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ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION DESIGN GUIDE Calculations for Electricians and Designers 2nd Edition Cooperating organisations Preface Chapter 1 Design sequence Li loaders 12 Supply cheratestics 13 tata aan 1A Ditton design 15 Sandad fal ets 16 dao and sui 17 Fral ascent 18 Comnce wh 857671 CChapter 2 simple installations and final ci 22 Supply chaacrstes 23 faetng of sntchgee 2A aalehcut marron tices and cables 25. raleicutwokage dp imitans 25 feltpeteton 27 Sheree arent protection 20 Potctne corbin 29° Standad fal ats Chapter $ Maximum demand and diversity 51 toduten 52 stalaton outing 53. rol heut auent derand 54 estySeten fleets 35. Gampleinalitons as 25 2% u Chapter 4 Selection of cables for current-carrying capacity 41 40 Symbsie AL Peli desen 42 Ovreuren requirements 45. anentcaying capac bis hosel tse a a 44 Protection apt oetcad and stonereut 445, Protection apirat au ree ory 46 Coens or nl sultans one Chapter Voltage drop 51 Valage hp in arses instalation 52 _Oisrbuton stm vhage cep 53 asc velage dep calaiion S54 Const fr cence 56 Cone for candiceropetaing temperate s st ease & 57 Conecton or both conde opeaig temperate land power 66 Chapter Calculation of fault current 651 Deteminaton ol prospective ft caert 62 Determined by enquiry 165 Deemined by aleiion Chapter? shock protection 72. Protective messi avamatidcornecion f .epy 73 Crit callers Chapter8 Protection against fault current 181 The adabatic equation 82 Selec tom Table 547 83 nvocton to caltons 4 Sime caeton 85. Energy letvuh ladon 6 Pltng protec conduc abate 187 Prtcive condor se eheth or aura cable 28 Pltng of cate sou adabates 89. Calon of amour apsbity 110. Conduit and waking, 181 Eating and bodirg conducees Chapter 9 Calculations associated with testing 91 Genel 92 Continaty 93 Earth iautloop impedance 2, 9A Recced sectin protect conditrs or o © n n % 8 85 5 Chapter 10 Impedance of copper and alumi conductors 101 vedston 102 Conduceresisaee and temperate 10S enpedanee a ables em voge cop tables Chapter 11 Harmonics 2 Cable tinge 113 vetagedop 4 Overanent pcecton Chapter 12 Protection against voltage disturbances a1 meaeton 122. Theormoges 125 Power tequncy faut otage 12 Pome Hequncy sess ages 125 anhingo 1 AV ubsoons Chapter 15. usbar trunking 151 Symbols 182 Votage dop Appendix A Symbols ‘Appendix 8. Standard final circuits Appendix C Avoidance of unintentional operation of ‘ireuit-breakers (C1 Ung it presons Appendix D Further cable calculations 1 cable 122 Temparaures (cre ad sheath) 13 ndosance of abe in pall 14 Calan of hex vhages Appendix E Symbols from CENELEC report RO64-005 Appendix F Equipment data Index dete ee dees us is ng 120 ps ps 29 1 13s, 189 Cooperating rer The IT actos the carson made by the folowing egpsabons inthe Bena itd PO. Calbrath ing ME MIE MC ‘BEAMA Instalfationstt¢ Sayre AE CEL British cables Assodation lectrial Contractors’ Assocation of Scotland /a SELECT arg ME MLE Electrical Safety Counc uring Bay BSc CEng MEE FCESE RA Technology id MM. Cones Ene Institution of Engineering and ‘Tecnology PE: Domodhe 8S CEng ET (Gvilbed Ops ing EE Sodety of Electrical and Mechanical Engineers serving Local Government CC Tenwel CEng MEE MORSE Author PRL Cook CEng FEE ar tla] 1s took pes spp asting f d cet ons fan rin nares teyhpkTiorngoahe es Teevey send The book has ako been prepared © provide a desen seauenc, clans and dia oa compote design Al necessary cable and cept tao cary cut the ‘aledaone i inided Coast wil be able to check the ease of thar ‘devin ako indies calalatons an! necesay erence dat oui the deren tags ch ae coe oa arpa in sore alton tecoimamtseges | 7 airing copes | Design sequence 1 Lond characteristics 1 Supply charatoristies 1 Antallation outing 1 Distribution design 1 Standard final circuits 1 eolation and switching 1 Final arsersment 1 Compliance with 857671, igure 1a espnsenence Load characteristics toad and location (Chapter 5) ‘The fis sep in ary instalation design sto ident he badsand ther eho in temsat te sal lcaton WR eran poet, shad tai cres ‘Once he lads ne Deen dened he preted cation fe the cor supp fn be seectet types head creo he alsen Le cue to the per Teas. Lag the eomirg Supply at any ater eatin will incase the cost of fhe esalaton and stn a less satsacory ces Votages wl vary with load ‘ay be Riga ae a er de a ret las ot tl FerercerentHighvologe (4) dstbton systems arto be pretend low oka (wher proczablan tore of od drand apd faces fr HY/LW astra Ts Wi ecuce vtage top, which may be important fo lage leas and for mets? ‘ompreso. 2. Standby systems assessment oft consequences ct ssc supp, perhaps by ik assessment wit the Caste il eerie te eed fer stanby arenes Decors ae peecly ‘modo ety tgs a fe dec wl let he dbaon des, house tee 22 1.2 Supply characteristics °° prealaproach tothe cect dsuibue atinldeteitaton ol th ad 2ad load Guratersicsspcesay 0 determine hel suply choc indi > sappy vtage eV ort) > apply sytem (INS, HGS OFT ‘af agveenent withthe ierded eect supe shoud aso be reached, # posse 1.3 Installation outline Wit the sup postion determined a dstibtn che ule can be pepe wih sui dtbten boards at etch i ood erie types each bal or eh for of Amul storey bung ©) 14 Distribution design 8 LA Protective deviees and cables (Chapter 4) Cree the ditrbuion boods hve been etd togeter with tice minum emends,prtetve doves (verre) and cates fr busber tnkrg can be selected sutteet io cay talons. 1.4.2 Voltage drop (Chapter 5) Wit thal cable conductor ze dete othe land rc, vgs do cat becaasted anit recessy cable cords ses increased reduce lage do, \otage cop cele cr check porto derermiaon of at el and earh {autloop impedances, as votage do she mast hy imng fcr ta éstbtan create fal eeut meat the vag dp equrrant ts uly at © met he fonh aut nop mpedance or sock pectin resumen. 50 1.43. Prospective fault currents (Chapter 6) wit the cable cond sed for vale dap and of koow eth the faut impedances, earth fet op ergedsnces and prospective fuk cuents an be Caled ith he psec uk cers kom (rnin and mewu) ether theephase or sige phase os appopat,swichgear rags can be sete ord "ype ef davis detained sucha seo craitbrasa pe. 1.4 Shock protection (chapter 7) 857671 equesin he ever of futo ear tata pete device operates wan 2 prescbed ime Wt candor sv od length detarrine, te cath ul op impedonee can be csi’ ar he appropri protective deve selected THs wil sera be carat cut as pata 143 show LAS Selection of protective conductors (Chapter 8) the pected fhe ome curecaming ana (el cme ‘ect a) 2 he Ine conscasrolurer cds oe reaied Howe fomrmon pracize win We UK IO se tedied sexton peetne I, or 1 cramp the amoung of cables oat in wth pe (Get pate cenit) ble 1.46 Special installations or locations ‘The nate of any special nstlatns of ecatons wl have to be Borne mind em the start the design a hs may allt the spy fequtements ean pak, ‘sins, wel a dscomecion tes 1.5 Standard final circuits ‘nce the stibton system hasbeen prepared, the designer can move on othe fol dats The base design ent to se Standard lets whereer possible te sey devin. Chapter (and Append 8) sumrurs the clans or srl Fetlaons ond nl rat 1.6 Isolation and switching Lil ctelaon'sveqited in deterring he saten ard sitchin ecient: revels 2 most mparant expect of det Wal desgned ond cone lected fects fr wleton end emergency sng eee forthe se we ot te insalson 17 Final assessment ‘on camplen ofthe design wil nxmaly be neces to seve ain the be requrements withthe chet not oy th respec to ae ing and aequte functor, but abo posse hae growh, 1.8 Compliance with BS 7671 1.81 Departures Depa ftom the dat of Pars $107 of 6S 7671 ae w bo resrod on tha [ect talon Cafe; heer the fundamental principles of Pat ae be complied wah ‘The ute fnew atelier that rent in depres arn BS 7671 at Ppohbied proving the reuling dees of slaty 8 nt ess thn tof comebarce, “hese depres ao be recoded on he Cer intslaton Ceres 1.8.2 Electrical installation certifiates ‘The designe wil ace lord esponsibtyforhe design by cern the best of Ieftertannnge th ah ecg in aera IAT The igh eH no comeleted unl he create has bean sre Cnemonmnetnte atten, 1 1 Simple installations and final circuits 1 Supply characterstles 1 Fault protection ‘= Fault rating of switchgear Short-ceclt current 1m Final circuit overcurrent ‘devices and cables . 1m Final crcult voltage drop . Tiitations 2.1 Introduction ‘Wis ptr provides astoifomard approach caning ou Spl station and fal east designs tom eadly ovale desgn data I's a Sandaone chapter ns wishing go statin such des. axa more argc speach te stlaton deg reades canst ot Chapter | "Design sequena fellowed by ‘Gp and werk ery tough the ull eppoah 2 2.2 Supply characteristics 2.2.1 General ‘vrtlaion design rt start wth he supply haters, cing the earbing trangerets The marion requred sta dtaed onthe 65 7671 Gecncl Irstaion Corse pr of whch reproduced in Fue 2 ‘The HeetySofay, Quality and Connty Reuben 2002 requ the elccty 145 ap ga sept 2 ThcS dyes croc! mmo + Tce n tah pe onthe su » arti nto. | 4 2.2.3 Declared supply characteristics ‘An engi to an eect srt othe sup chatacters fa domes supply ‘sect te leunginirnaton berg pve: 1 ein eth too impedance Z: 1035.0 for PME supp CNS syste) (08 or sepa wth supple (TNS syste) 21 hee no ert pried (Ts) > Prxpectve fut rent aging cern enc areas, the maximum pespecive fat exrent hy tle gen 2s 1618, “The est eel bop impedance gen of 350 equates to ae cae only 720 AA prospec aut curert of 16 KA equates an exe oop pede of aorxmaty 0015 andi not coreatble wih 2 bon impedance of 035 However, thse waste pamela, sed, erable fe designe t have the orfience tht te des wil be acetal or ey spy, end be vid forthe etme ofthe stalin een ithe supply agement cutie the ling ore changed 185 7671 lows digo be cared ton the basefthe acuslagphy caer, ewer talib devgr gency recrsdeut akc the nap arecen rove ‘sng he sap cacti above eos std ccs canbe eve od ‘ed for al veins wiht tes alain, Tezeclstoe form te ac of ‘sanded cats fund such pbeatons athe chccar Gude te Bulking ‘Regulators a he On Ste Gule The oul fo thse lense gen ths ‘ape and deta ofthe carmen cans enn appore B. 2.3 Fault rating of switchgear Aleaupmentinilrg swtchgearasenblis eg comprsinghusbs evita, ‘onal musthave fear ig exeedng he respective oer the Pont of coonectan tothe inlision Manor's prove sseer gs, "nhich maybe les tan he rang of ome of te component pas Fem formation oo te eg of sevice cable on pias propery, estas can hema ofthe attention (educton) io lad Seve tor the fue rode by the detnbution compan. Capos 6 provdes ahice en the, Home, fr domes Dremices consumer nts and fzebonds wth coon faut rag of 16 4A cn be wed 50 father clan i not necessary Coniane Uns and usd 1 [SEN GOE35'8 Annex ZA Specteaon prurient of consumer unis compet ith fies, nd protective cee) re abe wistnd tea cure ferprspece fut lees ipo 16 LA when fe eect dsb ses ype 2 hse BS 8 neg tna mate hay 100A The snr 100k cto ae inate by elect caramel eet hese vequtemert WE the ‘vrenantGevces nth canumer rte dstiaton boss may not ete the (Ca cen thigh faut carers they wl be abl to cay the cents wed the dstibuion compan’ fse ope. Clay. tibet oss usual the case the fel ing the fis cea rekrin he dstrbuon Berd rconeume itis of ‘loti Bernese Yyigure23 Contre even snd ce sate ng to dere faut particu aus doanstear fhe consue . Fauklevls rae ash as 184A ard rapid deooase wen he rstalaton, 09 acta the seo creuteakrsn theca rit i car us. 2.4 Final circuit overcurrent devices and cables Ins section the ccutons to bo usd ar state at th sta of ach subsection and ‘tha used fl explanaton& gen in Chapt 4,5 and 6. Howse vary singed tpbratonsare gen n each subsecten 2.41 Radial final circuits Derivation of forma & 1, the design cae 2s determined tm tha bat be connected o he 1a. Sthe ted caent reat sen ofthe protected 12 tthe cuenta capac of cable for emus sve nits parte mtied conan |. the tabulted came carying capac of cable found in Append ot the One Gude Aopen 4 of 8S 767 “Tabuloted cable ating () and asnsalledcurent carrying capacity (,) Aormuls ‘When ovecurent poz is be povided the arene carying capacity ofthe cabl srt, i determined by apn tig acts tthe bled cable ratings tom Append ae 5 7671, betgeccucac. shee Ge thetic oun se Title ACI of BS 767 FF ofthe OnSte Gude isthe aig fer fo aio: temperate, 60 Table 481 of 5 7671 oF FI tthe One Gude , thet cr other estty fs see Tle 48 of 857571 Cs the ating fro depth bred el se Tale 4B of BS 7671, lat ecm Dse 2 lsthe rag tact for conduct unounded by heal ieion sae Regulation 5239 ol 857671 Tbe F2 fhe OmSte Gude ithe ang lace apple when avons protection beg pois by a9 Clearer defce wi afisng cor eer an 145 eg C= 0725 0 Senercosed ses BS 3036 ce ithe aig fac for buried cus: 0 for ables bused inte ground requrrgoeioed poecton others ey epecion affigue 2. canbe een tht the urentcaring capac of cable ‘natal teal or exceed the reat veered ted Cate Ip ket snd hence bycombiing te two equatons above we hae ty a ra CGE en. ‘This equation canbe eed as, when veer tect is w be rove, the tebe ab ings fom Append of BS 7671 must aus or ccc the