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# Page 1 of 35

MA 341
Homework 1
(Homogeneous Linear Differential Equations)
Hoon Hong

1st-order, 1 variable
Problem:
y' 2 y = 0
y(0) = -3
1. Find the general solution:
2=0
=2
(2 t)

y=Ce
2. Find the particular solution:
C = -3
(2 t)

y = 3 e
3. Sketch the particular solution:

Page 2 of 35
Problem:
y' 2 y = 0
y(0) = 4
1. Find the general solution:
2=0
=2
(2 t)

y=Ce
2. Find the particular solution:
C=4
(2 t)

y=4e
3. Sketch the particular solution:

Page 3 of 35
Problem:
y' + 3 y = 0
y(0) = 2
1. Find the general solution:
+3=0
= -3
( 3 t )

y=Ce
2. Find the particular solution:
C=2
( 3 t )

y=2e
3. Sketch the particular solution:

Page 4 of 35
Problem:
y' + 3 y = 0
y(0) = -2
1. Find the general solution:
+3=0
= -3
( 3 t )

y=Ce
2. Find the particular solution:
C = -2
( 3 t )

y = 2 e
3. Sketch the particular solution:

Page 5 of 35

## 2nd-order, 1 variable: Real eigenvalues

Problem:
y'' + 3 y' + 2 y = 0
y(0) = -3
y'(0) = 2
1. Find the general solution:
+3+2=0
2

= -1, -2
( t )

( 2 t )

y = C1 e + C2 e
2. Find the particular solution:
y' = C1 e

( t )

2 C2 e

( 2 t )

C1 + C2 = -3
C1 2 C2 = 2
C1 = -4, C2 = 1
( t )

( 2 t )

y = 4 e + e
3. Sketch the particular solution:

Page 6 of 35
Problem:
y'' 3 y' + 2 y = 0
y(0) = 3
y'(0) = 1
1. Find the general solution:
3+2=0
= 2, 1
2

(2 t)

y = C1 e + C2 et
2. Find the particular solution:
y' = 2 C1 e

(2 t)

+ C2 et

C1 + C2 = 3
2 C1 + C2 = 1
C1 = -2, C2 = 5
(2 t)

y = 2 e + 5 et
3. Sketch the particular solution:

Page 7 of 35
Problem:
y'' + y' 6 y = 0
y(0) = -3
y'(0) = 4
1. Find the general solution:
+6=0
= 2, -3
2

( 3 t )

(2 t)

y = C1 e + C2 e
2. Find the particular solution:
y' = 2 C1 e

(2 t)

3 C2 e

( 3 t )

C1 + C2 = -3
2 C1 3 C2 = 4
C1 = -1, C2 = -2
(2 t)

( 3 t )

y = e 2 e
3. Sketch the particular solution:

Page 8 of 35
Problem:
y'' + 5 y' + 6 y = 0
y(0) = 3
y'(0) = -8
1. Find the general solution:
+5+6=0
= -2, -3
2

( 2 t )

( 3 t )

y = C1 e
+ C2 e
2. Find the particular solution:
y' = 2 C1 e

( 2 t )

3 C2 e

( 3 t )

C1 + C2 = 3
2 C1 3 C2 = -8
C1 = 1, C2 = 2
( 2 t )

( 3 t )

y=e
+2e
3. Sketch the particular solution:

Page 9 of 35
Problem:
y'' + 7 y' + 12 y = 0
y(0) = 6
y'(0) = -22
1. Find the general solution:
+ 7 + 12 = 0
= -3, -4
2

( 3 t )

( 4 t )

y = C1 e
+ C2 e
2. Find the particular solution:
y' = 3 C1 e

( 3 t )

4 C2 e

( 4 t )

C1 + C2 = 6
3 C1 4 C2 = -22
C1 = 2, C2 = 4
( 3 t )

( 4 t )

y=2e
+4e
3. Sketch the particular solution:

Page 10 of 35
Problem:
y'' 5 y' + 6 y = 0
y(0) = 2
y'(0) = 1
1. Find the general solution:
5+6=0
= 3, 2
2

(3 t)

(2 t)

y = C1 e + C2 e
2. Find the particular solution:
y' = 3 C1 e

(3 t)

+ 2 C2 e

(2 t)

C1 + C2 = 2
3 C1 + 2 C2 = 1
C1 = -3, C2 = 5
(3 t)

