picture, evolving technologies can make data relatively useless if
it cannot be accessed or used in combination
PLANT ENGINEERING

June 2011 53

Courtesy: Honeywell Process Solutions

AUTOMATIONSOLUTIONS

The integrated MES allowed for both internal and external integration, allowing the pulp and paper manufacturer to better communicate with its main contractors.

with data from related systems. Isolated


islands of data trap potential and reduce
opportunities for improvement. Duplicated data copied and sprinkled across
data warehouses creates challenges with
timeliness and up-to-the-minute accuracy. Legislation, regulations, security
threats, and compliance issues also mandate that data is kept safe. It should only
be visible and changeable by certain job
roles or individuals.
Proprietary technologies that are no
longer supportable can paralyze accurate
data analysis, and the ever-increasing
frequency of updates and patches for IT
systems creates an environment of consistent technology churn, which makes it
difficult to create consistent and reliable
informational benchmarks.
Enter the often discussed, but often
not well-defined manufacturing execution system (MES). Helping connect the
plant floor with business decision makers, MES exists to manage both production and operations, which unties the

54 June 2011

PLANT ENGINEERING

knot that exists between the control and


business levels.
Improved visibility of information is
one of the major benefits a collaborative
MES provides. Through greater availability of information, plants are better equipped to overcome their critical
business challenges by being able to
anticipate problems before they occur,
collaborate on solutions to overcome
potential problems, and optimize performance to take timely action based
on the information they have accrued.

The value of MES


MES is valuable for a number of reasons: It helps improve yields and exploit
market opportunities in production planning, minimizes costs during production execution, improves the reliability
of operations management, and helps
ensure product quality while minimizing
inventory. Measurable benefits are seen
in operational efficiency improvements
where energy and maintenance costs are

reduced, material losses are mitigated,


and distribution costs are shrunk. Further, MES can help improve personnel productivity and extend worker
resources.
However, one of the most valuable
benefits that MES can provide to an
operation is through data visibility
and visualization techniques, in which
important information that drives actions
for plants is more easily derived from
the vast amounts of recorded data. In
a time where people are finding themselves overwhelmed by data, yet starving for information, MES helps plants
contextualize their data sets, separate
useful data from noise, and link process
to business.

Coping with data overload


A major challenge that organizations,
managers, and operators face is the constant technology churn that can make
even recent technologies unsupportable
and antiquated. With the future guar-

anteeing an accelerating pace of technology, to properly understand it and make wellthe reality is rapid changes to the technology informed decisions.
landscape. A well-designed MES strategy can
Start with disparate data. This is data from
help protect existing investments, better future many different places typically available in
proof, manage lifecycle costs, and ensure col- a plant: process equipment, field devices,
laborative access to data.
quality systems, control systems, data histoIt is important to select MES vendors with rians, inventory systems, business and ERP
strong relationships to major technology com- systems, asset management, and data from
panies so IT trends can be anticipated and outside the plant like energy costs, economic
leveraged. A benefit of new technologies is trends, geopolitical situations, and weather
improved capabilities of capturing details, conditions.
measurements, and other data points that
One goal for the business is to gather the
may not have been measurable before, and data together in meaningful context to prothe opportunity to turn the data into meaning- vide insight and information. From there,
ful representations.
users can make sound conclusions upon
The question then becomes: What do I which concrete actions can be taken. This
do with all of this data and how can I make is what delivers business results and creates
sense of it all? More data might seem like a value out of the data.
helpful way to improve processes, but when
While moving from data to value is not a
systems and personnel are inundated with simple task, options are available. An orgadata, operations can become stretched and nization can invest in copying data into data
personnel can become overworked. Employees warehouses, federating data (i.e., keeping
with too much data to digest can find their the data with the system that owns it), or a
efficiency dropping. The disruption in the combination of techniques.
business can fuel this inefficiency, and facIt takes experience and domain expertors such as an aging
tise to determine
workforce or loss of Employees with too much data
the best methods
domain expertise adds
for implementing a
to the problem.
comprehensive data
to digest can find their efficiency
Whats more, data
visualization and
is not always readily dropping. The disruption in the
acquisition stratavailable or inherently
and there is a
business can fuel this inefficiency, egy,
easy to access. Points
horizontal flow that
can be isolated, lost, and factors such as an aging work- must be accounted
inaccessible, incorfor when creating
rect, late, or under- force or loss of domain expertise
value out of data. For
productive. Combine
instance, information
these and the result adds to the problem.
must be extracted and
is a set of data that is
orchestrated from the
unreliable and makes a system that can con- initial sets of data, processed and concluded
sistently and comprehensively make sense of upon. Actions can be taken on the resultmeasured data essential, not a luxury.
ing conclusions based on the information,
which then translate into technical or ecoMaking sense of the data
nomic results.
That leads us to a second challenge that
A final challenge of inordinate amounts of
plants face with the stacks of information data is visualization and visibility, and getat their disposal: not only what to do with ting the right information to the right people
it all but how to make sense of it and cre- in way that doesnt tie up their bandwidth.
ate subsequent value. Data, of course, is Acquiring the right information goes a long
meaningless without context, and making way toward the overarching problem that
sense of vast amounts of data necessitates plants face of keeping costs under control.
the proper tools and technologies to analyze For instance, being able to understand what
the data. Plant personnel often complain of products to make at a given time based on
being data rich and information poor or changing energy costs helps keep producdrowning in data but starving for informa- tion expenses in check and sheds light on the
tion. Extracting information from that data most cost-effective methods of production.
must be proactively gleaned and analyzed Creating visibility out of information allows

INSIGHT

Remote SCADA
The FAST/TOOLS webbased SCADA system
enables remote engineering
and maintenance, and allows
the deployment and real-time
management of process applications via secure web-based
services, thereby increasing
overall equipment efficiency
and return on assets.
Yokogawa Corp. of America
www.yokogawa.com/us
Input #214 at plantengineering.hotims.com

Drive system
The VLT FlexConcept is a
unified and optimized drive
solution engineered for the
food and beverage, and packaging industries. It consists of
a highly efficient helical bevel
gear driven by a compact permanent magnet motor, and is
combined with efficient inverter drives. It is available for
centralized or decentralized
application in dry, wet and/or
aseptic-critical areas. It can
reduce the costs associated
with stocking, storing, and
maintaining spare parts. The
system provides up to 90%
energy-efficient operation.
Danfoss
www.danfossdrives.com
Input #215 at plantengineering.hotims.com

PLANT ENGINEERING

June 2011 55

AUTOMATIONSOLUTIONS
operations to be more agile and mitigates the
instances of lost opportunities.

terminals in the world.


Another example shows what MES can
accomplish in a pulp and paper company.
Turning data into value
JoutCon concentrated on getting its business
To create effective visibility and deal off to the best possible start, but also remained
with the data challenges that plants face, the keenly focused on implementing a companyproper solutions and
wide strategy that would
technologies are necespermit seamless growth,
sary to provide the tools, One goal for the business is
diversification, and inteanalyses, and algorithms to gather the data together in
gration with its main
to support decision makcontractors in the paper
ing. MES technologies meaningful context to provide
and board industry.
are available to make
It deployed an MES
sense of the data, not insight and information. From
at two of its production
just create more. They
facilities to improve
create visibility that there, users can make sound
overall performance and
turns data into informavisibility, and maximize
tion that can be under- conclusions upon which conoperational flow. Since
stood in intuitive, easythe plant was new, it
crete actions can be taken.
to-consume outputs and
wanted to use the most
presentations that drive
up-to-date technology
effective communication for better business to meet current and future paper and board
insight. MES helps produce information industry requirements.
related to all aspects of the business, from
Through the use of an MES, the JoutCon
planning and scheduling and production track- facility was able to upgrade and improve in:
ing to operations monitoring and performance
 Order processing and planning
management.
 Sheet production and tracking
In production management, for instance,
 Pallet labeling
MES can provide solutions to improve accu Interfacility communications involving
racy, cost containment, and order fulfillment, production lines, warehousing, and delivery
which help drive customer satisfaction.
 Process efficiency
Visualization, monitoring, and analysis
 Cost of tracking production results
of aspects like production allocation, mate Reporting.
rial tracking, production reporting, and ontime deliveryall of which directly impact Conclusion
When it comes to creating value out of data
a companys income statementprovide the
information necessary to make sense of the sets that drive critical business performances,
control-level data that impacts results and MES provides the integration, visibility, and
embedded domain expertise that helps visualplanning at the business level.
Freeport LNG is one example of a company ize, identify key performance metrics, and
that succeeded in using MES technology to make sense out of the seemingly unending
help make sense of all the data generated from stream of collected data. By helping manage
its facility. The company faced the challenge production and daily operations above the
of developing a comprehensive MES to man- level of control, MES helps derive valuable
age operations and optimize production and information that leads to improvements in
supply chain execution of a grassroots LNG performance, integration, and planning and
scheduling.
terminal in Freeport, Texas.
With plants finding themselves increasingAn enterprise-wide MES solution was
installed, which included multiple business ly susceptible to drowning in data, yet starvapplications unified under one collaborative ing for information, MES helps plants conplatform. Now, access to and visualization textualize their data, visualize for improved
of the right data allow personnel to monitor decisions, link process to business, and
separate process functions simultaneously improve business performance.
to optimize productivity. Production flexDan OBrien is Solution Manager, Manuibility has helped to ensure Freeport LNGs
capabilities as an operator are among the facturing Execution Systems for Honeywell
most efficient and agile of all LNG receiving Process Solutions.

56 June 2011

PLANT ENGINEERING

INSIGHT

Inverters
The 8400 Inverter series
features L-Force automation
technology for tailored motion
control solutions that deliver
stable and high dynamic performance in material handling
and logistics applications.
Identical installation, parameterization, and user operation
across the 8400 series enable
ease of installation and
operation of a single production line or full factory automation. The 8400 inverters
optimize automated industrial
processes, such as winding,
extruding, and filling.
Lenze
www.lenze.com
Input #216 at plantengineering.hotims.com

Relief valves
The PRV model
proportional relief
valves provide
proportional venting of overpressures for piping
systems up to 1 in.
in size. End connections include
NPT female, BSPP
female, and BSPP
male in sizes 1/4, 1/2, 3/4,
and 1 in. The valves open
gradually and reseat in proportion to the increase and
decrease in pressure over the
set opening pressure. The
valve design is unaffected by
system back pressure up to
50% of the valves set pressure. PRV proportional relief
valves feature 316L stainless
steel construction of the body,
trim, and spring housing.
Swagelok
www.swagelok.com.
Input #217 at plantengineering.hotims.com

Courtesy: Honeywell

Sophisticated, complex control rooms bring


together data from a variety of sources to multiple HMIs in one location. Concise, organized
information and clear, prewcise graphics help
well-trained operators respond quickly and
accurately to alarms and notifications.

sonnel available to do any more, he said.


Regardless of the reason, there is still a lot
of functionality there thats not being used or
used as efficiently as it could be.
Admittedly, it is a challenge to maximize
the potential of any system. With a little bit of
effort and investment, however, many plants
can coax more efficiency and productivity
out of their HMIs and interfaces, and enable
managers and operators alike to do their jobs
better. Control Engineering recently asked
Stearns and several other experts in this area
to share some thoughts and offer some suggestions for boosting performance of these
devices. Here is a look at some of their ideas
and recommendations.