eet ‘ovrcant dec sing cone frre parr talon concn. example 1 ‘Act supplinga shower with a loading cf 6 KY would have desgn curently sank. sx 1000" mov ~7°* The nomial eure aingin amps of he pret de (ase rh Hele tr 2 jets sled sothat i fot hn of eq othe desig cet te ceut hae Sin the exe of he 6 KW shower must be 2 26; selec say 9 52 A cuit brea tats y= 32 A The apistaled cable ang) rust be eal of ee ton sD Lesa orooad protectonis tbe proved apy equation 24 lotr Bers 2 ” 2 Example 2 Forthe shower crt above, the abet tempeatue i assumed (sis usu © be 30°C, 0 Gis 1 the cable ot din the gound or geuped, 0, Cand C, ae | the cable nat stale i thermal nation, <0 is and the oreut proce device ota emrensed (erable) se 50 Hence WS epermiatereT = S28 Fora themeplasic (PC insulted and sheathed at cable weh pctv conductor ‘om lable €D5 of 85 7671 of abla 5 ofthe On Ste Cul insted in an ltd walle? cable aden as has 2 ablated og of 32.8 fer state rrthod A 24.2 30 and 52 A ring circuits Ring circuit cable tabulated ating (1) Formule In 767 theres archanged forthe spi cate ofthe 30 and 32 Atal rage eguston 4351103), hoe the oetbad protcion mequrenens ae amined wig 20 A teed cables (= 208) preg te once in ary ps Weng, is nite weceed 20.8 There 2 20butl) hESC CAG CIC oe 242) FOGCETOC example ‘ng ral cut wired wih temeplaic (VC) insted cable a er Tle 400 fncsed cin 2n insted wall are pseced by 9 52'A cat eaker (p=32 Ate eal muntequloreneed 204 Te cable tng hcaleted tsirg ecuaton 242, Hep aC C6 Gand "hen 2 2048 Fro Tbe 405 (oun 7)25 rm? cates ae aici nebo | 1m 2.4.3 Circuits without overload protection ‘Thee ae mary ceumstnces where the oxzcent dee nee rox poe oxeoad Protecton bem the ad fed oh shower rma connecting deve [at be prow faut poco, In hese ccumstnces the cole bute rahe forms tors ad crt Radial crt cable tabulate rating () formula without overload protection a A. GEG CGGE. eS he ys the design cant ofthe cet et: tact check nd beac For uber itormaion see scion 5. 2.5 Final circuit voltage drop limitations Maximum cable lngth (La) to mest voltage drop limits (596 of 250 V = 115 Vor 3% for lighting = 68.) dl eres Force er than fing ad at exe fhe cast (rim = ee Forging crests when every datibted ood tg sot0c0 5 8 GFA) = Giddy «Gy, a8 Foret cts ape 1000 8 ip int » Cy here 1s inden cunt Cou) tae bop paramo pe mae hon Ampeno yg is able eg the vokage dpi rat io be xed Cia ting fcr tht cn be appa fhe oad cet pci ee thon he curerecaryirg capac of he cable inthe pba rslaon| caren isha sh leon the ste sie. Tisfac ervpesats rhe tmp ofthe cate ot he edad cent boing lca teres abe we es rw/A) a See cemsamngeeeses 2 nove feretetee-% Jem eee ose ‘haps the maximum pemited noma opertng condor epee 7, 2.5.1 Radial final circuit voltage drop ‘he olagedop in an etalon mst ot eaceed a valu ppoprie fr the sole ane fectvefrcring ofthe equpment be supe. (Se ehaptar 5 for fler tesiren). Fo rl cies scion 6 of Appeei¢o 8 7671 rcrmends or istaltonscomected dest fo a pute low vckage reer 0 maxi volge

Hob camping ff hv elements > Mam over 2h > Gites oven 2 bw ‘Therefore he tal iste capciy = Wk at 240 ¥ Aircon = 10 ado 1 fra ete ad Hee |= 1200218. gpg me aout Fem Tate 5,105 ceutlon is "The ist 10. othe aed cate pls 086 fhe einer othe ted caren pis SA atocteteuttncorprted nthe onal unt hercfore =10-+ 2218710) «2744 100 Hence 9500152. ceut ieeced cemsamngeeeses 3 Example Sighting dealt Saciow $f Tbe 31 Corser 10 downstairs hs assume 1000 demand pe hing poet 100 There ect demand = 10100 ara -ASAcait(or6 Af SEN 60808 craitbreserigusd) wadbe ste forungsen Tarps Tungsten rps exit a bref mush curen uen inti switched on TRS ish cunt nora gored fr mule LS anos to ot sid ae _goips Forages toed amps anheatlamos aceus sod been oe nash rere) Hower exraion vege cr doch lings tobe supped bya ype B cheutbrede specy 910 A ct reduce unered uppeg on wiven ie a Sarna. A BATYpeC ot ber ay ao be appt. Fora buthostplest crus thelbad acer tobe asssedard manta (a apd fete selection of al ees an catecer Warford shold be conten pret tage od Imps a heat rp daha Eing reformer, mos See Append fran exact fem one marsacurs parce Example 4: immersion heater cuit Seetow Sf Tle 31 Corsi 3 nein beter cot dont = 302 «250 Example 5: motor crcuit Sees Gof Tbe 31 Coreider a 8k snge phase meter witha power factor 08 3 3.4 Diversity between final circuits 3.4.1 Simple installations The alonaces for Gey in Tabi 3.2 (Tbe 2 ofthe Orie Gace efx very spectc sats rd ean only provide guidance. The gues gen in the able may need tobe incased or decese,depenngon te pac crcmsanes. ‘he ent demand of goup of fal crits supped rom one derbuon board (erdscbmon) may be eteated uring the alluancra or duet gen ele 3.2. Thaalonanees fons 1 5 ae poled othe cure dear ol tons of equprent supple by the sub dbuton bord The alonances in ow 9 (Coventoral sc) {ee opted othe ed cet of he evecare recive dee fr he ci The we fhe metodo deterring manirum demand srt preced where spectedby a compaent cecal deagn engncet. ‘ter he design cust oe ed cis nd sib ave been dtd theconuc sins rosen is mecessryt check he iatns cn tage cop "table Nowa deste facet fe shy dan rts 100% get otros et ‘wring mts hon rear tc 3 ea fmtttese "Fart ppon hl, on stv warts eerie secre ete, + Trmpnan to srg ath baton Bsr and conimar its ct sextet eter be ier ey ‘he eet and rt hous sna atone cane ‘funda thee eae he crc peste See a te 3 Example 1: small office (oredr 2 ara ofc comping: 1g: 20 of 100 fucrescent amines J poner 2 IOKN machine anda 2K mache (oth t 250 ots) W Sede out clause o 32 Aeros snd wnt the rai derrand 1 ighing: 20 10 w torscoreuminates 90, 20610018 _ 5, ling demond = $0» 2010018 55,4 et: one 2 he 51 18 tot eau cali $f Tbe 52 ey of 0 eunnae ana’ VAlgues se nal te hy shod bused rt Sino de tr vga by 280 are up he 9/10 = sere is soe row scars power: 3 10 hv achine and 22 LN machina (both 250) Net: See ron 2 cola 5 of he 52 ar esty of OD fer ES, 75 sco i socket outlet crete 52 Acute soci cut demand = (102.39) 4( 72.5 32) 32 +224 = 584 Ci 3)" 9) 20794 54 Net: See 1a 3 oie 2 desi of 10% logs 70 or see Totel= 1854504544 1798 ‘ne denger may no teal demand onthe socket orcas YSbuaness maces of 1 W arg 6g computes, ard ese the socket crt ate-desty demand Soca ateiverty demand = HN 625 and ese the firey demand Toal= 1554504052 70074, 2nd des orev A maumum cemana| Example 2: domestic installation Cordes domesicitaliion coor on lec ecler Wa 72 1 shoner two hing ce fy wo sed ote crt ‘loti Bernese 3 From row 9 of able 52, let lad (er nial hush, cling india rings of bod) 1009 ot caren demand ot gest cet + AO of cree demand of evry her 108 of gest crit cooker as eagle 29331 ms 40% othe 22k homer as xompe in 531.308 igtungar 331 creat! ana sreut2 ana octets Stat sa rout? 50a Teta ober ase 0% ae sasan Installation demand wean Corsiing furry 8 dnelings naock spl tom ene submai (eg Hen. Alamance fr desi made fr the dalings onary ane subman sd beeen “bmi a5 recssry and then between Bods of dings Fr glance Such raerstonees se Fig 5. and Compl isan’ bl, 3.5. Complex installations The foouing has been abstacte om an unpublished (an 1979) HEC Docunere (54(Seruanat254 Tstenaton of mam demand. For oes of side dieting linge oi inurl ands conmet rer, the allwonees set be sessed by an experince pron. so Accuracy Estimates of maimim demand cn wh be made aenetey The ane gen re reas very approwmae aes wth wie tances, an ust be sme many resvators The dene wil need 0 dee: 1 ether hey cr use ais kruger orf elite sure ihatherthe vues gun bles 33 and 34 ond Fe 34 we apa nd W ihetherthe ves give nthe tates and gue wil eed tobe sere ting 2 the te protes fhe sds 1 the caneidrce finial ad withthe ouds ~ chart may be el invisespect, the reonstip of the cil lading of mats tothe mechanic oa. The machi lads more cou guide oe elecrealiend hon rao tig =e tgs en converte etd (ented) 4 hestng ae cong is te seer devas andhow tse ght corede sm produc deren the tibiae sources of sp 3 4 the lonancns, any for spur canst oral goth = ths mast be Ciscised withthe chert 1& by specal considaatens which apy he prio in and 3.5.2 Estimation method ‘The maximum demand of aniston Pas the sum of head isa, Fy, raped bya demand aa Pa BP, 7; Ista raed lod fr he etalon conser, beige sum ofl the land dec arnt, grey onthe ssf cons cuty {5 isda actor tats th tof he msm demand ofa tlio tothe comespondng tal tales ed. ‘ile 35 proves fr some ye apenas iso sable ered detain boas sppng manly or whl one ype ofa egg or heating, ‘he eco fr paraiar wots regen In Table 5 ‘able 3.5 demand factors may be used fo sub subuton boas whee hee & a ‘ype ivan butcare needs oe ke, parc ype ot los predates valivabste the eof Tbe 33. Sub-distbution pont estimation Forinrrvite dtuson beaten on ype nd many emi Tale 5 proves dead facia fo ec type of load The mas eran onthe “uation boa Pe en gen bx Pon Pigs + Pot + Pts + Pate she ys th sumo the parca pes flan eg Ighng 1 eat be per Ba a tar peo em, Tolerance “Theda of esting demand cute is mentioned nee paragraphs The run enorin lates 5 an 5 810%, ‘emustberenenbotd athe aa en bles 5.5 ard 4 arepudy uae: pater olomutonrecwnt i aspeceraalitan lays ure hapa, cemsamngeeeses 3 2 aes 3 mw 3 2 a Es bern tc er camp sons aks te ss 3 Felence Moctn ab 350| ‘ansady mh abot 00 rs. ox Fagen pepcton ono 02 Unda te 2 ating mits (2) 05-08" pense amb sney ta Nero Soon her 1b Vout ors kr tig Shin bed os-07 Shaheecingbedand bones 05-08) 123 Feahogteet ote Me Uphtingotsreettumnte 10 Sa Porte pal ee ‘naseion pee es Son inesesion 12 10 1 gore order en xia soson pees 10 ui 05 04 mible Forsmdinnisxig se Seeicttdsy Senco elas pho Sone laltns etic 3 a ‘lemons on wien an don Baode ea Socketoute drcuits “he estimation of derand on sodtoutet ces proses obvious diel. The salves gre in able 3 ery apt eos compen» number foes ich se nt expected beloade uy ard srutancou, Frommer ard distil instalation a spe estate ofthe darand based tpn he recited usage of he ‘ads eds tobe mace Fo lings the flowing pies pudace ® ow here aed cup fed by sockets, eg wet het space heating, ‘pect lowe rth rst be rd hi to be ated tat he g lc owe ot 3 3a sockct cuts or estan ofthe fect of the ack ules on the mora Adnan Each sodt cut mst be designed fos am matin dered. Y rgures.4 1a End eet ‘ronda rth ema depend 2 Sherer crs omic exean58) Explanation: 1 the derand fac the ratio of the maxi demand fan irstalton w the faked oad Canes) hg consent wg 9) pc md dares ecard) on ‘ores Example 2in 3.4.1: domestic instalation cot Considering sa 8 doings in aoc Fem curve for @delins deand acto fr typical med domestics 02 A divest demand fr subral:66.44+0.22(5-N66.4 = 168.768 ence 4200 rer may be selected (soe tisis an example of hw acs te apd, Atal demands rast be suse tnd oped wt pares ning the elect dite) cupmanmeeeceu 3 3 YA Ta tC ae) (cy for current-carrying capacity = Symbols 1 Protection against overload and |= Preliminary design shortcut = omcuentrqitonents ™ Pteton nt ul cent . ca oa 1 Corrections for grouping Motors 4.0 symbols ‘The symbol used inthis chaps he guide av thse used in BS 767% a8 allows 1 feat cnet bleedin Ape of BS 2671 for eye ei, bie mre nd eae i | yet aoe ret eng othe dec cig the ei pst © ering ar ped whe iin ot te om te ‘hich esl careejng aac ate tds (Append ct B76). ‘Theva agate sows (Garang corto ambi gre Gy_ereng corto depth red ale G_beraig cert menor den hee 5 'G_Bereng aor forpeng ipa of conc hon rear tc a 4.1 Preliminary design 4s descibed in Chaser 3, Fue 3, the dese wil howe prepared genes intaltonoutine rahe mode ue ollncnces fot erty determined desen rere of ral ceuts dstbton boas, ubmais, man deuon board Wit he design cet (4) ofeach cet deterring (ee Cate 3) and th oad pole prt stating arent, the oral tentang he pene devices (ard thecal ype ond ang forthe res can be salted 4.2 Overcurrent requirements Foch istllton and esr cet tha that etalon mut be protects apie overeurent by deices wach wil ope atmaicaly 1 peer my to pesons (Gnd nest) and damage tthe nstalaton ncudng the cables The ovecurer aves must be of adequate breakng apaty and be so ensvuced hat hey wil lnephe supe without dange an all ace restrain. Cabies mabe cto cony eae overaurenswthut damage Overcets yb 1 fadtcurns (eat faut hor eu or 2 overt cents 42.1 Fault currents faut carers are 2 2 eel of tut in re cables or he enupmet. Thee f 3 sudden mease curt, props 10 er 20 mes he etl tg, ha cure borg Ienied by ta mpedances ofthe sauce of supp, the cables, he aut sal eh retumpeth The cures realy of she uate, bat faut eoecon i nonetes reauted exept exceptional cramstaces Ge Reglabon «545 o 857671). 