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GTLN GTNN Phan Huy Khai Www.vnmath

GTLN GTNN Phan Huy Khai Www.vnmath

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PHAN HUY KHAI

CHUYEN DE 801 OU'UNG HOC SINH GU;I TO AN

• 7 '.

TRUNG HOC CO' SO'

, , A' ? A'

CIA TRI LaN NHAT vA NHO NHAT

? A'

CUAHAMSO

, ~, ~ ,

NHA XUAT BAN GIAO DVC

Chuang I.

. ?, ~,

co SO LI THUYET

,.'.t ,.

§ 1. BAT DANG THIJC

1. Dinh nghia

Cho hai s6,a va b. Ta noi d.ng

1. a > b ¢:> a - b > O.

2. a < b ¢:> a - b < O.

2. Cac tinh ehfft cd ban cua bfft dAng thue 1. Ne'u a > b, b > c thi a > c.

(Tinh chat bllc cfiu cua bat d~ng thirc), Chang minh :

Ta co

a - c = (a - b) + (b - c). (1)

Vi a> b nen a - b > 0 ; tuong tl;l b - c > 0 (do b > c).

Vi the' (a - b) + (b - c) = 0 (do t6ng cua hai s6 duong la s6 duong).

Theo dinh nghia, tU a - c > 0 suy ra a > c => d.p.c.rn.

2. Neu a > b thi

rna > rnb neu rn > 0, rna < rnb neu rn < O.

3. Ne'u a > b ; c > d thi a + c > b + d.

4. Neu a > b ; c < d thi a - c > b - d.

5. Neu a > b > 0 va c > d > 0, thi ac > bd.

6. Neu a > b > 0 va 0 < c < d, thi ~ > ~.

c d

7. Ne'u a > b > 0 thi an > b", "in nguyen ducng.

8. Neu a >-b thi a2n+1 > b2n+1 , "in tu nhien. Chu v :

- Chung rninh cac tinh chat tu 2. de'n 6. d~u dua true tiep vao djnh nghia cua bat d~ng thuc va chung rninh tuong tu nhu 1. (va xin danh cho ban doc).

- Bay gid ta chung rninh 7.

Ap dung hang d~ng thuc quen bie't

x'' _ v" = (x _ y) (xn-1 + xn-2y + ... + xyn-2 + yn-l),

3

ta co

an _ b'' = (a _ b) (an-l + an-2b + ... + abn-2 + bn-l).

Do a - b > 0 (vi a > b) con bi~u thuc trong dau ngoac con lai la

t6ng cua n so duong, vi the' bi~u thuc a'y duong. Vi the' an - b'' > o.

Theo dinh nghia suy ra an > b". Tinh cha't 7 duoc chung minh. - Chuyen sang chimg minh 8.

Xet ba truong hop sau :

1. Gia s\1 a = 0 ~ a2n+l = o. Do a > b ~ b < 0 ~ b2n+l < 0 (luy thira bac Ie cua mQt so am la so am) ~ a2n+l > b2n+l. 2. Gia s\1 a < O. Vi a > b ~ b < o.

Til a> b ~ 0 < -a < -b. V~y theo 7. suy ra

(_a)2n+l < (_b)2n+l ~ _a2n+l < _b2n+l ~ a2n+l > b2n+l.

3. Gia s\1 a > O. Khi do

- Neu b :$; 0 thi a2n+l > 0 ~ b2n+l.

- Neu b > 0 thi til a > b > 0, thea 7. suy ra a2n+l > b2n+l.

Tom lai ta luon co a2n+l > b2n+l. Tinh chat 8 duoc cluing minh.

3. Cac bat dAng thue thong dung

3.1. Bat ding thue Co-si

Cho al, a2, ... an la cac so khong am. Khi do

al + a2 + ... + an > nf

. - Vala2···an

n

2. Dau bang xay ra trong (1) khi va chi' khi al = a2 = ... = an.

Chung minh :

Ta s\1 dung nguyen If quy nap toan hoc d~ chirng minh. - Voi n = 2 ba't d&ng thirc (1) ~o dang

1.

(1)

(2)

~(al-a2)2~0. (~)

Vi (3) hi~n nhien dung, nen (2) dung. Til (3) suy ra da'u bang' xay ra ~ al = a2.

V~y ba't d&ng thirc Co-si dung khi n = 2.

4

- Gia 811 b~t d~ng thuc (1) da dung den n = k, We la vdi moi aI' a2, ... , ak ~ ° ta co

al + a2 + ... + ak k!

k ~ VaIa2··· ak'

va d~u bang xay ra trong b~t d~ng thuc tren <=> al = a2 = ... = ak. - Xet khi n = k + 1. V(ji aI' a2' ... , ak+1 kh6ng am, ta co

k al + a2 + ... + ak

+ak+1

S - al +a2 + ... +ak+1 _ k (4)

k+l - k + 1 - k + 1

,

Tu (4) va thea gia thiet quy n~p, ta co

S k~aIa2···ak + ak+1

k+I ~ . k + 1· (5)

Dau bAng trong (5) xay ra (theo gia thiet quy nap) <=>

al = a2 = ... = ak·

D~t aIa2 ... ak = ak(k+1) va ak+1 = ~k+I. Khi do (5) co dang

kak+1 + ~k+1 Sk+1 ~

k+1

(6)

Tli (6) di den

kak+1 + ~k+1

Sk+1 - k+~aIa2 ... ak+1 ~ - ak~. (7)

k+1

BAng phep tinh ta co

k k+l Ak+1 k kA kA 1

VF(7)= a +p - a p-a p =-[kak(a-~)-~(ak _~k)]

.. k-i I k+1

= ~:~[ kak _~(ak-I +ak-2~+ ... +a~k-2 +~k-I)]

= ~:~[ ak-l(a_~)+ak-2(a2 _~2)+ ... +

+ a2 (ak-2 _ ~k-2) + a( ak-1 - ~k-I)]

= (a_~)2 [ak-I +ak-2(a+~)+ ... +

k+1

+ a2(ak-a +ak-4 + ... +~k-a)+a(ak-2 +ak-a~+ ... +~k-2)J.

Vi a ~ 0, ~ ~ 0, nen tU tren 8Uy ra

5

VF(7) ~ 0 va VF(7) = 0 ¢:> a = p.

Tli do dua vao (7) va theo tinh chat bllc c~u cua bat dAng thuc ta co

Sk+l - k+~ala2· .. ak+l ~ 0

tUcla

(8)

Dau bang trong (8) xay ra ¢:> {al = a2 = ... = ak a=p

¢:> al = a2 = ... = ak = ak+l

Vf}..y bat dAng thuc Co-si cling dung khi n = k + I. Theo nguyen If quy nap suy ra (1) dung vdi 'lin = 1, 2 ... Bat dAng thuc Co-si duoc chung minh hoan toano

Chuy:

Voi ban doc d chuong trinh hQC co Sd, rat hay s11 dung bat dAng thirc Co-si khi n = 2, 3, 4. Chung t6i xin gidi thieu each chung minh khi n = 4, n = 3 .

• Vai n = 4

Ta co each chung minh don gian sau day:

Ap dung bat dAng thuc Co-si khi n = 2, ta co al + a2 a3 +a4

al + a2 + a3 + a4 _ 2 + 2 ~ J al + a2 . a3 + a4 •

4 2 ~ 2 2

Lai ap dung bat dAng thuc Co-si khi n = 2, ta co

I al + a2 a3 + a4 I trz: trz: 41

~ 2 . 2 ~ VVala2 'Va3a4 = Vala2a3a4'

(1)

(2)

Tli (1) (2) suy ra

al + a2 + a3 + a4 4/

--=----=----''----=- ~ V al a2a3 a 4 •

4

Dau bang' xay ra trong (3) ¢:> d6ng thai co dau b~ng trong (1) va (2), hay

(3)

{al + a2 a3 + a4

2 ~ ~ . ¢:> al = a2 = a3 = a4•

al = a2 ' a3 - a4

Vf}..y bat dAng thirc Co-si dung vdi n = 4 . • Vai n = 3

Cach chirng minh nhu sau:

Ap dung bat dAng thirc Co-si vdi n = 4, ta co

6

(4)

Do aI' a2' aa khong am nen al + a2 + aa ~ O. Tuy nhien neu al + a2 + aa = 0 thi b~t dAng thuc da cho hi~n nhien dung (vi khi do al = a2 = aa = 0 va ca hai ve cua b~t dAng thuc cfin chung minh d~u bang 0).

Vi the

al + a2 + aa ~

~ ~ aIa2aa'

3

Theo truong hop n = 4, thi dau bAng trong (5) xay ra khi va chi khi

(5),

_ _ _ al + a2 + aa _ _ _

al - a2 - aa - 3· - al - a2 - aa'

V~y b~t dAng thuc Co-si dung khi n = 3.