Optimizing
your

HMI

Taking time to re-evaluate workstations and


interfaces can uncover countless ways to
increase performance, optimize efficiency,
and boost profitability.
By Jeanine Katzel
CFE Media

re you maximizing the power of your


facilitys HMIs and operator interfaces? In all honesty, probably not.
Like our brains and our PCs, such
equipment rarely is used to the full extent
of its ability. Too often, system capacity lies
dormant, untapped, and unuseda situation
few can afford in an uncertain and changing
economy.
According to Chris Stearns, Honeywell
product manager, in most cases when a plant
installs an automation system, it builds what
it needs to meet present circumstances, and
then uses about 20% of its capability. Maybe
parts of the system arent appropriate for what
is being done at the moment or maybe there
arent sufficientor sufficiently trainedper-

Efficiency equals flexibility, reusability


Every plant situation is different, of course,
admitted Stearns, but in most cases more can
usually be done than may be apparent on the
surface. With a DCS, an alarm summary is a
given, he said. So many facilities dont consider that they might be able to handle alarms
in a different or better way. The operator has
an alarm summary screen and merely goes
about dealing with alarms as they happen. But
a lot of functionality inherent in the system is
not being used. Alarm summaries offer more
than a list; they can be sorted, organized, and
filtered based on plant need. In that way, a
more efficient operation can be achieved.
In the opinion of Keith McPherson, director of market development, visualization, and
information software, Rockwell Automation,
reusability is a major key to achieving HMI
system design productivity and efficiency.
Products need to be designed to work together to yield reusable objects, he said. Then,
when the HMI is installed, building blocks
are already in place and templates already
exist to help create the reporting and analytical
tools used at other levels of plant operations.
All systems involve several pieces. Traditionally, those pieces are designed multiple
times, which is very inefficient and leads to
disjointed systems looking at the same data.
Systems should be configured so that they put
data into proper context.
The data an operator needs to run a work
PLANT ENGINEERING

June 2011 57

AUTOMATIONSOLUTIONS
cell or control a process isnt the same
data the line manager needs to do his job,
McPherson explained. Or even if it is
the same, it likely needs to be presented
in a different fashion, he said. Starting from scratch for each application or
function wastes time and productivity.
If the foundation for the system is laid
in the control layer or SCADA layer,
and then built upon, a lot can be accomplished quickly and easily without a lot
of reconfiguration and reintegration.
Plants need to leverage what they have
through better use of reporting and data
management tools, said McPherson,
adding that information-centric tools
that access the right data can enable
better decisions.
It doesnt require a new infrastructure to do that, he went on. Its a matter of connecting to the real-time data in
the controllers and the HMIs, of getting
historical data from the historians, maintenance management systems, or production schedulers. And only since the
recent economic downturn have plants
started actively looking for ways to do
these analyses.
Scott Miller, Rockwell Automation business manager, visualization
software, supports McPhersons view.
Investing in and developing a control
strategy that is reusable and flexible and
will pay dividends as the plants information needs evolve, he said. All plant
systems and operations are dynamic.
What a plant needs today is not what it
needed three months ago or will need
three months from now to operate opti-

mally. Building rich capability in your


control, visualization, and information
systems is a way to build for the future.

More than eye candy


Although hardware developments
typically occur at a slower rate than
software, they impact efficiency as
well. Displays are evolving, getting
better and brighter. Graphics rendering technology is improving, providing tangible benefits that go beyond
building attractive screens. Plants need
to look at leveraging better rendering
technologies to make their systems
graphics clearer and more intuitive,
noted Miller. Those seeking to maximize display efficiency also can do
so through mobility and remote data
access. Mobile devices save keystrokes
and eliminate operator error, he added.
The need for flexibility will drive the
adoption and acceptance of more and
more wireless components.
And, fortunately, operators entering
the workforce today are just what the
workplace ordered when it comes to
embracing and applying these advanced
technologies.
Workforce demographics indicate
that a lot of operators in North America will be retiring in the next decade
or less, said Miller. Their replacements will be people who have grown
up with sophisticated hardware and
software, with Twitter and iPhones.
They will have a different perspective
on information than did previous generations. That factor is driving current

research and development, and will


drive HMI systems of the future. As
the need grows for richer graphics and
greater integration capabilities to support modern mobile platforms, we will
have operators who know how to and
want to use them.
McPherson agrees. Once operators were tied to a terminal, but that
is changing. Operators today are more
mobile that they were five years ago,
and that fact alone makes them more
efficient. They move around using
portable devices. They use Webbased browsers routinely. They are
more comfortable with new technology and sophisticated graphics. If they
can access better information, they can
react quicker and do their jobs more
effectively.
But that can only happen if they
receive data in the correct form, at the
right time, in the right context. And the
need for that is more important today
than it was five years ago.
Manufacturers today need to get all
they can out of what they have, added
Alan Cone, product manager at Siemens
Industry, concurring that advancing
display technology is impacting efficiencyand sustainability. Companies
today are moving toward a wide-screen
format, he said. It gives an operator
more screen size to viewand more
importantly more informationin the
same physical device size.
Greater screen resolution is available, and when faced with an equipment change-out, many plants now are

Courtesy: Rockwell Automation

Rugged electronic interfaces come in a variety of sizes, operator input methods, memory options, and configurations and are software programmable to allow information to be presented and viewed as efficiently as possible in all kinds of situations.

58 June 2011

PLANT ENGINEERING

adopting LED technology that offers


brighter screens overall and the flexibility to dim them at will. Although
their lifespan is no longer than traditional HMIs (40,000 to 50,000 hours),
LEDs use less energy, making them a
greener choice.

All about the operator


One aspect of HMI/OI efficiency
often overlooked is the human factor.
Whether youre using a vintage CRT
or a modern wide-screen flat panel,
said Honeywells Stearns, its really
all about what you put in front of the
operator: What you display, how, and
when are really key to an effective and
efficient response. Quality operator
training can reap major performance
gains. An operator who can get better
information or the right information at
the right time can do a better job.
Training is a huge issue, stressed
Stearns. Operators cant be as effective as they could be without continual
training, he said. In recent years,
plants have begun to recognize that.
Even the same workers using the same
interfaces can operate more efficiently if they receive refresher training a
couple of times a year to make sure
they know what theyre doing and that
theyre doing their jobs in the best way
possible. Thankfully, abnormal situations dont occur often.
But training exercises are a way
to stay current, to ensure that operators will respond properly when that
group of alarms that means something
comes in. Training simulators keep
operators ready to respond. An investment in training makes the HMI more
effective.
Training employees to do more at the
terminal is both a benefit to and result
of todays global marketplace, observed
Siemens product manager Wayne Patterson. In particular, OEMs that have
a global presence focus on how to support machines more efficiently, he said.
They dont want to send employees
around the world to maintain a line. Its
too expensive. Putting instruction manuals right on the HMI, through remote
terminal connections, lets properly
trained operators do more, saving time
and money and getting the job done.

When all is said and done


No matter how or how well they are
used, HMIs and OIs will always have a
strong presence in manufacturing. People really need them, emphasized Cone,
and will become increasingly dependent on them. Facilities want to put more
and more information on their screens,
and tools are continuing to evolve that
let them do that. Even the use of smart
phones may increase at the supervisory
leveland maybe at the maintenance
level, although not for production. But
mobile devices will likely proliferate.
The days of maintenance and instrument technicians having only a toolbox
are going away as more and more tasks
become electronic. The way employees
interact and collaborate is changing,
said Stearns, picking up on Pattersons
earlier comments on our global environment.
For example, a technician with a
mobile device is investigating a problem with an asset. He gathers the necessary data electronically with pictures,
videos, and other measured data using
his mobile device. He then sends it
through a central system to a product
expert in Switzerland. The expert views
the recording online and tells the technician how to fix the device. What might
take days or weeks a few years ago, now
happens almost instantly. Technology
has dissolved geographical barriers.
Stearns cautions, however, against
letting technology become a solution
looking for a problem. Technology
is an enabler, not an end-all, he said.
Its not important unless it helps do
what needs to be done. We need to
solve problems, not just apply technology. Bells and whistles are fine in
the commercial market, but in industry
its more about safety, production, reliability, and efficiency.
An HMI is basically a black box.
Its value lies in what is done with it to
help the operator do his job safely and
efficiently. Manufacturers should not
overlook the possibility that new products may be able to unlock greater
capability within the same system.
Jeanine Katzel is a contributing
editor to CFE Media. Reach her at
jkatzel@sbcglobal.net.

Going green,
saving energy
facility at the point of changing out HMIs or OIs might
want to consider going
green by choosing energy-saving
components when possible. One
option is Siemens ProfiEnergy energy management system, which helps
facilities incorporate dynamic energy
management into their HMIs.
The technology, explained Alan
Cone, product manager at Siemens
Industry, lets operators easily shut
down loads that are not required
during nonproductive periods. Existing hardware and software can be
integrated simply using ProfiEnergy
power modules such as the Simatic
ET 200S PM-E RO power module
(shown) or function blocks in the
controller.
You can add function blocks at
the PLC to control equipment, said
Cone. If the production unit takes a
half-hour lunch break, an instruction
code can be programmed into the
system to shut down unused equipment for that time so it is not using
energy unnecessarily. It has the
capability within the HMI to be programmed so that it ramps back up 5
minutes before personnel return. It is
extremely flexible.

More information about


ProfiEnergy is available in an online
brochure at: http://bit.ly/lCV00B

PLANT ENGINEERING

June 2011 59

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June 2011 61

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abb.us

inpro-seal.com

shell.com/lubes

ABB is a leader in power and automation technologies that


enable customers to improve performance while lowering
environmental impact.
ABB Inc.

The inventor and original patent holder of the Bearing Isolator, a compound labyrinth oil seal. Bearing Isolators are
proven to more than double the bearing life and overall
reliability of pumps, motors, gearboxes turbines, and other
rotating equipment.
Inpro/Seal

Shell Tellus Premium Oils are designed to prolong component life, prolong oil life, and promote better system
cleanliness.
Shell

apc.com
American Power Conversion makes UPS, rack, cable and
colling products for industrial; environments. Users enjoy
higher availability of sensitive electronic, network, communications and industrial equipment of all sizes
American Power Conversion Corp.

atlascopco.us
Atlas Copco produces and markets compressed air equipment and generators, construction and mining equipment,
industrial tools, assembly systems, services and rentals.
The Atlas Copco Group includes such brands as Atlas
Copco, RS Equipment Rental and Chicago Pneumatic.
Atlas Copco

automationdirect.com
AutomationDirect offers 6,500+ industrial automation
products through their free catalog and online store. The
catalog features PLCs, operator interfaces, sensors,
switches, motors, drives, and more.
AutomationDirect

donaldson.com
Compressed air purifications solutions, compressed air
filters, dryers and process water chillers.
Donaldson Company, Inc.

dupont.com
Why invest in the proven quality, innovation and research
that go into DuPont KEVLAR, NOMEX, TYVEK and
TYHEM? Because life is worth protecting.
DuPont

us.fcurtis.com
Over 500 distributors world-wide. Products ranging from
1/3 HP to 300 HP reciprocating compressors, oil injected
screw compressors, water injected screw compressors.
FS-Curtis Air Compressors

gexpro.com
Gexpro, formerly GE Supply, now part of Rexel, is a fullline, international distributor of electrical parts, power generation products, voice and data equipment, fasteners and
security equipment.
Gexpro

kamandirect.com
Kaman distributes a wide variety of Power Transmission
and MRO products and components to industry, including: bearings, motors, drives, motion control, material handling, fluid power as well as related maintenance supplies
and accessories.
Kaman Industrial Technologies Corp.

lubriplate.com
Lubriplate, Division of Fiske Brothers Refining Company
manufactures more than 200 high quality lubricants for all
types of industry. High performance synthetic lubricants
and NSF-H1 lubricants for food processing and beverage.
Lubriplate Lubricants Co.

mobilindustrial.com
Mobil Industrial Lubricants offers premium quality synthetic and mineral grade oils and greases to the industrial
market. Additionally, we support our products with a full
slate of expertise services.
Mobil Industrial Lubricants

stanleyproto.com
Pros who work the demanding jobs demand Stanley
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durable and make work easier.
Stanley Proto

sullair.com

omega.com
Omega offers more than 100,000 state-of-the-art products for measurement and control of temperature, humidity, pressure, strain, force, flow, level, pH, conductivity,
data acquisition, electric heating, and custom-engineered
products.
Omega Engineering, Inc.