42.2 Overload currents Coad curentsdo ot aie a a result of a in the cable or equipment. They ae beats he ate hasbeen rcensed by Be adn outed. Cond pectin only que if ood pone woud not be reed The lad on acre spying 2 (62) 72 HW shower wil not inease less he Sowers read by one ang ihe ag wen the adequacy of Be ci rst be ceded -Adaibtion cast upping nb of ulings coud be event Sonal rmahinay bang tad one or mor ote buldegs supped hers ovoad curate ar lt be ofthe oder of. to 2 ima the ang of the cable os merdened above faut cen maybe of header of 101 20 tes te ang Coats of es tn 1.2 10 8 tines he device ating depen pon the type tf dee (ee Tale ad schon 42.8‘ ero), ky res n pation othe device Regution 435 reat that every cet sal be desgred Sb bat smd oetoods of ea dation 2 unio to aca 4 is usa er ne device she cet provide Bt alt protein and anyone econ hats ete. Te common exept sth vecure: dees rr ‘ut, where the recent dence atthe og of the cat pres protection gprs aut careres ana the mot sane respect agahs need. WMT (etbad prtectan may nt be necessary a ial the cable selected must be la sufi ize to cary the lod caret. The curen-caming epeiy of cle for continous snice under the paticar Contos ofits rslaton (1) must be equ tox pester tan te cute which tects designed (Bat a cuert iended to be cried in noma sence hee aan “Th nmin cat rc sting ofthe poet device (ms si be ul tor peat than he des cent ofthe eet hee 42 ution 421 and 42.2 must ava be cle wth (fad cure 2y30 te averting must be ecu gate than SOR siy 500524) here nerd protections being povided the carer cain capac of cable for Corsinuous sence under he pare candtns of sista mus be eq bor gesernan the nominal caren or auent ett fh pate dance a leek @29 42.5 Small overloads ‘The sands for onset dices (ses end cate) specty a arent bow nich the device must not ope (se 9). Th the rants ore ‘pong caret) sce Tbe 1, They dso spect the cure ot ich he dence indtapesena oie cee ef isrga ve cae Cvetoads blon the nang of nontreping curent (i) wl ot apr the verre dice ‘ves between | and nw tke lenge than the conven tne farther ‘fomeen se secon 621 o he Conmentry 00 EE Wing Regus cemsamngeeeses 4 he) ating (2) cats ing aes pp forces. fons 3 Current-carrying capacity tables 43:1 Tabulatedcorrent carping capacty Arpendtch 9570 pons caercomngcaptes chen in rn eed creo Exh able sacs te cable typ, the ambient enparatue, he conduct operating ‘ampere and he rlerence metodo rial (se Table 2 of BS 767). The ‘exe! ea ay pra cae found by erent Table a3. 8S 7571 “he busted cable cent angi tho cert that wilincease he tperte the ve condos ofthe cable om te tabled aren ial 30) he ‘auld manenam condi operaing terpetie (eg, 7° or hermepoto PAC nated ates and 90° or thomenating) tec the defined condor, or ceampese the exact fom Tle 401A emai 4 4 4 143.2 Ambient temperature rating factor Cy CGyisgenty ables 461 ond 462 of 5 7671, Tabe 4B ed for cablenin i Te 1282 ores loin te ground "Yenc fram Table DUA af BS 761i cert ng aly seecae 7c Hermes True en noncreued ther tal shah (agp eros) {YTablea8y ofa 71 ng bcos (fr anbion serps ran $0" Tecate Ties nbn: commederbereand stern ME arming shrmepstie turmesting "Spe ee Example x ue o Fem the able shou above fra 4 min cable stn abet tempest of 30° = oe ow teclzedncandut nan ting wal ~ 26 Aor wo cables ange pace cor 2 es a {de and 24 forte row cables tee pase 26 5» on ating (correction factors re er Td ~ the aca contin finalist oe nat a thse refeence condos tena ‘eco at ape ote abdaed ing to ge the ables cet aig Inthe seal astalaton condone ‘YTable ann of 771 argon (Crate ound ean 20% FN GG UGC. as = whe “on Le isthe curentaryng eco cable for eons service ue the g paretrnnion conden once * 1, sth tautedcurentcarying capac of cable found in Append » 857671 % ithe aig fac for upg, see Teles ACI w 406 of 857671 oF ® Toble 3a the One Gade % y isthe rang fcr or ambient npr, oe Taties A ad 42 of « ithe ang lace for terest of sd se able 455 of 5 7671 2 CC ithe ating tc for depth of ued cable Table 488 of 8 7671 “ CC ithe ming face for ona surounde by hema ieson ose 3 Regain 5259 of 85767 Table Ff the One Gude isthe tag iacapplied wen oveoad protections bes ponies by 20 ® ‘rescence tha fing acon geste than 15 eg, = 0725 for x ‘Stemercoced ses 085 505 = (ithe ang cor or buted cre: fr ates ued nthe grout ea requ oveied pect cherie leutesecnoeee ote | aS Caisse eine Deiges | a8 <<) 4.3.3. Group rating factor ¢g "465 Forth equation =I Ca Ce CACC Cys gen by Tees 41-46 of 7671 {Gre Tet C1 bow) Ronee her cables oe nt able orale axed seosecion 46, ‘ytatla tet of 5367 argc ee oc Fane race ra gap a ces ot HAD emule ces be use avenge labes DIA ak 1h at gto tounlorm ro a oy ae, 2 Wieretvioa caanes teen ene abetting sar eevee Theta crease: ‘eager sige te: 5 Nagroup onto singin cerectes ayer be comms sea erent ode ote ° [laid ivtsbesDIA wtAsnd vowel setng csbladseosioean gs #9 Hlautohomn cpt coins nealing cay moran fe reapa eating ‘elemretornaperpse fain rata he rath esp Fern 9 ‘fhe cer wonrmaly vues eeprom ted ere ‘Seas inn groans nicotene he oer bie cane ne {inti ow attr cet G3 ales, ‘roving factors for three-phase and single-phase cruisin common enclosure Tabi 41 prosaic fr grouping hich psy no form grup tat areal singe pheecral vee pas ccuts. To estate upg a raupsot Sg phase ond thee hase ccs the along mthod mayb sed. To ectimatethe raping factor forthe single phase routs nthe gy: ply the ruber offree ase acu by 15 (hehe arse or tree oes rt, ‘ard ald theres othe amet fs phase cats, ‘op he equelen nanber of srg pose cca ruse wth Tbe C1, To etme the greig tc for the thes phase cuts nthe grou: “hig the mabe ge pane tats 2/5, nda he raha the rarer of bree phase rts ‘ove he equ numberof roe pase crus ue with Table AC, occas 4 Example Two tweephase ics and two singleptuse cress instal in commen else opr her quan rambo of sglphase cicuts= @1x3/2) +2=5 Fe fom ibe dchlaresrge pe 089 Gd str rts) cial rumba of roe phase ccs = (22/8) +2= 53. Fara, Fom Tele 41 or he tee phase ces ~ 068 ard nt 065 a for ‘sm crts) Wen cating crt carecmingcapaces (|) use the sgl phase factor for singe pase ccs ad th tee ras acer fore pase cas {Grouping involving ight loaded celts Note 9 able 4 sos “ose how tis appl conser the cramp blow: example Sic ig ghase cats (2x 32 A, 14 10.83.26 A) ae wed with sgl themopatc nuited cable Tele ADIA) comma encase for pat of He run see fie toe 4 Facto G fom Tbe C1 fr 6 gouped cuts 057 ithe ad of ay fhe cats ss than 03 Gyhamperes the cable canbe scoured clang the pune goth other cables. ‘he rang of he 10 me abies om ele 401A 155 8 Hence 03 Cpa forthe 6 Actouts © 3 057 x 185=23 8 I he bod ofthe 6 Acct ls thon 25 & they can be dicot or _goupig pupeses Inthe earl fused above, he greup acter erthe 4 feng cats is. (and not 057 for 6 cu), 3) AS Thermal insulation factor Ci Fox asia ound by hey tig rete alengh £05 mere, thecurenecaryngcapecy shale alr te absence of mae precise wfrmaton, 23505 mos te carer caning cpacty tht ale lpped det a sua and open (eference Mead ©). her cables toby sou by thal ron rs thn 5 the cueing canny of he able sha be reduces apperty cepending onthe Saco! cab engih mnsubten and eral rogers he stn. The ag, teas Table 522 ve appro to endo es up w 10 mm? thermal ihn hag hema candi rater ha 04 We 1 table 52.2 0f 8576 marcy temslebon “Tenehnnslation Beating factor com) ‘0 example Fer mo 6 rm? hamopete waded cables 1 ale 405 of 857571 a an abit temperate 25" cnned 9 cond 0 tery nated wl eens hod 8 1 =524 tom ble aos {, =080 tom om 1 of Tbe a1 C= 105 fom ble 4 CC) eso tater lewance orinslaton is recessny = asthe eure device snota eile use Gy GyandG~ ashe eal nat ad nthe round. iterating innstaledcondions: ——=hGQEGG ECs ewe Osoridse rete ice cupmanmeeeceu 4 4.3.5 Overcurrent device and buried circuit rating factors Cy Ce Cs and Cy Ovecurent device factor Cy Mast overt dace af esd a Kee 0 tp at bow 14S, i fen nore fen Ly see pdsion €8311 Whee isthe coe.) Whee th smo the cave and neo prtecton beg pride, a arg fcr mi be 2ppld| a= 14s “Te moat cormon etrpe i the sevenload (o seal) fae, whee is assumed have 3 ale 2, Ther C= 148 0725, 25 ven Regution 458.101 fra wend potcton is provided heir the device pe the reg fcr i (Gaerne fue peed of operon unde aut condone ihe eau trg "srs quick compared wt cher doves) Buried cet rating actor Ce The Duras cable ings Tablas DAS and AEN of 8S 7671 ate determina at pound ann terpeatiteo 0° (compared with 30% fo cables iad mi), ‘Whit these raved atigs wl rest the sae cnducoepeaig emperte fl ad (70% or Tete 4O4A), under ooo candions the ctor ey ‘ceed te Britg temperate (115 “Cer le «D4. The eof We ag tor Prevents the cable going over ths teen dung an eveod, see Regen 435105, Sil thermal resistivity rating factor C, Sal heal est affects th ang ocean the ground se Table 485 of ‘Append 4 65 7671 Sai thers seit con be mesnued ah commer oll rtments the rests pot maze Ce tken 25 09. Depth of laying rating factor Cy Layog cable at a depth ester than 700 mm ineases the equ cent aig, see Table 484 of 85 797, Example tour fae copper ameured cables aed tg dts Donat oa at a ph of 125 Cloud aren empeaize be len 2620 C and te thernd essiy menses LO Kn/W ress. Cre protection s by 5 83 tee are an instal sng 200A pr cet equred Dterine minum esac eabie {o meat the bad requtements f owed petectanis req! G om Tbe 43 8070 Go abe 862 for a rundarbiento 20°C 4 6. tom Table a frsol heal ety 18 i fom Tle 2B4 5086, Gist 51 ee Replaon 435..100 . foe cable adi the ground 08 when eveoad psec equ, see Regu 4351102 "2 Gyatetatx0Se1 102095 Fem Table 408A, cau 7 fr ltence method 0 the minirum esa 210 me, (85 mm 90 “Cheroseting sated cables at slidable A) but se 236 buon. 43.6 Conductor operating temperature ros spect bythe manufacture, conde opeaing at aterpeare exceeding 70°C ae at stl rsa for we wth wg cessor ow volage Suchet ed contol esembies or cher pes cf equpment Regan S125 refs. Hower, 90°C ted cable canbe wed provided the conduct open tempera does pot aaed 70°C where the cecal design's based cn auertags shen inthe caine abe for 70°C thermoplastic nud cates 4.4 Protection against overload and short-circuit 4.41 General ire fe ower de (so cath spr cio pst nr {sua then he abe ang in retold contre, g mut Be egal of Beer thon the hw oceuit bree tg, Sa 2h substation, epCaKsCHGCICee Tusted ang 2 WC CsCoCiCiCe aan example Coridr vere phase cats in acomson tn edo awaland unencosed, sng srl crethemeplsicnsiod cables able ADV, nan arbre 25° toad is 1A per phase. ype 8 carers are tbe se 20 Aceves From Tbe #5, Cg= 108 (Gu 0.60 on | coun Sf Table 41 |. asno then elton {C.Ca.G Com 1 as ype deviant he cables re not neal the gourd WG. escaGcie Sologow reds tx x1 atx 3244 tom Tle DIK ech, $= 8 cupmanmeeeceu 4 4.42 Overcurrent protection of conductors in parallel Ideal cables in prl ae alowed by 85 267, se Reguaton 5232. They ae ‘omrmanly se igh cent supes © man suitchibas when sel cables suber conentcmngcapacty no ovale to acter The paced ta be pled 1 Deteme 2 Skt sevice ype an ing, 20th ys 3 Usng Table 4, knowng the rence mead andthe numba of kas deternine the up ang fc Cy Sele cables sch hat MCC CG Ce Rok to aprcpate able Append #1 sim the cable condos Example Cone» 760 Ad, o be supe byt sree exper 20°C themosting initd nonarowed cables pr pst al ised on hota ay nd uch 1 arson 2 Dose type ard rang 800A MCCB soy = 800 8 5 ftwo calles per phase acto be used fo al tom Tbe 4S fr erence metiod (Ne 5), C=O As cles a not BE din he pure abies assumed to be 30°C GEGGGCa1 43 hjnc=800%2 x09 = 440 5 Tole 42th, colam 9 gves 150 re with rang of 468 A ‘Tee, 2150 min aes per pose aed ne! any wold be eed 4.5 Protection against fault current only (omission of overload protection) Note Thee a many casmeure whee the ote deve wil be prog aut encore pn poms, emer en io ‘The geal equation ube oer pecan int egies NENG ECCGOC asp (Gand Coil be 1 se secon 43.5 and poe 4 of Append 4 of BS 7671: 508 ako Secton a6 on on-sataneaisovetoad) 4 Example ‘Aste example of secton 44, expt that ein pectin nt nessa Nee nCEGCuCe lee AOSD E MOSH Tx T= 275A oem Tibi DIA cahie 5 $= a? ‘This eqizn appropri fer motr iets wher the mate starer provides oxetoad precio, end for chets supe ned ons 85 707 alls i se oy ed Feds for ecmpe wate heates; howe, ti Ul proce ovtod petecton less is mpracicabie(epulain 4552), (ee secton 8 for motor reas) ‘The omison a read protean isa aloued vere unexpeied disconnection woul aise dongs sex Regt 453.33, ora potcon rat pied thn the abate check of Regulation 4545.25 ‘arid ot Ths isthe same check as rpc conducts (Chapter 8) ac 252 s2El Geatanpostin tt ES deme 9 she 'Sithe cosectinl rnof conductor iam? | ie the ete od arent a ompetes, presse or aca the ms vale. due acount berg len of the careening et fhe crit Irgedanes 1 ithe daston in seconds of the fut curent isa lctertaing occur of he easy epee cette heat ‘apc fhe conduct ral andthe sppepate al id fr terperzes forthe common mitral se ale &31 of 65 7671 tis otabes to = Uo/ fem the dcechaacrssin Appa of BS 7671, ore manwacrr an ki Table 31 08 757 The abst ution may nt conrey any ined understanding, Honeve the ‘eqn canbe rerangd io eve cay demons objcve a flew: ewes hes rs proprens!t the thermal ney lt ugh bythe pete device Under tenor 125 isthe tema apaiy ofthe conduct cemsamngeeeses 4 Vigere a tethaignerey of occur dees emt — Seen [ I | s } i i ‘ i oa OLA comet te oon = i : 3 ona 1A ww 100KA ‘om * 6 Corrections for grouping not liable to simultaneous overload Conectons for gouring ae usualy made 2s descibed shove in 43. However i he cles oe lable to elon but nt lle wo simultaneous oad, stead Of equator 441 Gh W/GyCuCe CACC) the use (ba ofthe lone two formule may alow sale able be ve 2 [2 aaa hee a & wt 4 the are