3.2. Bat ddng thitc Bu-nhi-a-cdp-shi

Cho au a2' ... , an va bl, b2, "0' bn la 2n s6b~t ki. Khi do ta co

(a~ + a~ + ... + a!)( b~ + b~ + ... + b!) ~ (al bi + a2 b2 + ... + an bn)2 . (1) DAu bAng trong (1) xay ra khi va chi khi

!!.. = a2 = = an (2)

bi b2 bn

(Luu y rAng neu trong (2) bj = 0, thi ta se hi~u la aj tuong ung

cimg = 0).

ChUng minh:

Xet tam thirc b~c hai sau day

f(x) = (a~ +a~ + ... +a!)x2 -2(albl +a2b2 + ... +anbn)x+

+ (b~ + b~ + ... + b! )

Ta co th~ viet lai f(x) dudi dang sau :

f(x) = ( al x - bl)2 + ( a2x ~ b2)2 + ... + (an x - b, )2 . (3)

7

Nhu v~y tit (3) suy ra f(x) ~ 0, 'Vx E R.

(4)

T hi tA khi 2 2 2 O"~ '" 2 2 2 0

a c quan am al + a2 + ... + an > \ y I neu al + a2 + ... + an =

thi al = a2 = ... = an = 0 va hie nay (1) hi~n nhien dung vi ca hai ve d~u = 0).

Nhu the f(x) la tam thuc bac hai rna f(x) ~ 0, vx E R,

a = a~ + a~ + ... + a~ > 0, nen thea dinh If v~ dau cua tam thuc bac hai ta co 6,' s 0, hay

( al bl + a2 b2 + ... + an bn)2 - (a~ + ... + a~ )( b~ + ... + b~ ) s 0 ,

tuc la

( a~ + a~ + ... + a~)( b~ + b~ + ... +b!) ~ (al bl + a2b2 + ... + an bn)2 .

V~y ph fin 1 cua bfft dAng thuc Bu-nhi-a-cop-ski diroc chung minh. Theo (3) dau bdng trong (1) xay ra khi va chi khi h~ sau day

alx - bl = 0

a2x- b2 = 0

anx - bn = 0 co nghiern. Di~u nay tuong dirong vdi

~= a2 = = an

bl b2 bn

(vdi each hi~u khi bj = 0 thi aj = 0).

Bfft dAng thuc Bu-nhi-a-cdp-ski duoc chung minh hoan toano cna «,

Ta ciing co th~ thffy rdng : Bfft dAng thuc Bu-nhi-a-cop-ski xem . nhu h~ qua cua bfft dAng thuc Co-si.

Th~t vay

$ ~a~ + a~ + + a~ . ~b~ + b~ + ... + b~ . (5)

Ta chi cfin xet khi a~ + a~ + + a~ > 0 va b~ + b~ + ... + b~ > 0 (vi

neu m9t trong hai t6ng tren bang' 0, chang han b~ + ... + b~ = 0 thi (5) hi~n nhien dung vi ca hai ve cua no d~u bang 0). Vi the

(5) ......... lalbl + a2b2 + ... + anbnl

....... I $1.

yar + a~ + ... + a~ .~br + b~ + ... + b~

(6)

8

Theo tinh chat cua gia tri tuyet d6i, ta co

VT(6) ~ lalbll + ... + lanbnl

~a~ + ... + a~ )b~ + ... + b~ ~a~ + '" + a~ )b~ + .,. + b~

Theo ba:t d&ng thuc Co-si, thi

jail . Ibll s 1 ( ~ a~ 2 + 2 b~ 2 J

~ a~ + ... + a~ ~b~ + ... + b~ 2 al + ... + an bl + ... + bn

(7)

I 2 lanl 2 '~/;=2====lb=nl==:=2 s ~( 2 a~ 2 + b2 b~ b2 J "al + .,. + an "bl + ... + bn al + ... + an I + ... + n

Cong tung v6 n ba:t d&ng thuc tren, ta co

(8)

VF(7) ~.!.( a~ + + a~ + b~ + + b~ J = 1.

2 al + + an bl + + bn

Tu do theo tinh chat bAc cfiu cua ba:t d&ng thuc suy ra (6) dung. Dau bang trong (5) xay ra

<=> d6ng thoi co da:u bang trong (6) va (8) cung dau

{ al bl, a2b2, ... , an bn

<=> laj I Ibj I Vi = l,n

~~====:==~~====:=

~a~ + ... +a~ ~b~ + ... + b~

<=>!l.= =~

bl bn

Ba:t d&ng thuc Bu-nhi-a-cop-ski duoc chung minh hoan toan dua vao ba:t d&ng thuc Co-si,

Bat ddng thuc Tre-bu-sep

Cho hai day tang al s a2 s ... s an va bl s b2 s ... s bn . Khi do ta co

(al +a2+···+an)(bl +b2+···+bn)~n(albl +a2b2+ ... +anbn)' (1) Da:u bAng trong (1) xay ra khi va chi khi

hoac al = a2 = ... = an , hoac bl = b2 = ... = b, .

Chung minh:

Dat a = al + a2 + ... + an .

. n

Do al ~ a2 ~ ... ~ an ' nen t6n tai m(>t chu s6i sao cho al s a2 s ... s aj s a s aj+l s ... s an .

9

LB:'y s6 b tuy y sao cho

bl s b2 s ... s b, s b s bi+l s ... s bn.

Khi do vdi moi k = 1, n ro rang, ta co

( a k - a )( bk - b ) ~ 0

~ akbk - bak - abk + ab ~ 0, vk=I,n

CQng tUng v6 n bB:'t dl1ng thuc dang (*), ta co

(*)

n n n

Iakbk -bIak -aIbk +nab z O'.

k=l k=l k=I

(**)

n n n

Vi bIak =nab, nen tU(**) suyra Iakbk -aIbk ~O,

k~ k~ k~

n 1 n n

hay Iakbk ~- IakI bk, We la

k=l nk=l k=l

n(a1bl + ... +anbn)~(al + ... +an)(bi + ... +bn)·

Cling tit do suy ra dau bang trong (1) xay ra, nghia la hoac al = a2 = ... = an hoac bi = b2 = ... = bn .

Bat dAng thuc Tre-bu-sep duoc chung minh.

Chuy:

Doi khi bat dAng thuc Tre-bu-sep duoc phat bi~u dudi dang tuong

duong sau :

Cho day tang al s a2 s ... s an va day giam bi ~ b2 ~ ... ~ bn . Khi do ta co bat dAng thirc sau

(al + a2 + ... + an )(bl + b2 + ... + bn) ~ n ( al bi + a2 b2 + ... + an bn ) . (2) DB:'u bang xay ra trong bB:'t dAng thuc tren ~

hoac al = a2 = ... = an hoac bI= b2 = ... = bn .

Th~t v~y bang each d~t b, = -bi, ta co bi s b2 s ... s b~. Ap dung bB:'t dAng thuc Tre-bu-sep cho hai day tang

al s a2 s ... s an va bi s b2 ~ ... s b~ , ta co

(al + a2 + ... + an) (bi + b2 + ... + b~ ) s n ( al bi + a2 b2 + ... + an b~ )

~ -(al +a2 + +an)(bl + b2 + + bn) ~ -n(a1bl + a2b2 + ... +anbn)

~ (al +a2 + + an)(bi + b2 + + bn) ~ n(a1b1+ a2b2 + ... + anbn)·

V~y (2) dung.

10

" ,.' " , , ,.'

§ 2. CAC TINH CHAT ca BAN CUA GIATRI LaN NHAT

vA NHO NHAT CliA HAm so

1. Dinh nghia

Cho ham s6 f(x) xac dinh tren mien D. Ta noi dng

a) 86 M la gia trj IOn nhat cua ham s6 f(x) tren mien D, va kf hieu la

M = maxf(x), xeD

neu nhu hai di~u kien sau day d6ng thai tho a man:

1. f(x):5 M, 'v'x E D

2. T6n tai Xo ED sao cho f(xo) = M.

b) 86 m la gia tri nho nhat cua ham s6 f(x) tren mien D, va kf hieu la

m = minf(x),

xeD

ne'u nhu hai di~u kien sau day d6ng thai thoa man:

1. f(x) ~ m, 'v'x E D

2. T6n tai Xo ED sao cho f(xo) = m.

2. Cac tinh chat cd ban cua gia tri IOn nhdt, nhe nhat cua ham so 2.1. Tinh chat 1 :

Gia si':l f(x) xac dinh tren D va A, B la hai t~p hop con cua D, trong do A ~ B . Gia si':l t6n tai max f(x) , max f(x), min f(x) , min f(x) . Khi do

. xeA xeB xeA xeB

ta co

max f'(x) :5 max f(x) ,

xeA xeB

(1) (2)

min f(x) ~ min f(x) .

xeA xeB

Chang minh:

Ta chi cfin chung minh (1) (vi (2) duoc chung minh hoan toan tuong tu),

Giasi':l maxf(x)=f(xo),voi xoEA.Do AcB, nen tu xoEAsuy

xeA

ra Xo E B. Tit do thea dinh nghia suy ra

f(xo) :5 max f(x) , hay max f(x) :5. max f(x) .

xeB xeA xeB

11

2.2. Tinh chat 2 :

Gilt s11 ham s6 f(x) xac dinh tren D va tan tai max f(x) va min f(x) .