(2 t)

y = 3 e + 5 e
3. Sketch the particular solution:

Page 11 of 35
Problem:
y'' + y' 2 y = 0
y(0) = -4
y'(0) = 5
1. Find the general solution:
+2=0
= 1, -2
2

( 2 t )

y = C1 et + C2 e
2. Find the particular solution:
y' = C1 et 2 C2 e

( 2 t )

C1 + C2 = -4
C1 2 C2 = 5
C1 = -1, C2 = -3
( 2 t )

y = et 3 e
3. Sketch the particular solution:

Page 12 of 35
Problem:
y'' + 5 y' + 6 y = 0
y(0) = -1
y'(0) = 1
1. Find the general solution:
+5+6=0
= -2, -3
2

( 2 t )

( 3 t )

y = C1 e
+ C2 e
2. Find the particular solution:
y' = 2 C1 e

( 2 t )

3 C2 e

( 3 t )

C1 + C2 = -1
2 C1 3 C2 = 1
C1 = -2, C2 = 1
( 2 t )

( 3 t )

y = 2 e
+e
3. Sketch the particular solution:

Page 13 of 35

## 2nd-order, 1 variable: Non-real eigenvalues

Problem:
y'' 4 y' + 68 y = 0
y(0) = 1
y'(0) = 10
1. Find the general solution:
4 + 68 = 0
2

= 2 + 8 I, 2 8 I
(2 t)

y = e ( C1 cos( 8 t ) + C2 sin( 8 t ) )
2. Find the particular solution:
y' = 2 e

(2 t)

( C1 cos( 8 t ) + C2 sin( 8 t ) ) + e

(2 t)

C1 = 1
2 C1 + 8 C2 = 10
C2 = 1
(2 t)

y = e ( cos( 8 t ) + sin( 8 t ) )
3. Sketch the particular solution:

( 8 C1 sin( 8 t ) + 8 C2 cos( 8 t ) )

Page 14 of 35
Problem:
y'' + 2 y' + 50 y = 0
y(0) = 2
y'(0) = 19
1. Find the general solution:
+ 2 + 50 = 0
= -1 + 7 I, -1 7 I
2

( t )

y = e ( C1 cos( 7 t ) + C2 sin( 7 t ) )
2. Find the particular solution:
y' = e

( t )

( C1 cos( 7 t ) + C2 sin( 7 t ) ) + e

( t )

C1 = 2
C1 + 7 C2 = 19
C2 = 3
( t )

y = e ( 2 cos( 7 t ) + 3 sin( 7 t ) )
3. Sketch the particular solution:

( 7 C1 sin( 7 t ) + 7 C2 cos( 7 t ) )

Page 15 of 35
Problem:
y'' + 64 y = 0
y(0) = 2
y'(0) = 8
1. Find the general solution:
+ 64 = 0
= 8 I, -8 I
2

y = C1 cos( 8 t ) + C2 sin( 8 t )
2. Find the particular solution:
y' = 8 C1 sin( 8 t ) + 8 C2 cos( 8 t )
C1 = 2
8 C2 = 8
C2 = 1
y = 2 cos( 8 t ) + sin( 8 t )
3. Sketch the particular solution:

Page 16 of 35
Problem:
y'' + 2 y' + 82 y = 0
y(0) = 0
y'(0) = 9
1. Find the general solution:
+ 2 + 82 = 0
= -1 + 9 I, -1 9 I
2

( t )

y = e ( C1 cos( 9 t ) + C2 sin( 9 t ) )
2. Find the particular solution:
y' = e

( t )

( C1 cos( 9 t ) + C2 sin( 9 t ) ) + e

( t )

C1 = 0
C1 + 9 C2 = 9
C2 = 1
( t )

y = e sin( 9 t )
3. Sketch the particular solution:

( 9 C1 sin( 9 t ) + 9 C2 cos( 9 t ) )

Page 17 of 35
Problem:
y'' 4 y' + 125 y = 0
y(0) = 1
y'(0) = 35
1. Find the general solution:
4 + 125 = 0
= 2 + 11 I, 2 11 I
2

(2 t)

y = e ( C1 cos( 11 t ) + C2 sin( 11 t ) )
2. Find the particular solution:
y' = 2 e

(2 t)