conecons also o be mae or aber tempat, ation buted ables ed sa eae ses, he eatin become —— TERRES BEGG ie. stb gst thn or equal tho lager oth no ost cble rupings we ull to be lable bah india nd to srahoneous toad example Corser fne tree phase ets eb oretbogbutrtsnutaneousyin common tunkng ned toa nal and unendosed usngsngecretreropltcinute cables tole «DIA inanamien of 25°C Loads 17 8 pe pze. ype cu beakers tetobeed orc Tbe 1 | eno thermal ston (Com hastpe 8 autres 6 Cyand C= 1s cables a ot iste inthe oun te ae “GEGWGTe SEGe ‘rust be equ oo gster han 275 Aad om Table AOA rn? cable can be teed cupmanmeeeceu Figure 2 sang 4.7 Motors Meormsavite TU — “ae = “ie Repost ete) Cp Soe ‘he suring caret fr dren ine staring can be upto 8 times hiHad eaten. witha surg que 15 2 tines eed mie State stair can de sarirg oar The machine i connec in tr his. rung op ped tenses fo eta concta The ine aren 1/8 Gat ut sar xq ecco V3 ‘The cable supligthe mer tec les Sed wo he the mae oad (oninues rr pcm 1000 gy, _ wet «1000 Tr Bouse shee th motoring the vag ete Ines kw ethematrrang ne ces the motor power fac Secaseo high string cates he overated wl be moat thas of sh ng ht yl tnd he srg ges Example 1 Corer 9 18 mtr at 400 wth lend power feterot a8 rmotrh~1000 _ __16%1000 *°"FaUncos ~ xa00-08 Fultoud caren i 29 Aan 32850 motr few 5 88 (B5 EN 602692) is selected o event sng serine. = 094 example 2 _Aezre 9 fu care amazed herent inetd able 90min kg sto be eed ard nl be ped wa pero able ay Tbe DAA of 57671 nates 4? faxcarecable would be sabe. proposed to use te cable amour as the Cheuk prectve condi. ‘3250 fuse has a coninuus caer aig of 32 A, but behaves thew a @ SoAtise, grr ui ne 4 Cay the 32450 wi ret poi ovetoad potecon: ths & roid bythe motor "Enea tbe cometh the se wl pctet bth the conductors nd the ace (te cable te vee ofa a. Lets aime he moar oe supe om dbuton bose Co Fg 64 9 secian 652, Net: fr the nt ats of lage ittlaon 2 np the pict 20"Cendacdcarecan tthe oping enpseue e seton 632 7 008a7 - 0: 1-2 2a = 09583" 00897" = 096 ad = 282 = 240A Flom Fewe 325 (2) of Apna of 8 767 (See hope 8, thesamnacon ime Hora SoA ane wth fade marta 20 he 3 we Using the fora k wher kis ven by Tb 48 857671 Forte nc condo 52 ES 201 an? TE ‘The cabl coe seis mm so thsi nitty ors BES. «709 mm Forthe amour $= Fomcolum 4 Tle, thea ofthe armauing 35 mn? sth saison. Example 3 ‘nen 2 tee phase mos conve by a stata starter the ends of the vee rc windings te exterded om the md eas the stat, Te execs the windrgs tr for stared eta foram we made theses gue 42. The steady runing cert) each ofthe sx conduc beteen asada stoner and soto 1 (38) that reg te canccors sping te sare, lotr Eerste 4 |. (om poston deta cennsctad) = 208301 hee ihe winding cen Look ae * 95 “The 6 cables (cuts) comectrg he motor tote starter sul un in common cont orrurkng Te CI (sonen #55) pues a grup ring tr Gf 08 or ‘Sich an arangore A proce fr the select of tr cables tated bythe folonng example, ‘une bad cane 37 A ‘Supply cable, io be eeere theme (PIC) SUA on 2 pst Wa smrvert epee 30°C (Cy Ce Ce Ca Ge Ce= De Motor cables, 1 besingle-are 70 Cheeta (0) in condi, ‘ict iempeatte 40° (C= 087, Tbe 48), double cat enclosed (= 0.8 le 4, Fox the suppl cable Repaton 4551. (2) s met by asta or which RECO AGO 40/0 11TH ‘tres cor Gm? cable hea tabu ang 5 8 lun “able 008). the delayed oveld tps operate ts, 50), condion (of ego 4351, Ia 145 hee = CoC CoG ee Sectn 4.2.5 fr, Ismet because |y= 504 ard 145x451 TxD 1D 404, 654 For the motor cables te poses eques tat, A EbBGECCEGC= 4OKN5 x087 2082 TET ET ED 6am sgl ore cadies cant he nave ase cet ube ab, 1036 Ae selected ee clan 5 of table 4014. fovea protections satan fre spy cabs the mor cables il also be protected. This can be demonstaed a flons: Ip=s0 (which alse assent) Forthe maces, wich ar a double cutie, = NCeG = se Ua UB 1 =254 oe Tene euler of hs cert inte dea comeced mo cablesis Wx3625— 65 Cconsaquerty he mm? moot cables ae poet y te von tips 2508) in Be Ine conduc enanperinace 4 Voltage drop 5 = Consumers installations 1 Correction fr load power 1 Distribution system voltage fee rp 1 Correction for conductor m Basicvatage drop operating temperature ‘akstation 1 Correction for both conductor . “e ‘operating temperature and Correction for inducten wee 5.1 Voltage drop in consumers’ installations 185 7671 reqs tha unde nema serve cod he voltage atthe tra of Ay fed amenising egret al be peter hn the lewer bt conespereng 2 ‘ic Gr Sirdar loerto he eqn Thor smo psc wig dop eqarerert ‘raxh The vologe op shoud empl not exces tat forthe pope wrk ote ‘expen. ‘emus pees ease a ey Yn aera ne ect Sly uit and Coty Regan 2002 (et, ah opp woke twin henge 250 Vrs 1h fo 250 Vins 68) fe vlog op been te ‘orga the waitin (ol he spp emnsh) a heed port nt pres fon 30 fhe aor ego iphing cats od 5% orate rete A geste woage dp may be accepted fora meter ding starting periods and for ther equpment wit high inh cares rode thats verti tht the ‘ohoge veratons ste wth the Ins spel nthe fleet Orth Standos ferthe equpmen off the absence oe Best Sanda, accornce Wy the rmouloetienecommendabore 5.2. Distribution system voltage drop Lage inaltionscanot be dasged oa tol vokage op of Ste fhe votage 2 te erg thin he designe’ consel as when te supply fom an 11 000 1/55 Uwontomer ze cn be made sth deety Sty Quy Sd Canny Regtore alowed wage range of +108 9-6. 857671 atu the wet the deered comply Ser te ora supply fom 2 pub low aka stom -Assaringe ntl 250 Viney eathat he bs cones ie ope air ighest ‘ola cuidbe 250 ps 10% that 250 +25 = 255 Vande owest 250 Vis ‘i thats 280 ~ 188 = 216.2, ga tot wage dp of 36.8 Yor 14.5% of 253 U These woud be vakoge ops tothe orga fhe ns cut, long the we of and irl cet with 3 aha Se. So aks op. date ee es ‘A corsa ito 220V ate pit fuse woud alow 28 Vin he Sib (Gm of 255 ¥ am Fgue 51), and 92 inthe fr cu (of 250) hasbeen ‘sepedin thee Below "¥Figure 1 Dsvuten sem okage op traneformar 11 000 ¥/439 ¥ a vohage 2537 + vo valtoge op it dinsbutan 96 Si soy [+ watoge dep in in evevits 3 ——| hee + yeloge range — ree Belay 2582200 ote al eats wa dod 5.3 Basic voltage drop calculation 53.1 Single-phase Te cat the vlogs opin vote busted alu of wage dtp (V/A) ‘tom Append # of 767 hast be mip by he design cue the heat (helen unin raves (0, ad ddd b 1000 ome 0s). vege dep = Lda hee: (GW) isthe abut a cf vage doo na par amp per mete frm Append ¢ of BS 7671 thet length of un mates () 1 the deg came of et 8) The reqierents of 87571 ae deemed obese fora 230 Y spy he saltage op between the ogo the nsalaon ada socket or ned cent sig equpmen does re xed at od sof 250 V, at 15 of 38 or letang thas 65 a Career 9 oor cet wit of 50. in conc an nade Hom Tate 403 method A colon 786 nme able seed fram coun 8 te 2 volage op (pet ampere per mete of 7.3 nW/A/ te length fetes 10m ther hevolage dop © Lingo) 10% 30«(7) 000 Te 21 ines aecepubie a i es ta 119 5 5 53.2 Three-phase voltage drop The ables of Append 4 of 85 7571 sve voage hp df cre cables (or feampl cok 2 and 3 of able ai) thats dc and snge-pase ac, and for ree and furene ces (colar ol Te AOS) tat tre ase a ‘The same otage do is ven for three and ure cables, the presumptions {a Lis. balanced load wth ne ile Naor so tha th caer i the newtal of eau cove cates 2a Fer obuced tee pase bad no nota equed The vlage chop for twcore cabs (sings) isthe vokage dcp nthe Ine to en ge 9230 The wage top for treo and foueore cables (weep isthe vag dep in telnet ine ote, say 400 ying fon ake D8 ni cane an athe od force cae lee dp pean pete W/m) aE Se fe re (WA). The 1 convents vee chase; the dion by te ic neces ere ‘resumed We no wlage op inthe eu example Corsider a troephase 10 KYA meter diet wired with roe cow amoued temopascinalbed abe with a cre lergh 107m Newloadin iA = Stk 1000 ¥5.Ul/100, 8 Slo = S81) hance = (ead in A) 1000/5 = 10 100/5/280 = 14498 where 1 vtge between ies (Y) 1 nora ine vtage to eath(Y) 15 des cure of cat Fic Tete 404A metod coker 01. i? cable sel Fiom Table 4088 coun 4, as we have a tee phase suppl there ia vlage sop (per ampere par rave) of 25 n/m so the ineveloge cep 6 Libgmv/Am) _ 10%144905) 1000 nooo ae ‘The pescentge vlogs cop (53/100) 100% = 0.9% escorts fa 5 "extract rom abe 448 of 857671 OUTAGE DHOE range pean comuctral cede saps Tareermse 53.3 Summing voltage drop Adding percentage voltage drops “Theres an edarag in expesng otoge ops in pevertage msn they can then be aoe ogee direct, eg 2501 te pose dstbuton pus 2 nether Srgephoe ore pace ina rte 8 oval both cae Surnming voltage drops “oad tre tase volage dps expressed in oso sng shase tage dps it sel the tres pase valage op mus be cided by V3, Example Cormier 40 V dsb cable wih leone vtage dap of Ste ard a sgl se cit surpled ty he debt cable wih eo mata alge ep ol 8, hat the eval vag dp othe en of he inf phase cuit? _Ading percentage voage ops: 58 + 4859850230 9/1 207 Summing voltage drops: tc 00 Vis 20 Vine votge dep dd by VS eae pase votage dp of 20/8 = 185 V6 of 280 V6 92 ¥ Tot vlage Gop 155 +92 20,751 (They ae nt exact te same 2s 400) not exacty 250) 5.4 Correction for inductance Fox cables hag condos of 16? or ss rose econ ae he nuances tHe not wgrieart ond (VIN), vies ory oe tabled Fe cables hoor fonds ets thn 16 me Cosrsecboa te, te mpedanc elves ere gen 2 (nW/Ahm) togtar wth te esse compos (nV), andthe reece oenganet in sete exact om Tale 4048 gen ear nd Tae Ha below Cait teiom mé deinen | 62 ‘cables tune restanc ad inductance andthe inductance gute sii for al able ies. However abies 16 an sot, ves of idan ae not Prod siti neg compured withthe ressinee "he poner lac fe ais at noun the 2 alec loge dopShoddbe used. ‘hen eomecons are 1 be mae er land power oc, an les ae Se, se seetan 55 \horethe load power fcorisnat iraun wchage dp is detrminedusngihe formu Aetage ep = EECA 1 Table aun of 25267. NOLTAGEDROR orange pret: _—__Candter petit ccaceetinal shee Use. the open cet phase votoge 7. the phase impedance of the nse or soppy Zp Shelve mpeaance ote datrbutien le Zr he impedanee ofthe PN conduct 2)" ithe le impedence of Be cet ine conductor 2) the ret mpesince fhe cut neta corto 2). the impeince ofthe cu protec conduc iat eb 6 ‘Ata aos th twee phases s cose the wos ase, 5 uch 2 fa the reste et tos no sentcarce ad nelle! odes ie wap enpedance, Os Iron the alt ce Uc, Smt Woot * Eelo hers ly themaxmam prorpectie faut cer peau when the conductors eco ata aber terpeatre on 3 vlan act fx mat ales spectied in 8 EN 60909 or ‘atin arpa 1 a str wth a wage ange +108) 6.3.2 Calculation - minimum prospective fault current lt Todeterie eo at beaker illopetein the egted ccrnecton ie, ‘ewer, that the ston ere the ut cnet a mT, mse consteed. “emu pomp ad ce hen by omen oa feuat the eciery of theca so Pgs 6 Gath, Trea Gt CECT where ly sthe minimum pospecive ath fut caret oy 3 vkage factor fo minum ait cen pein BS EN 60009 se ‘G/ecs conection face appropt tthe normal operating temperate ot ‘hecendic as caelaed with the conduc fhe oop & nomal operating trp, 0 8 oneton factors poe oe este een conducts 6.3.3 Example caleulations Fit 64 show debut atm fori he designer nee to determine 1 the matinum prospective fait cer 2thebusbas teach tito board irda select equipment Gch ad use geno ster aut eng oe |W rau ea loop amped atthe ed of each dsrbuion aera ‘ecb ots eenraceton crs mee sent of at 9 th ne ‘eauted tee. The equpmentimpedances we gen inthe ables of Appar The caaliton & mote eal labubted the resoce ot opemting tempers ie cbtaned by aking 9 corecion to the restance at arbiet.Thevetance st aries equted fr the annum shor creutaertateach board. These active ‘etn fos a tated in Append, Table 97 “The prductt hese carecon tors an the andr estan a 20% ges the occas a | 3g 2 ° ma som Oe nlite sae re tien 6 6 Seal fo etutonf poxpeive fl cures ads bin sys ab que 6 npence ae talon am he abies ol Aopen 1. thee-phaseto earth fault cumrent at 8 ete Terpertre cncion tat pled er tee she oath als ee the wt ‘onaton el neon tg or ~YO00EAT OTSA? - 00208 0 |= 1230700204 12 4008 (phase vag of 11280 sumed forthe open cet oage at teins ofthevartomes) Stchgere 8 rust hove © feu ntrutng caveciy ceeding 125 KA. 85 882 ‘res a tbe ured which hoe aed shortcut eapacy of 5 Kee Te. 2. Thvee-phase to cath ful cutrent at ¢ tq -N@oF = AaDTEaT DORA? = 00819 0 pei azsorm0s19= 79188 ‘The cat bcos at Cave obese for fault eof 8000 when backed bya s15A85 862 hue “Cnrnanceeeaentos | 7 6 3. arth aut loop impedance at ¢ Note 2: Caz fe 20°19 70° fea arin concer 90-20) <004 202d Ge ae), The crecon ter ony apie ae ese epee inpetnee te cient a 20-C 2“ ea ete US FD (Go" 29) non0N5— 018 sabe) 2e- NaceiG 00597" = 01.0 |= 11 4250/01 =25504 Fo Tbe Fis a arent sufcen to opete the 315 fuse at Btn Theee-phase to earth fault current at D 24 NooTaa7 OAT? - 0079. |= 1 4230/0079= 32024 aia mean | 16 5 Earth aut loop impedance at Nett: alert lees ol IE thst od edie oop irpediness eso fl bal orga a= VOTBIS OORT? = 019180 Table 45 of 8 7671 indcates ta is ep ipodance suffered ou forthe Irataraneous operon of 6 Adee at bot ype 23, Band, bt ot 6 kart fol op impedance at © ew 5th cosaconl a an sce ass of el and ich ht a noes a VoaaeeGNRET? «04679 0 32 A