XED xED

Khi do ta co

max f(x) = - min (-f(x») ; min f(x) = - max (-f(x»).

XED xED xED xED

Chung minh.:

Gilt S11 M = max f(x) .

XED

Khi do theo dinh nghia gia tri IOn nhat, ta co

{f(X)$M VXED f(xo)= M, vdi Xo E D.

Tu h~ tren suy ra

{-f(X) ~-M -f(xo)=-M.

Theo dinh nghla cua gia tri nho nhat, tU (*) suy ra min( -f(x»)= -M.

XED

VXED

(*)

Nhu v~yta di de'n maxf(x)= -min( -f(x») => d.p.c.m.

XED xED

Phan sau chung minh hoan toan tuong tu, Nhij,n xet :

Tinh chll't 2 cho phep ta chuyen bai toan tim gia tri Ion nhat thanh bai toan tim gia t,rj nho nhll't hoac nguoc lai. Digu nay co ich trong nhieu trurmg hop cu the se xet sau nay.

2.3. Tinh chat 3 :

Gilt s11 f(x) va g(x) la hai ham s6 cling xac dinh tren mien D va thoa man digu kien f(x) ~ g(x) Vx E D.

Khi do ta co max f(x) ~ max g(x).

XED xED

Chung minh :

Gilt s11 maxg(x) =g(xo), vdi Xo ED

XED

Tu gilt thiet ta co g(xo) $ f(xo)'

Vi Xo E D, nen thea dinh nghia gia tri IOn nhat ta co f(xo) $ maxf(x).

XED

(1)

(2)

Tu (1) (2) suy ra max f(x) ~ max g(x).

XED XED

Do la d.p.c.m.

12

2.4. Tinh chat 4 :

Gia s11 f(x) xac dinh tren mien xac dinh D va .mien D dUQc bi~u di~n dudi dang

D=D1 UD2·

Gia thie't t6n tai max f(x) va minf(x) Vi=Ln .

xED; XED;

Khi d6 ta c6 cong thuc sau :

max f(x) =max{maXf(X), maXf(X)}'

XED XED! XED2

(1)

minf(x) = min{minf(X),minf(X)}.. (2)

XED xED! xED2

Chung minh:

Ta chi clln cluing minh (1) (con (2) duoc chung minh bang m9t each hoan toan tuong tv). Vi D, <;; D , i = 1, 2 ; nen theo tinh chat 2, ta c6

max f(x) ~ max f(x) ; maxf(x) ~ max f(x) . (3)

XED! XED XED2 XED

rc (3) suy ra max {rna. x f(x), max f(X)} s max f(x).

XED! XED2 xED

Gia s11 max f(x) = f(xo), vdi Xo ED.

XED

Vi D = D, U D2 rna Xo E D nen Xo E D, U D2 . Do vf}.y Xo phai thuoc v~ it nhat mot trong hai tf}.p D1, D2. Tu: d6 c6 th~ cho la (rna khong h~ lam giam su t6'ng quat) Xo E D1.

Tu Xo E D, , nen thea dinh nghia v~ gia trj Ion nhat ta c6

f(xo) s maxf(x). (5)

XED!

(4)

Le hi~n nhien

max f(x) s max {max f'(x),

xED! xED!

Tu: (5), (6) suy ra

f(xo) = maxf(x) s max{maXf(X),

XED xED!

Bay gid tU (4), (7) ta di de'n

maXf(X)}.

XED2

(6)

maXf(X)}.

XED2

(7)

max f'(x) = max{maXf(X), maXf(X)}.

XED xED! XED2

D6 la d.p.c.m.

13

Nltlj,n xet :

1. Tfnh cha't 4 co th~ phat hi~u dudi dang md rQng chut it nhu sau :

Ne'u mien xac dinh D ella ham so f(x) co dang D=D1 UD2 U .. , UDn

va gia sit t6n tai max f'(x), min f'(x), Vi = 1, n. Khi do ta co

xeDj xeDj

maxf(x) = max{maXf(X), ... , maXf(X)}'

xeD xeD, xeDn.

minf(x)= min{minf(X), ... , minf(X)}.

xeD xeD, xeDn

2. Nhotinh cha't 4 noi tren cho phep ta co th~ bien bai toan tim gia tri Ion nha't, gia tri nho nhat cua mQt ham. so tren mQt mien xac dinh phuc tap thanh mQt day cac bai toan tim gia tri IOn nhat, nho nha't ella ham so a'y tren cac mi~n xac dinh don gian hon (di nhien viec giai cac bai toan : tim max f'(x), min f'(xj noi chung la dongian hon nhieu so vdi

xeDj xeDj

viec giai cac bai toan tirn max f'(x), min f'(xl). Vi If do ay nen tinh chat 4

xeD xeD

con hay goi la nguyen li pluui rd.

3. Dua vao tfnh chat 2 ta co th~ dua vao phan 1 d~ chung minh phan 2 ella tfnh cha't 4 nhir sau :

Theo tinh chat 2 thi

min f(x) == - max ( -f'(xj]

xeD xeD

Dua vao phan 1 ella tfnh chat 4 (vita ehung minh), ta co minf(x) = -[max{max( -f'(xj), max( -f(X»)}]

xeD xeD, xeD2

= -[max {- min f(x), - min f(X)}]

xeD, xeD2

= min{minf(X),min f(X)}.

xeD, xeD2

Dola d.p.c.m,

14

2.5. Tinh chat 5 :

Cho cac ham so f1 (x), f2(x), ... , fn (x) cung xac dinh tren mien D.

D~t f(x) = f1 (x) + f2(x) + ... + fn (x). Gia su t6n tai max f(x), min f(xl).

xeD xeD

max fj (x), min fj (x) vdi moi i = 1, n.

xeD xeD

Khi do ta co

maxf(xj s max f (x)+ maxf2(x)+ ... + max f, (x), (1)

xeD xeD xeD xeD

min f(x) ~ min f1 (x)+ min f2 (xj+ ... + min fn (x). (2)

xeD xeD xeD xeD

D~u b~ng trong (1) xay ra khi va chi khi t6n tai Xo ED sao cho

max f.Ix) = fj(xo), Vi = l,n.

xeD

Dau b~ng trong (2) xay ra khi va chi khi t6n tai Xo ED sao cho

min f.Ix) = fj(xo), Vi = 1,n.

xeD

Chung minh:

Ta chung minh (1) (vdi (2) phep chung minh hoan toan tuong tu). Lay tuy y xED. Theo dinh nghia cua gia tri Ion nh~t ta co

fj(x):::; max f.Ix), Vi=l,n (3)

xeD

CQng tung v€ n b~t d~ng thuc (3), ta co

f(x) = f1 (x) + ... + fn (x):::; max f1 (x)+ ... + max f, (x). (4)

xieD Xi eD

Vi b~t d~ng thuc (4) dung vdi moi XE D, nen ta co

maxf'(xj s max f (x)+ ... + maxfn(x). (5)

xeD xeD xeD

V~y (1) dung. Bay gid ta xet kha nang co dau bang' trong (1).

Gia su t6n tai Xo ED rna max f Ix) = fj(xo), Vi=l,n.

xeD

Tu do ta co

max f (x)« ... + max fn (x) = f1 (xo) + ... + fn (xo) = f(xo)' (6)

xeD xeD

Do f(xo):::; maxf(x), nen til (6) suy ra

xeD

max f1 (x)+ ... + max fn (x) :::; max f(x) . (7)

xeD xeD xeD

Tu (5), (7) suy ra trong trudn~ hop nay xay ra dau bang trong (1).

Dao lai, gia su dau bang trong (1) xay ra, ttrc la

maxf(x) = max f (x)+ ... + max L'(x), (*)

xeD xeD xeD

15

Khi do, goi Xo Ia gia trj (e D) sao cho f(xo) = maxf(x). Nhu the, vdi

xeD

Vi = 1, 2, ... , n, ta cling co fj (xo) = max fj (x), vi neu nguoc lai, se t6n tai

xeD

k e [i, ... n} rna fk(xO) < maxfk(x), suy ra (*) khong con dung nua (ve trai

xeD

IOn hen ve phai).

V~y tinh chat 5 duoc chung minh.

Nhijn xet :

1. Tinh chat 5 cho ta thfly r~ng noi chung khong th~ thay viec tim gia tri IOn nhat (nho nhat) cua mot tang cac ham so bang' viec tim tang cac gia tri Ion nhat (nho nhat) cua tung ham so don Ie. Tuy nhien, neu di~u nay se thuc hien duoc trong cac truong hop nhu dii xet d tren, bai toan se trd nen don gian hen nhieu.