U.S. Tsubaki is a leading manufacturer and supplier of


power transmission and motion control products and is the
worlds market share leader in roller chain.
US Tsubaki Inc.

ustsubaki.com

phoenixcontact.com

woodhead.com

Phoenix Contact is a worldwide leader in the manufacture


of industrial automation, interconnection, and interface
solutions.
Phoenix Contact

Woodhead Industries (a division of Molex), is a global


developer, manufacturer and marketer of a wide array of
products engineered for superior performance in demanding, harsh, or hazardous industrial environments.
Woodhead Industries

myresumelady.com
The Rsum Lady exists to assist Industrial Maintenance
and Reliability professionals to get their expertise,
talents and potential into a format that is appealing and
purposeful.
The Rsum Lady

gouldspumps.com

schneider-electric.com
Schneider Electric and its brands deliver innovative solutions for electrical distribution, machine and process control and automation, power and lighting management and
engineering services.
Schneider Electric

hitachi-america.us/airtech

seweurodrive.com

Hitachis innovation of Oil-Free Air Compression technology is now available in North America and includes
Oil-Free Rotary Screw, Oil-Free Scroll & Oil-Free Vortex
blower designs.
Hitachi Ameria, Ltd.

One of the largest global suppliers of drive technology.


SEW-EURODRIVE specializes in gear reducers, motors
and electronic Motor Controls.
SEW-EURODRIVE

PLANT ENGINEERING

spiraxsarco.com/us
Spirax Sarco applies world class knowledge, service and
products to the efficient pressure and flow control of steam
an other industrial fluids.
Spirax-Sarco, Inc.

AirMetrix is a total system management program designed


to maximize the productivity of your compressed air system. AirTility delivers air as needed with no capital expenditures and no maintenance worries.
Sullair

Manufacturers pumps and Pumpsmart process control


systems for industrial applications. PRO Services supplies
integrated solutions for repair and inventory needs.
ITT Goulds Pumps

62 June 2011

sea.siemens.com
Siemens Energy & Automation, Inc. (SE&A) manufactures
and markets one of the broadest ranges of electrical and
electronic products, systems and services to industrial and
construction market customers.
Siemens Industry, Inc.

webb-stiles.com
Webb-Stiles Co. is a manufacturer of engineered conveyors and conveying systems. Complete engineering, manufacturing, controls and installation capabilities. Plants
located in Cleveland, OH. and Gadsden, AL.
Webb-Stiles Co.

Place next to your computer or go online to plantengineering.com for hot links to these companies.

Remove at
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2011
June

CONTACTS

Advertiser Contacts for plant engineers

Request more information about products and advertisers in this issue by using the http://plantengineering.hotims.com
link and reader service number located near each. If youre reading the digital edition, the link will be live. When you contact a
company directly, please let them know you read about them in Plant Engineering.
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Aggreko LLC
866-215-7966

15

12


www.aggreko.com

ITT
315-568-7659

31

20


www.ittpps.com

Atlas Copco Compressors


800-232-3234

20

15


www.atlascopco.com

ITW Vortec
800-411-7475

14

11


www.Vortec.com

MOVINCOOL
800-264-9573

27

18


www.movincool.com

Omega Engineering, Inc.


888-556-6342


www.omega.com

Parker Hannifin Corp


800-272-7537


www.parkerstore.com

www.RIDGID.com/tc40

AutomationDirect
800-633-0405

C-2

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Baldor
800-828-4920

C-4

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800-221-3298

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Donaldson Co. Inc


800-365-1331


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www.clevelandvibrator.com

RIDGID
800-769-7743

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www.Donaldson.com/ToritPowerCore

RIG-A-LITE
713-943-0340

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www.Sereply.com

Stanley Proto
860-225-5111

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www.flexicon.com

Flexicon Corp
888-353-9426

Fluke Corp.
888-443-5853

23

16

GoatThroat Pumps
886-639-4628

12

Gorbel Inc
585-924-6733

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Hyster
252-931-5679

Ideal
800-435-0705

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Ingersoll-Rand
704-655-4000

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www.ingersollrandproducts.com


www.fluke.com

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Schneider Electric
847-397-2600

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PLANT ENGINEERING

June 2011 63

COMMENT
Telling a true story about manufacturing

T
Bob Vavra
Content Manager

64 June 2011

hey occurred three months and 600 about American manufacturing?


miles apart, but two of the most
Of all the perceptions we need to reverse
interesting news items about the about American manufacturing the nature of
current American auto industry are the work, the stability of the jobs, the crying
instructive as we look toward manu- need for workers in our future the one that
facturings future.
seems to start it all out is that we are not makThe most recent news surrounds Volkswa- ing as many things in the U.S. as we used to.
gens $1 billion investment in the U.S. auto
The level of foreign investment in automarket and the U.S. auto worker. The grand mobile manufacturing in the U.S. over the
opening of Volkswagens new plant in Chat- past decade has been extensive, consistent
tanooga, Tenn., in May was the culmination of and transformative. The cars have been huge
years of planning by the automaker and plenty drivers of growth in the sector, but so have the
of intense lobbying for the new U.S.-based Tier 1 and Tier 2 suppliers who have grown
VW plant. Chattanooga won the lobbying up around them. In Chattanooga, for example,
war, adding another pushpin on the map of about 10,000 of those 12,000 jobs created by
southern-based auto manufacturers.
the arrival of VW are suppliers to the plant.
The $1 billion plant meets all of the LEED
There is more manufacturing going on outcertification rules, plans to
side the U.S., and many of
limit emissions, wants to You repeatedly see manuthose jobs used to be done
be a significant member of facturing gravitating to
here. When labor cost is
the Chattanooga communithe only factor, countries
ty and oh yes brought those places where quality with low labor costs will
about 12,000 direct and matters, where distribution get more jobs. But that is
indirect jobs with them.
not the only factor in manThis whole thing about costs matter, where speed
ufacturing, and it is not the
automobile jobs in Tennes- to market matters.
only truth. You repeatedly
see is important when we
see manufacturing gravilook at the other news story. Back in Feb- tating to those places where quality matters,
ruary, three of the dimmer bulbs attending where distribution costs matter, and where
the Chicago Auto Show were arrested after speed to market matters. Those factors often
doing about $30,000 worth of damage to a overwhelm the pure labor costs especially
number of show cars. They attacked cars at in a summer when transportation costs are
the Toyota booth with screwdrivers and razor rising with the cost of fuel.
knives. They were ultimately caught slicing
So why is there a disconnect between whats
up a Toyota Camry. The three men said they really going on and what it is perceived to
were doing it to protest automobile jobs being be going on? It is mostly because we as an
shipped overseas.
industry have done a lousy job of connectThe problem for these guys, not counting ing our neighbors and our communities and
their inability to play nice in public, is that our schools to the things going on within our
Toyota manufactures the Camry in Kentucky, plants.
with American workers and mostly AmeriI suggested a couple of months ago that
can parts. In fact, if you were to look around, we throw open our doors to the community
there are few cars sold in the U.S. with more and let them see what manufacturing is really
American-sourced parts and American labor about. Now that weve reached the summer
than the Camry.
picnic season, it seems like a good time for
Unless you buy an X3 from BMW. In fact, just such a project.
wherever in the world you buy an X3, youve
And when you do it and I hope you do
bought one manufactured in Spartanburg, S.C. send us the stories and pictures from your
These are American cars, American jobs and experience. Lets keep sharing the story of
American revenue. If foreign-owned auto manu- manufacturing, as WE see it, and stop letting
facturers are profiting from all those American- guys with screwdrivers and screws loose
made products, doesnt that say something good create a negative impression.

PLANT ENGINEERING

SUMMER 2011

W W W.C SEM AG .C O M / PUREP OWER

KEEPING GENSET FUEL FLOWING DURING

DISASTERS
PAGE 2

SELECTING AND SIZING


TRANSFORMERS FOR
COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS
PAGE 8

COMMISSIONING
MISSION CRITICAL
STANDBY POWER
SYSTEMS
PAGE 14

PV SYSTEM
INSTALLATION
AND MAINTENANCE
PAGE 20

PV REFLECTIVITY
SAFE FOR AIRPORTS
PAGE 25
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ff

2 Keeping genset fuel


owing during disasters
Developing a strategy to ensure the
availability of fuel for your generator system
is a key element of disaster planning.

Selecting and sizing


transformers for
commercial buildings
While commercial building
designs change, their
electrical loads remain
fundamentally unchanged.
Properly sizing and
selecting transformers
ensures that these loads are
accommodated.
Commissioning mission
critical standby power
systems
Commissioning ensures
that all components of
the mission critical power
system function according
to design specications and
the owners expectations.

fff

PV system installation
and maintenance
Engineers should know
the basics of photovoltaic
system selection,
specication, and testing in
order to provide clients with
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PV reectivity safe for
airports
Consulting rm analyzes
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Cover image
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PURE POWER // SUMMER 2011

FEATURES
cover story

ee

PURE POWER // SUMMER 2011

ff

keeping genset fuel owing

KEEPING GENSET FUEL FLOWING DURING

By Robert M. Menuet, PE, GHT Limited, Arlington, Va.

Developing a strategy to ensure the availability of fuel for your generator system is a key element
of disaster planning.

ur commercial, government, and institutional operations depend on the continuous availability of


electrical power to run critical equipment. Prolonged,
large-scale power outages, though rare, have signicant
nancial and service delivery impacts. You need to be ready
when disaster strikes.
Disasters vary in type and severity. Fuel supply planning for
local severe weather events and regional blackouts is vastly
different from the strategies required to defend against an
unforeseeable terrorist attack or an extraordinary natural catastrophe such as Hurricane Katrina. The considerations outlined
in this article are intended to guide you through the planning
process to defend against reasonably predictable disasters.

DIESEL VS. NATURAL GAS


Diesel-fueled generators are better suited for larger power re-

Protecting generators and fuel supplies in elevated, hardened facilities


is a method of defense against extraordinary natural
catastrophes like Hurricane Katrina.

