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Latin American

Revolutions
2 Day Unit

Objectives
Students will be able to
Identify the causes of the Latin
American Revolutions
Discuss the significance of the Latin
American Revolutions
Classify countries in Latin America

Do Now- What was colonialism?

Do you remember?
What country
controlled these areas?
What kind of
government did they
have?
How did they treat the
natives?
What do you think the
effects of this will be?

Upper
Class

Lower
Class

Name of Social Class

Definition

Occupations

1) Peninsulares

Colonial Leaders born in Spain Top government officials


and Portugal (Smallest
Plantation Owners
percentage of the population)

2) Creoles

Descendants of Portuguese
and Spanish settlers born in
the colonies (Peninsulares
and Creoles were were
wealthy, powerful, and
owned large amounts of land)

Army Officers
Plantation Owners
(Could not hold political
office)

3) Mestizos

People of mixed Spanish and


Native American ancestry
(Largest percentage of the
population in most colonies)

Servants, Laborers,
Overseers of Plantations

4) Mulattos

People of mixed African and


European ancestry

Servants, Laborers,
Overseers of Plantations

5) Native Americans and


Africans

People with no European


ancestry

Slaves

Causes
Latin America was made up of
colonies of European countries
during the 1800s
Social classes of Latin America was
unfair- many people were unhappy
Ideas of liberty and equality from the
Enlightenment spread to Latin
America
American and French Revolutions
showed that it could be done

Haitian Revolution- Where is


Where isHaiti?
Haiti?

Set the
PACE
P- Make a
PREDICTION

A- ASK a question

C- Make a
CONNECTION

Haitian Revolution
Haiti was a French colony that
produced sugar and coffee
Had a large slave population
Slaves were treated brutally and
lived in poor conditions
Were being ignored by France while it
was preoccupied with its own
revolution

Haitian Revolution

Haitian Revolution

Slaves outnumbered
Slaves
French
colonists
10:1outnumbered
(500,000 slaves
French colonists
vs. 60,000
French
10:1 (500,000
colonists)
slaves vs. 60,000
In 1791,
acolonists)
group of
French
100,000
slaves
In 1791,
a group of
rebelled
100,000 slaves
rebelled

Haitian Revolution

Toussaint LOuverture
Leader of Haitian
Revolution
Gained control of Haiti
and freed all slaves
French troops captured
LOuverture
Died in a French prison in
1803
Haiti became independent
from France in 1804
Only successful slave
revolt in history

Mexican Revolution

Causes
Mexico was a colony of Spain called
New Spain
The lower classes suffered from high
food prices, racial discrimination, and
slavery
When Napoleon conquered Spain in
1808, lower classes revolted
Revolt was unsuccessful because
creoles did not support it (feared
losing their power)

Miguel Hidalgo
The Father of Mexican
Independence
Creole that
sympathized with the
lower classes
On September 16,
1810, Hidalgo called
for the lower classes to
rebel again in a speech
called el Grito de
Dolores

Miguel Hidalgo
On July 31st, 1811
he was executed
for committing
treason
The revolution
continued

Mexico Gains Independence


By 1821, Creoles supported the
revolution because they wanted
liberty and equality
Enlightenment ideas!

Central American
Independence

1823- Costa Rica, El Salvador,


Guatemala, Honduras and Nicaragua
also claimed their independence
from Spain

Latin American Revolutions Map Activity


1. At the top of each blank map worksheet (on both sides), add the title Independence
Movements
2. Using pages R12 R15 in the purple, Journey Across Time textbook, label the following
Latin American nations on your blank maps (Do not color themyet!):
Middle AmericaMap
A. Haiti
B. Mexico
C. Costa Rica
D. El Salvador
E. Guatemala
F. Honduras
G. Nicaragua

South AmericaMap
A. Argentina
B. Venezuela
C. Colombia
D. Ecuador
E. Peru
F. Chile
G. Brazil

3. Using your Class Notes (along with your previous knowledge of colonialism), determine the
mother country that controlled each of these countries before they gained their
independence. As you do so, color the countries according to the directions below:
A. If the country was a colony of Spain, color it Red
B. If the country was a colony of France, color it Blue
C. If the country was a colony of Portugal, color it Green
4. Using your Class Notes, write the year that each country won their independence. Write
this next to each countrys name.
5. For each leader listed below, draw stick figures (using the colors listed below) on all of the
countries where they led independence movements.
A.
B.
C.
D.

For Toussaint LOverture, draw an orange stick figure


For Miguel Hidalgo, draw a yellow stick figure
For Jose de San Martin, draw a brown stick figure
For Simon Bolivar, draw a purple stick figure

6. After you have completed each of these tasks, create a map key that displays the mother
country represented by each color. Also, include the colored stick figures and the leaders
represented by each in your map key. Complete this on both sides of your blank maps.

Name: ____________________________________________________

Period: _________

Date: ____________________

Assignment

South American
Independence

Simon Bolivar
Most South American
countries were being
ruled by Spain in the
1800s
Bolivar was a Creole
general
Known as the George
Washington of South
America
Wanted to unite all
South American
countries

Simon Bolivar
Led independence
in:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Venezuela in 1811
Colombia in 1819
Peru in 1821
Ecuador in 1822

Jose de San Martin

Creole general that


led independence
movements at the
same time as
Bolivar

Jose de San Martin


Led independence
in:
1. Argentina in 1810
2. Chile in 1818
3. Joined forces with
Bolivar in Peru and
Ecuador in 18211822

Brazils Independence
In 1822, Brazil
declared its
independence from
Portugal in a
bloodless
revolution

Assignment
Map activity due on Thursday

Latin American Revolutions Map Activity


1. At the top of each blank map worksheet (on both sides), add the title Independence
Movements
2. Using pages R12 R15 in the purple, Journey Across Time textbook, label the following
Latin American nations on your blank maps (Do not color themyet!):
Middle AmericaMap
A. Haiti
B. Mexico
C. Costa Rica
D. El Salvador
E. Guatemala
F. Honduras
G. Nicaragua

South AmericaMap
A. Argentina
B. Venezuela
C. Colombia
D. Ecuador
E. Peru
F. Chile
G. Brazil

3. Using your Class Notes (along with your previous knowledge of colonialism), determine the
mother country that controlled each of these countries before they gained their
independence. As you do so, color the countries according to the directions below:
A. If the country was a colony of Spain, color it Red
B. If the country was a colony of France, color it Blue
C. If the country was a colony of Portugal, color it Green
4. Using your Class Notes, write the year that each country won their independence. Write
this next to each countrys name.
5. For each leader listed below, draw stick figures (using the colors listed below) on all of the
countries where they led independence movements.
A.
B.
C.
D.

For Toussaint LOverture, draw an orange stick figure


For Miguel Hidalgo, draw a yellow stick figure
For Jose de San Martin, draw a brown stick figure
For Simon Bolivar, draw a purple stick figure

6. After you have completed each of these tasks, create a map key that displays the mother
country represented by each color. Also, include the colored stick figures and the leaders
represented by each in your map key. Complete this on both sides of your blank maps.