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Class Evaluation 2

I learned the most in class at the beginning of the semester on August 26. I
learned the most in this class because the material was interesting to me and with it
being the beginning of the semester I was very motivated. Specifically what I found
most interesting was the discussion of what the criteria of life is. Coincidentally we
did our second scientific writing on whether viruses can be considered alive. That is
a subject I have always enjoyed discussing. I am attaching my typed notes from
that class period as proof of attendance.

Chapter 1

First microscope created by Robert Hooke, with which he discovered

o Primitive microscope later refined by Anton Leewenhoek
Cell Theory created in the mid-1800's by Schleiden, Schwann and
o All organisms are composed of cells
o The cell is the basic building block of life
o New cells arise from pre-existing cells
Culturing (Human) cells
o Life is the basic property of cells
o Cells can grow and reproduce in culture for extended for
extended periods
HeLa are cultured tumor cells isolated from a cancer
patient by George Gey in 1951
Cultured cells are an essential tool for cell biologists
Properties of Cells (9)
1. Complex and Organized

Cellular processes are highly regulated

Different species share similar structure, composition, etc..

2. Have a genetic program (DNA) and means to use it
Genes encode information to build each cell, for cellular
reproduction, activity, and structure
New: Epigenetics
i. Additional modifications to DNA that do not change the








New: Project Encode

i. Apparently "junk DNA" isn't actually junk (introns)
ii. Introns are often control sequences
Capable of replicating/reproducing
Cells reproduce (mitosis), and each daughter cell receives a
complete set of genetic instructions
This egg cell is generated via meiosis, and is used for sexual
reproduction of an organism
Acquire and utilize energy (metabolism)
Photosynthesis provides fuel for all living organisms
Animal cells derive energy from the products of photosynthesis
(mostly glucose)
Cell can convert glucose to ATP
Carry out a variety of chemical reactions
Photosynthesis, Glycolysis, Krebs, Carbohydrate metabolism and
glycation etc...
Engage in mechanical activities: do stuff
Intracellular transport: cytoskeleton
Muscle contration
Amoeboid movement
Respond to stimuli
Cells migrate away from predators
Many can follow nutrient concentration gradients
Most respond to light
Receptors on cell surface used to interact with environment
Simple cell contact contact (confluent)
Capable of self-regulation
Cells must maintain relatively consistent internal environments
despite a fluctuating outside world
Ion concentrations
Membrane potential
Must be able to sense when to divide
Detecting DNA damage
Embryonic Development
From LUCA to all the types of cells we see today
Bacteria are not primitive! They are just as evolved as we are
Eukaryotic cells have changed over time as well
Endosymbiosis led to more complex forms of cells with more
internal organelles
Lateral gene transfer may have been crucial for early prokaryotic