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# Kelcee Taylor

Statistics
Final Project
Each student was required to obtain a 2.17 oz. bag of Skittles. Each student then counted
the total number of candies, as well as the total number of each color if candy, red, orange,
yellow, green, purple. The class totals were then compiled in order to compare our won totals
amongst out peers. The goal of the assignment is to help me, the student, conceptualize the
ideas we are learning in class. We will learn to organize and analyze data, draw conclusions using
confidence intervals and hypothesis tests, and use our critical thinking skills.
Colors of Candy in each bag

My Data
Yellow (23.53%)
Purple (17.65%)
Red (17.65%)
Green (17.65%)
Orange (23.53%)

Class Data
Yellow (18.45%)
Purple (19.65%)
Red (18.85%)
Green (20.39%)
Orange (22.66%)

My most prevalent color of candy was both yellow and orange, with red, green, and purple all
being second most. The graphs do reflect what I expected to see because there is just about an
equal amount of each color. My data does vary from the class in a few ways, the classs most
prevalent color is only orange while mine is both yellow and orange. The orange were nearly the
same in mine and the class. The class did have a higher percentage of red, green, and purple
than I did, and the yellow was slightly lower than my percentage.

## Mean: 59.8 candies per bag

Standard Deviation: 2.89
Minimum: 53
Q1: 59
Median: 60
Q3: 61.5
Maximum: 68

The shape of this data is not normal, although it does ascend to a maximum and then
descend again. The graphs did show what I expected to see because there is not a lot variation
in the number of candies per bag. Most bags fall within the normal range. My personal bag of
candy had 68 candies in it, which is the maximum.
Categorical data measures things that arent numbers, for example, colors or sizes.
Quantitative data measures numbers, such s, number of candies, or heights of students. For
categorical data, pie charts and Pareto are best, while box plots and stem and leaf plots would
not make sense. Pie charts and Pareto charts make sense for this project because they show how
prevalent one is over another without exact data. On the other hand, box plots and stem and leaf
plots make sense for quantitative data, while pie charts and Pareto charts do not. Box plots and
stem and leaf plots make sense for quantitative data because they use exact numbers. For
categorical data, calculating the mode makes sense because it does not require any numbers, it
only requires frequency. On the other hand, calculating median, mean, and range makes sense
for quantitative data because actual numbers are being used.
Confidence Interval Estimates:
A confidence interval is a range of values whose purpose is to estimate the true value of a
population perimeter.
Confidence Interval Estimate for the true proportion of purple candies:
95% confidence interval results:
p : Proportion of successes
Method: Standard-Wald
ProportionCountTotal Sample Prop. Std. Err.
L. Limit
U. Limit
p
294 1496
0.196524060.01027373 0.17638791 0.21666022
9

We are 95% confident that the interval from 11.35 to 11.64 contains the true proportion of purple
candies in Skittles bags.
Confidence Interval Estimate for the true mean number of candies per bag.
99% confidence interval results:
: Mean of variable
Standard deviation not specified.
Variable
Total

n
25

Sample Mean
59.44

Std. Err.
0.47286362

L. Limit
58.221984

U. Limit
60.658016

We are 99% confident that the interval from 63.81 candies to 64.19 candies contains the true
population mean of number of candies per bag of Skittles.
Confidence Interval Estimate for the standard deviation of number of candies per bag.
98% confidence interval results:
2 : Variance of variable
Variable
Sample Var.
DF
L. Limit
U. Limit
Total
5.59
24
3.1214649
12.357731
We are 98% confident that the interval from 18.75 candies to 26.09 candies contains the true
population standard deviation of candies in bags of Skittles.
The purpose and meaning of a hypothesis test is to propose and idea that is out of the
norm (HA) and then use statistical evidence to either reject or support it.
Use a 0.01 significance level to test the claim that 20% of all Skittles candies are
green:
p : Proportion of successes
H0 : p = 0.2
HA : p 0.2
Proportion

Count

Total

Sample Prop.

Std. Err.

Z-Stat

P-value

305

1496

0.20387701

0.010341754

0.37488858

0.7077

## Reject the Claim that 20 percent of skittles in a bag are green.

We reject Ho and accept HA
Use a 0.05 significance level to test the claim that the mean number of candies in a
bag of Skittles is 56:
Hypothesis test results:
: Mean of variable
H0 : = 56
HA : 56
Variable
Sample Mean
Std. Err.
DF
T-Stat
P-value
# of candies
59.84
0.57930993 24
6.6285761
<0.0001
Reject the claim that the mean number pf candies in a bag is 56

Reflection:
By completing this project I have learned how to apply many different applications to everyday-life type
problems. Also, presenting the information in so many different ways helped me gain a more in depth
understanding of the information that we analyzed. Furthermore, I began to understand statistics better as we
applied the techniques we use in class to a problem that is simple and seen in my daily life.
As I further my education, I know that I will be presented with statistical findings. This project and this
class will help me have a deeper understanding of how they came to those conclusions and give me an insight to
the calculations behind the facts.
The ability to read and follow directions in order to turn it into a project is a skill I was able to develop
throughout this project. I know that I will continue to use this skill through school and in my life. We were not
only required to follow directions carefully in order to present the exact information that was being asked, we
also had to put our own personal touch on the project in order to make it seem more cohesive and fluent.
In the beginning of the project, I had a difficult time understating the instructions and interpreting what
was being asked of me. I attempted to solve the problems by hand with the help of my TI-83. I began to get
frustrated as I felt like I was getting further from the answer instead of closer. However, I was able to overcome
these challenges by utilizing problem solving skills. For example, I used other technology that was available to
help me like StatCrunch and I also looked to my professor for clarity and help.
Different from other classes, statistics has introduced me to more real-world applicable problems that I
often think about in my daily life. For example, I find myself wondering about probabilities quite often like
when I consider the possibility of winning a contest or the probability of having three girls instead of having
three boys as children.
In conclusion, I really believe that statistics has been the most useful math class that I have taken so far.
I can easily see how information is applicable to real world situations so it captures my attention. I have also
seen the different ways that data can be manipulated. This will be a great reminder when I read research and

draw conclusions. I have greatly enjoyed statistics and am excited to continue applying all the skills that I have
learned from it this semester.