ceuttester types xe D (ond 4) eperate nstartanecsy with 2 op ingetenc of 047 0. “cnemnanceeenartocs | 7 iat tbr 6 RCT ry at] ol naton 2) ‘cron Surety ison 1 Shock protection 1 Great caeulations 1 Automatic disconnection of Eeatneetin 0) Soe aerate cee 810 TLL Shock protection 741 Introduction 72 Protective measure: automatic disconnection of 185 7671 requis wo nes of defence (pete provisions apa etc shock supply 1 si protection (gst dct aia tht one shoul rt beable to direct These mesa Mase enrteten of pet met ‘each epee in RE pacers, 1 besten provided yen me pty ee ees Haut protection prod by ‘Fewest 2 contig ascent a pcm 1 protective equipotent bonding and tomate decamectonin case of at. ©) 72.1 Maximum disconnection times 185 7671 sets maimum dsconecten tes ca fats ht met wa ean the cleat meen the ut pcteconreqtements or ava corn OE Sips te Table 3. below Hom 8S 7671 ‘iea)t Table a. of 8 11 tos decrees Wand Tse ee epomenat3°) ESE man pa Ta TE Aa aaa ae 712. Protective measures maw sen tse ‘The conan of» protect potion proving atic roteion and» peta ‘Wiss naar dicen hind a eee aa [pointing feu pleco call 6 pte re etl 7 sth Sadie nai cto annonces coins mnie ‘Saconmeton nee oper to syn y eae {themida art ‘Were somes sts rain previo a8 RD. te retin nes Inscortnce ith ate seats rnpertieren crn neon usmeueeenete | 7 ecg 185 7671 reas the dsconacion time fr TN systems to 5 seconds and fo TT systems I seander ‘al creuts exceearg 52 Aare B cubation ces 722 Current causing automatic operation of protective device within the required time (1) rider achieve dsconecon th reed tne it's necessary stent at cet Howto rae the fea peat the cst eke hen Vis sunt age to cause option ofthe device in Be required tne Is cole, Ths autem t ease dceeneton othe equted re 1 us fem the deve chrecerstes For earoe see Fgue 384 fom Aopen 3 of 85 767, reproduced blow Tani eersin reading tom the lgptinsc as, he keystone the tap gt ol the cheacentcs. Foceiample 6237 Atype Brut rene 5 EN 60208 the cert cause ‘pation nd tS ie pren a 16D tare etwas ean 85767 be ate deed cae cpeton no Strdsssteame font ane seal I Aneudreult ie 2 Abeer pp ina ts wa cent 10h en pean 8 1 Figure 384 of B 2671 r/c haces ope 8 rasa 2 712.3 maximum earth fault lop impedance (Za) Inorerfrthe miriam cath tt arent (tow eat fot bop impedance (Gp otthe end of te crest rast ot eces the ave gen by ae Example Corser 52 ype cubes, rom Fgue 348 of 85 7671 above setae a Fait he caves ecu of 160A segue, The maximumlocp rpedaoce wt Rounded vp the isthe vale gen in Tele 41.3 of 8 7671 reproduce bo a 1 Table 413085 7071 Ninn cath too npn ccs Hes We Uo 250 Terraatanearepeisiongung moto it fe 08s coeton et een atuszzand3s comes ect Bean $1132 or RAD se bo Region ama) ‘etry crue to BS RN conan he onereronchraterits of REROS Go ES 3 sanaaaaaii zen ‘= aa a (6) Type Dive relent BS EN 6m and the overerret carats 1 hon rear tc ‘Rae Ts ciao ign can al ame a aC ae Senta cris These mainen sls of 2 (cle ZN side) 25 he nee bow the tbe dots tu act be eeded sho te Snes et at sol oping Tempemtue eg, 70°C fr thamopiasi (PC) sued ces 1 igure 72 Simple 73. Circuit calculations rats re dese to meet the sock poet eee by ing the earth {elt loos impedes othe ed ofthe he 2 10th manenen vas ven Tables 821 ao 8 76724) 12,424 andthe vec, sits Hence the vectra 2.+2)+23 25 mn coperequialer if grote aatst mechanics damage, > 0 mm copper equnaler otherwise ‘ole 812 has been repre on he Boss of Tbe 57 te neo rel conde ‘te of p10 50 rm Forge ses he act equ hn een ued eS 2 ize sae and asuming thatthe eat ad op mpednce sch ast ge S$ ‘ecennecon. ‘he elect didi wl mal equ a miu sie eebing end of 16mm? fersuplis upto 100 Eeciy dstbuten syste are exe fom the szope of 5 771 Eeguaton 1102) ad soa disconnection cf suppin 5 siera Ine 8 ‘Yate e12 tating sd rn protect beng conc te (appr open er TS nd LCS soles +200 250 515 400 500 500 550 inpacictee 5 6 6 0 BB Bm 1 Rote con. (nar ein an bandg conc 10 mr cos sce 3 crs sabe cp pons) 2 bore amare may gu amnmum soe teat concior athe org ath apt mm topper pe er TWS and NCS aps 2 ed eotingcraon rue at 25m cope ct peo gis ech mage eas ‘Sotmn suatat peeoad goes maul damage econ Torey ape nat pogo ehnca dare St pees prt arene ‘si? eae se nt peed pes medal anos ba pONC BS SCN (Ges and egaon ss 14 Sofi ee ad bl, 1 cry dovbvoreshaldbe cna ban in ob (6 Conk se dewrined ing Tae 547 85767 S00) 112 Main protective bonding conductors ‘Alabatc cladatons ae not equted to deterine the rss-sectona area of main ppotecive bod conductors alton tetas nstees | 105 8 "¥Table $48.0 85 261 iim cosseconl acl He nan pole boning Candin ratan to fest of be ete oc ean nett condone eg cna ‘Cons saan ronan anal Minima opps oun cae “ese neiconer oo “Thema caper opting yee ong 8.1.5 Supplementary bonding conductors 52 G..Minimum sites Tho requirements of Rguaion $442 a surmarznd in Table 815 1 tale B15 sugleremany bong conduc esr) + ane the etrececandicve gas connec an epee ocx pt the bre candi Isto rosma ant gaat corm 1 2 452 113.2 Maximum length of supplementary bonding conductors Retin 41522 reites tther ond be met. part 7 of 857671 For For 7 caren ths condition almost lays comple with, as Regustion ‘544.21 stsa minmum aplenty bonding congue condctnce of ht ofthe Salo sales cat psec condor Corsider type C cbs asthe euitrekes wih ih loans the mbm ressaree Fond lengh fr serous suppemertxy bonding conduc ies are ‘aladdin able 814 and for BS 862s, THB, Supplementary bonding sonny any ppd al cats soles dice ats he not been considered. Suppemenany bende conducts a ay texted Tams length sa eran be sean em the dat Tables 8 and 15 angie a aly be ted cemsamngeeeses 8 8 {YTable a4 Tipe Ceb -masimum eng of spams boning cons to ‘mown gion 1 ie Fg 25 of Append lS 76 2 ii bat bri cope pec once im at 6A ppc as "¥Table 25 65 532 fie - masa lenght sploreniny bndg conics to ‘ono ah eglton 45 er oo on besiofeve 3h ved Sf 856 2 hom wert aug tmionoee | 106 Calculations Fitter MUU 1 General 1 Earth ful loop impedence 25 = continuity 1 Reduced section protective conductors fone 9.1 General ‘The tests (a measurements) cared cut rng and on completion ofan station satay equ curs ae fhe measuemen’ er: > cant and > earth Taloop impedance Y Figures Sakis otetioate ret laline etd nitees 109 9.2 Continuity Cohrrne 1S and 14 of he Schedule of Test Remits (4 Faye 81) reqie restart of +R) sy bene The measure of» Ri) oe ‘ray be smo continuity est overly hat he Ine and prtecve contest Continous (+8) may debe recreate cn cheng at he ert a loop impedence sulin lw see secon 33, ecvians hang cared cua comity est and mesived (+ Ry) need ‘ont athe reading eproprate fo! he estate ert of cable iste end tre oben teperate. The ales be wie ar a2 o Append Example Corser a shower wie in 10 re? shermeplasic sled twin cable with 4? Protective condictr of eg 10 m tan ambient of 10°C. ‘The oe of (+) mewsred is eked epithe vole (+R) in Tle rules by he abe length estan ot able op ey FD en RLY = 64 maynx 10m =644 mi 00648 1 This the stance a 20% ‘Toco for an arin terpertre of 10% Tbe F:2 i se, ad the conection focer penis 096. edu te trpertue vedic conductor estan estan of cable ep careced io 10°C =00644x0960=0082.0 9.3 Earth fault loop impedance 2, 9.3.1 BS 7671 earth fault loop impedance tables Cohrrn 18 ofthe Schule of Test Results (gue 2) reutes he ea faut hep impedance, bred, Tete then mus checthat the ean Sasori ‘Ths normaly beast ges > provided bythe desire ot > fem sane ets see Cape of th erin uid, ot stand est vals See Append Ba the Or Ste Cue This chapter considers how theo test gues ae caked Tebes 4121 45 of 8 7671 provide maki ea oop mpedanes wich rust re be exceeded at condor maeruan operingtrpetai 59/70 °C or theropotcnlaton Pete see te rtes Takes 4281.4 Tale 1.3 gen alone 2 ample, 9 $6485 267 xr ext ot bop mpi ect neias wih Up 230%, Terman open ung compare he sdocomecton me epson {S23 a tenet et apn 81323 api enero RSEN cad wer carter oF RENO ‘ioe tea (0) trae Cc reer oS EN 6bbuad the vercurent characteristic of RCHO® oS ‘Leinster (ety Dre reakers to SEN 840 andthe eerureon! hares oF RCBO ioumy a ae 7 ‘Noth icp pace eet eae hn he nitrate ae ‘Semateprsnctepertare the nutes aieren ampere ma ed bcs) 914.2 Earth fault loop impedance corrections for temperature \inen canjngeuttesingat an rslaton, the conducts wilnctbe at ths opera, terpectire of 5) 20° er heres uted cal They wl be 2th ste tient temperate Consequet Tables 41.2 alt BS 7671 cnn be used terest apes poses ihe ads Resstannzs at 70°C te 204 ihe ton a7 20°C, st putes must be loner han he deg sy) 1 hoe taken fom fib #12 ee. ‘The simplest appeach is © apy the conection face C350 used Chap 6 ‘See Table 3 in Aopen Fulich hows canucr wero conection Toca Ce nein fom 20° ender apeaing temper Forsrole comson 20°C, Zu 2a /C For comersono asthe aie (920°C), te = ZnCl ‘eo Table 2 in Appa which shows the ambient emperaure muti Crt be apple table ressarces fo conve esstznces 220 oer ambit ‘Sree, Se so section 102. cupmanmeeeceu 9 sar Corer 2 32 type 8 croutbeakrprotcing 2 seco cat wed wih ‘hermopisic nadated and sheathed ele Table 413 of 85 7671 ges a maimum eat a op impedance (i. 2) of 144 os. “he caracion ator om Title FB 12,19 corect'0 20°C Hence the est ap impedance at 20°C must nat enceed ea 20/6 1s wished to coectio 10°C futher coven can be ep endthe aca "ble F2 wed Go = 096 a2-128 2a ™ZaGeG= 144 2096/12— 115.0 To covet move acutely Hom 70°C 1 10%, the oul gue in Sein 102s yom + 0004(70—10)8i> = 124R%0 Inthe earrpe, 2 2/128 = L44/124= 116 “isthe wae ges nde Be re Gl wc 10 "Cees assim oe! Ty ste topes, 9.4 Reduced section protective conductors ike proce ducer of edced cosssectinel ey, thats ethan atthe lne conus ¢dscomecton tee es than at pecessay fr shackproecion ney berequred Tis most ily crf Ksesn rae ithup os dscomecten Sires an wrest for crcl ccs deed 2 Be totes pees intone, “These cakes fe somenht dius ae wht they ae cerry not beyond the abaya an eer oa cesar fey ate not something that an ection woud ‘vant cary out on» regdr bass when tering forthe veazon ables have been Pepued fo eon ste. The use ales Append & of the nS Gude (OSC) pride mairan lop impedances ony each fase ating But fr each hse Ieanbe seen tom O56 Table 82 eroducedbio hat for sal protective conductor ‘te the mas et ep npeanee uve For craitbresn, the miimum conductor en incidng protective conductor isa aeutes i Secton 85 Macmum tet ocp impedances are as calcd seatan 83, Chapter 8 on prtctne conducers provides infomation 2st How these futher edicts loop impedncas ae clase’ 9 9 1 tale of O56 Msxmim remcrh in bopimpedics (hs) whe Se cree eee devs 'na obs 6829 w Bs Cea (rede oranbert pee 10Can ables pease ‘air pean ol 70% ota prec coc Ss)* 1 04 ésconmection in rats not exceeding SA in TN ystems) iy 89 alae 1 Ssczonnecton ral ess excesting 2 hand csibaon ces in Nsom) ‘vd ko 15 fa ale 4.3 BS 767 ind Thi ble Cina (shots eats Iie, 7 Bol 8 04 an termsocting SH) ‘raed ne sec alert be 39 Sor 095 72 Teka don ah heherapesic (WC) and Sete epasingaranmumemowaet “Soanmnctenratcteee | 9 m0 Impedance of copper §[1) and aluminium conductors 1 Introduction 1m Resistance and temperature 1 impedance of cables from ‘voltage drop tables 10.1 Introduction Ths chip euetae nate mere deal than eewhere te ude he cevaton (eft fr aati ol condor estan wh temperate, 10.2 Conductor resistance and temperature The restnce ofa conductor produces heat in accordance ith the equation PR “hs bat wl eth temperature of the cnc and is aon and eae te essence of he canfucio, The change of vesstace (but no inde oF ‘actos th Yenpertre scan. The resstance ofa cpper conser ingesnes brs 20% fs termoetie es er 20°00 70°C, Corectors er temperature cn be made using the equate: R=(1 + 0f-20)859 whee Ry esitanceatiemerauret Rasa teatece a 20°C a Serpentis coticent ot esstance Voli of coeficent of esslance «for coments at 20 %C ae ie in Table 10 * svete le of 0004 se bob expr and eur conics ‘ergs cocina ou pain. Chesser otc |S 1 igure 103 Seglrpine cet 10 Thoequsion = + at-20))ia becomes R= [1 + 0.004(t—20)Rao fr opPEr nd amin ends, Reference his equation made below Tbe £2 (12 of he Ont Gu) and is ied to ropa Table 3 (5 0 the Or Ste Gu). exam Flom Re= (t+ 00040~203Ran: ‘he coneeton aco om 20°C 19 TO-CI6 Ry 1 +0040 = 208 Te caecten ft fem 20°C 90°C Rg = [1 + 0.00490 ~ 20) hee Roe = 128 Ro The corecton fcr fam 20 "Co 30°C Ra 1 -0008(80- 20) “These ae the ves sen in bl Fond Table ofthe On Ste Gute and ate Ue whan elltng conductor stances cpeeing pert om conor resstences a 20°C (Table Fl and Tae the Sie Gade) 10.3 Impedance of cables from voltage drop tables ‘he vlage dep tables of Append of BS 767! can be wed 860 source of the ressonce ant rentnce pr rete othe cables abit 103.1 Single-phase “bulatod (n/n) wage cep feu om Append 4 of BS 7671 can be ud > chain ressance(t 20°C) and eactaree by 1 comecing fom mairum operating imperautto 20°C g fr tbameplsic inated cables fom 70a 20 or fhe esac elmet(n// mony, this rg by 12, and Wg bo Biren um by 2 ‘abut tage dp indus volag op ithe Ine ad the ne Sh ‘Single- i hose : + g From Figwe 101 shor shage dep using (0) Ben by Wotage dop= LGR +31) + (6 Ry pHa ator imei | AN