2. Tinh chat 5 cling cho phep ta chirng minh bflt dAng thuc Svac-xo mQt each dQc dao nhu sau :

Bat ddng thuc Suac-xa

Cho aI' a2, ... , an > O. Khi do ta co

b~ b~ b~ (b1 + b2 + ... + bn)2

- + - + ... + - ~ ..!.......:=----=---___;~

a1 a2 an a1 + a2 + ... + an

Chung minh "

Gia si':L xet ham so fl (x)= a1 x2 + 2b1 x. Do a1 > 0 nen theo tfnh chat cua ham so b~c hai, ta co

min fl (x) = fl (_~) = -b~ .

xeR a a1

Tuong W xet fk(x) = akx2 + 2bkx va cling co

. -b~

mmfk(x) = -, k = 2,3, ... , n.

xeR ak

D~t f(x) = fl (x) + f2(x) + ... + fn (x)

= (a1 + a2 + ... + an) x2 + 2 (b1 + b2 + ... + bn) x.

Theo tinh chflt 5 cua gia tri Ion nhat, ta co

min fl (x)+ min f2 (x)+ ... + min fn (x) ~ min f(x). (1)

xeR xeR xeR xeR

T 1 . . f) (b1 + b2 + .. , + bn)2

a 1;\1 co mm (x = - ....:......;:;_____;;;.------'~

xeR a1 + a2 + ... + an

Tu do ap dung (1) suy ra

16

b~ b~ b~-(bi + b2 + ... + bn)2

-- - - - ••• - -::; ~__;;_--=---....::..;:..,_

al a2 an al + a2 + ... + an

b~ b~ b~ (bi + b2 + ... + bn)2

-+-+ ... +-~ (2)

al a2 an al + a2 + ... + an

B~t d:1ng thuc Svac-xo duoc.chung minh.

Dau bang trong (2) xay ra khi va chi khi, t~t ca cac ham 56 fl (x), f2(x), ... , fn (x) cung dat gia tri nho nhat tai mQt di~m chung. Vi

fk(x) dat gia tri nho nh~t tai mot di~m duy nhat xk = - bk , va cimg nhu ak

vay f(x) dat gia trj nho nhat tai di~m duy nh~t

nen dau bang trong (2) xay ra khi va chi khi

b b b b b b

__ 1 =_J= ... = _ _lL<=>_I =J= ... =_lL.

al a2 an al a2 an

Roan toan tuong tv nhu tinh ch~t 5, ta d~ dang chung minh duoc tinh ch~t sau day:

2.6. Tinh chat 6 :

Gilt sil fl (x), f2(x), ... , fn (x) cung xac dinh tren mien D va ta co fi (x) > 0 Vx E D, Vi = 1,n. Gilt thie't t6n tai max fi (x) , min fi (x) ,

xeD xeD

max f(x), min f(x), d day f(x) = fl (x) . f2(x) ... fn (x) va i = 1,n. Khi do

xeD xeD

ta CO

max f(x) s (ma~ fl (x»)(max f2(X») ... (max fn (X»), (1)

xeD xeD xeD xeD

min f(x)::; (min fl (X»)(min f2(x») ... (min fn (X»). (2)

xeD xeD xeD xeD

2.7. Tinh chat 7 :

Gia sil f'(x) va g(x) la hai ham 56 cung xac dinh tren mien D. D~t h(x) = f'(x) - g(x). Gia sil t6n tai cac gia tri ldn nhat, nho nhat cua cac ham 56 f(x), g(x), h(x) tren D. Khi do ta co

max h(x) ::; max f(x)- min g(x),

xeD xeD xeD

min h(x) ~ min f(x)- max gtx),

xeD xeD xeD

(1) (2)

2A-GTLN&NNHS

17

Dau bang trong (1) xay ra khi va chi khi t6n tai Xo E Dsao cho maxf(x) = f(xo) ; ming(x) = g(xo).

XED xED

Dau bang trong (2) xay ra khi va chi khi t6n tai Xo ED sao cho

min f(x) = f(xo); max g(x) = g(xo)'

XED xED

Chung minh :

Ta chi dn chung minh (1) Ta co

hex) = f(x) - g(x) = f(x) + (-g(x».

Theo tinh chat 5 ta co

max hex) s max f(x) + max ( -g(x»).

XED xED xED

Theo tinh chat 2, ta co

max( -g(x») = -min[ -( -g(x»)] = -ming(x).

XED xED xED

Thay (4) va (3) ta co

max hex) ~ max f(x) - min g(x).

XED xED xED

(3)

(4)

Vf!.y (1) dung.

Vftn thea tinh chat 5 thi dau bang trong (3) xay ra khi va chi khi t6n tai Xo E D sao cho ta co

max f(x) = f(xo) ; max ( -g(x») = -g(xo)'

XED XED

Nhirng max (-g(x») = -g(xo) ¢:> - min g(x) = -g(xo)

XED xED

¢:> min g(x) = g(xo).

XED

Do chinh la d.p.c.m. 2.8. Tinh chat 8 :

Gia si't f(x), g(x) la cac ham s6 xac dinh va duong khi xED. D~t

hex) = f(x) va gia thie't t6n tai cac ma tri krn nhat va nho nhat cua cac

g(x) . o· .

ham s6 hex), f(x), g(x). Khi do ta co

maxf(x)

max hex) s XE~ ,

XED mmg(x)

xED

(1)

minf(x) min hex) ~ --",x=ED,,--_ XED maxg(x) xED

(2)

18

2B-GTLN&NNHS

D9:'u bang trong (1) xay ra khi va chi khi t6n tai Xo ED, sao cho max f(x) = f(xo); min g(x) = g(XO).

xeD xeD

Dff~ bang trong (2) xay ra khi va chi khi t6n tai Xo E D, sao cho

min f(x) = f(xo): max g(x) = g(XO).

xeD xeD

Chung minh:

Tinh chfft 8 suy ra true tie'p til tinh chat 6 vdi chu y dmg (do f(x) > 0, g(x) > 0, vx E D)

. ( 1) 1

~lC g(x) = max g(x) .

xeD

2.9. Tinh chat 9 :

1. Gia si'1 f(x) la ham so' xac dinh tren mien D. Khi do vdi moi n nguyen duong ta co

max f(x) = 2n+l max [f2n+l (x)],

xeD xeD

min f(x) = 2n+l min [f2n+l (x)].

xeD xeD

2. Neu them vao gia thie't f(x) ~ 0, thi vdi moi n nguyen duong ta cung co cac cong thuc sau :

maxf(x) = 2n max[f2n(x)],

xeD xeD

min f(x) = 2n min [f2n (x) J.

xeD xeD

Chung minh:

Tinh chat 9 duoc suy true tie'p til dinh nghia cua gia tri IOn nh 9:'t , nho nhat cua ham so' va cac tinh chat 7 va 8 cua b9:'t dAng thuc.

Nhq,n xet :

Trong thuc ti~n, ngudi ta thuong si'1 dung mot truong hop rieng cua tinh ch9:'t 9 nhu sau :

Ne'u f(x) ~ ° vdi vx E D, thi

maxf(x)= maxf2(x); minf(x)= minf2(x).

xeD xeD xeD xeD

Di~u nay se r9:'t co ich dEi gi9.i cac bai toan thuoc dang : Tim gia tr] IOn nhat, nho nhat cua cac ham so' f(x) khi chung duoc cho dudi dang

din bg,c hai hoiic co chua bie'u thuc udi dfiu gin tri tuy~t dOl.

19

2.10. Tinh cha't 10:

Gia si1. f(x) la ham s6 xac dinh tren D va t6n tai max f(x) ,

xeD

min f(x). Khi do ta co

xeD

maxlf(x)1 = max[lmaXf(X)I, Iminf(X)I]·

xeD xeD xeD

(1)

Chang minh :

Ap dung tinh cha't 2, thi h~ thirc (1) co dang tirong dirong sau day:

maxlf(x)1 = max[lmaXf(X)I, Imin. f(x)I·]·. (2)

xeD xeD xeD ,

Lay tuy y Xo ED, khi do xay ra hai kha nang sau : 1. Neu f(xo) ~ o. Khi do ta co

If(xo)1 = f(xo) s max f'(x) s Imax. f(X)I.

xeD xeD

(3)

Tu (3) hi~n nhien suy ra

If(x)1 S max[b~Xf(X)I'

2. Ne'u f(xo) < O. Luc nay ta lai co

maX(-f(X»)].

xeD

(4)

If(xo)1 = -f(xO) ~ max( -f'(xl] ~ max( -f(x»).

xeD xeD

Vi vay ta cling co

If(xo)1 s max [max ( -f(x»), Imax f{X)I]. (5)

xeD xeD

Tu (4), (5) va d~ y rAng Xo la phan ti1. tuy y cua D, suy ra

If(xo)1 s max {b~x f(X+ ':'c~x ( -f(X))} \Ix E D. (6)

Khong giam t6'ng quat co th~ cho la

max {Imax f(X)1 , max( -f(X»)} =lmaXf(X)I. (7)

xeD xeD xeD

(Truong hop ngiroc lai duoc chimg minh bang' mQt each hoan toan tirong tu.)