( C1 cos( 11 t ) + C2 sin( 11 t ) ) + e

C1 = 1
2 C1 + 11 C2 = 35
C2 = 3
(2 t)

y = e ( cos( 11 t ) + 3 sin( 11 t ) )
3. Sketch the particular solution:

(2 t)

( 11 C1 sin( 11 t ) + 11 C2 cos( 11 t ) )

Page 18 of 35
Problem:
y'' + 9 y = 0
y(0) = 1
y'(0) = -3
1. Find the general solution:
+9=0
= 3 I, -3 I
2

y = C1 cos( 3 t ) + C2 sin( 3 t )
2. Find the particular solution:
y' = 3 C1 sin( 3 t ) + 3 C2 cos( 3 t )
C1 = 1
3 C2 = -3
C2 = -1
y = cos( 3 t ) sin( 3 t )
3. Sketch the particular solution:

Page 19 of 35

## 1st-order, 2 variables: Introduction

Problem:
y1' = y1 + 2 y2
y2' = 2 y1 + 2 y2
y1(0) = 3
y2(0) = 1
1. Find the general solution:
( 1 ) v1 + 2 v2 = 0
2 v1 + ( 2 ) v2 = 0
6=0
2

=3
v1 = 2 C1
v2 = 4 C1
= -2
v1 = 2 C2
v2 = C2
y1 = 2 C1 e

(3 t)

+ 2 C2 e

( 2 t )

( 2 t )

(3 t)

y2 = 4 C1 e C2 e
2. Find the particular solution:
2 C1 + 2 C2 = 3
4 C1 C2 = 1
1
C1 = , C2 = 1
2
y1 = e

(3 t)

y2 = 2 e

+2e

(3 t)

( 2 t )
( 2 t )

Page 20 of 35
Problem:
y1' = y1 2 y2
y2' = 2 y1 2 y2
y1(0) = 3
y2(0) = 1
1. Find the general solution:
( 1 ) v1 2 v2 = 0
2 v1 + ( 2 ) v2 = 0
+6=0
2

= -3
v1 = 2 C1
v2 = 4 C1
=2
v1 = 2 C2
v2 = C2
y1 = 2 C1 e

( 3 t )

2 C2 e

( 3 t )

(2 t)

(2 t)

y2 = 4 C1 e
+ C2 e
2. Find the particular solution:
2 C1 2 C2 = 3
4 C1 + C2 = 1

C1 =

-1
, C = -1
2 2

y1 = e

( 3 t )

y2 = 2 e

+2e

( 3 t )

(2 t)
(2 t)

Page 21 of 35
Problem:
y1' = 5 y1 2 y2
y2' = 2 y1
y1(0) = 1
y2(0) = 1
1. Find the general solution:
( 5 ) v1 2 v2 = 0
2 v1 v2 = 0
+5+4=0
2

= -1
v1 = 2 C1
v2 = 4 C1
= -4
v1 = 2 C2
v2 = C2
y1 = 2 C1 e

( t )

2 C2 e

( t )

( 4 t )

( 4 t )

y2 = 4 C1 e + C2 e
2. Find the particular solution:
2 C1 2 C2 = 1
4 C1 + C2 = 1
1
C1 = , C2 = -1
2
y1 = e

( t )

y2 = 2 e

( t )

+2e
e

( 4 t )

( 4 t )

Page 22 of 35
Problem:
y1' = 3 y1 y2
y2' = 2 y1 + 4 y2
y1(0) = 1
y2(0) = 4
1. Find the general solution:
( 3 ) v1 v2 = 0
2 v1 + ( 4 ) v2 = 0
7 + 10 = 0
2

=2
v1 = C1
v2 = C1
=5
v1 = C2
v2 = 2 C2
y1 = C1 e

(2 t)

C2 e

(2 t)

(5 t)
(5 t)

y2 = C1 e + 2 C2 e
2. Find the particular solution:
C1 C2 = 1
C1 + 2 C2 = 4
C1 = -2, C2 = 1
y1 = 2 e

(2 t)

(5 t)

y2 = 2 e

(2 t)

+2e

(5 t)

Page 23 of 35

## 1st-order, 2 variables: Real eigenvalues. Opposite Signs

Problem:
-1
y' =
2

2
y
2

3
y(0) =
1
1. Find the general solution:
2
1
=0
Det
2
2
6=0
2

2
= 3, v =
4
2
= -2, v =
-1
2 ( 3 t )
2 ( 2 t )
y = C1 e + C2 e
4
-1
2. Sketch the general solution:

3. Find the particular solution:
2
2 3
C1 + C2 =
4
-1 1
1
C1 = , C2 = 1
2
1 ( 3 t ) 2 ( 2 t )
y= e + e
-1
2
4. Sketch the particular solution:

Page 24 of 35
Problem:
1
y' =
-2

-2
y
-2

3
y(0) =
1
1. Find the general solution:
-2
1
=0
Det
2
-2
+6=0
2

-2
= -3, v =
-4
-2
= 2, v =
1
-2 ( 3 t )
-2 ( 2 t )
+ C2 e
y = C1 e
-4
1
2. Sketch the general solution:

3. Find the particular solution:
-2
-2 3
C1 + C2 =
-4
1 1
C1 =

-1
, C = -1
2 2

1 ( 3 t ) 2 ( 2 t )
y= e
+ e
-1
2
4. Sketch the particular solution:

Page 25 of 35
Problem:
-2
y' =
2

2
y
1

2
y(0) =
-6
1. Find the general solution:
2
2
=0
Det
1
2
+6=0
2

2
= 2, v =
4
2
= -3, v =
-1
2 ( 2 t )
2 ( 3 t )
y = C1 e + C2 e
4
-1
2. Sketch the general solution:

3. Find the particular solution:
2
2 2
C1 + C2 =
4
-1 -6
C1 = -1, C2 = 2
-2 ( 2 t ) 4 ( 3 t )
y= e + e
-4
-2
4. Sketch the particular solution:

Page 26 of 35

## 1st-order, 2 variables: Real eigenvalues. Same Signs

Problem:
3
y' =
-2

-1
y
4

1
y(0) =
4
1. Find the general solution:
-1
3
=0
Det
4
-2
7 + 10 = 0
2

-1
= 2, v =
-1
-1
= 5, v =
2
-1 ( 2 t )
-1 ( 5 t )
y = C1 e + C2 e
-1
2
2. Sketch the general solution:

Unstable
3. Find the particular solution:
-1
-1 1
C1 + C2 =
-1
2 4
=
,
-2
=
1
C1
C2
2 ( 2 t ) -1 ( 5 t )
y= e + e
2
2
4. Sketch the particular solution:

Page 27 of 35
Problem:
-3
y' =
1

2
y
-2

8
y(0) =
2
1. Find the general solution:
2
3
=0
Det
2
1
+5+4=0
2

2
= -1, v =
2
2
= -4, v =
-1
2 ( t )
2 ( 4 t )
y = C1 e + C2 e
2
-1
2. Sketch the general solution:

Stable
3. Find the particular solution:
2
2 8
C1 + C2 =
2
-1 2
C1 = 2, C2 = 2
4 ( t ) 4 ( 4 t )
y= e + e
4
-2
4. Sketch the particular solution:

Page 28 of 35
Problem:
2
y' =
2

1
y
3

0
y(0) =
3
1. Find the general solution:
1
2
=0
Det
3
2
5+4=0
2

1
= 1, v =
-1
1
= 4, v =
2
1
1 ( 4 t )
y = C1 et + C2 e
-1
2
2. Sketch the general solution:

Unstable
3. Find the particular solution:
1
1 0
C1 + C2 =
-1
2 3
C1 = -1, C2 = 1
-1
1 ( 4 t )
y = et + e
1
2
4. Sketch the particular solution:

Page 29 of 35
Problem:
2
y' =
-1

-1
y
2

-3
y(0) =
1
1. Find the general solution:
-1
2
=0
Det
2
-1
4+3=0
2

-1
= 1, v =
-1
-1
= 3, v =
1
-1
-1 ( 3 t )
y = C1 et + C2 e
-1
1
2. Sketch the general solution:

Unstable
3. Find the particular solution:
-1
-1 -3
C1 + C2 =
-1
1 1
C1 = 1, C2 = 2
-1
-2 ( 3 t )
y = et + e
-1
2
4. Sketch the particular solution:

Page 30 of 35

## 1st-order 2 variables: Non-real eigenvalues

Problem:
-2 -10
y
y' =
-2
10
1
y(0) =
-1
1. Find the general solution:
-10
2
=0
Det
2
10
+ 4 + 104 = 0
2