ier 102 ie freee 10 Ven Ine an pura ae he ere ce than otage dop = 2G +3) where: Lsthelengh fhe able (m) 1 theload erent) Ry +X, arte restr a reaence mn pet mete at 20°% isthe candicorempetre muir er Tole FS, sia th ablated (n/n, wage dop = Lr in, he Linn), + rh or eet 620 CGR +X") and erm, + (WAU ee 2G Ry +) example Fem cluma 3 of Table 4028 of 857671 (8 below fo 25 mn? twrcore cable (W/W 75 mH Vn ae (A= 0170 ew Ice Ry = (nW/APmY/2G, = 1752 x 12) = 0729 Am compared with (0727 Ahm of Tbe FIA and = (W/n)/2) = OX7O/2 = GBS mA Compared wit 009 c/n oT 7A. 10:32 Three-phase The tee feureae thee phse vg Sop figures (n/N) cn abo be rod ota resitanc (or Table) eda 1 cxrecing tom minum operating terperare to 20°C, eg or termenasic ‘sted ables tor 700 20° fhe esstanceeeere (Anon, thats ding by 12, a 'W_cxsang oon te ressanc (nv/Am, anc reactance (W/m, by XS, ae ‘bulsedvloge cop ht fhe nero ne velge. Fem Fg 10:2 vatage hp in och ne condor +0 ower the etage chpsin each Ine conduct ate notin pase, othe vectra {38 the Ines ie io) ol ice ine but, ence: Lied Gn = VS Ln #3) ad ewsmny rah = GR +) cummeueeneentes | 07 10 yw Note neine aig =, Example From Tbe 29 of 57671 for 25 mn thee otra cable: Cowan) = 18 MINI hence Ry = (nsarnyti3C) 727 A 2 abe E78 15/75 x 12)= 0722 aV/Nm compared wih Ane (r= 045 NI, hen = my) 0148/8) 0.0887 m/AmcompareduthOo3tym bie eosin cade. snephonenc Threpbase se em onnen ___evy —y 1 Figure 14 1 Introduction 1m Cable ratings 1 Voltage drop 1 Overcurrent protection 111 Introduction ‘The electric contol and ecto per supplies o mich equipment can rest in vier cr novawacil bed extent The bask weer can be cone! 8 he futher woreonmesapesmpoed upon wth equeces ht ae ruliples of theboee or inden wean. Tere aeons vstrms are called monic ‘fan these hamoncs canbe dssegded inthe desgn of elect instalation; hee, as hamons rd od alii ofthe id htmeni coat (ales een hones). The plen heron arte of dace lps can be of the ocr ot 25th tot Ramee distro of 80% and the scree peer spies of Compues cn produce pln harman of theo of 70% ih att ammo ‘dacion of 7, snd 10% not nrc, Normal tats undamerta 30 He vee phase lad cures, # baad canes out ir th neutal The 6a nasal consequence ef the 120-eyee time cepacmert beeen he poses, see Figue 111 Pha opcamert temo atechemans However hed and ether pen hamonics donot ancl in he nual but sm 9 ‘at he revel cent eqs he su athe tiplen hamonc of ach phase These mene eens cn fle > abe ratigs| > lage > crane poecton > ter equoment eg UPS and rontormers oleeaciinentceans | 19 W S05) 12 Cable ratings 21 tk The abt carta cepacies in Append 4 of 8 7671 are the sane or th we and four bles Tass teesuee a srued that och nw iecanrg treed caret ethereal rent se o He rel oat not eo ‘eta mbaone between the te les, te ciretin the petal ile balnced byareducionnenecr post tv ol eles. Ths understanding etal thee ate harmonics in tha ine cer parscry fee ae pln harmonies hats 3, Sty Ish tea these ot cana out he aa bu su ig 1 shows ‘hehe hamonics in each he ee les ain phase aed Sum the nea Iu the newt acer om i harmoes 1S the tintomertal ne cert 1 the uple harmonicas 2 pecenage of the fudarertal ne) caren “tay ther ene teeta pe are cman ne ‘he eect of this harmonic neutl caren so deat the cable the tpl harmenic content exceeds 10%, the neual conduct should ntbe of edced Coss secon ‘wea the amon conan ceeds 158, he cable must be dated (abs 1 andl. Doble she able Hirvonen eg 3 Homenicamens uc te ing ofa he netl ent eds 3566 ‘Hele carer andseecon ebazeon he escent rang pled. 100 2345 398-185 OBB NNT + tye sivl00 kore eens Catarina | 120 Nl example 1 oredr sea of 200 wth harmonic content of 20%t0 be upped by foucore fsblecn cable, “le 112 adie cable of ating 200/086 be slated ats 255A Table 4044 of 57671 reais 395 mn? cable Without hammoics 270 mn? cable ‘sous be stab. example Conard of 200A ith harmorc cont of 40%, The neta cert n= 3280-200 2408 ible 1. adises a cable rang of (eur ererdyO6, therfore cable ang = 2a0y0s6=2794 Table A018 of BS 767 regues a 120 en eb 113 Voltage drop Tiple hamonics have a compound eet en vtage dop AS wall as prod ingessedvolage dop die to the cue in te newal te vatage dop sd irae because the wplehamoncs nccae the elecive nacre oe ale. rece reaction (2a) s proprio! to feaueney the he the equecy the Igor thence chance ‘The general euston fr vhage dep rom Append 5 7671 abo: ge dop = EB 0 (n/n +500 WIAD wher Lethe tngtn ote cable hy isthe ood is stheponertacer (ra/ayn) an (1) age drop wus (ne per amp pet mete) ‘ven Arpenda tr the spprope able For cate ses up to 16m the simple formula can be used es lows: erage hop =H cos (W/m) These louise when used fr thee phase cet assume 2 blanc aa hats 1 neil neutal crest. or lad thigh thd heme cont th neal ‘ue otto and the induce reactance ofthe cable cees. Therese ‘kage cop farmue ae gen bo. elton econ ndteons | In (able sizes large than 16am? wage >= nin eB) (lot: sds pring ths eaten fo themades will pte the newtl eae 's ee teste Ie thé harren, he neural duce wotage opt webled, and ote fegten thee volage cops ao leh need 25 induce reacarce'o the thd Ramen ements tebied) Cable sizes 16 mm and smaller eae do = Ba nn i Examples with cable sine over 16 mn? Corie goin the load of 200 A with thi horenic content of 20% tobe spied bya fester cabie on a cable “ble 112 adie cable of ing 200/085 be selected Hat 235.6 “ale ADA of BS 7671 says 295m? cable should be sled (ad net 70 me? ithe hed hamanie was related), Assume 50 m rgh anda power fact 5. ‘ered 222 pou 222) 0620108!) ‘The lage bo 82s compared ith 41 Vi td herons ae need “The eft s most pronounced fr lange Spc abies, they have realy highindacance Corer fur €30 rm? sngle oe cooper cables (85 7671 Tle AE of length S0'm bid at ardoucingsupaling 2 oad a 1000 A with ated Ramen oer 1 20% ata powe fc of 08 501000, To%0 320) sa4sno.ea(ie220) The votage don oacoonf ua ‘he lage hop = 164 Vo corer with 67 Vf hid hamenis ae neglected 11.4. Overcurrent protection High hamoriccurents inthe oe do rt ec faut cert calusions os faut ‘nets gerry cetemined by se races a ot ad chro, ‘he preston te fac arenes ee cat higher th lod cre. ‘is ier he cove then slonarces il ned be rade owes for oveoad poten isis ot 0 The sil forme, 2 Iy = bs vid for ple harmonic content up 0158, for restr harrier slocton can be dea folios, ee the deve ag [itedin fine eodcios bbre seco on he bec he ae ret fertpletomancconent 0-158 fertplohermanc content >15-35% ye 06 fertplehomaiccanent 235-459 ferplhamaniccanent above 5H andy, whe: Ips the tng he overcnert dicen eine conc isthe tiple hamorc asa percentage of err i) cent 1k eth eorenearyngepacy of cable one parte ntalaon coors ‘erarent protecion may be proved by dveesin the fe conduc: homeer may be appepae oR qxcuert dtcion nthe neual which mus: dsconect relic conducts bt al neces the new Se Regus 4312 For PEN conductors in THC or TCS stems the PEN conductor mist ot be ‘oiiched(Reguston 53712). may be appopi ft an crunk dove in flereural Honeve, hs must dsconect ele conducts and wi at necesaly Prone olen otectan ules are Sete wth naa the hamone tha wpe ramon corer ceeding 38% ofthe uname neu cuers can teceed the Ine cures, rete ae the cern avatars ming the ovraert “secon ihe net condctorhaweve ts ovranet deeton mst asconect the ne condos and care must be taken in coping the approach as theres 2 preston thatthe harmonic coer wl feman constant ve hee ofthe indaleon is props prtaale w degade the ovate potecion nth ine encclrseccorligy tare of alae epoch, cemsamngeeeses nl W Example Corsi a oad of 100. witha hamenic omen 508. This ead canbe protected by 100 dices tein then conducts. Te neta erty gen 3h 4, 350. Ione Bh he = 3252 1100150 8 The cable ang must therelor be at east 180 A Para eC re hg AEP riety introduction 1m The overvoltages 1 Power frequency fault voltage Power frequency stress voltages 1 Earthing of 1K substations 12.1 Introduction ‘This hap coners the reqerent forth pectin of ovata reasons garsttempora oeiages. The equrerents te fandin Chap 4 of BS 7671 fd aso 8S BN 61936": wer raatone exceed 1 HU and 8S EN S052: Eeiting of pow stators excemcig TY parila the Uk aes. Dees eed te mate evento these Std. 12.2 The overvoltages 185 76712008 conser four siuaons whch generally case the most seve tempor oveaager: > fais bewees the tighvologe system and Eath > ess ofthe supp neutain ao elage stem > shororauts ne low vtage staonon > azeideraearhig of alew ota sym Designs need to canst vith the elatcty debut © ebise the floning ilematon wth espe the Mah aka str > the qty (esi) of te neu eating > the mena ea of oh ul cunt > the reesnce ofthe eanng arangement owas he UX anes oS EN 50522 racic the le tuchveages, se Fire 121 below, 12.3 Power frequency fault voltage The mage and duatn of he fu voage Us whch appes inthe low vokage (Gy) satan betacen exposed conducive pars and Eath srl ot eee the "ales gen By the cunein Figure 44.2 of 8 7671 forthe cao fhe at Whe PEN condi’ oth lw sage sytem i cmecedto Eat a ethan one ptt pernited to duet wee I gen in Fie 123 laline etd nitees ns ‘igure 23 ct Gane “ er Toate ta toluge due wancoes aitnnen seme F 0) ‘his chapter cry camer TN Gecidng THC) are TS ate hb TT spteraste sed he UX thy 2c hot genre appeal tothe na tions ge comme nstalaors whch daxgres wil nomaly cue: Should te despre condeing Te systems then mere dtled erence vil need tbe rradeto the ec Sond, “he requremerts wi respect ths chapter for N.C systems ae the some as fr Tec yes athe power tequenyulohage fo TN. TNC and 5, hen be Uy=Re xe forcomman HV and neuen a igus 122 and 124 er Separed HV equpment and LY neual earths 2 pe gues 12 2nd Corian needs oe gen to te se of coer HY equipment natal sth as thas ras common ican be earl Osepuate HV supra and | regutement ofthe eciy Supply Requston replaced byte Hecty Safe, uy end Continy Repl 2002, as hat here dee ves 8 combed tsupment and nel eat then she eiance oe held mo exceed 1 ohn, The crt Sey, Qty and Coney gto, however ne 9 specie requtemere ‘his oeton hat Uy mec he enerent of national nnoe NA of 8S EN 50522 i based onthe simple wart caze where the ov voage sytem nel conductor farted olathe warstenesabsiazen earthng arangerert Wher income ‘sh the rele equterent of 85 EN 61936 ete the PE or PEN earns arth avr porte othe earings part of tal ertng str (a 2719 (oF EC61986-1) the ktable ys tice th Gen Fgue 121 For 2 TNS istalaton cared ou in an indus ste the dese wil nary rules the dsbuton swim prtecive conduct, Where each smn riers 9s bing an anon earth al es Be nai to poi for Wobal extig 12 12 12 Notes to igus 2.210 125: igure 8 Tuseymencomron | yy Ie nt afte crt el carting pte tt avs cag Sts eugene cram atta regomeeaair sn Stetomedeccumrmecrrechedie abn melemsow groper cuinnc Stomper shctions saan ind So pin ena cee wtemeeetina rota Stes eps lo ou ocr been eyo os Taepmo pen os i hte eit rer 1 Seapoar ner een ne ana egmet ong, ton rena = Weercrnen ote wpm ns Wecoretada oan — . wate Salman soca m ieee Soma . az meee = ; res ‘ Ld ica a . t UjeUy — U=U=Up Y= Reig = Uskexteel> ime Uno = Za . ame pment = e UsRexk rls U=Us Uno latent tosis | 127 eat momen | 128 12.4 Power frequency stress voltages ‘The magni and dation fhe pone eauency tes ois pvr by end aint ges ae requted moo exceed he ves of Table 12, Pama srs vss and Table 44.21 85 7671) Uae 20¥ inf sow sl be paced te ete, 1 The autores respec fe poetic ses lag fhe ew cage cipmertl he ansemer aston ae penn ecton 12 2 Thelin oth ube ats hgh ae pars ar ne Sesto ies, Ieuan nd srt eats ghee The sci neve gh lap stone ne ht Scots eagle ‘etn eed nivalis gee eet ergy cri ‘lone wag: eupet w egyd oenporyponer Hen) Ceo (eee3as22 chee eO008, 3 Srropton tae sel coach anagem aera Staab such ror pve que ore aso be eed cess ‘ult unc sat manearbd ncose shone squpmert ee » bung bn TH sytens ith a conenon HY eat, Uy and Up wil nt exe Up 50 9 ‘pect precautions need be ten However en the nel condos oie ‘aan ear arangementdectialy independent ofthe eating rangement of the ‘arslomersbsston sce ques 12 and 125 fr Tyan), te rls leel ‘te bw vekage equpment cl he tenslorersabsaton sal be copa wth te poner tequeney ses volage (Re le Un) ate henson fel fe Lv equa the vrsomesibsaten maybe ger fae tie prev abe 2 12.5 Earthing of 11 kV substations Reautements fo high volageinstalins ae gven in 8S EN 6IS56-1 Power insoles exeding 1 VAC Pat 1: Common fe. Nove deta reqaterers ‘Gr eahing ng vlnge stots re gen in 85 EN 50522 Erbing of power insoftons exzedeg 1 A.A uber of nail aonoes deal wh te paris fequremens forthe United Kngdom, he veqaremers ft EN DUDZE are probably more onerous tan those of HS 7571 and must be complied wih The Heath and Set Exsuive hoe upped the reatements a a means of complng wih the Beciy Seley, Quay and Ceninity Region cemsamngeeeses 12 12 Busbar trunking = Symbols Fault currents 1 Voltage drop 13.1 Symbols The clans rbusba tuning ae considered separately to cablesin conduit nd turing as mrfacurer’ data uly pesereed dtferety The symbot used by marfocurs for usr tuning aon those of CENELEC rep ROS-005 (st Zopendx ©) Tha smo used ns de ethos FBS 7571 and ET gues. bit inthis chaptr he CENELEC sybase 13.2 Voltage drop \alis fr turing vag op (n/n) ae aten gen for speci lad poner {ec andi snow he mest aporopese om Tale 151 selected 1 table 124 ypc tr ming age op (om) te pas 80 rr ha ded omen fe on cote a be Calter vale dps cout eas ete. + caskvc 2001 800. example 1 Consider #200 A thee phase eda a asumed 08 pone car enn tte nerd 20 menthol 315 Ashng, Nelage hop = $00 8x 20m x0190 Vn 40 m= LAV example Corside8 300 thse pase oad atan assured 8 power fico cncenatedat the fet of hewn ofa 20m length of 55 A wang velage op = 500 8x 20m x2 40190 V/A = 2280 = 228 V hon rear tc 1 13 133 Fault currents In abe 13.2, resstane and reactance are gun fora pacar medium power busbar sem [As wel as sesbtance a 20 °C ap), the ble abo gies estan at bad terete ep anda he aveage te tepeene the busbar at ful ad ed that reaced une shrtcet contr (ap) {ytala 182 edu posers ning Med(GR\ +4) OME 0256 OMS tyre 2x 148, idee Sit me Frecondss (nn) pannel reacts Toro 400 rc rt de pla conas our ein casera 2 fre ur ye evento nage a epee 35 cand xa as mae et Femoe vans Coury hs onder sarc E822. Sine the ating of the CENELEC dosent, 5 7671 ha bon amended to ie cath faut op pedances afd erpertur ny (ae ries Teles $1.20 aks th means | 13 414) ard not he average of the temperature ofthe conductor at fl fod and tat teach under she cut contre, Rivas considered that sh deta corecons ‘were urnecessr and probably ss acct eres seen = nt The asa ‘2 ate ig, ffm and OO ame 50 metes of 515A tuber is be sup! om @ dtibuon bourse Fee 1S! bo. The bord ssrdto be boo Bf cru ate shown Fue eect Gupere. ‘cael the teephae ult arent ate org fhe bub whare he busbar Impedance es fect eggs Soh Tele tale twee to cath ful cunrent at 8 ot Terprvecnecn is tpl er tease sah as bee he nt tg WPF = YORE OTSH?