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7th Grade SOL Review- Biology

Introduction
Cell: the smallest unit that displays the properties of life; composed of organelle-containing
cytoplasm surrounded by a plasma membrane. Cells are so small they cannot be seen with the
unaided human eye. There are trillions in the human body.
Cell theory:
All organisms are composed of cells.
Cells are the most basic unit of structure and function in organisms.
Cells are created from preexisting cells (self-reproducing)
Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells
Prokaryotic cells: do not contain a nucleus; possess a nucleoid area where DNA is contained;
example bacteria
Eukaryotic cells: do contain a nucleus; possess a cytoplasm that is bounded by a plasma
membrane and cell wall
Animal and Plant Cell Structure (eukaryotic cells)
1. Nucleus is found in both plant and animal cells; bounded by a nuclear envelope, contains
chromatin (threads of DNA and protein) and contains nucleolus which produces
ribosomes.
2. Cytoplasm is background fluid for the cell; contains all of the cells organelles
3. Cell wall is found only in plant cells; it provides protection and support for the cell;
composed of cellulose fibrils
4. Plasma membrane is found in both plant and animal cells; it regulates entry and exit of
molecules through the cell
5. Ribosomes are found in both plant and animal cells; modify proteins
6. ER is smooth or rough (studded with ribosomes); synthesize lipids and proteins
7. Golgi apparatus is in both plant and animal cells; it processes, packages, and distributes
proteins and lipids
8. Lysosomes are found in both plant and animal cells; they digest cell parts
9. Mitochondria are found in plant and animal cells; they carry out cellular respiration for
the cell which provides the cell with energy to perform its function
10. Chloroplast are found only in plant cells; they carry out photosynthesis produces sugar
11. Vacuoles are found in both plant and animal cells (mostly plant cells); provide support
for the cell and stores nutrients and waste
12. Cell membrane is found in both plant and animal cells; allows certain things to pass
through the cell
Processes of the Cell Membrane
1. Diffusion
a. Molecules flow freely from an area of high concentration (crowded) to an area of
low concentration (less crowded); passive transport; continues until equilibrium is
reached on both sides of the cell
b. Example: a scent spreading throughout the room equally

2. Osmosis
a. The diffusion of water across a membrane due to concentration differences inside
and outside of the cell
The Cell Cycle and Cell Division
Cell division allows a single cell to produce many cells human body can repair and
replace worn out tissues
As an adult, only specific types of cells continue to divide:
o Blood cells
o Skin cells
o Bone cells
o Nerve and brain cells no longer routinely divide
Cell cycle: set of stages that take place between the time a cell divides and the time the
resulting daughter cell divide; two phases: interphase stage and mitotic stage
1. Interphase Stage
a. Cell is making preparations for cell division duplication of cellular content,
DNA, and centrosome
b. Chromosomes are collectively called chromatin
2. Mitotic Stage
a. Prophase: chromatin condenses into threads and then into chromosomes;
chromosomes are seen to be 2 chromatids connected by a centromere; nuclear
membrane and nucleolus fragment disappears; spindle fibers form between
centrioles which have moved to the pole of the cell.
b. Metaphase: duplicated chromosomes line up along the equatorial plane of the cell
c. Anaphase: sister chromatids separate at their centromeres--. 2 daughter
chromosomes move toward opposite poles of the cell
d. Telophase: nucleus reforms nuclear membrane and nucleolus reappear;
chromosomes become chromatin again; spindle disappears; formation of cellular
plate in plant cells or formation of outside plasma membrane in animal cells
e. Cytokinesis: divides the cytoplasm; begins during anaphase, ends at telophase; at
the end of mitosis, each new cell has received a share of cytoplasm from the
original cell.

Photosynthesis
Photosynthesis: process occurring in chloroplast where chlorophyll traps solar energy to
make CO2 into a carbohydrate
Food manufacturing process that occurs in the leaves of plants and sometimes stems;
input is CO2 (from the atmosphere) and H2O (from the soil through the roots) output is
glucose
Provides oxygen for other animals to complete cellular respiration (breathe)
For photosynthesis, plants need:
o CO2, H2O
o Light energy
o Chloroplasts
o Suitable temperature
Equation
Solar
6 CO2 + 6 H2O ___________ C6H12O6 + 6 O2
Carbon Dioxide + water glucose + oxygen
Heterotrophs cannot make their own food; examples are animals and humans we need
to eat authtrophs (plants) or other heterotrophs to survive
o Carnivores: consumers that eat animals
o Omnivores: consumers that eat both plants and animals

Herbivores: consumers that only eat plants