-10

= -2 + 10 I, v =
10 I
-10

= -2 10 I, v =
-10 I
-10
0
= -2, = 10, p = , q =
0
10
-10

-10
0
0
C1 + C2 cos( 10 t ) + C2 C1 sin( 10 t )
0

0
10
10
2. Sketch the general solution:
y=e

( 2 t )

Stable
3. Find the particular solution:
-10
0 1
C1 + C2 =
0
10 -1
C1 =

-1
-1
, C2 =
10
10

1
1
cos( 10 t ) + sin( 10 t )

-1
1
4. Sketch the particular solution:
y=e

( 2 t )

Page 31 of 35
Problem:
-7
y' =
-8

16
y
9

4
y(0) =
-4
1. Find the general solution:
16
7
=0
Det
9
-8
2 + 65 = 0
2

16

= 1 + 8 I, v =
8 + 8 I
16

= 1 8 I, v =
8 8 I
16
0
= 1, = 8, p = , q =
8
8
16

y = et C1 + C2
8

## 2. Sketch the general

0
16
cos( 8 t ) + C2 C1 sin( 8 t )
8

8
8
solution:

Unstable
3. Find the particular solution:
16
0 4
C1 + C2 =
8
8 -4
1
-3
C1 = , C2 =
4
4

4
-12
y = et cos( 8 t ) + sin( 8 t )

-4
-8
4. Sketch the particular solution:

Page 32 of 35
Problem:
2
y' =
-4

10
y
-2

1
y(0) =
1
1. Find the general solution:
10
2
=0
Det
2
-4
+ 36 = 0
2

10

= 6 I, v =
-2 + 6 I
10

= -6 I, v =
-2 6 I
10
0
= 0, = 6, p = , q =
-2
6
0
0
10
10
y = C1 + C2 cos( 6 t ) + C2 C1 sin( 6 t )
6
6
-2
-2
2. Sketch the general solution:

center
3. Find the particular solution:
10
0 1
C1 + C2 =
-2
6 1
C1 =

1
1
, C2 =
10
5

1
2
y = cos( 6 t ) + sin( 6 t )
1
-1
4. Sketch the particular solution:

Page 33 of 35
Problem:
1
y' =
4

-4
y
1

1
y(0) =
-1
1. Find the general solution:
-4
1
=0
Det
1
4
2 + 17 = 0
2

-4
= 1 + 4 I, v =
4 I
-4
= 1 4 I, v =
-4 I
-4
0
= 1, = 4, p = , q =
0
4
-4

y = et C1 + C2
0

## 2. Sketch the general

0
-4
cos( 4 t ) + C2 C1 sin( 4 t )
4

4
0
solution:

Unstable
3. Find the particular solution:
-4
0 1
C1 + C2 =
0
4 -1
-1
-1
C1 = , C2 =
4
4

1
1
y = et cos( 4 t ) + sin( 4 t )

-1
1
4. Sketch the particular solution:

Page 34 of 35
Problem:
-14
y' =
-12

24
y
10

4
y(0) =
-4
1. Find the general solution:
24
14
=0
Det
10
-12
+ 4 + 148 = 0
2

24

= -2 + 12 I, v =
12 + 12 I
24

= -2 12 I, v =
12 12 I
24
0
= -2, = 12, p = , q =
12
12

24
0
0
24
C1 + C2 cos( 12 t ) + C2 C1 sin( 12 t )

12
12
12
12
2. Sketch the general solution:
y=e

( 2 t )

Stable
3. Find the particular solution:
24
0 4
C1 + C2 =
12
12 -4
1
-1
C1 = , C2 =
6
2
-12

4
cos( 12 t ) + sin( 12 t )
-8

-4
4. Sketch the particular solution:
y=e

( 2 t )

Page 35 of 35
Problem:
6
y' =
4

-10
y
-6

2
y(0) =
1
1. Find the general solution:
-10
6
=0
Det
6
4
+4=0
2

-10

= 2 I, v =
-6 + 2 I
-10

= -2 I, v =
-6 2 I
-10
0
= 0, = 2, p = , q =
-6
2
0
0
-10
-10
y = C1 + C2 cos( 2 t ) + C2 C1 sin( 2 t )
2
2
-6
-6
2. Sketch the general solution:

center
3. Find the particular solution:
-10
0 2
C1 + C2 =
-6
2 1
C1 =

-1
-1
, C2 =
5
10

1
2
y = cos( 2 t ) + sin( 2 t )
1
1
4. Sketch the particular solution: