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Behavior/Ecology Summary and Artifact #6 Ecology-the branch of biology that deals with the relations of organisms to one another and to their physical surroundings. Organism-In biology, an organism is any contiguous living system, such as an animal, plant or bacterium. Population-A population is a summation of all the organisms of the same group or species, which live in a particular geographical area, and have the capability of interbreeding. Community-Community, also called biological community, in biology, an interacting group of various species in a common location. Ecosystem-An ecosystem is a community of living organisms in conjunction with the nonliving components of their environment (things like air, water and mineral soil), interacting as a system. Biosphere-The biosphere is the crossroads of all the other earth science spheres you will study in class. Think about the possible interactions for a second. - The land of the lithosphere interacts with the oceans of the hydrosphere at the coastlines. Abiotic-non living factors of an ecosystem temperature Biotic-living factors of an ecosystem plants Eutrophication-excessive nutrients in a lake K-selection-density dependent R-selection-densities independent Age structure diagram-prediction of a populations growth trends Fecundity-reproductive rate of an organism Competition-interaction between organisms/species where fitness of an organisms is lowered by another Niche-place or function of an organism in its ecosystem Resource partitioning-differentiation of niches Predation-predator and prey relationship Cryptic coloration-camouflage Aposematic coloration-warning coloration Batesian mimicry-harmless mimicking harmful Mullerian mimicry-2 unpalatable species mimicking Herbivory-consuming plants and vegetation thorns Mutualism-both species benefit Commensalism-one benefits other does not and nor is it harmed Parasitism-one benefits other is harmed Lichen-fungus and photosynthetic algae Mycorrhizae-plant roots and fungus Keystone species-species that if removed the whole ecosystem will die Invasive species-species outside native range and can alter environment in favor for itself but not others Potato blight-triggered the great Irish potato famine Ecological succession-disturbed area colonized by multitude of species Primary succesion-succession that occurs in an area where no organisms originally existed Secondary succesion-succession that occurs where there was an existing community Producers-autotrophs (living things making their own food through photosynthesis) Primary consumer-food is produced by other organisms Secondary consumer-food is plant eating animals Tertiary consumer spending-carnivores and omnivore

Decompsers-consume dead animals Food web-many food chains Food chain-linear path All other levels will lose energy Limiting nutrient-element that must be added inorder for production to increase Carbon cycle-

lose energy Limiting nutrient-element that must be added inorder for production to increase Carbon cycle- Nitrogen

Nitrogen cycle-

lose energy Limiting nutrient-element that must be added inorder for production to increase Carbon cycle- Nitrogen

Water cycle-

Water cycle- Deadzones-low oxygen areas Biological magnification-substance becoming more concentrated at higher tropic

Deadzones-low oxygen areas Biological magnification-substance becoming more concentrated at higher tropic levels