Courtesy: NOAA

www.csemag.com/purepower

quirements than natural gas-powered generators, yet require


more physical space and maintenance to sustain a reliable
fuel source. Building owners typically select natural gas generators when they require a lower initial capital investment
and prefer not to maintain an on-site fuel supply.
Because natural gas is supplied by the local utility and delivered underground, the primary factor that building owners can
control in relation to disaster defense is the purchase of noninterruptible service. Your utility will typically charge a slightly
higher rate in exchange for a guarantee of fuel availability during a local disaster event, but many owners nd this preferable
to managing a diesel fuel supply for their generator.
When choosing between natural gas and diesel, it is
important to note that natural gas generators may not
satisfy local life safety requirements. If the utility source is
not deemed reliable for emergency operations by the local

keeping genset fuel owing

FUEL QUANTITY
Identifying the amount of fuel needed
to power your critical equipment during a reasonably predictable natural
catastrophe is the rst step. A rough
consumption calculation for diesel
generators is 7 gallons of fuel per
hour for each 100 kW of generator
rating; i.e., a 200 kW generator would
consume 14 gallons of diesel fuel per
hour. A typical goal for on-site storage is three days worth of fuel. A site
requiring a 2 MW generator installation should have approximately
10,000 gallons of available stored fuel
to provide a three-day supply. To
ensure the necessary amount is on
hand in the event of a disaster, you
should factor engine exercising into
your equation, and understand that
relling a partially depleted storage
tank may not be practical until sufcient fuel is depleted to justify a fuel
delivery. Purchase a storage system
that will accommodate your disasterthreshold fuel plus the amount you
will consume for engine testing as
part of regular maintenance.
When determining the amount of
fuel to store on-site, you must consider
the criticality of your location and the
nature of your operation at the site. If
your facility provides critical functions
required for your business that are not
duplicated in another location, a larger

quantity of fuel should be considered


to ensure continued operations during
an extended power outage. Consider
the impact an extended utility outage
would have on your organizations
bottom line. The data center of an
online retailer would likely face far
greater revenue losses during an
extended power outage than the administrative ofce of a sales force that
telecommutes and travels on a regular
basis. Storing fuel can be expensive, so
a business case should be developed
that considers capital expenses and
risk factors. Weigh the installation
costs and maintenance requirements
of storing fuel against the nancial
impacts of downtimeincluding the
direct costs of lost revenue, recovery
of operations, and the potential loss of
customers.
According to the American Red
Cross, As many as 40% of small
businesses do not reopen after a major
disaster like a ood, tornado, or earthquake. These shuttered businesses
were unprepared for a disaster; they
had no plan or backup systems.

ee
PURE POWER // SUMMER 2011

authority, diesel engine generators are


generally the only practical alternative.
For buildings that shelter critical
business functions or have other high
availability requirements, the decision
to use an on-site diesel-powered generator is often made as part of overall
disaster planning (Figure 1). Once this
choice is made, there are numerous
factors that can inuence the conguration of the fuel supply. Considerations that can make this process more
manageable include:
N Fuel quantity
N Refueling availability
N Storage and compartmentation
N Fuel quality
N Safety and security.

Figure 1: Data centers are mission-critical


facilities that often have large power
requirements. A diesel generator is most
likely to be used in this scenario.
Courtesy: GHT Limited

REFUELING AVAILABILITY

STORAGE AND
COMPARTMENTATION

Refueling availability will impact your


decision on how much fuel to store
on-site. Is it nancially and logistically feasible to store all or some of
the desired amount in your building or
on your property? Can you arrange to
have a supplier outside of the region
bring fuel when needed? In the second
scenario, the fuel supplier down the
street may be affected by the same
natural disaster, so arranging delivery
assurances from several geographically disparate suppliers may make
sense. Selecting remote suppliers that
use different transportation routes can
further ensure refueling availability
when a disaster has a widespread
impact. Typically it is not practical
logistically or economicallyto store
more than several days supply on-site,
so a balance between on-site storage
and delivery assurances from suppliers should position you to survive an
extended loss of electrical power.

On-Site StorageFor the fuel you


store on-site, the rst consideration is
conforming to local and state codes,
Environmental Protection Agency
(EPA) regulations, and National Fire
Protection Association guidelines.
Codes are intended to safeguard buildings and their occupants, while EPA is
primarily concerned with the environmental impact of spills. Sustainable
design certications that encompass
building energy usage, such as the U.S.
Green Building Council LEED program,
may also inuence how much and
where the fuel is stored.
The amount of on-site fuel storage
will likely dictate storage locations
and congurations (Figure 2). Large
amounts of fuel are typically stored
outside the building, either in aboveor below-ground tanks. Below-grade
storage requires EPA compliance for
leak monitoring, and may necessitate
groundwater monitoring and other
www.csemag.com/purepower

keeping genset fuel owing

PURE POWER // SUMMER 2011

ff

Figure 2: In areas prone to ooding, installing generator and fuel tanks in


elevated areas helps improve availability of the emergency systems.
Courtesy: GHT Limited

spill detection methods. Local and state codes may have additional requirements for outdoor storage solutions.
For outdoor generators, engineers often specify that the
fuel be stored in belly tanks under the generator. This can be
a convenient, space-saving option, though there is a practical
limit to the amount of fuel a belly tank can hold. If a tank
is too large, stairs, platforms, or ladders may be required
to gain access to service the generator. If a belly tank is too
small, your operating time will be limited if it is your only
method of storage. Discuss these considerations with your
operations and maintenance staff.
In-building storage may be the best solution for smaller
amounts of stored fuel (Figure 3). It also offers better protection from temperature uctuations, weather events, and
tampering. An example from Hurricane Katrina illustrates
this point. As noted in FAILURE OF INITIATIVE: Final
Report of the Select Bipartisan Committee to Investigate
the Preparation for and Response to Hurricane Katrina,
Many of the parish EOCs [Emergency Operations Centers]
and public safety facilities were wiped out or ooded. Jefferson Parishwas in better shape to respond because it
had protected its EOC. Jefferson Parish Emergency Manager
Dr. Walter Maestri explained the EOC was in a hardened
facilityan old incinerator with cement wallswith the
command center, living quarters, and emergency generator
www.csemag.com/purepower

Figure 3: For buildings that shelter critical business functions,


maintaining a reliable fuel supply for generators that support your
facilities is an integral part of overall disaster planning.
Courtesy: GHT Limited

all on upper oors...[and] it was able to keep operating at


some level.
Fuel stored within your facility will require compliance
with building codes, local and state codes, and building insurance requirements. Building and structure insurance policies often have strict requirements for the type and amount
of fuel and storage equipment.
CompartmentationWhile compliance with building
codes and other mandatory requirements will result in a
safe installation, there are other choices a user can make to
improve the availability of the stored fuel. Compartmentation can help safeguard some or all of your reserve if a single
localized event occurs, such as an explosion or re. With
compartmentation, the total amount of fuel is divided among
multiple tanks. Fire- and blast-resistant separating-structures
ensure there are barriers between tanks to prevent a local
event from affecting the entire supply.
Compartmentation also supports the availability of backup
fuel if one tank develops quality problems. Also, the use
of multiple storage vessels helps limit cross-contamination
should one tank be replenished with contaminated fuel.

FUEL QUALITY
If you store fuel on-site, consider installing a fuel ltering or
polishing system that will remove moisture and help prevent

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keeping genset fuel owing

PURE POWER // SUMMER 2011

ff

Figure 4: If you store diesel fuel on-site, standard fuel ltering should
be supplemented with a fuel polishing system that will help prevent
fuel degradation and remove moisture.
Courtesy: GHT Limited

fuel degradation (Figure 4). Sediment that can build up in


the bottom of storage tanks can be stirred up when fuel is
delivered, often resulting in clogged lters and injectors, or
decreased engine performance.
Fuel polishing and ltration helps minimize this buildup.
Also consider fuel additives that will prolong fuel life, suspend
contaminants so they can be trapped by the system lters,
protect against corrosion, and prevent biological growths.
Temperature ConsiderationsAtmospheric temperatures can affect fuel quality. At approximately 30 F, fuel
begins to cloud as the parafn in the fuel starts to solidify.
At 15 F, this solidication can turn into wax and can be
severe enough to clog lters in the system.
Most providers offer winter blends designed to minimize
clouding. If nancial or logistical reasons necessitate the use
of a summer blend fuel as you enter colder weather, other
strategies to prevent this problem include additives, heat
trace of piping, and immersion tank heaters.

SAFETY AND SECURITY


Ensuring the safety of building occupants and the security of
your fuel supply is fairly straightforward. During facility design, provide a rated room for fuel and generators stored in
the building. Locate it near a loading dock or other low-trafc area, and provide controlled access. When using outdoor
www.csemag.com/purepower

Figure 5: To protect diesel generator fuel against the harsh outdoor


temperatures, ensure exterior fuel piping is heat traced and insulated
in cold environments.
Courtesy: GHT Limited

storage, critical facilities will likely have perimeter security in


place to safeguard their fuel supply and generators. For less
intensive facilities, secure walls or fencing around the fuel
storage tanks is the most common protection strategy.

PLANNING AHEAD
It is impossible to predict every disaster scenario that could
impact your fuel supply. But with early, careful planning, you
can determine the amount, availability, storage, protection,
and quality of a fuel supply that can support your operations
through many of the most common natural catastrophes that
occur in your region. A balanced strategy that considers costs
and risks will ensure the success of your plan.
%

ABOUT THE AUTHOR

Menuet is a senior principal with GHT Limited, where he


focuses on the design of mission-critical facilities for many
clients with high availability needs. A professional engineer
with more than 26 years of experience, he earned a Bachelor
of Science in Mechanical Engineering from the University of
Virginia.

T H E

E N E R C O N

C A P A B I L I T Y

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input #402 at cse.hotims.com

PURE POWER // SUMMER 2011

ff

selecting/sizing transformers

SELECTING AND SIZING

TRANSFORMERS FOR
While commercial building designs change,
their electrical loads remain fundamentally
unchanged. Properly sizing and selecting
transformers ensures that these loads are
accommodated.

ransformers, along with other power distribution apparatus,


remain a fundamental component in electrical systems distribution for commercial buildings. This article presents several
useful design concepts for selecting and sizing transformers
in the design of electrical systems for commercial buildings.
Transformers change voltage levels to supply electrical
loads with the voltages they require. They supply the required incoming electrical service to the buildings. Transformer primary and secondary voltages can be 2,400; 4,160;
7,200; 12,470; and 13,200 for 15-kV Class, and 120, 208, 240,
277, and 480 for 600-V Class.
Transformers are located either outdoors or inside buildings in an electrical room or other areas as permitted by
code. The electrical phase characteristics associated with the
transformers primary side is 3-phase, 3-wire or Delta connected. The secondary is 3-phase, 4-wire or Wye connected.

CONSTRUCTION TYPES
There are different construction types for transformers used
in commercial buildings. Our understanding of their general
characteristics will allow the designer and end user to make
the proper selection for the electrical system application.
Following are some of the transformer types available in the
industry along with a few of their characteristics:
Ventilated dry-type transformers are ventilated by air,
use larger space for clearance, and use different insulating
materials to augment the dielectric strength of the air. They
contain an enclosure surrounding the windings for their mechanical protection and the safety of personnel. This type is
the most common to be used in the building indoor electrical
system distribution. See Table 1 for typical dry-type transformer ratings, dimensions, and weights.
Sealed dry-type transformers are similar to dry type in
most of their characteristics. The difference is they contain an
enclosed tank with nitrogen or other dielectric gas to protect
www.csemag.com/purepower

the windings. They can be installed outdoors or indoors. They


are useful in areas with a corrosive or dirty atmosphere.
Cast-coil transformers are constructed with the primary
and secondary windings encapsulated in reinforced resin.
They can be installed where moisture or airborne contaminants exist.
Nonventilated dry-type transformers are similar to the
ventilated type but are totally enclosed. This type can be
installed in areas with corrosive or dirty atmospheric conditions where it would be impossible to use a ventilated-type
transformer.
Oil-lled transformers are constructed with the windings
encased in an oil-tight tank lled with insulating mineral oil.
It is good practice to regularly test this type of transformer

selecting/sizing transformers

COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS

Figure 1: Miami International Airport South Terminal expansion was designed with about 50 transformers that feed a diverse group of loads for
the 208 Y/120 V 3-phase, 4-wire electrical distribution system that serves the 936,880-sq-ft building. Types of loads include lighting, signage,
telecommunication, and security systems. Courtesy: Borrelli + Partners; photographer: Steven Brooke

in order to determine dielectric breakdown, which affects its


useful life.