- 00208 0 ly i x2s0(o0204 = 12 4028 lotr Bers Deses 13 13 2.Thwee-phase to earth aut current at end of busbar, 20°C temperatures “ocala te tee phase fa area endef he busbar Coat Tia Note Tepe comet met pd reps ca as whee he wort Sndeon ci etaion qT = AOOTTAFC OI? = 00265 0 y= 114230700265 =9 620.4 5. ant fault oop impedance at end of busber Nate 2: Cates tt Fe 20°C 70° fs slim onder (90-20) «9006 020 (eo Tate F) The coecon beter on apd ese capone be intone ie NOUSAT™S OTT? = 0059.0 |= 11 9280/0059 = 4288.8 Flom Tle 19, is fad artes stk wo operate @ 315A 85862 fuse a8 thn 5 onfocuers moded cave ecu break cata woul be conse fer tthe ees, outa misono | 184 Symbols > giaz Brag apse # cere ee “gee HE HE agi ating oo — eal 5 ° retearing cy cer t 2 apy te tee depth of bun = | ° fe Cconentaryig opscy an coe pone 6 ating norco tom aesnce 26 20"cw endear opeare erpedase Gey * Conduct escenario for 932 Enbertonpeive Cv ale donate oe 2 a a S | ren cage of hes 5 "i laline etd nitees | Curetcasingssomatc penn = 722 Freche cote mth se re be Newolamestonipe mene A 12 Wy Prec ee at cen 652 Romine opomigaenetne A132 e eens ‘ ‘ebud arenecanrgcapacty ctacatle 8 24 fe ory thu lof dence eas. « luseslace sien om ws Sand se!r9n2 8) Sidtosusates 767) (CWnIny Reise ng do per anpe pratt hin! 54 (unin, Impecineotage opperarpeper miki! 54 ete Ly Maruca gh ike iniatoncthe m2 ioe f ket Geng tevetge depintisnet m8 Sree ® Rescue taupsemontaytendrg = IS? ‘nda Ft Retnepermenectinecondiaorle Ayn 26 ‘Serbaon i | 136 A A “YAH \eosar<(he so btnen he il og: soc the rently tage used) Notes: Tc hod teed the oe Uno eamertl pane sens 2 renomialvtage saddam Unt Ce Uy 090 «Up cede oped 3 foro an tere wth euce tm, x tare te tein Seovioamay | Fer ge stan wth teleance ct 05 ote ruin age ar neces rhe loin son latent tosis | 37 automo | 138 Standard final circuits Tables. 1086 derive testo cic oun the Teco ie the aking Replat Une othe aes mt cnr fc fe Geog muro oe {propia We prs estalton pala wih respect 9 bed and dsaton, ‘Use do cc the otdstons thomsen The eppend ten to cada 1 ithe selected cable a rested can cary the oad (equations 241 © 24) 2 themasinam eng of able bat wil met the votage dp rt (cations 351253) 3S theron rgb thal ree ela lest eget or 2rouk protection quien 2 ad 262) 4 themanmam gt of eae Bet wl met he adabatic reuters (ecuitons 281 and 28.2) The masimum cut nth s then the sales of 2) 10 4 above. ‘The fue used ae gen the equation references low (bun chapter 2) in hue he lon tes 080 CEE eaeGe a O82) Wo Cee eIGeIE 69 eee taae 5) = IED fra ee an aig 05 4 91000 tring cca an evenly stibted Tx CrMinmy =e Ree 451000 GERI) 055 Le foringcreuts anaty-[epararee -¥ oy Boy cupmanmeeeceu es 282) em a7) ean 282) Gea B Nate ie 70°C and Ce shen ford ercuts forgets Moar=2e) ade cits AC, Es) ig ects RRS a Maa) toring cuts Seteic ating ett povpivgSe Table Ao BS 7671 of Fo the Or Ste at attr abn tempeaie, se Tale 48 of 8S 7671 or Fl of the ont cue sat attr hema estity of sal, ee Tete 85 of 8 7671 aig attr depth of ured cal, sce Tbe 4B rating ator cops sarod by Wer slaton See Reglton 5239 of 85767 or Tale F the On-Site Ge ng laa pred wer exeload proton ig poe By. ‘cavum ne hog or aah tn 4,96 6) 07 fr ‘omen festa 85 S036 seaming factor for buried cut: fr cables bun he pound reqtng ovlond protectin obese st ting lcter or aperaing tempera (Tbe, Table othe (ns Ge) 6G ‘aratngtacor that canbe apple te ood curtis sricany ess than he cuenta capacity of th cable nthe pata staton ‘endins tan = ary erie onthe sale se. Tha oor Compras the trrpetaire the able atthe edad urert bangles than the tempoatie athe mum curent ema. Seo I the design cent i the ed (nora caret or curent sting of he ptcine device ' the ububted cuestcayng capacy of cable und in Azpend Fok the OnSte Cue Append of 8 7671 ithe eauted arent caring cape fable fr continous sence in ts prs nal contion B 1 isthe lag of cal inthe eet | isthe menu cable length headabatc equation of Repdaton 545.13 istobemet 1, ste manu length of cable he crt the dsconnecton Fequemeris i the event aut ae tbe met a she marr cable length fo str cet paecton 0 be ened Gs able eg the woke cop iit not be exceed (G/A7m) the yeage op par ampere per mete em Aopen 4 Fr steizanas a hee card por mere (se THF, ale ef he Onsite Gace) erence othe pctv conduct pet mete (e Table Table of thease Guth) 24 is mau eat at ogp impedance gen bythe appepate ale 412, 2 is maim adabatc loop impedance see Copter 8 for epanton and tabs oles 2 Seah aut bop impedance etal othe cut —in ths secon ts ssumad tobe that he supple 08 or 0.35.0. Reka used in th foloning tbs A ist Tbe Fin Append of th ude (Cert nstaloson Design Gude) 5 stole BS lth Guise 05 (a. 151 Tale 405 of th ET Wing Regulators ne isnot Permits 512 fete hble 41.2 ofthe eT Weng Requoton, alton tetas | 1 kt ici Die B Note to table TV Overeer peta regted 2 70°C hemos a cae wh pec cnc pte 20 of 5.2671 5 Coasthae bor aerate valance mh ed en. Theceutm be sed nls onerous corios Fos oar rates tar ‘estatan lence metas Amy abe Sed eleece mets 10,102, Powe 4 Diezmacion gen second 1 non. 5 See es 4nd 85 fr num pce conduct Ses 6 Lolbagate erm gh rslaton rod Rend eer peter = 088. 1 Sette will a ost castes be equled ob atonal rte bya Somanco drgantenatt3. 1 Arle bused scion nay equa rm! le, aera dsr may ese Iulgeretandonet «23m ee 1 Desgs ac are aed on 5 Aart eer nth bnew the cee ang (20%) een dsbaed = (15 20)2= 155. heute oarir nse B clk ees B 18 Notes to Table 82: {Venton #531103 estes r= 208 Oveeret caton tei ntconer men a Torcincmopo a le wi psec cna pre 5. 9576. 5 Geass ve Bon degre fe ralion heer ed Gee. Tecreutnaybe sed ms ono ears for warple# cret aged tr ‘tate lence ead Ay abe ed lee ret 0, 12, Bo 4 Dactnacion ied in 04 secondo ion 5 See iscsi a8 fr nrum pment & (Sites murs lng or and kan eorl ‘pede = 08 1 Seams la mo coma ogame obe msn 0 (PARED etn 4133) 1 Degrade bed 2 20 Ad tt exes andthe blo dese ng (lowe 2 ony bce eons 2 afer 3 304 Secs 2 Alte mre Sierras ta Bs 168 eee hide cemsamngeeeses B tele BS Cooker tcc bya 5/52 Acar dove (7) clk ees B a6 B Notes to Table 8.3: Lang le enue aoc ed ott 4 ot 0 Vand string ase ‘enn i reins on 10 +03 (2-1) 48 30 a FosCincmopc aac un gsc eanact per be 8 70 5 Groushve ton epee rater lone: ed gery 8) The ‘utr be atin ex rus onder For exanpl ct espe t nalaton ‘carers nated Ary tbe ina wee motes 0 1 Bed 4 Deesnenion mgm neon tne 02 52h See mbes 6 an 83 er rrrmpocie enc sees. 6 (olbagote erm gh rslaton rod Render ay ‘pede = 08. 7 Caner cuts tha cocker crtel tinct echt et be ied be ‘soa posed fy 30 MARCO gun 133) i i H alton tetectnenstees | 67 a| B ele Sign its te nol Sc gs ate ait tii neDsinen | 180 B B Notes o Table 8.5: {oaths toe pesuedta be Ace dtu eanuhen 10 dee ied ossleces br pe cast gsm pe) a Fo"cinemopsa ate wn pees ence pre 5. 95767. 3 Grosse Ber degre felon ei i re cet ye ein les onecus nator Ferearpe occa sgh tester mare 105 nay detour etamce net i0 A 0, Wa Bande 4 Desneaion gure n a eond I tine See abe 6 an 85ers, 6 Lolbagate erm gh rslaton rod Rend eer peter = 088. alton tetas: | 151 Cakes ie Ooies | B B Notes to table 36: Loads toe peumedin be 25 4 (SA 1200, 2 70 homose uae en prin enc pe ie 0 tS 267 5 Consne bor dena art salon hed he re ay een [Gooner cndiors Fer compe» cel ogre lr loon cbt 1 my es ener mfence aoe ho, 32 bard 5 See ape ttnf ts fr nm pm cna se 6 Losssgotes ne mr ghar metod Rar enorl ‘peinee 2088 alton tecainenstees | 158 outa misono | 84 VOTE Cay unintentional Ci Cetra ict) (Ce flowing tical mauler’ guidance istepodiced wih he hind pissin of ger) ‘The anneton operon of ceca beatr i mt commonly nao mance ‘ipping, and care rant be lan be election of cutest prevent thor teomessonleparabos oplation 558.21 ses that ‘The peak cnet ves of oad ae the sare hacer which may lode lenah ent The le cherie shuld be compre wi te raneNAM tuner othe crore ee Fie Ci pas i Coren rush pskloa cen should be compared wit the minum pak ppg arent of he ceutbvske ersure that wand tpg is waded Te heh peck ‘en ue obtained from the manufacue of he bad eqpmet, andthe olsen ndornes | 155 miner peck tpn caren ck by mph lb the er muti othe irtancous tip and tren by 14 (oes oc) ‘Vablecs Critter rivimumpek ogame) For other stings use: (x magne seting~ 205) 1.414 C1 Lighting circuit applications Teeth protecten lighting cuts the eoprer ust see he cmuitbrealariththe loves stereos ip caren comple wth he eh curently 0 dersap inthe cre. Hghequeny (HF blot are fen sled ot for he igh ah arent bt hey de ret er dy fom crventoral 50 He vosions. The highest, ‘le = reathe hen the bet eon athe manent he mans se wae passes tough 200. The HF sytem a api start’ arangemert, which al amps Ear atthe same ten. Theoethetaluheutet fait teainecrting Fr balass exceeds the uel ves of conventions 30 ster Where mule batace are weed tng hemes, te pesk cure ncreses properly Mane at mpedsnce wl edie he peak eer bu wl al alec! De ube tne The prclem ln the retloon dergrerinacetng he cone crest beer tate Sage chracerstics otighequercy blest vary for marutoctverto manufactur Serve may be aso as 128 wh pulse ie of 3 mlsecends and some es igh 3SAwinapubs timed! | rilecond,Thewovemporant octane expced ie curert ofthe equpment om the manufrs n dr odo how my ibis an sly be supe fom ane ect ek wtout the ik of mason tbe ciateeler Cc Cc Cc Example Hou mary HF blasts, ech hang 2 expected inush of 20 can be supe bya TeAtpeCcrastvese? Fiem Tatil, 16 A1ypeG we hve amiimum psktfopng cent of 15 A There 115/20 = 5.65, Hence a mnimum o's ales can be supped by 2 16 Anpe C chet beaker encarta | maa | = Tt ita) Cea Cy D1 Cable British Cables Association ‘The advice of he Bris Cables soto Estrin thee fa cable can ony beappotnae ‘Thais no delve or srl calstonmaod tat can be ued to deter te He epectaney oa fed wring cable ay tacts dtemine he Meo cable oc or eure > mechani cama > preven of water > Gita contminston > loon adaon > umber of eetonte > umber of sores > elects of hamenies > temperate ofthe cae, Provided an appropiate gd qty cable has been selected ang acct opeaig enpertire statin codons, equipment s beng stood ty ain {ccovance wth appropate egos sou eet of exceed is ces He The desig le of good aly fed wing cables in exces of 20 yer en ‘proptly selected an itl, Ti coup le fs een esd on mvs tending thts the cable running tt mum condor operating per for 24 hous a day nd 385 dye oa amination ot fly deal ete the expect lhe able wou be seater thn the dg eo the cable. ‘Thee ae many retances of good aust he wing ables opesing frm ce of 40 you; s marly dato te cables nt bong abused and beng yo ered odes cupmanmeeeceu ‘igure ‘Srronsmmoued| Srgecare cates D2 Temperatures (core and sheath) {Effect of load current on conductor operating temperature) The constr opening tenpentte ot oer han the ful led cent an Be coer em te ean ress Bayer 1b. load cent sug a conductor emperatue tat an anbiet 1 tablid arerratg in Append 4 of BS 7671, restr na enductr Temperature stabi This rebnsip assumes tha tempest ise ofa cables ropartionalta the sue he cunen 1.3 Inductance of cables in parallel Corer 3x 300 maura conduc calles non mowed, stale 2s per Fetence Matod with he sping being considered as eter one cable ameter ort cable dete 857571 te A corn 9 gus th erpedere oe ables {90 "Cin ein omy Fig D1 gives that, the ct sping is tw cable darters the adios readarce is 01min The impedance of he able nom becomes: lar ici Die D D D Thavotge do usmle rc ok oA