20

Gia si':i ImaXf(X)1 = If(xo)l, Xo ED.

xeD

Tit (7), (8) SUY ra

If("o)1 = max{I~;:;, f(X)I,

(8)

max(-f(X»)}.

xeD

(9)

Tit (6), (9) va thea dinh nghia gia tri ldn nhfft cua ham so, ta co ngay If(xo)1 = max {Imax f(X)1 , max( -f(X»)}.

xeD xeD

Do chfnh la d.p.e.m. 2.11. Tinh chat 11 :

Xet ham so f(x) xac dinh tren mien D va gia si':i t6n tai min f(x) ,

xeD

max f(x) , trong do xeD

D, ={xED:f(x»O} va D2 ={xED:f(x)~O}.

Khi do ta co cong thuc sau :

min If(x)1 = min {min f(x), max f(x) }.

xeD ,xeDl xeDl

Chung minh:

Vi D, = {x ED: f(x) > O}, nen If(x)1 = f(x), \fx EDl. Thea gia thie't t6n tai minlf(xl)l, We la t6n tai minlf(xl)l, va

xeD xeD

min If(x)1 = min If(x)l. (1)

Lai thea gia thie't thi t6n tai max If(x)l, We la

xeD2

f(x) ~ max If(x)1 ' \fx E D2 '

hay -f(x) ~ - max f(x), \fx E D2 .

xeD2

(2)

Do D2 = {x ED: f2(x) ~ o}, nen tit (2) suy ra

If(x)1 ~ maxf(x) , \fx E D2.

xeD2

(3)

M(tt khac gia si':i maxf(x) = f(x), x E D2, nen ta co

xeD2

21

If(x)1 = max f(x) .

xeD2

(4)

Tu (3), (4) va thea dinh nghia gia tri nho nh~t cua ham sCi, ta thu diroc

min (If(x)l) = max f(x) . (5)

xeD2 xeD2

Ap dung nguyen If phan ra (tinh chat 4) ke't hop vdi (1), (5) ta co

mi~ If(x)1 = min {min f'(x), min f(X)}

xeD xeDl xeD2

= min {min f(x), max f(x) }.

xeDl xeD2

Tinh ch~t 11 duoc chimg minh hoan toano 2.12. Tinh chat 12 :

Gia sa f'(x) Ia ham sCi xac dinh va lien tuc tren D. Khi do ne'u goi M, m tuong ung la gia trj Ion nhat, nho nh~t cua ham sCi f(x) tren mien D, thi

. {O, ne'u Mm s 0

mm f(x) = . ,

I I mm{IMI, Iml}, neu Mm > 0

Ch(mg minh :

1. Neu Mm s O. Khi do ta co M ~ 0 ~ m (Chii y Ia M ~ m).

Vi vf}..y dua vao tinh lien tuc cua ham sCi f(x) suy ra t6n tai Xo ED

sao cho f(xo) = p.

T ' {If(X) ~ 0 V'x E D

a co

If(xo) = 0 Xo ED.

Dua vao dinh nghia cua gia tri be nhat cua ham sCi suy ra min If(x)1 = O.

xeD

2. Ne'u Mm > O. Khong giam t6ng quat co thl cho la M> m > 0 (truong hop 0> M > m chung minh hoan toan tuong tu). Nhir vay ta co

Vi the' f(x) > 0 V'x E D.

minlf'(xj] = minf(x) =m = min{M,m} = min{IMI,lml}.

xeD xeD

Tinh ch~t 12 diroc chirng minh.

22

Chuang II.

""~ ,?

MOT SO PHUONG PHAP CO BAN

.

,...?" , , ,,'

DE TIM GIA TRI LON NHAT

.

" ? ,,' ? " ,,'

VA NHO NHAT eUA HAM SO

D~ tim gia tri IOn nhat va nho nhat cua ham s6 f(x) tren mot mien D cho trudc, chung ta c6 th~ sit dung nhieu phuong phap khac nhau. Trong pham vi cua cu6n sach nay (dung cho chuong trinh trung hoc co Sd), chung toi chi trinh bay ba phuong phap sau day.

- Phuong phap b9:t dllng thuc

- Phuong phap mien gia tri ham s6

- Phuong phap chieu bien thien ham s6.

, ... ' t ,

§ 1. PHUlJNG PHAP BAT DANG THIJC

Phuong phap b9:t dllng thuc duoc xem nhu la m(>t trong nhung phircng phap thong dung va hieu 'qua nhat d~ tim gia tri Ion nhat va nho nhat cua ham s6.

Phuong phap nay, nhu ten goi cua n6, dua true tiep vao dinh nghia cua gia tri IOn nhat va nho nhat cua m(>t ham s6. Vi the' hroc d6 chung cua phuong phap b9:t d~ng thuc tim gia tri Ion nhat, nho nhat cua mot ham s6 f(x) tren m(>t mien D cho trudc nao d6 c6 th~ mieu ta nhu sau :

- Trude he't chung minh mot b9:t dllng thuc co dang f(x) ~ a '<ix E D vdi bai toan tim gia tri IOn nhat (hoac f(x) ~ a '<ix E D vdi bai toan tim gia tri nho nhat),

- Sau d6 chi ra mot phan tit Xo E D sao cho ta c6 dllng thuc f(xo) = a . Can luu y rang trong hai budc n6i tren, khong duoc xem nhe budc nao, Tuy dang cua bai toan C1,l th~,ma ta se lua chon m(>t phuong phap chung minh b9:t d~ng thuc thich hop, cung nhu each chi ra phan tit Xo E D d budc 2 cua thuat toano

23

1. Phuong phap s\tdyng bat dAng thiic Co-si

BAi 1.

Cho ham so f(x) = th - x2 + th - x + til + x xet tren mien D = {x : -1 $ x $ 1} .

Tim gia tri IOn nh~t cua f(x) tren D.

Bili gicii:

Tu h~ b~t phuong trlnh

{1- x2 ~. 0 1-x~0

l+x~O

suy ra D cling chfnh la mien xac dinh cua f(x). Vdi moi XED, ap dung ba't dAng thuc Co-si ta co

t!17 .a:«. tl1+x s ~ +~, (1)

2

-1 s x s l,

d~ _ 4~1_ 1 ..J1-x +1

Vl-X-Vl-X. $ ,

. 2·

til + x = til + x . 1 $ .J1+;. + 1 . 2

Tu (1), (2), (3) bang each cQng tirng v~ cua chung, ta co

f(x) $1 +..J1 + x + ..J1- x V'x E D. (4)

Vi dau bang trong (1), (2), (3) d~u xay ra khi va chi khi x = 0, nen dau bang trong (4) xay ra khi va chi khi d6ng thai co dau bang xay ra trong (1), (2), (3). Do vay d~u bang trong (4) chi xay ra khi x = O.

Lai ap dung b~t dAng thuc Co-si, vdi moi XED ta co

~ ~ l+(l+x)

vI + X =...,1 + x . 1 $ ,

. 2

~=..J1-x .1$1+(1-X).

2 Tu (5), (6) di de'n

1 + ..J1 + x = ..J1 - x $ 3. (7)

Vi dau bang trong (5), (6) d~u xay ra khi va chi khi x = 0, nen dau bang trong (7) xay ra khi va chi khi d6ng thai co dau bang xay ra trong (5) va (6). Vi the' dau bang trong (7) xay ra khi va chi khi x = O. Tu (4) va (7) di de'n

(2)

(3)

(5)

(6)

24

f(x) s 3, 'Vx E D.

Theo tren ta co f'(O) = 3, rna ° E D. Tit do ta di de'n ke't qua sau : maxf(x) = 3.

xeD

BAi 2.

Tim gia tri be nh~t cua ham s6

f( ) ( ) ( 1 1 1 J x Y z A· A'

x,y,z = xyz+ I -+-+- +-+-+--x-y-z, tren mien

x y z y z x

D = {(x,y,z): x > O,y > O,Z > O}

Ba! gicii:

Vie't lai ham s6 f(x, y, z) dudi dang sau :

f(x,y,z) = (YZ + ~) +( xy+ ~ J+( xz+ :) + ~ +~ + ~ - (x + y + z). (1)

L~y (x, y, z) .tuy Y thuec D. Ap dung b~t dAng thuc Co-si, ta co yz+ y ~2y,

z

x xy+-~2x, y

z xz+-~2z. x

(Chu y Ia x > 0, y > 0, z > 0). Tit do suy ra

1 1 1 f(x,y,z) ~ x + y:t z + - + - +-

x Y z

f(x.y;z) ~ (x + ~) +(y+ ~)+( z +~) ~ 6.

Nhu v~y ta co f'(x, y, z) ~ 6, 'V(x,y,z) E D.

Vi (1, 1, 1) ED va g(l, 1, 1) = 6, nen ta di de'n ke't qua sau : min f(x,y,z) = 6.

(x.y.z)eD

Chuy:

Ta co bai toan t6'ng quat sau :

min f(x1,x2, •.• ,xn) = 2n,

(XI 'X2 ..... xn )eD

25

trong do:

Bai 3.

1. Cho ham s6

x3 y3 z3

f(x,y,z) = + . + ,

(1 + y)(1 + z) (1 + z)(1 + x) (1 + x)(1 + y)

xet tren midn D = {(x,y,z): x > 0, y > 0, z > 0, xyz = I} Tim gia tri nho nha't cua f(x,y,z) tren D.