APPLICATION TYPES
There are different ways in which transformers are installed
and used as part of a commercial building electrical system.
These application types include:
Indoor distribution transformers are used with panelboards and are separately mounted to supply the specic
electrical load requirements in a system-specic application
within the system distribution. Several transformer types
rated higher than 600 V for oil insulated type, higher than
35,000 V for dry type, and other transformers rated higher
than 600 V are required to be located in vault rooms, which

must be built with re-rated enclosures depending on the


transformer type and applicable local authority requirements, when indoors. Transformers that are not over 600 V
and are part of the indoor building electrical system distribution have both primary and secondary voltages below 600 V
with the most common voltage level change from 480 V to
208 Y/120 V.
Pad-mounted transformers are installed outside and are
considered the rst option for supplying service entrance voltage to the building electrical system based on the project size
and requirements. They typically have primary voltages higher
than 600 V and secondary voltages lower than 600 V with
compartments for the associated protective devices assembled
in an integral tamper-resistant and weatherproof unit.
www.csemag.com/purepower

PURE POWER // SUMMER 2011

By Ralph Baeza, PE, LEED AP, TLC Engineering for Architecture, Miami

ee

PURE POWER // SUMMER 2011

ff

selecting/sizing transformers

10

480 Y/277 V 3 PH,


4-wire panelboard

SIZING

208Y/277V 3PH,
4W PANELBOARD

Primary
overcurrent
protection
device

Secondary
overcurrent
protection
device
75 kVA
transformer

Primary
feeder

Secondary
feeder not
exceeding
10 ft.

Floor

Overcurrent protection device and feeder size general calculation for


transformers primary and secondary located in a room with ambient
temperature not exceeding 86 F

PRIMARY

SECONDARY

Transformer primary current

Transformer secondary current

FLA = kVA (V x 3)
FLA = 75 kVA (480 V x 3) = 90 A

FLA = kVA (V x 3)
FLA = 75 kVA (208 V x 3) = 208 A

Transformer primary overcurrent


protection device

Transformer secondary
overcurrent protection device

Overcurrent protection device =


FLA x 1.25 = 90 A x 1.25 = 112 A
Therefore, overcurrent protection
device is 125 A

Overcurrent protection device =


FLA x 1.25 = 208 A x 1.25 = 260 A
Therefore, overcurrent protection
device is 250 A

Transformer primary feeder

Transformer secondary feeder

Based on the above overcurrent


protection device requirements, the
feeder is three #1 copper and one #6
copper for ground in 1-in. conduit.

Based on the above overcurrent


protection device requirements, the
feeder is three 350 kcmil copper and
one #6 copper for ground in 3-in.
conduit.

Notes:
1. The above approach might vary per NEC Article 450 and others for specic
project requirements.
2. If the transformer is located within a room that can reach 104 F, the
conductor in the primary must be rated by a factor of 0.88 since NEC Table
310-16 is based on 86 F.
Figure 2: Good design and installation require the proper transformer
feeder and overcurrent protection device sizes to be based on the
National Electrical Code. The drawing shows an example of a 75 kVA
step-down transformer with associated primary, secondary, feeder,
and overcurrent protection device sizes. Courtesy: TLC Engineering for
Architecture

In addition, the size of the commercial facility will determine the appropriate approach for designing the electrical
distribution system for the specic application. In this electrical system design, the transformer can be used as part of a
substation, primary unit substation, secondary unit substation, or network conguration.
www.csemag.com/purepower

The electrical size of the transformer load is rated in kVA.


This rating provides the associated power output delivered
for a specic period by the loads connected to the transformer on the secondary side of the equipment. The loads, which
are calculated as part of the building electrical system design
phase, are shown in the construction documents respective
equipment schedules in VA or kVA.
A general approach to determining transformer capacity
and selecting the proper rating for the design application
is to obtain the calculated design load from the respective electrical schedule and add 20% spare capacity for
future load growth to be shown in the equipment schedule,
unless otherwise directed by the facility based on design
parameters. For example, the code-based demand load
of a 208 Y/120 V, 3-phase, 4-wire panelboard is 42 kVA,
which does do not include spare capacity for future growth.
Therefore, the transformer size required for converting the
system voltage from 480 V, 3-phase, 3-wire to 208 Y/120 V,
3-phase, 4-wire is:
Transformer size in kVA = 42 kVA x 1.25 = 52.5 kVA
Therefore, a 75 kVA transformer would be selected for this
application out of the available standard ratings for a 480 V
primary to 208 Y/120 V secondary. The most common building industry standard ratings are 3, 6, 9, 15, 30, 37.5, 45, 75,
112.5, 150, 225, 300, 500, 750, and 1,000 kVA.
The above simple calculation meets the intent to achieve
the normal life expectancy of a transformer, which is based
on the following basic conditions:
N The transformer is equal to or less than its rated kVA
and rated voltage.
N The average temperature of the cooling air during a 24hour period is 86 F.
N The temperature of the cooling air at no time exceeds 104 F.

SELECTING
Transformer selection starts with the kVA rating required to
supply the loads connected in the electrical system. Another
consideration for indoor distribution transformers is the type
of load: linear or nonlinear. Linear loads include resistive
heating and induction motors; nonlinear loads are produced
by electronic equipment that contributes to the distortion of
the electrical power signals by generating harmonics. The
harmonics resulting from nonsinusoidal currents generate
additional losses and heating of the transformer coils, which
reduce the transformer life expectancy.
Indoor transformers for nonlinear loads can be selected
with a K rating, which allows the transformer to withstand
nonlinear conditions in the electrical system. K-rated
transformers do not mitigate or eliminate harmonics.
However, they do protect the transformer itself from damage
caused by harmonics. For harmonic mitigation, K-rated

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& . & 3 4 0 /   $ 0input/#4034at *cse.hotims.com


% & 3  * 5  4 0 - 7 & %

PURE POWER // SUMMER 2011

ff

12

selecting/sizing transformers

Typical dry-type transformer ratings,


dimensions, and weights
KVA
RATING

TEMPERATURE
RISE
(DEGREES C)

APPROXIMATE
DIMENSIONS
(INCHES)

APPROXIMATE
WEIGHT
(POUNDS)

transformers can be combined with harmonic lters or


chokes. For linear load applications, transformers should be
selected with lower core losses. Other factors that should
be considered in selecting transformers are voltage ratings
for both primary and secondary, voltage taps, efciency,
impedance value, type of cooling and temperature rise,
voltage insulation class, basic impulse level, and sound
level.

Primary = 480 V; secondary = 120/240 V (single phase)


15

80

29 x 17 x 17

225

37.5

80

32 x 22 x 20

369

75

80

36 x 22 x 24

631

100

80

46 x 35 x 30

768

15

115

27 x 15 x 15

175

37.5

115

31 x 20 x 18

375

75

115

34 x 22 x 22

575

100

115

36 x 22 x 24

700

Primary 480 V; secondary 208 Y/120 V (3 phase)


15

80

25 x 22 x 17

310

30

80

28 x 25 x 18.5

425

45

80

32 x 27 x 21

635

75

80

38 x 29 x 23

850

112.5

80

42 x 33 x 26

1,035

15

115

22 x 15 x 16

295

30

115

25 x 22 x 17

385

45

115

28 x 25 x 18.5

565

75

115

33 x 27 x 21

750

112.5

115

38 x 29 x 23

960

Note: The above information is for reference only since actual equipment dimensions
and weight will vary with equipment manufacturer.

Table 1: Commercial buildings can be served by different transformer


types including ventilated dry type, sealed dry type, cast-coil, oil lled,
and nonventilated dry type. The table lists typical dry-type transformer
ratings, dimensions, and weights.
Courtesy: TLC Engineering for Architecture

PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS
In the past two years, two large projects in Miami Dade
County have been built: the Florida International University
football stadium and Miami International Airport South
Terminal. Both projects included dry-type 480 V, 3-phase
to 208 Y/120V V step-down transformers (in NEMA 2
enclosures), ranging from 15 kVA to 112.5 kVA in the
electrical system distribution design.
The 18,688-seat FIU football stadium was designed
with about 12 transformers as part of the electrical system
distribution in order to supply general-use receptacles,
small motors, and other loads in the stadium building
structure and the attached eld house building. The MIA
South Terminal expansion was designed with about 50
transformers with similar intent as the stadiums but a
more diverse group of loads for the 208 Y/120 V 3-phase,
4-wire system, which also included lighting loads, signage,
telecommunication, security systems, and other loads part
of this building project (Figure 1).

INSTALLATION
The installation of power transformers and transformer
vaults must comply with the requirements of National
Electrical Code (NFPA 70) article 450 and specic local
authority having jurisdiction requirements. Some principles
to consider for transformer installation include locating them
in isolated rooms with proper ventilation, clearances, and
accessibility. Otherwise, they can be installed on open walls
or steel columns or above suspended ceilings.
In addition, there are other specic requirements based
on the transformer type, such as weatherproof enclosures
for dry-type transformers installed outdoors or a transformer
vault room for oil-insulated transformers installed indoors.
In addition, a good design and installation require the
proper transformer feeder and overcurrent protection device
size based on NEC articles 240, 250, 450, and applicable
sections of Article 310 (Figure 2).

ABOUT THE AUTHOR

LOOKING AHEAD

Baeza is a principal and senior electrical engineer at TLC


Engineering for Architecture in Miami. He is a registered
professional engineer with more than 29 years of experience
in electrical engineering, project management, building
design, and construction.

Transformers remain a fundamental component of electrical


distribution systems. Equipment operation characteristics
will continue to change. However, their operating principles
will remain with the same. The industry trend is to continue
building transformers with less core losses, and that comply
with Energy Star efciency requirements.
%

www.csemag.com/purepower

The National Electrical Code


mandates selective coordination of overcurrent devices
in emergency and legally required standby power systems.
UL labeled and listed for 30-cycle closing and withstand ratings
based on testing per UL Standard 1008, new Russelectric RTS-30
Series automatic transfer switches allow selective coordination
of upstream overcurrent devices with downstream devices. By
allowing those devices closest to the fault to interrupt power,
these 30-cycle-rated switches dramatically simplify both the
specication and coordination of overcurrent devices.
Russelectric RTS-30 Series switches are available with continuous
current ratings from 100 to 4000 A. No other manufacturer
offers such a comprehensive line of 30-cycle-rated switches.
For ease of application, performance, exibility, and long life
Nothing comes close to Russelectric RTS Series switches.


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An Equal Opportunity Employer

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input #404 at cse.hotims.com

ff

14

mission critical standby power systems

COMMISSIONING MISSION CRITICAL


Figure 1: During the generator
load test, readings are taken to
verify that the engine is operating
within specied operating limits.
Courtesy: Hartseld-Jackson Atlanta
International Airport

Commissioning
ensures that all
components of the
mission critical power
system function
according to design
specications and the
owners expectations.
By Wayne F. Beierman,
BSEE, Sebesta Blomberg Inc.,
Roseville, Minn.

www.csemag.com/purepower

Standby
power systems

permanently installed backup power system is dened as critical when it is


used to provide electrical power when normal electrical service is interrupted. The owner of these systems needs to ensure that their critical life
safety systemskey processes, vital data, or essential goodsare protected
and continue to operate when normal power is interrupted. Mission critical standby
power (MCSP) systems are designed to protect these critical assets.
The National Fire Protection Association (NFPA), National Electrical Code (NEC)
categorizes backup power systems into categories:
N Article 700 Emergency Power Systems: These systems are intended to automatically supply illumination, power, or both, to designated areas and equipment in
the event of failure of the normal supply or in the event of accident to elements of a
system intended to supply, distribute, and control power and illumination essential
for safety to human life. These systems are required to be energized in less than
10 seconds after normal power is lost. Emergency power systems support life safety
systems such as egress and exit lighting.
N Article 701 Legally Required Standby Systems: Circuits and equipment intended
to supply, distribute, and control electricity to required facilities for illumination or
power, or both, when the normal electrical supply or systems is interrupted. These
systems support the life safety system and include re pumps, facility smoke evacua-

mission critical standby power systems

system pre-alarms and alarm systems function at the control


panels, remote annunciator panels, and at the BAS. We
conrm all engine uid levels are adequate, that there are
no uid leaks in the fuel, oil, and coolant systems, and that
exible connectors are installed between the engine, fuel,
and radiator systems. We complete this verication before
starting any equipment.

