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Exerciii rezolvate cu matrice i determinani
Enunuri
Ex.1.

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Ex.2.

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Ex.4.

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Ex.3.

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Ex.5.

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Ex.6.

## Variante M2 bac 2009

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Rezolvri
Ex.1.
a)Utiliznd relaiile lui Viete obinem x1 x2 x3 0 .
b) x1 , x2 , x3 sunt rdcinile ecuaiei x3 3x 2 0 deci avem:

x13 3x1 2 0
x 2 3 3 x2 2 0
x33 3x3 2 0
..........................
x13 x2 3 x33 3( x1 x2 x3 ) 6 0
x1

x2

x3

c) d x2
x3

x3

x1 3x1 x2 x3 ( x13 x2 3 x3 3 )

x1

x2

## A treia relaie a lui Viete ne d x1 x2 x3

a)

d
2 deci d 6 (6) 0
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Ex.2.

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x13 x2 3 x33 6

1 8 1 1 2 2 2 14 .

1 1 2
b)Adunm ultimele dou linii la prima i obinem:
a b c abc abc abc
1 1 1
c a b
c
a
b
a b c c a b a b c a 2 b 2 c 2 ab ac bc
b c a

b c a

1
1
2
2
2
a b c 2a 2 2b2 2c2 2ab 2ac 2bc a b c a b b c c a .
2
2
c)Folosind punctul b) rezult:
2 x 3x 5 x
2
2
2
1
5 x 2 x 3x 2 x 3x 5 x 2 x 3x 3x 5 x 5 x 2 x 0
2
3x 5 x 2 x

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Ex.3.

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## a)Scriem relaiile lui Viete:

a 1, b 0, c 2, d 0

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x1 x2 x3 a 0

x1 x2 x1 x3 x2 x3 2
a

x1 x2 x a 0
b
Reinem x1 x2 x3 0 .
a

x1

x2

x3

c) d x2
x3

x3

x1

x2

## x1 , x2 , x3 sunt rdcinile ecuaiei x 3 2 x 0 deci avem:

x13 2 x1 0
x2 3 2 x2 0
x33 2 x3 0
..........................
x13 x2 3 x33 2( x1 x2 x3 ) 0
x13 x2 3 x33 0
Mai departe obinem d=0.

Ex.4.

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## Folosim relaiile lui Viete i obinem x12 x22 x32 4 .

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4 6 4 6 4 6
a) A2

A
2 3 2 3 2 3
A3 A2 A A A A .
b) X (a) X (b) I 2 aA I 2 bA I 22 bI 2 A aAI 2 abA2 I 2 bA aA abA
I 2 (a b ab) A X (a b ab) .

## c) X (1) X (2) X (3) ... X (2009) I 2 A I 2 2 A I 2 3 A ... I 2 2009 A

2009 2010
2009 I 2 (1 2 3 ... 2009) A 2009 I 2
A 2009 I 2 1005 2009 A .
2

Ex.5.
a) det( A)

x3

( x 3)2 1 x 2 6 x 8 0
1
x3
Se obin soluiile x1 2 i x2 4 .

1 x 3
1 ( x 3)2 1
2 x 6 x 2 6 x 10
2x 6
x3

b) A

2
2
x 3 1
x 3 2 x 6
( x 3) 1 2 x 6
x 6 x 10
1
1
x3
1 0
(2 x 6) A ( x 2 6 x 8) I 2 (2 x 6)
( x 2 6 x 8)

x 3
1
0 1
2 x 2 12 x 18
x2 6x 8
x 2 6 x 10
2x 6
0
2x 6

2
2
2
2x 6
2 x 12 x 18
0
x 6x 8 2x 6
x 6 x 10

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De aici rezult c A2 (2 x 6) A ( x 2 6 x 8) I 2

2
x 2 6 x 10
2x 6 2x 6

c) A 2 A

2 x 6
x 2 6 x 10 2
2x 6
x 2 6 x 10 2 x 6 x 2 8 x 16 0 ( x 4) 2 0

2x 6 2
2x 8

x4

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1 2 1
a) B2 B B

1 1 1
3 4 3
b) A A1

2 3 2
3 4 3
A1 A

2 3 2

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Ex.6.

2 3 4

A.
1 2 3
4 1 0

I2
3 0 1
4 1 0

## I 2 rezult c A1 este inverse matricei A .

3 0 1
3 4 3 4 6 0
c) C B 2 A1 A A1

6I 2
2 3 2 3 0 6

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C 4 C C C C 6 I 2 6 I 2 6 I 2 6 I 2 64 I 2 .