force {naib Sis sa luge chi 65 47 Am) Sag pitbondng! sah Siiicape emanate emeomgetons enero Aceh es wth uneven sping wil hve ween ble of nd betcen then Thee we cata cle angers hs pie nal ate se = ==S 5 (camps berg gre Fg 38a he Connein. a ag Saad eo ther arngements may provide acceptable cent shang but consideration will Iveta be gen tothe cre: eazareas are the aes must be called 223100 Figure {htop a see std alee Calculation of sheath voltages e000 0105 ig aa oom als? aaa ates: Thos cn freee petting doped blest over een 2 Drethe eel ate dancer Shea vohages nse pont bonded systems operating at 50 He maybe caked tengthe slows equator Sglephase ene When eo Ven eee phase, el wen When Teee phase fot Vy = VFIOE pen ee @ GRD When whee %y 00858 a/km x" 200828 on 2 5/4) a/hm 'S_ =Spaang bebeen cable canes ia mm 4 =men sheah ot amo dere ne 1, =vehage Betneen sess, beeen overs or thee ft arangements 1, =vetage shea earth, ert earth forte at rangers ayia | 8 ecescmcteanses | see [Yeeeah oracle at ces 67 8 46 a 5640 (/Am) Ske ortbondrg os or mou, vag betwee shah or omaung Oe ene “son0 004009805 ase aces ams 5000 00550087185 ass a08e ats 0180 “e000 0058 0636 ost 0055 08s ane i "lags gen or foe pase fax ming and spaced cabs era he over bles. Detheme ebe dumae, Figue 02 shoe hash tosh nd chest to earth vokages, ‘abies 01 and 02 abate wages cated ug te frm abve for ales 9 185 5467, 8 6546 and 6400 example (Consider 2680 mm? aluminum conduc ables pe tas suplig he later 2 MUA Varstarmer The fulioad ine cert per abe the ode 7008 ‘esi a date pacing the sheath er amauta vobage pen by Table 132 ig012¢4 700/1000 m= 0087 Vir Cite length of he ore f 250 m woud be necessary fo generate 25 V to earth Under flon ondtene Such wanormer abies ae ely ger han TS cemsamngeeeses D D Se ie te ee ag RO64-003 Raa Des caer of the ret berg considered (8) (EV 825-05-04) {Caren csmirg capac of conductor 8) (EV 26-0505) Fader) Rated cent of buber turing syste nan abit temperature of 50°C) Thermal ess apc fe neal or PE (PEN) conducts gen taf on second (2s) (EV 37.07.17 and EN 604393, 43). feat gi (=). Leng of busbar anki feartance of te neutl conde vpebea ofthe cating corned Restionce of te protectve conductor om the min eqiptena bonding othe og of th heute consdered Resttance of PEN condor fom the man equpoental ondg 0 thearga of Be crt bang conieed fearonce upsveam cl he cue Bestonce of source Mean om essance of busbar burking sytem (SS) per mee pet has, ata caret athe steady operating empeatae fessvetomn ol meat inele neal ine PE (PEN) BS oop impedance at 20°C Resse tom of meat Ine ive Ine net tre PC (PEN) BTS oop lrpedace at td ret the stn sae open temperate tere tim of mesn ine ie ne ne ne E (FEN) BT oop impedance a he mean mperaure between fhe cpg temperate {treed caret and the menu temperature under sort ceut Gratton: Barone oft ine conor gateem ofthe cet being cori (Csesectond ates of conductor oesecton es of neural conductor rss sect en of protective conde (Core secton tn of PUN conor Shortcut power fhe high vege network (8) Crosse solve cnc (re) Line teal tara lage othe rtaaton¢Y) Line tone nin cage of thea) fectnce othe neta condi upatem of he et beng considered Reacance of the protec condacr lm the min equpoteial aig oe og othe ean berger Beaconce othe PEN condor from he man equip bonding theo ofthe crt bang esters (1) cummunmeesceun at & Ea 8 Reacianceupsteam ofthe souce Reaclonce oe source este em of mean lin ng ne neta ot ne PE (PEN) 6S op Impedance en eadance of 85 ine conduc pe mete Reaconce hele cond upste l he cX= Ipstince pata oes, 2 AES Impede tt oc, 2, = SAP 20 Tq02) “ARETE \otae aco Nola tape cr Naber of ntl conducrsin pale Number of pee cond pte Namberet PEN condo mpl Number tne candice naa Una acta af eons Ress end 20°C Ress crdicrs the maxim pemisle ed ae Seettngtenperae fay of cdc the man tee Beute sey tte terete ed hoe fey apres Pe onc othe mes emptor rte nd ht epee E PQ TU aL) Table \ousst sczreninae cpp andar conte (Grsie cade Te) = RO is Gu a FA 4st : isn ‘ 2 a : é 302 1 A a % ‘ oo B a om 3 © as Bf te BOS Mast 20 {rom 5630s 2 2 Forlag annie nis and 7 Caper 10 oltioctinendceanes | 167 F ‘YTabler2 een erpadtre rupee beappiedta le essinces Ci matress 29ers emoentes 15 ase ‘recanecion core gen by Giant 0c nbn 20°C) ‘hore 00 th ares tne dct pert 20°C han 85 60228 “pe od acu nics ‘Ybers condsorvenpoanse ple come ence resrcest20°C Iwesnicr nine arnivisnopeerg epee (On Ste Cae Condctnncopeandins 120 128 12 ‘shecbmaee 1 See Tle 542in ake of up 8 ase ec ply wn pect cond ‘tne oad th aes er we tet rds carom {oe even Tey coco 20°C 30 2 ee sts dC Teen tent cin 3 Space penb C= + 00D fect opening tpt 20°C ‘thw 0 ite pid wears casio per€ 920°C guen nS EN 228 {ecayper nd rman coats ablelog ch ft errr opting erp 70°C hea (05% See mop one | ‘oom feet ‘a00sa3* ‘tet ‘0018 YW tees Soper don rama fered ls, 40.01 280Vayere stommise e eo 888 Se om + tesa tarsorer thnks mga fr oie cat om leat scan engraving Ronen 2, 6, nm nae hon Bevg alton tececinenstees | 169 [Yahi RS Therapie PC id ingle cv copper este teat ans a1 20° 0 = one el % ais 0000 ee 9 en00 008s else 20 ort oss 1 The est wactance gen above po wes tw ables raed hing agro cession cg Fea lies fem eb mmc 2 Foraor cl congas esimce nd cane ves contin canbe ee! tom ae bibles TEM aLIO-C ‘Merete corp ets dp nto oe kris ey "oj andthe eae component iby 8 ee Chap ener F 5) | a ie i i i 4 "YTeble FB Gon our scl sel amour ie fr 0 6 ee and teu 60710001 emepasie (x) weed aes BS 6 ae F e a le z e 5 e foie 600710000 ales mibermangredin 5? + a © a e : 2 8 s S a a s = 2 8 8 2 a a z a & el 8 g 8 @ 8 i g & g g cats ee Dses F vm table £30 Coss sctol acoso cnet or nrg ny Gauge te andi 16. cy 2 ‘asa Stel tte Tk ample ses) cemsamngeeeses F ws F [WTebleRM pesca tea ands 29° ene see 11 Typeal aes ne ah at faut cents ater tha 100A When i es tha 100, he terpenes saad be ie 2 Men turhvokges oe cond beg dteied he pod f cnet and sre hss od ppt eran fe ate 3 The above wes se 30°C bt ry be senmedio be pendent nd sre a eds aaron F Y table ED npr tel ting ae 2) {Vien etemnrg ch geen the meting he pre cue ard esc besa ged apport, 2 The hove ves oe a 2° may be esse be independent ol peared table RAS npedrce oe wrking ae 2) e515 1 16 1005575 08 o%8 180375 08 08 225x515 08 048 Notes 1 en aeomarg uh tags onthe mg the pod furan sian) besa geod pponnaton 2 Thesbore vices oe a 20°Cbut my eased ob independent fear ard seed br dng ad veto, alton teteinendtees | 177 1 Tale F8Rexarce s (n fSOOY Up iy any ree red aes = capper mnie ah ramopinc coed ‘evalodson oR; + or mwa cas es tem het ales, eH te ede coder ‘erpeshresntadsed ltl et poe 185 77 esr nds opera enpestes {7s thomas ees peso 109 Care ler an cost wih comune mtr {0"Canten Nagsom onde rete oe hal coast, oben ne 5 od Ceoaoornenpecurs ely sone 3c ge ta Seah epaes ‘The hth ict oppress thst ho conics, nh cot once cote nt app Restntt O00 s270"C on sedi sm est change cso et {dion canbe wed recy orate toa tenpanter dees Nppnda3 85 757 able Fas esr es(in) f750V (hay miele cables per ltr ici Die F ‘20 iss 356 oles as 020768 i é enzo aae? is? ass : 5 g Me 21658 t : By Ei sr 15s 620 a 3 & i a thot & q j i a i i aces a g a a 5 ‘ ee oe ey si re | as MS MSGS om asks “ino as as 271 Orel 248s se cm oss osm ows see sls ves va 09) 8 Oman vies va 06s 885 ots toma i i z : casein F ws “ise ee 20 esa ee smo ae [a a ha ews es as aw oes at 08 om am a Om en Om a 4 F "¥TableF39h250V srg hme splesup to 00 hom greingeconmenon 725 ead moar popece shor cre ena be eecwe ‘Osburn decade of SHA (O55 a) ate pom Crresten sthaserce nea he sarbuig mss i i i oaks the means | F Y table RBA nin eran tester aoe 25 psc erg errno ema maumum pace atte lect deb to Sued ended wk 25 (025 pibathe pete cersecn he sence ew to bare deen bn ommscameteuas |e 4 4 Notes to Table Vetere on wasn cegy “for nee he ng ge Mg tes tute rng py = Psu prtenge beatrgcapcty Racin Spesecin teens been ogy 7g ete tes th tare beng apc or een pein, 7 ines ied an arg ekg capt foe pen fr Sas ~ "i estes ah pa age ang cape fhe pete fete = Wns ine dt fs ks iho ut enge bear cat Pliner nanome ayn neo ang eo PY 2 (gu (l09} the mum abe caret fr whe ewer re les an os ches te ofan neh hopes tn ct ann 46 ir teens an bee ote patent cas the aac cnt Ikcipe of wang ar sangre epmaaapeninace F a asbotecauston curve ptr steht dead ‘Nur, cee ‘ceficent of wane Atari tip armour ables ‘anoint empee Torecton cor sen se undetcor tanking Foes eer ang ‘ater fa eat ‘itmate ecomectan a ty 8 Bas protection Borg condos, sopra 5 08 se choice Sa fe dacmecon ines 185 5036 se dscarmecion es 185 7671 opera Toole table act tase ai Tae a1 Tae? ‘uber ering genet feature velage dap aponpopnne iff ‘aaa5 sania ch. 10 Totes, FA, FAA 9 "ble asz932 452, tobiek? “wsleri0 a9 622 434 652,932, uber 36 27 ube 88 Tales 8 £78, 83 etonseceeentsoies | aT amour as protective condcter ay, lees ears, tier “aD Greterpere 02 Ss vom irpedonce Tos ie 2: ‘sigs barons na recance 05 estes 87 sheath temperate b2 setoge erp ms cables are in pou 435. part ndunce DS Bie pers aa caeutone centring capaty cus fd crt comet cera 33 Pospecte ad eves ea Shock poecton is sole cep 3 Cconmage ise sheet opty é (GENELEC Repo Ro6#-005, 8 Simo ope cores vey Crest oresier "Sarat Pepe 45 ergy et tough coord Short enacy 5 eazirerion option Pomc “eher ssiea fea On 2 Hope ‘everson hese Sie ‘gers S3166 Frm condor 2ache Suen 241,26 581 5 Tey ade ass cine ope oat of estes vo2, aera Eompiston corns 1s Comper salanons a8 Conder inpedaoe a speatng temper 436,02, Hers conor ‘210 Cont tet, 32 Cooker ert sso Coakng dry Fr Coordin lo deve and cable chrceses 2a Compe “chen ot esstance 102, bles kIT ‘enducoresince ‘bles FES FTA POA FI, FFG Index conde: care tempere Grecian eer: Gon smo! Sal condut tonkng Ccurenearyngcapacty Gent Gare ose > ats spe anand Semesie fraleiese Departures fom 857671 asin Design cent ‘ksbuton deren Deu stam, oiler setae rp Detonator impedance ‘ie Domest demand Fg amgrreds eheg cnc arng of 1 sbsttons Ebedsed generation Eipment ables eal eat ft bop impedance F Fs cua bor rnking etme by engry Fast protection Fula, sichges Fautekage Frsleieoe ‘emend Srey forge ‘hema ston setae dp Index cho a2 632 Bee? “bles F788 ne F9 1eble F10 a 0 auuna ees salen sy 3at6e 3 18 out 3A a 8 Pond rat 34 aa oss Ee bers chase anSatea 23 id pep 225.62 BS 26,71,815 28 15,082.29. 46n08 ana as 2851 ommcumseteuas |10 Females Fendamertl Fequeney Foe chsactersee © Srp Thode ‘road ‘ng actor tree phose “able ings Seager ‘recur protection ‘trode power Supls rales cep owed demand Hu spies Hv stem eat fats 1 fy “etetes severe Eehveugh Immerse ou Impeciee “So end ‘eal sume Inde coc see Fad ptecton cee ef aber pel icant inten “res Sopromonee se Semone sna retoge erp ‘eoaton ables cable ating coe Ktchen demon esd cotscent of resitance Leethough en eof ees Uhre crats Index Bone 45541860869 as onto voblert ebles 612 ‘ies Pomme 13.32 32 as 2aas 3 10a, Teble Fa BF 3316 Aone eresiy power actor —aage op ain bonding condctrs otmum demand Losin ext ad ooperpadance Humum prospect shorter cent inst abe fey duty feeaay ote creat (win " New eps Otc devgn Orerurent doves cables, ets ‘rete oc (road eens sree parle ets Protection Protection agaist Bese arson cvenitage prsetin Pre cables an? Ped uppig caren Phas dspace Poet octr—votage dp ove! fecueney sess vases Prspetne al carer Prospecbeshorteret cures ‘ules treephace Protect aanst ‘eae Stok ioadand shore Protect conduc fend orsectonal we rece sexton thea of cable unig as roace seats, hock Srglecre Index 5a an chs 23 2 ies, 8 Table E S3165,47 chs. 103 san 34 432 312 245,45 ane os 148 oon en 624 SS lascks TatleFia8 ‘ble Fs 27.44 oanyanan 148 07.88.89 ‘310 2 145,94 os 210 hes A 7 Siete cneeenemniecs (= a ada rl eats ‘alge crop rated soncretapacties Pelton 55.1.5 essa “eet ‘Sarecton ees ‘mow ie eondacts eg a ceuts alae cp rowoee03 s Senor Shes temperate “elas Shock rtecon “Seats sont ‘ectes svihget ‘rer tee has upy Sing pe stone aut Sole ratalatone Sirateousorefoad ret tle Sie cabls Sele ext al Special alors or laons Sande rete Standby sper Seco seen Storing cent Index 24 sop 3S BS os 44,05 422 a2icheais: e a 36 3 82 oe r 102, Tale Ea 632, ther? abs Hs Ete ‘Gu 10, Tale 282, A998 181 Aap 32 02 vac é 523 2442658161 chasat a6 Tees £5 F3 251 136 15,012 A908 Ta Pomc ‘sel ‘eeticet of resale fendot mpedanee trong mpedanes (debe ning ‘sage hese ery Sires volo Sibmaine Sistas — Eating of 1 Siplemetn bong cones Sippy choacerstes fet alto impedances feat el ane Ste aut vl Ssudeiger ong ‘omer caocties sniting Sib CENELEC Sytem eating Table 43) ‘ables aC1-acs abe 522 Tables 58210548 Table S47 Teper condo corectons Tenpetaure conection Tem fh atop impedance ‘neal austin frat esees “Teermoplat cables Thermosting cables Thughamones Tyna tion seen ‘Unintennaloprtin ging cuts v Voltage drurbacespoeton Vela dp bor nking bee fendocer operating erperctre Ssubuten syst fratencue ‘tne ing cca Index sable sable rit bles “pale 0 as a als W222 225,62 25 a 0, ope ape 432 434 a2 2 % blr 2,65 Go ‘2 35 roms ble FETS Ties Fn £8 ch sabletS chit 810 232 cn ce 142,25, 05 182 55 2 35 alton tetas nstenes | 195 mati owe for fad fal reat fg vabiers 35 250 56.73 weal 4 zs Index