FUEL SYSTEM TESTING


MCSP engine fuel systems are vital to engine operations.
The engine fuel systems can be external or internal to the
engine/generators. In large MCSP systems involving large or
multiple generators, the fuel systems are usually external,
providing fuel to the engine day tanks. On smaller MCSP
operations, the generator fuel tank is often part of the engine/generator skid package. In this case, the tank is located
under the engine/generator and fuel is pumped from this
tank directly to the engine.
The reliability of the external fuel systems is rigorously
tested during commissioning. This includes inspecting the
system piping and tanks for leaks, and individually checking all system pre-alarms and alarms, and that they indicate
at the applicable control panels and the BAS. The operation
of the fuel transfer pump and the day tank ll and shutoff
controls are also conrmed to ensure that they are operating
to specication. Conrmation of the fuel supply system integrity is fundamental to reliable engine generator operations
(Figure 3).

LOAD TESTING
Generator load testing is the enjoyable part of the commissioning process (Figure 1). First, the generator/engine is
started to ensure that the engine starts and runs, air intake
and exhaust louvers open, and that there are no engine uid
or exhaust system leaks.
We perform two engine generator load tests: one for 2
hours and one for 4 to 8 hours. The 2-hour load test is the
shakedown cruise. This test is started with a cold engine,
which means that it has not been run for 24 hours prior to
the start of the test. The engine is started by removing the
normal power source to the ATS. The generator is immediately loaded to 100% capacity using external load banks.
These load banks are connected to the ATS in smaller systems, or the generator for large systems with multiple ATSs.
The engine/generator is timed from the start signal initiation to when the generator picks up the full load. For life
safety systems, the interval from initiation to the system
providing full load must be less than 10 seconds. Pertinent
engine and generator readings are taken at short intervals
during the engine test. The 2-hour test provides the opportunity to take the generator for a test drive to ensure that all
functions meet standards.
The 4- to 8-hour test is the long voyage. We start the
engine and load the generator in increments and observe all
www.csemag.com/purepower

ee
PURE POWER // SUMMER 2011

tion fans, and control of health hazards.


N Article 702 Optional Standby Systems: Those systems
intended to supply power to public or private facilities or
property where life safety does not depend on the performance of the system. Optional standby systems are intended
to supply on-site generated power to selected loads either
automatically or manually. Systems in this category include
data centers.
N Article 708 Critical Operations Power Systems (COPS):
Power systems for facilities or portions of facilities that
require continuous operation for the reasons of public safety,
emergency management, national security, or business continuity. Systems covered by this article consist of those that
are permanently installed in their entirety, including prime
movers, those that are arranged for a connection to a premises wiring system for a portable alternate power supply, and
those required to support long-term requirements. Equipment and systems in this category are often refrigerators and
freezers required to preserve medications or food.
Commissioning is the process of providing baseline tests
that verify the operational sequences of electrical equipment
and electrical systems. It is a documented and orderly testing
of all aspects of the equipment and systems to the owners
specications. Sebesta Blomberg performs MCSP commissioning as a collaborative process. Commissioning is not the
start-up of the MCSP.
After the contractor has installed the equipment and
ensured it is operating, commissioning can begin. It is
important to have the owner and contractor on board with
the commissioning process. Before the process begins, we
hold a kickoff meeting with the owner and contractors. At
this meeting, we emphasize that the commissioning process
is essential to ensuring equipment and system reliability. We
also emphasize the importance of getting the operations and
maintenance staff involved in the commissioning process to
train and familiarize them with the equipment and operation
of the system.
MCSP systems consist of myriad designs required to protect the owners critical assets. This article cannot address
every MCSP design permutation. Instead, it will address
a general overview of MCSP commissioning. The major
components of an MCSP system include the engine, generator, engine fuel supply system, automatic transfer switches
(ATSs), and UPSs. Each of these components is commissioned individually before they are commissioned as an
integrated system. This approach ensures that each component functions successfully before the entire MCSP system is
commissioned in a nal loss-of-power test.
MCSP commissioning begins by ensuring that the installation is safe and the equipment is installed as specied. We
verify that all electrical safety equipment is in place, that circuit breakers and relay settings meet the coordination study
values, and verify the electrical grounding system integrity
(Figure 2). We prove that the engine, generator, and fuel

15

16

mission critical standby power systems

PURE POWER // SUMMER 2011

ff

engine and generator functions during this test. As with


the 2-hour test, pertinent engine and generator readings
are taken at short intervals at rst. As the testing proceeds, the reading intervals are lengthened to 15 minutes.
Engine readings are taken to verify that the engine is
operating within specied operating limits. Generator
voltage and frequency readings are taken; generator
regulation is calculated from the incremental load readings. The generator harmonic distortion is measured with
a harmonic distortion meter. Phase rotation is veried
during this test as well. At the end of this engine generator load test, the load is removed. Toward the end of the
engine cool down cycle, the emergency stop buttons are
exercised to ensure they shut down the engine. After the
test, the eld-landed feeder terminations are re-torqued,
in case the terminations loosened during testing.

ATS TESTING
Figure 2: Verifying the electrical grounding system integrity is part of
the initial safety inspection prior to testing. Courtesy: Hartseld-Jackson
Atlanta International Airport

Figure 3: The integrity of the fuel supply system is critical to reliable


engine/generator operation, which includes ensuring that generator fuel
hoses are insulated from vibration. Courtesy: Hartseld-Jackson Atlanta
International Airport

www.csemag.com/purepower

An ATS actuation initiates the MCSP system start. Modern


ATSs are microprocessor controlled, enabling them to
perform many functions. Closed-transition ATSs are used
in most MCSP applications. Time delays are also common
in ATSs. These time delays can be programmed to control
switching, delays to switching, and engine cool down
times. These programmed functions require testing to
ensure they meet the owners specications.
ATSs are tested in a documented logical sequence to
verify their operation. Insulation resistance testing is
performed to ensure the integrity of the insulation after
it has been shipped from the factory and set in place.
The normal, emergency, and bypass switch contacts are
tested with a digital low-resistance ohmmeter to ensure
they are capable of conducting high currents reliably. This
testing is performed by an electrical test rm. However,
we coordinate and witness these tests and commissioning
activities.
The ATS transfer function from normal to emergency
is tested manually while the switch is still de-energized.
This test is performed to ensure that the switch operates
with smooth transitions between functions. The mechanical interlocking mechanisms are tested to prove that the
ATS cannot have simultaneous closures between the normal and emergency sources. The closed transition portion
is tested at a later time. When an ATS is equipped with
bypass switches, these switch operations are also tested
manually to ensure they operate smoothly.
We test the ATS alarms and function indicators to
verify they properly indicate at the ATS local panel and all
remote annunciation panels. On a recent project at the Atlanta Airport, we tested the monitoring system at the ATS
only, since the BAS was not yet installed (Figure 4). This
interface will be tested later. This test ensures that the
Normal Power, Emergency Power Available, the ATS
in Normal, and ATS in Emergency indicators function.

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PURE POWER // SUMMER 2011

ff

18

mission critical standby power systems

Properly functioning indicators let operations and maintenance personnel know that the ATS in this MCSP system
is operating correctly during both normal and emergency
situations.
The ATS operational transfer test becomes a systems integration test by incorporating the engine/generator into the
commissioning process. At this point, the applicable time delays have been programmed into the ATS and are conrmed
during this test. I prefer to initiate this test by interrupting
the normal power source. However, this test can also be initiated by using the ATS Test Switch. The ATS operation from
the loss of normal power to the generator picking up standby
power is timed with a stopwatch. In the Atlanta Airport
project, the Life Safety (S) ATSs switched to emergency in
less than 10 seconds. The Emergency (E) ATS switches were
programmed with a delay and transferred in less than 20
seconds. The Legally Required (R) ATSs transferred in about
30 seconds.

Figure 4: The MCSP system at the Atlanta International Airport was


recently commissioned.
Courtesy: Hartseld-Jackson Atlanta International Airport

In this testing, normal power was restored to the ATS. The


ATS switching from emergency generator power to normal
power was again timed. The return-to-normal power is not
instantaneous. The normal power must be stable for a 10- to
12-minute interval before the ATS initiates the return-tonormal signal. In an open-transition ATS, this switching
causes a momentary loss of load power. With a closed transition ATS, we monitor the generator-to-normal phase-angle
readout to ensure that the ATS transfers within phase-angle
specications.
Other ATS function tests completed during commissioning include engine cool down, engine shutoff, and transfer
from emergency to normal power when the emergency
source fails.
www.csemag.com/purepower

UPS TESTING
A UPS is often used in MCSP systems such as data centers
where computer power cannot be interrupted. UPS commissioning is usually performed in cooperation with the
UPS and battery systems manufacturers representatives. All
pre-alarm and alarm conditions and the specied communication to all applicable alarm panels and the BAS are tested.
All UPS switching operations are conrmed, including the
static switch, normal-to-battery operation, and emergency-tonormal operations. The nal UPS test is to remove all normal
and standby power, then load-test the UPS to 100% load
with a load bank terminated at the UPS output. This load
test is recorded and timed to conrm that the UPS meets the
owners requirements.

FINAL TESTING
The nal commissioning test is an integrated system or a
loss-of-power test. All MCSP components are tested during
the loss-of-power test. In the most comprehensive test, we
load the MCSP system to 100% using load banks. We initiate this test by having the local power company interrupt
normal power to the site. We test the generator start-up, ATS,
and UPS operations as a system. This is what would happen
during a normal power outage. We interrupt the engine/generator to ensure that the secondary backup equipment functions, i.e., the data center UPS systems. When all nuances
of the MCSP have been tested on generator power, normal
power is returned to the site.
With the resumption of normal power, the loss-of-power
test is still not completed. Now, we test to ensure that the
MCSP systems components transfer the load properly. We
ensure that the ATSs switched back, the UPSs maintained
power to the systems, the engine generators go into cool
down and shut off properly, and that the fuel day tanks are
at the proper level. In short, we ensure that the MCSP system
is prepared to pick up another real-world power outage.
If the equipment commissioning has been properly performed, the loss-of-power test is enjoyable. This test also
involves management, operations, and maintenance personnel. They get to experience the MCSP system functioning as
it is designed and specied. When executed correctly, the
loss-of-power test is a good training experience and a condence builder. It provides the reassurance in knowing how
the MCSP functions and what it can do. When that happens,
facility managers and facility engineers sleep better at night.

ABOUT THE AUTHOR

Beierman is a facility engineer and senior project manager


with Sebesta Blomberg. He is an electrical engineer with
more than 30 years of experience in facility operations,
maintenance, and design, and a member of IFMA.

Schneider Electric makes the connections.


> Power
> Cooling

> Rack Systems

> Physical Security

> Services
> Management

Maximum efficiency and availability


from rack to row to room to building
Making the connection between IT and facilities
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via software solutions and professional services.

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Making the connection with key industry partners


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of contact you need to take your integrated data center from envisioned to online.

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Implementing Energ
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Efcient Data Cente

Integrated architectures for Active


Energy Management
> Power

The power domain connects it all


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access control and surveillance across one or
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architecture removes management silos for
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Visit www.SEreply.com Key Code b514v Call 888-778-2733

input #406 at cse.hotims.com

2011 Schneider Electric. All Rights Reserved. Schneider Electric and Active Energy Management are trademarks owned by Schneider Electric Industries SAS or its affiliated companies.
(/$,.(4622135$2&&1/?&+0(,'(3.(&53,&135+/(3,&$02(3$5,0*,7,4,10  14(..(1$'$.$5,0(   
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PURE POWER // SUMMER 2011

ff

20

pv installation/maintenance
By Jack Smith, Contributing Editor

PV SYSTEM INSTALLATION
Engineers should know the basics of photovoltaic system selection, specication, and testing
in order to provide clients with the safest product.

ate on a Sunday afternoon, the Kern County Fire Department responded to a call it received about a commercial structure re at a store on Rosedale Highway in
Bakerseld, Calif. Crews found that a row of solar panels on the roof had caught re. Some of the panels were still
live when the crew arrived, so the re crew had to take extra
precautions until electrical power could be disconnected.
Fortunately, the crews quickly extinguished the re, which
didnt penetrate the roofs metal decking. Ofcials cleared the
store, which reopened about four hours after the call. The
lesson to be learned from this example is not that solar energy
is unsafe or dangerous; it is to raise safety awareness when
working with photovoltaic (PV) arrays and systems. While
reghters and rst responders need to know how to safely
disconnect electricity to ensure emergency personnels safety
and to allow egress, facility maintenance technicians need to
know how to keep the electricity owing safely and reliably.