2. Tim gia tri nho nhat cua ham s6

( 3 3 3)(1+xy2 l+yz2 l+zx2)

f(x,y,z) = x + y + X 3 + 3 + 3 '

Z X Y

tren mien D={(x,y,z)x>O, y o O, z>Ovaxyz= I}.

Bili giiii:

La'y (x,y,z) tuy Y thuoc D, ap dung ba't dllng thuc Co-si ta co

x3 + 1 + y + 1 + z ~ 33 x3(1 + y)(1 + z)

(l+y)(I+z) 8 8 64(I+y)(I+z)

hay

__ X_3 __ + _1_+_y + _1_+_z ~ _3_x .

(l+y)(I+z) 8 8 4

Roan toan tuong t1;l ta co

y3 1 + z 1 + x 3y

---=--_ + -_ + -_ ~ -,

(1 + z)(1 + x) 8 8 4

Z3 1 + x 1 + y 3z

----_+--+--~-.

(1 + x)(1 + y) 8 8 4

C9ng tUng v~ (1), (2), (3) ta co

3 1

f(x,y,z) + - ~ -(x + y + z).

4 2

26

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

Lai thea bfft dimg thuc Co-si, ta co

x + y + Z ~ 3~xyz = 3 (do xyz = J).

Thay lai vao (4) ta di de'n

3

f(x,y,z) ~ -, 'd(x, y, z) E D.

4

Lai thffy f(l, 1, 1) = ~ va ro rang (1, 1, 1) E D .

..

Tit "do theo dinh nghia gia tr] nho nhat cua ham s6, ta co

3

min f(x,y,z) =-.

(x.y,z)eD 4

2. Lffy (x,y,z) tuy Y thuoc D. Ta co

(1)

Ap dung bfft dAng thuc Co-si, ta co

(2)

x4y2 X2y4. y4z2 y2z4 X4Z2 X2Z4

=> -3- + -3- + -3- + -3- + -3- + -3- ~ 6xyz = 6, (3)

z z x x y Y

xy2 + yz2 + zx2 ~ 3~xy2 . yz2 . zx2 = 3xyz = 3. (4)

Thay (2), (3), (4) vao (1), ta co

27

f(x,y,z) ~ 18, v'(x.y.z) E D.

Vi (1, 1, 1) E P va f(l, 1, 1) = 18, nen suy ra min f(x,y,z) = 18. (x,y,z)eD

Biti 4.

Cho ham s6

x= t t-y y-z z-x f(x y z t)=--+--+-_·+--

, , , ,

t s- y y s-z z+x x+ t

xet tren mien D={(x, y,z, t):x>O, yc- O, z>O;t>O}. Tim gia tri nho nh~t cua f(x, y, z, t) tren mien D.

Biti giiii:

Ta co nhan xet sau day: ne'u a > 0, b > ° thi

1 1 4

-+->-a b-a+b'

(1)

Th~t v~y

(1) ~ (a + b)(;+ ~) ~ 4.

Theo b9:t d~ng thuc Co-si, thi

a + b ~ 2M; ! + ! ~ 2 /1. a b V;b

Tu do suy ra (2) dung, v~y (1) dung. Dau bang trong (1) xay ra ~ a = b .

Trd lai bai toan cua chung tao Trude he't vie't lai ham s6 dB. cho dudi dang sau:

f(x, y, z, t) = x - t + t - y + y - z + z -: x + 4 _ 4 t s- y y+ z z+x x+ t

= (~ + 1) + (.!..:1. + 1) + (y - z + 1) + (z - x + 1) - 4

t s y y+z· z-x z+ t

(2)

:::x+y+t+z+y+z+z+t_4 t+y y+z z +x x -r t

(1' 1) (. 1 1) .

=(x+y) -+- +(z+t)--+- -4.

t+y z +x y+z x s- t

L9:y (x, y, z, t) tuy y thuoc D, tire la x > 0, y > 0, z > 0, t > 0.

TU(l)taco _1_+ __ 1_~ 4 ,

t s- y z s-x x+y+z+t

(3)

(4)

28

1 1 4

--+--~---y-i-z x-i t x+y+z+t

(5)

Tit (3), (4), (5) co

4(x+y) 4(z+t)

f(x,y,z, t) ~ . + - 4, hay

x+y+z+t x+y+z+t

f(x, y, z, t) ~ 0, \i(x, y, z, t) E D.

L~i co f(l, 1, 1, 1) = ° rna (1, 1, 1, 1) E D. Vi the suy ra ke't qua sau :

mm f(x,y,z, t) = 0 ..

(x,y,z,t)eD

Chuy:

Neu d~u bai doi hoi: Tim moi gia tri cua (x, y, z, t) E D lam cho

ham s6 f(x, y, z, t) dat gia tri nho nhat tren mien Dthi ta lam nhu sau :

Dau bang trong (4) xay ra ~ t + Y = z + x (*)

Dau bang' trong (5) xay ra ~ y + Z = x + t (**)

Vi the' cac di~m (x, y, z, t) E D c~n tim phai thoa man h~ sau :

{t + Y = z + x ~ { t ::: Z > ° .

y +z e x+f x e y c- O

Dl = {(x, y, z, t):x=y>O; t e z o O},

thi D, chinh la t~p hop moi di~m (x, y, z, t) E D tho a man yeu cAu d~t ra.

Biti 5.

Cho ham s6 f(x,y) = (1 + x>( 1 + ~ ) + (1 + y>(l + ~).

xet tren mien D = {(x, y): x > O,y > Ova x2 + y2 = I}. Tim gia tri nho nhat cua ham s6 f(x, y) tren D.

Bdi gicii:

Vie't lai ham s6 f(x, y) dudi dang sau day:

f(x,y) = (x + _!_) + (y + _!_) + (x + y) + .!.(.!. +.!.) + 2. (1)

2x 2y y x 2 x y

Lay (x, y) tuy Y thuoc D. Ap dung bat d~ng thuc Co-si, ta co

29

x+J:_~Ji 2x

y+ J:_~Ji

2y

~+y~2 y x

~(.!. +.!.) > _1_ > Ji = Ji

2 x y - FY - Jx2 + y2

CQng tung v~ (2), (3), (4), (5) va d~ y d~n (1) suy ra

f(x,y) ~ 3Ji + 4.

Nhu vf}.y ta co f(x,y) ~ 3Ji + 4, v'(x.y) E D.

M~t khac d~ y dau bang d6ng thoi trong(2), (3), (4), (5) xay ra khi va chi khi

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

x=y 1

X=-

2x

1 y=- 2y

x2 + y2 = 1 ;x > 0, y > °

Ji

<::>x=y= - 2

D A f(Ji Ji) In , d:!" (Ji Ji) D

o vay -,- = 3....,2 + 4 va e y rang - ,- E .

. 2 2 2 2

Tu do ta di d~n k~t qua sau :

min f(x,y) = 3Ji + 4. (x,y)eD

Nhij,n xet :

N~u nhu vi~t f(x,y) dudi dang

f(x,y)=2+( x+ ~)+(y+~)+; +~

hoac f(X'Y)=2+(X+.!+y+.!+x+y)

x y y x

Thi khi do, n~u ap dung ba:t d~ng thuc Co-si ta co f'(x.yj z B

(*)

30

Tuy nhien ta co hai h~ phuong trinh tuong duong : 1

x=x

1 y=-

Y

-=-

x y

y x

x > 0, y > 0, x2 + y2 = 1

¢::> {x=y=~= ~

x > 0, y > ° ; x2 + y2 = 1 Ma h~ (**) vo nghiern, vay ta co tU (*)

f(x, y) > 8 V'(x, y) E D4•

Tu do chua co th~ noi gi de'n min f(x,y). Do chinh la If do vi sao phai (x,y)eD

vie't f(x,y) dudi dang nhu tren !

Qua day cling thfly ro vai tro cua phan 21 trong cac dinh nghia v~ gia tri IOn nhat, nho nhat ella ham s6 tren m9t mien da eho .:

(**)

Biti 6.

Tim gia tri be nhat ella ham s6 4

f(x,y) = x +-----::-

(x - y)(y + 1)2

tren mien D = {(x, y): x > y, y ~ o}

Bcii giiii :

Vdi moi (x, y) E D, ap dung bflt dling thuc Co-si eho 4 s6 dirong sau

day

2x - 2y ; y + 1 ; Y + 1 va 8 2

(x - y)(y + 1)

ta co

8 8

(2x - 2y) + 2(y + 1) + ~ 44 2(x - y)(y + 1)2 2

(x - y)(y + 1)1 (x - y)(y + 1)

¢::>x+1+ ~ ~4

(x - y)(y + 1)1

31

¢:> f(x, y) ~ 3.

(1)

Nhu vf}.y V'(x, y) ED, ta co danh gia (1). Lai theo b~t d~ng thuc

Co-si, thi dau bang trong (1) xay ra khi va chi khi

{2X - 2y = 2(. y + 1~

2(y + 1) = -------::. (x-y)(y+1)2

{X =2y+ 1

¢:> 4

y+1=-----::(x - y)(y + 1)2

Vi (3, 1) ED va f(3, 1) = 3 (2), nen tu (1), (2) suy ra mm f(x,y) = 3. (x,y)eD

{x= 3

y=1

{ 1 1 1 }

D= (x, y, zj i x z O, y~O; z z O va --+--+--=2

l+x 1+y 1+z

BAi 7.

Tim gia tri ldn nhat cua ham s6 f(x, y, z) = xyz

xet tren mien

Bdi gicii:

L~y (x, y, z) tuy Y E D. Khi do til dinh nghia cua D ta co

1~X =(1-1~y)+(1-1~Z)=1:y +1:Z

Theo b~t d&ng thuc Co-si, ta co

_1_~2 1+x

yz

(1)

(1 + y)(1 + z)

Lap luan tuong tl;l

_1_~2 zx

1 + Y (1 + z)(1 + x)'

(2)

_1_~2 zx

1+y (1+x)(1+y)

Nhan tung v€ (1), (2), (3) suy ra

(3)

32

1 ~8 Xyz hay

(1 + x)(1 + y)(1 + z) .(1 + x)(1 + y)(1 + z)

1 xyz::S;-.

8

Nhu vay ta dii chimg minh duoc

1

f(x,y,z)::s; 8' \i(X, y, z) E D.

M kha f( 1 1 1) 1 '( 1 1 1) D "

at ac - - - = - rna - -. - E nen

. 2'2'2 8 2'2'2 '

1

max f(x,y,z) =8' (x,y,z)ED

(4)

Biti 8.

1. Tim gifl tri nho nh~t cua ham s6

f(x,y,Z)=(1+ ~)(1+ ~ )(1+;)

tren mien D = {(~, y, z): x > 0, y > 0, z > ° va x + y + Z = 1}

2 T' ., . h' h'" • h' ,., ( ) 2 3 6 10 t "

. un gia trl non at cua am so g x, y = x + y + - + - ren

x y

mien D = {(x, y): x > 0, y > ° vax + y ~ 4}

Bdi giai:

1. L~y (x, y, z) tuy Y thuoc mien D. Ta co

f(x,y,z) = (1 + ~)( 1 + ~)( 1 +;) = (1 + X)(~;:)(1 + z).

Theo b~t d~ng thuc Cd-si, ta co

1 + x = x + y + z + x ~ 4~x2yz.

L~ P 1 uan tuong tu, co

(1)

(2)

1 + y ~ 4~xy2Z, 1 + z ~ 4~ xyz2 .

Nhan tung ve (2), (3), (4) ta co

(3) (4)

3A·GTLN&NNHS

33

(1 + x)(l + y)(l + y) ~ 64xyz.

Tit (1), (5) suy ra

M~t khac

f(x,y,z) ~ 64, 'v'(x,y,z) e D.

f(111)'6 ,(111) D A d'dA'

-,-,- = 4, va -,-,- e , nen ta 1 en

333 333

min f(x,y,z) = 64. (x,y,z)eD

2. Vie't lai ham s6 f(x, y) dB. cho dudi dang sau day g(x,y)=.!.(x+y)+ 3x +~+ 5y + 10.

2 2 x 2 y

Lay (x, y) tuy y e D, khi do ta co

1 -(x+y)~2. 2

Theo bat dAng thtrc Co-si ta co

.Sx +~~2~3X.~ =6,

2 x 2 x

5y + 10 ~ 2J5Y .10 = 10.

2 y 2 Y

Tit (2), (3), (4) di de'n

g(x,y) ~ 18

.'v'(x, y) e,D.

M~t khac (2,2) e D va f(2,2) = 18, v~y ta co min g(x,y) = 18.

(x,y)eD

Nhgn xet :

1. Giii stt d.ng co mQt ban nao do lam nhu sau :

Ta co 2x +~ ~ 2~2X. 6 = 4J3.

x x

10 HO rx: 3y+-~2 3y.-=2,,30.

y y

Tit do g(x,y) ~ 4J3 + 250, V(x, y) e D.

Xet "loi giai" tren, d~ y r~ng dau b~ng trong (6) xay ra <=>

34

(5)

(6)

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

(6)

(7)

3B-GTLN&NNHS

2x = ~ <=> x = 13; con dflu bang trong (7) xay ra <=> x

3 10 flO D'~ d' ,. l' (rn3 flO) lai D

y = y <=> y = V3' leu ang not a V'6'V3 ~l ~

(VI. ' 13 + flO < 4). Vi the' chua c6 th~ n6i gi ve min f(x,y).

V3 (x,y)eD

N6i khac di bai to an khong "qua don gian" nhu nhieu ban tudng.

2. Chia khoa d~ giai bai toan tren la tach ra khoi ham so ban dihl

thanh phan ~ (x + y). Lam sao lai "nghi" ra dieu fly ! Ban chat cua vfln de c6 th~ duoc If giai nhu sau :

Dua van so k (0 < k < 2), va vie't lai ham so da cho dudi dang sau :

6 10

f(x,y) = k(x + y) + (2 _ k)x +- + (3 _ k)y +-.

x y

Lay (x, y) tuy Y E D, ta c6

f(x,y) ~ 4k + 2.jr-'6(-2 --k-) + 2~10(3 _ k).

Dau bang trong (*) xay ra khi va chi khi h~ sau tho a man

(*)

x+y=4

x=~2~k /10 y=vw'

Vi the' d~ (x,y) E D, ta cAn c6

{rG+/1O=4

V2=k Vw .

0< k < 2.

(**)

D~ thfi'y (**) <=> k = .!. 2

D6 chinh la If do vi sao ta lai lam xuat hien thanh ph An ~(X + y) nhu tren !

35

xet tren mi~n

D = {(x,y,z): x > O,y > O.z > O,xyjzy + yz..jY;. + zx& = 1}.

Bili 9.

Tim gift tr] nho nh~t cua ham s6

, x6 y6 Z6

f(x,y,z) = 3 3 + +~--""7"

X + Y y3 + z3 z3 + x3

Bai gicii:

D~t X = x3, Y = y3, Z = z3, thi

min f(x,y,z) = min F(X, Y,Z), d day

(x,y,z)eD (x,y,z)eD

X2 y2 Z2

F(X,Y,Z)=--+--+-- va X+Y Y+Z Z+X

D' {(X, Y,Z): X > 0, Y > O,Z > 0, ./xy + JYX + -fiX = 1}.

L~y (X,Y,Z) tuy Y ED'. Khi do theo b~t dAng thuc Co-si, ta co

~+X+Y ~2/~+x+Y =X.

X+Y 4 VX+Y 4

Tirong tv: co

y2 Y +Z Z2 Z+X

--+--~Y, --+--~Z.

Y +Z 4 Z+X 4

CQng tung v6ba b~t dAng thirc tren ta co

F(X,Y,Z)~ X+ Y +Z. (t)

2

Lai theo b~t dAng thuc Co-si ta co

X + Y + Z = .!. [ (X + Y) + (Y + Z) + (Z + X) ] ~ JXY + .JYZ + -fiX (2)

2

Tu (1) (2) va do (X, Y,Z) E D' nen co

F(X, Y,Z) ~.!., V'(X,y,Z) ED'. 2 .

Vi (.!. .!. .!.) E D' va F (.!. .!. .!.) = .!. nen min F(X Y Z) = .!..

3'3'3 3'3'3 2' "2

(X,Y,Z)eD

36

TiX d6 theo tren, suy ra ngay ke't qua sau : ~ 1 mm f(x,y,z) = -.

(x,y,z)eD 2

Nhgn xet t

Cach giai tren la cua Phan Huy Duc'".

Bili 10.

Cho ham s6

1 1 1 1

f(x,y,z)= 2 2 2+-+-+-'

x + y + z xy yz zx

xac dinh tren mi~n

D = {(x, y, z): x > 0, y > 0, z > ° va x + y + z = I}.

Tim gia tri be nh~t cua f(x, y, z) tren D.

Ba! gicii:

V di moi (x, y, z) E D va theo b~t dAng thuc Co-si, ta c6

( 1 11)

(xy+ yz-e zx) -+-+- ~9,

xy yz zx

1 1 1 9

hay -+-+-~----

xy yz zx xy + yz + zx

TiX (1) suy ra 'v'(x,y,z) E D, ta c6

1 1 1 1 1 9

--:--..,.-~ + - + - + - > + ----

x2 + y2 + z2 xy yz zx ~ x2 + y2 + z2 xy + yz + zx '

hay 'v'(x, y, z) E D thi

1 9

f(x,y,z)~ +----

x2 + y2 + z2 xy + yz + zx

Lai theo b~t dAng thuc Co-si, thi 'v'(x, y, z) E D c6 111 ----+ + >

~+~+~ ZY+~+D ZY+~+D-

> 3

- ~(x2 + y2 + Z2)(xy + yz + ZX)2 .

(I) Con trai tac gis.