TYPICAL PV SYSTEM CONFIGURATIONS


A typical commercial PV cell with a surface area of 25 sq in.
produces about 2 W of power under peak sunlight conditions. If sunlight intensity is 40% of peak, the cell produces
about 0.8 W. To become useful as an electrical energy
source, PV cells must be connected in series and/or parallel

www.csemag.com/purepower

circuit congurations to produce higher voltages and current.


Wiring modules in series to produce strings increases voltage; wiring the strings together in parallel increases current.
An array of 30 135 W rated modules can produce 4 kW.
Manufacturers combine PV cell circuits in sealed environmentally protective laminate to construct PV modulesthe
fundamental building blocks of PV generating systems. PV
panels include several PV modules assembled and pre-wired
to be eld-installable. A PV array is a complete power-generating unit, which can include any number of PV modules
and panels.
PV systems can provide supplemental power source for
homes, businesses, municipalities, military installations, or
anyone willing to make the commitment and investment.
While most of the information in this article applies to both
residential and commercial PV installations, the primary
focus is on commercial. Usually, residential systems differ
only in size. Operating principles and congurations are very
similar. Commercial systems tend to be more complex, but
this isnt always the case.
PV arrays can be placed on the roof of a facility or on
land adjacent to the facility. Typically, solar arrays require
around 3 to 5 acres/MW. Roof and building-mounted arrays
maximize the total sunlight-collection footprint available for

pv installation/maintenance

21

a site. However, the potential for roof penetrations and roof


loading as well as their consequences should be considered.
The conceptual basis for nearly every useful solar energy
installation starts with the PV panels collecting sunlight. The
PV array supplies dc voltage to an inverter, which converts
the dc into 60 Hz ac. The ac from the inverter supplies energy to the facility or home (see Figure 1).
Obviously, some important elements are missing to make
this example system useful and safe. Depending on the facility requirements, a system can also include any number of
dc switching and protection devices, such as dc combiner
boxes, circuit breakers, disconnect switches, and contactors.
(A combiner box is a junction box used as the parallel connection point for two or more circuits.) Inverters are available in many congurations and power ranges. Some large
installations employ several inverters. A real-world system
also includes ac switching and protection devices such as ac
panelboards and switchboards, disconnect switches, circuit
breakers, low- and medium-voltage switchgear, and low- and
medium-voltage transformers. Some installations may also
have batteries, automatic transfer switching units, monitoring and metering equipment, and devices that allow electricity to be back-fed to the grid.
Functional and operational requirements, component congurations, and how the equipment connects to other power
sources and electrical loads determine PV power system classications. The two main classications are grid-connected
(or utility-interactive) systems and stand-alone systems.
Grid-connected systems operate while interconnected with
the utility grid. Besides the PV array itself, the main component in a grid-connected system is the inverter. The PV
system, specically the inverter, interfaces bi-directionally
with the electric utility network, typically at an on-site distribution panel or service entrance.
Stand-alone PV systems operate independent of the utility
grid. Facilities that use a stand-alone PV system typically use
batteries for energy storage. Batteries store energy from the
PV array during the day and provide energy to the electrical
loads during the night or on cloudy days. Batteries also help
stabilize system voltage and supply surge current to electrical loads if necessary. Typically, battery-charging controllers
protect batteries from overcharging and overdischarging.

HOW PV SYSTEMS ARE DIFFERENT


The obvious difference between PV electrical systems and
utility-supplied electricity is that PV arrays generate dc. The
electricity generated does not become ac until it is processed
by the inverter. Some of a PV installation is necessarily dc,
which requires different types of components from ac installa-

PV installation standards
and certication
In most cases, the applicable standard for photovoltaic (PV) systems
is the National Electrical Code (NEC). Article 690 of the NEC deals
specically with PV system installations, covering wiring methods,
overcurrent protection and disconnect provisions, grounding, and
other issues. Generally, PV system installations must be inspected
according to NEC requirements, and inspectors generally check that
listed equipment is used. Underwriters Laboratories (UL) is one of
a few organizations that provide safety listings for PV equipment.
The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) has
published a number of standards, recommended practices, and
guidelines for PV systems and equipment, including IEEE 929, which
outlines the basic operational and safety requirements for gridconnected PV systems.
The North American Board of Certied Energy Practitioners (NABCEP) offers certications and certicate programs geared toward
renewable energy professionals throughout North America, including
a certication program for solar electric installers. The complete
listing of NABCEP-certied solar PV installers can be viewed on the
organizations website (www.nabcep.org).

tions. Components in PV systems that are not found in ac


systems include combiner boxes and dc-disconnect switches.
Solar combiner boxes aggregate the dc power from the PV
array, and provide overcurrent protection according to National Electrical Code (NEC) requirements. Individual inputs
connect to fuse holders. The load sides of the fuse holders
connect together to form a common bus, which connects to
the output lugs. Combiner boxes are either source combiners or array combiners. Source combiners are located closer
to the PV panels. Array combinersor re-combinersaggregate outputs from several source combiners into a single
circuit and are found in large installations. Array combiners
have higher input fuse holders and higher output current.
Typically, PV systems generate voltage in the 400 to 600
Vdc range, a much higher voltage than found in most building systems. Combining this higher voltage with the lack of a
current sine wave with zero-crossings creates several system
design, component, and wiring challengesparticularly
when switching these dc circuits on and off. Compared to ac
systems with a zero-crossing current sine wave, interrupting
higher voltage dc circuits requires an increased air gap to
safely and quickly interrupt and break the arc. Wiring multiple poles of a single switch in series creates the increased
air gap for safe arc interruption.
www.csemag.com/purepower

PURE POWER // SUMMER 2011

AND MAINTENANCE

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PURE POWER // SUMMER 2011

ff

22

pv installation/maintenance

NEC, only the current-carrying ungrounded conductor shall


be switched.
Load

POTENTIAL PV PROBLEMS

PV array

Regulation and AC
conversion
Battery bank

Figure 1: A basic solar energy installation begins with PV panels collecting sunlight. The PV array supplies dc voltage to an inverter, which
converts the dc into ac.
Courtesy: U.S. Dept. of Energy, Energy Efciency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

Since dc circuits consist of two wiresa positive and a


negativeone of them must serve as ground in most PV
systems, like the neutral in an ac system. The solar panel
manufacturer species which of these two wires is grounded. Negative grounding is the more common conguration.
This bond is usually made at the inverter. According to the

Most PV systems that are installed by qualied and reputable professionals are installed safely and reliably. However,
having a PV electric power system installed by untrained
persons can lead to trouble. Some of the common problems
associated with the design, installation, and operation of PV
systems include:
N Extensive shading of the PV array
N Insecure structural attachment to rooftops
N Inadequate weather sealing for roof and other penetrations
N Unsafe wiring
N Unsafe battery installation or improper battery
maintenance or use
N Insufcient conductor ampacity and/or insulation type
N Using unlisted equipment
N Improperly applying listed or unlisted equipment
N Improper placement of overcurrent protection and
disconnect devices
N Improper system grounding
N Inadequate labeling on major system components and
disconnect devices

Reliable Protection for


Critical Generators
The SEL-700G Generator Protection Relay simplies designs and improves power
system availability with an impressive list of standard features.
v Fully integrated autosynchronizer quickly and reliably synchronizes generators
v Sensor inputs and alarm processing monitor critical subsystems to ensure fast,
reliable start-ups
v Fast and secure protection functions defend the generator against electrical
and mechanical damage
v Device settings and diagnostic information are easy to create and retrieve using
SEL ACSELERATOR Software
v Optional Ethernet and Modbus TCP, DNP3, and/or IEC 61850 protocols enable
easy integration with existing control systems

Learn more about our easy-to-use, easy-to-set generator protection


at www.selinc.com/700G.
www.selinc.com | +1.509.332.1890

Input #407 at cse.hotims.com


www.csemag.com/purepower

pv installation/maintenance

N Inadequate documentation on
system design and operating and
maintenance requirements.

and testing and troubleshooting with


tools suitable for the task at hand, will

23

help you getand keepa PV system


running safely and reliably.
%

ABOUT THE AUTHOR

TESTING AND
TROUBLESHOOTING
Any PV system design package must
include supporting documentation,
which shouldat a minimuminclude system specications, electrical
schematics, mechanical drawings,
parts lists, materials lists, and source
lists. Documentation should also
include installation and checkout procedures, user and operator training,
maintenance requirements, troubleshooting guides, and a list of the
specic tools and equipment required
to perform these tasks.
Maintenance requirements for PV
installations depend on the type of
system design and equipment used.
Some installations require very little
attention, perhaps just annual inspections. Othersespecially those with
batteriesmay require maintenance
intervals of four to six months, or
even component (usually battery) replacements over the systems lifetime.
Typical maintenance items that PV
installations may require include:
N Inspecting wiring connections and
terminations for looseness and
corrosion
N Inspecting wiring harnesses to
ensure they are neatly bundled
and protected
N Inspecting the PV array for
cleanliness, absence of damage,
and structural integrity
N Inspecting roof penetrations and
weather sealing
N Maintaining batteries, which
may include cleaning, adding
electrolyte, charge equalization,
and replacement.
Regardless of whether you are
installing or maintaining a PV system,
use the appropriate tools for the task.
Typically, you can test and maintain
the PV system with a high-quality
digital multimeter, a clamp meter, or
an oscilloscope.
Being aware of potential problems,

Smith is a technical writer and editor based in North Aurora, Ill. He is also a Pure
Power contributing editor.


 

 


 

  

  
       

 
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Input #408 at cse.hotims.com
www.csemag.com/purepower

ee

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case study

PV REFLECTIVITY SAFE FOR AIRPORTS

>> Figure 1: This screenshot


shows direct glare from the PV
array observed on a Runway
30 approach on an August
evening.
Courtesy: Parsons
Brinckerhoff

n April 2010, a 5-MW photovoltaic


(PV) array was proposed at a 70-acre
site located 1 mile south of Newquay
Airport in Cornwall, England. The PV
array will have a direct grid connection
and export energy to the local utility,
Western Power Distribution, and is
slated for completion in March 2012.
However, airport ofcials expressed
concern about the possibility of sunlight
reecting off the PV panels and creating
glare conditions for pilots and air trafc
controllers in the tower.
The city council of Cornwall contracted
Parsons Brinckerhoff (PB) to conduct a
glare analysis.

Creating a geometric model


The PB team analyzed glare conditions
quantitatively by generating a simulated
environment with 3-D CAD and BIM
software. Because the PV system had
not yet been designed by a third party,
PBs rst task was to estimate the physical size and orientation of the array. The
PV designer had decided on a 21-degree
tilt-angle xed toward the south. Given
this tilt-angle, PB estimated the physical
layout necessary to generate 5 MW and
situated it within the proposed boundary.
One signicant challenge was simulating sunlight reections based on the
suns daily path and its angle changes
throughout the year, then incorporating the view from a moving aircraft. The
analysis was simplied by selecting static
viewer perspectives for the pilot along

each runway approach from a specied distance. A third viewer perspective


was added for the control tower. Using
energy simulation software, the suns
path through the sky was simulated for
one day per month for each month. The
project aimed to detect if and when
direct glare would be observed from any
of the three perspectives. PB generated
animations for each perspective for all
12 months to demonstrate the suns path
and reveal glare occurrences.
To detect glare in the simulations, the
PV panels were modeled as mirrors with
100% reectivity. This was an exercise
purely in the geometry between the sun,
the PV array, and the viewer perspectives. The model and animations revealed
that direct glare would be encountered
at one of the viewer perspectives, the
approach to runway 30, in the evening
during August (see Figure 1). Because
the aircraft ies much faster than the sun
travels through the sky, the pilot would y
through this glare and experience it only
for an instant.
Analyzing PV reectivity
Another important factor in determining
the effect of glare from PV arrays is to
determine the intensity of light reected

from PV panels. While the mirrors used in


the computer model had 100% reectivity, PV panels are observed to reect very
little light.
The Technical Guidance for Evaluating Selected Solar Technologies on
Airports report stated that several PV
installations at or near airports had not
created glare conditions and that PV
material only reected approximately 2%
of incident sunlight, which is less than
bare soil. Soon after the FAA guidance
was published, it was adopted by the U.K.
Civil Aviation Authority (CAA). Due to the
FAAs reliable data, PB felt comfortable
concluding that even if the geometry did
reveal a direct glare occurrence, it would
be so minimal that it would not cause a
problem.
The short-lived glare and the minimal
intensity of light reected off PV material
led the PB team to conclude that glare
would not have a negative effect on
airport operations.
If glare or reection from a PV array is
a concern, the following items should be
included in the project requirements:
N Rolled glass for diffuse reection
N Anti-reective coating
N Product demonstration or mock-up
arranged with stakeholders.
%

ABOUT THE AUTHOR

Roseman is a supervising electrical engineer and certied project manager with


Parsons Brinckerhoff. He is experienced in lighting and power distribution for
various types of buildings, parking structures, and streetscapes, as well as aviation
lighting. He has been with PB for 12 years.

www.csemag.com/purepower

ee
PURE POWER // SUMMER 2011

By Rob Roseman, PE,


LEED AP, Parsons
Brinckerhoff, St. Louis

25

W E B C A S T
Expert Guidance on Standby
and Emergency Power Systems

Now
Available
On-Demand

In the world of electrical engineering for standby


and electrical power systems, consultants and
owners are faced with expensive decisions that
have ripple effects on routine and emergency
operations for the life of the building. It pays to
keep up on the latest technologies and to
not lose sight of the basics such as the
differences between standby and emergency
power systems. This Webcast presents two
experts on the design of standby and emergency
power systems in a special 90-minute event that
is conducted in two parts.
Part 1: Large UPS Systems: Performance, Reliability, and Efficiency
By Dennis P. DeCoster, Executive Principal at Mission Critical West, Inc.
Part one of this webinar provides something of a report card on the
many new UPS technologies in this increasing complex field, balancing
high reliability and performance with sustainability concerns.
Part 2: Optional Standby vs. Emergency Power Systems:
The alarming and costly differences
By Tom Montgomery PE, Director of Las Vegas and
Wyoming Operations, Henderson Engineers, Inc.
Part two of this webinar clarifies the issues, describes how
language can affect the design and reliability of a standby
power system, and identifies some of the codes and standards
that can unexpectedly come into play, especially when trying to
do too much with too little.

This event is free, and 1.5 AIA learning units (1.5 PDHs) are available to all registrants.

View today at

www.csemag.com/webcast

SP O NSO RED BY:

ASCO

HOS T ED BY:

new products

Power monitoring module


Eaton Corp. announced the PM3 power
monitoring and metering module, which
monitors the power of branch and main circuit
applications. The device measures current and
voltage, calculates power and energy usage,
and provides breaker status. An Underwriters
Laboratories (UL)-listed, add-on communications device, the module can be mounted to
the load side of circuit breaker frames. It monitors electrical system parameters regardless of whether the trip unit is thermalmagnetic or electronic. It communicates through INCOM protocol and is compatible with Power Xpert Gateway for web page and Ethernet capability. The product
is available in 480 V and 600 V models.
Eaton Corp. Circle 452 www.eaton.com
Emergency power tests
Schneider Electric announced the Square D PowerLogic emergency power
supply system (EPSS) test solution to help hospitals ensure their backup power
systems are ready to perform and compliant with maintenance and testing regulations. The EPSS test solution automates test procedures while electronically
documenting a wide range of test
measurement data points. It collects data from and provides control for generators and automatic
transfer switches and ensures
testing occurs at or above recommended manufacturer ratings for
load and engine temperature. The
system can also evaluate energy
efciency, power quality analysis,
transient capture on generators,
and breaker status monitoring.
Schneider Electric
Circle 453
www.schneider-electric.us

Overcurrent protective devices


The Cooper Bussmann family of PolyTron
polymer positive temperature coefcient
(PPTC) resettable overcurrent protective
devices provide low resistance and fast trip
times. These devices protect applications
that are sensitive to high ambient operating
temperatures or subject to frequent overcurrent conditions, such as consumer electronics, I/O ports, medical equipment, and
process-control applications. The products
are available in SMD and radial leaded packages. SMD devices are rated 6 to 60 Vdc
with the 1206 package covering 0.05 to 2.0
amps, and the 1812 size covering 0.1 to 3.0
amps. The radial leaded devices are rated for
16 Vdc, 30 Vdc, and 60 Vdc.
Cooper Bussmann Circle 454
www.cooperbussmann.com

Uninterruptible power supply


Emerson Network Power introduced the
Liebert APM row-based, modular uninterruptible power supply (UPS) system. The product
is a transformer-free, on-line UPS that allows
quick power capacity increases with the addition of internal FlexPower core hardware
assemblies. The FlexPower core assemblies
allow the system to expand for capacity or
redundancy in 15 kW increments up to 45 or
90 kW within a single cabinet. In both models,
the external battery cabinet can be outtted with the Alber BDSi monitoring system
to constantly monitor each battery, ensuring
battery reliability and allowing for proactive
management. Addition or replacement of
FlexPower cores can be accomplished without powering down connected equipment.
Emerson Network Power Circle 455
www.emersonnetworkpower.com

www.csemag.com/purepower

ee
PURE POWER // SUMMER 2011

Battery cabinets
EnerSys has earned a special seismic certication
by the Ofce of Statewide Health Planning and Development (OSHPD) in California, for its DataSafe
16-V battery cabinets. The DataSafe 16-V battery
cabinets were certied in accordance with ASCE
7-05 Chapter 13 and meet the seismic regulations
for the design of equipment and nonstructural components that help protect operations. The cabinets
were approved in the rst round of the OSHPD
testing process at the ISO/TEC 17025-accredited Environmental Testing Lab in Dallas. OSHPD
requires multiple units to be tested on a seismic
shake table, which is used to test the resistance of
structures to seismic shaking and ground motion.
EnerSys Circle 451 www.enersys.com

27

PURE POWER // SUMMER 2011

ff

28

new products

As the world grasps the importance of energy management, trusted global


manufacturer CARLO GAVAZZI is ready to assist as we collectively strive to
go green and reduce our energy consumption.

PowerSoft Energy Manager


Powerful analysis platform

Smart Power Quality/Utility Analyzers


with RS485/Ethernet/BACnet Communications

With all types of products, from basic CTs to advanced analyzers with harmonic
analysis, and optional types of communications / software, we have the solution
to fulll your application requirements.

Wasteful power consumption is money, so dont delay call today!


GavazziOnline.com/Energy U 847.465.6100 U Info@CarloGavazzi.com
Input #409 at cse.hotims.com

sales team
Midwest
Matt Waddell
1111 West 22nd Street, Suite 250
Oak Brook, IL 60523
phone: 630-571-4070 x2216
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Literature Digest/Classieds
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phone: 215-275-6420
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London, England
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SSM Global Media Ltd.
First Floor, SSM House
1 Cobden Court,
Wimpole Close
Bromley, Kent BR2 9JF England
phone: +44 208-464-5577
fax: +44 208-464-5588
stuart.smith@ssm.co.uk

www.csemag.com/purepower

Surge protection quiz


Mersen announced its online Protection I.Q. (PIQ) Quiz, which challenges
customers to test their knowledge of
surge protection. Surge-related downtime
on machines can cost time, money, and
resources to bring back on-line. With
the educational PIQ program, design
engineers, speciers, electrical professionals, and equipment manufacturers
discover how much they know about the
hazards that can hurt people, equipment,
and investments. Archived versions of
earlier PIQ quizzes, along with downloadable PIQ quiz notes on topics such as arc
ash hazard protection, solar power circuit
protection, selective coordination, and
overvoltage protection are also available.
Mersen Circle 456
www.mersen.com

ad index
COMPANY

PAGE NO. RS NO.

PHONE NO.

WEBSITE

ASCO Power Technologies

11

403

800-800-2726

www.ascopower.com

Baldor

C-2

400

800-828-4920

www.baldor.com

Carlo Gavazzi Inc

28

409

847-465-6100

www.GavazziOnline.com/Energy

Caterpillar Inc.

C-4

411

309-675-4096

www.catelectricpowerinfo.com/PPM

CFE Media LLC

24

630-571-4070

www.cfemedia.com

Critical Power Webcast

26

630-571-4070

www.csemag.com/webcast

Enercon Engineering, Inc.

402

800-218-8831

www.enercon-eng.com

Generac Power Systems Inc

C-3

410

800-436-3722

www.generac.com

Mersen

17

405

978-462-6662

www.mersen.com

Miratech Corporation

23

408

800-640-3141

www.miratechcorp.com

MTU Onsite Energy

401

507-625-7973

www.mtu-online.com

Russelectric Inc.

13

404

800-225-5250

www.russelectric.com

Schneider Electric

19

406

847-397-2600

www.SEreply.com

Schweitzer Engineering Labs

22

407

509-336-7946

www.selinc.com

How do you
define redundancy?
Look at the world the way Generac Industrial Power does and you might change your mind.
To you, redundancy means repetition, overlap, and duplication. To Generac Industrial
Power, redundancy means fully integrated, built-in paralleling technology; advanced digital
controls; and rigorous prototype testing on solutions as large as 9MW. Thats just how
we see the world. And thousands of mission critical service providers, municipalities and
other commercial and industrial facilities that installed a Generac industrial power system,
The College of William and Mary in
Williamsburg, Virginia, defines redundancy
with Generacs Modular Power System.
For this and more case studies,
visit generac.com.

know just what we mean. For more information on our products, call 1-888-GENERAC
or visit us at generac.com.

input #410 at cse.hotims.com

ACCOUNTABLE FOR THE MOBILE SERVICE


THAT MADE A $9 MILLION DEAL POSSIBLE.
Each Caterpillar expert involved in developing and maintaining your Cat power
system shares your dedication to quality. Together with your local Cat Dealer,
our deep knowledge and global experience enable us to congure a world-class
system that delivers the right power for your project, on time and within budget.
We install it properly to reduce risks or delays you cant afford. And we will be
there to ensure that your system is operating with robust reliability and durability,
as it should at all times.
For more information, visit www.catelectricpowerinfo.com/PPM

Get the free mobile app


at http://gettag.mobi

CAT, CATERPILLAR, their respective logos, Caterpillar Yellow, the Power Edge trade dress, as well as corporate
and product identity used herein, are trademarks of Caterpillar and may not be used without permission.
2011 Caterpillar. All Rights Reserved.

input #411 at cse.hotims.com

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http://Ez.com/yai138

input #22 at plantengineering.hotims.com

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2011 Baldor Electric Company

input #23 at plantengineering.hotims.com