(1)

(2)

(3)

37

Bay gid tit (2), (3) suy ra bat d:1ng thuc sau day dung 'V(x,y) E D

3 21

f'(x.y.zj > +-----

~(X2 + y2 + z2)(xy + yz + zx) 3(xy + yz + zx)

Theo bat d:1ng thirc C6-si lai co 'V(x,y) E D

(4)

HI 2 2 2 x2 + y2 + z2(xy + yz + zx)

~(x + y + z )(xy + yz + zx) ~ =

. 3

(x + y + z)2 1

= =-,

3 3

(5)

va 3(xy + yz + zx) ~ (x + y + z)2 = 1.

Tit (4), (5), (6) ta di de'n batd:1ng thuc sau day dung 'V(x,y,z) E D

(6)

f »1 21 (x,y,z -"1+T

3

f(x, y, z) ~ 30, 'V(x, y, z) E D.

hay

(7)

Vi (.! .! .!) ED va f(.! .! .!) = 30

3'3'3 3'3'3

nen tit (7), (8) suy ra

(8)

mm f(x, y, z) = 30. (x,y,z)eD

Nhijn xet :

Neu bai toan doi hoi them : Tim tat ca cac gia tr] (x, y, z) E D d~ cho f(x, y, z) dat gia tr] be nhat, thi ta se lam nhu sau :

Dau bang trong (7) xay ra khi va chi khi d6ng thoi co dau bang trong (1), (3), (5), (6). Theo bat d:1ng thirc C6-si, thi di~u ay xay ra khi va chi khi h~ phuong trinh sau duoc nghiem dung.

x, y, z > 0 (12)

x+y+z=l (13)

«9) la di~u kien d~ trong (1) co dau bang ; (10) la di~u kien d~ trong (3) va (5) co dau bang ; (11) la di~u kien d~trong (6) co dau bang' ; can (12) va (13) la di~u kien d~ (x, y, z) ED).

xy = yz = ZX

x2 + y2 + z2 = xy + yz + zx x=y=z

(9) (10) (11)

38

D~ th~y (7), (8), (9), (10), (11) c6 nghiem duy nh~t x = y = z = ~.

V (1 1 1) 1;' ., . d hf:(? , b·"" ,.., h A • A' D

~y "3'3'3 u gra tl1 uy n ut cua cac len so t UQC mien

thoa man yeu cAu d~t ra.

Bai 11.

Tim gill tri ldn nh~t cua ham s6

f(x,y,z)= x + y + z +(I-x)(I-y)(I-z)

y+z+l z s- x-e l l+x+y

tren mien D={(x, y, z):O~x~l; O~y~l; O~z~I}.

Bdi gidi:

L~y phan tli tuy y (x,y,z)eD, khi d6 O~x~l, O~y~l, O~z~1.

N goai ra do vai tro binh dAng cua x, y, z nen ta c6 th~ gia sli x z y z z.

Theo bfft dAng thuc Co-si, ta c6

(1- y)(I- ~~ + (1 + Y +z) ~ ~(1- y)(I- z)(1 + Y + z)

1

~ ~ (1- y)(I- z).

l+y+z

(1)

Do l-x~O, nen tU(l) suyra I-x

--- ~ (1- x)(I- y)(I- z).

1+-y+z

Vi x ~ y ~ z, va x ~ 0, y ~ 0, z ~ 0 nen hi~n nhien ta c6

(2)

y > y l+y+z-z+x+l'

(3)

z > z. l+y+z-l+x+y

CQng tung ve (2), (3), (4) c6

(4)

1 ~ (1-'- x)(I- y)(I- z) + x + y + z (5)

l+y+z l+z+x l+x+y

39

Nhu vay ta da chirng minh duoc 'v'(x,y,z) E D, thi f(x, y, z) s 1.

(6)

Do (1, 1, 1) E D rna f(l, 1, 1) = 1, nen ttl do ta di de'n di~u kh~ng dinh max f'(x.y.z) = 1.

(x,Y,z)eD

Nhfj,n xet :

1. Neu dAu bai cling doi hoi tim moi gia tri (x, y, z) E D d~ ung vdi no ham s6 da cho dat gia tri IOn nhat, .thi ta phai lam nhu sau :

Dau bAng trong (1) xay ra ~ d6ng thoi co dau bAng trong (1), (2), (3), (4).

Dllu bang' trong (1 xay ra ~ 1 - b = 1 - c = 1 + b + c

~ b =c=O.

Dau bang trong (2) xay ra ~ y = Z = 0 hoac x = 1. Dau bang trong (3) xay ra ~ y = 0 hoac x = y. Dau bang trong (4) xay ra ~ Z = 0 hoac x = z.

Tli do suy ra vdi gia thie't x ~ y ~ z, thi dau bAng trong (5) xay ra khi va chi khi

* Hoac la y = Z = 0

* Hoac la x = 1 ; Y = 1 ; Z = 0 * Hoac la x = 1 ; y = 0 ; Z = 1 * Hoac la x = 1 ; Y = 1 ; Z = 1.

Nhu vay t~p hop ta't ca cac gia tr] cAn tim cua cac phan ttl (x,y,z) E D lam cho ham s6 da cho dat gia trj Idn nha't bao g6m cac phan ttl sau :

* Co hai thanh phan bAng 0, thanh phan thu ba tuy y . . * Co hai thanh phan bAng 1, thanh phan thu ba = O.

* Co ba thanh phAn bAng 1.

Chinh vi the', ne'u dAu bai chi doi hoi tim gia trj Ion nhat hoac nho nhat cua ham s6 tren mQt mien da cho, thi chi cAn lam nhirdinh nghla d~ tranh nhtmg phirc tap khong cAn thie't !

40

D={(x,y,z):x>O, y o O, z c- O, x+y+z=l}.

Biti 12.

Tim gia tri ldn nhat cua ham s6

f(x,y,z) = .J1-x +~l-y +~,

Bai gicii :

Lay (x, y, z) tuy Y thuoc mien D. Theo bff't diing thuc Co-si ta co

1-x+~

s . 3.

2

(1)

Lap luan tuong t1,1 co

2 1-y+-

3

::; ,

2

(2)

1-z+~

::; 3.

2

Cong tung v€ (1), (2), (3) vdi chii Y x + Y + Z = 1, ta co

JIf(X + y + z) s 2

=> f(x, y, z)::;.,[6, 'v'(x,y,z) E D.

M~t khac d~ thay

f(! ! !)::;.,[6 va do (! ! !) E D nen suy ra

3'3'3 ' 3'3'3

max f(x, y, z) = .,[6. (x,y,z)eD

(3)

Nhq,n xet :

1. D~ thay (!,!,!) cung la phan til duy nhat cua D lam cho 333

f(x, y, z) dat gia tri ldn nhff't noi tren,

2. Bang each l~p luan hoan toan tuong t1,1, ta co k€t qua t5ng quat

sau : V oi n ~ 2, thi .

max f(x1,x2, ... ,xn) = ~n(n -'-1), d day

(Xl 'X2 '''''Xn )eD

41

f(XI,X2, ... ,xn)=~1-XI +~1-x2 + ... +~l-xn va

D = {(Xl' X2, ... , Xn): Xl > 0, ... , Xn > 0 va Xl + X2 + ... + Xn = I}.

D={(x, y, z):x~O, y z O, zz O, x+y+z=l}.

Biti 13.

Tim gia tri IOn nha't va be nhat cua ham s6 f(x, y, z) = xy + yz + zx - 2xyz

tren mien

Bili gicii:

1. LAy (x, y, z) tuy y e D. Theo bAt dAng thuc Co-si, ta co xy + yz + zx ~ 3~(xyz)2.

R6 rang 0 s xyz < 1 => ~(xyz)2 ~ xyz. Vi the'tit (1) (2) co

xy+ yz + zx - 2xyz ~ xyz hay

f(x,y,z) ~ 0, V(x,y,z) ED.

M~t khac chAng han f(l, 0, 0) = 0 va do (1, 0, 0) e D nen minf(x,y,z) = O.

(x,y,z)

2. LAy (x,y,z) tuy Y e D. Trude he't ta co th~ thAy dng (x + y + z)(x + z - y)(y + z - x) ~ xyz.

(1) (2)

(3)

Chang minh (3) nhu sau :

a) Ne'u chi co mQt thira s6 trong tich ve'trai < 0 thi (3) hi~n nhien dung

b) Gia si':i co hai thira s6 nao do trong tfch ve'trai <0, chang han

{X +y +z <0. x+z-y<O

Tit do, sau khi cong ca hai ve' cua hai bAt dAng thuc tren ta co X < O.

Di~u vo If nhan duoc chung to rAng khong th~ co trirong hop b).

c) Ca ba thira s6 d ve' trai d~u > o. Ap dung bAt dAng thuc Co-si (X + Y)(Y + Z)(Z + X) ~ 8XYZ neu X > 0, Y > 0, Z > 0

ta suy ngay ra (3), sau khi d~t X = Y + Z - X ; Y = X + z - Y ; Z =x+y-z.

V~y (3) dB. duoc chung minh vdi V(x, y, z) e D.

42

Do x + y + Z = 1, nen (3) eo dang sau (1- 2x)(1- 2y)(1- 2z) ~ xyz

¢:> 1- 2(x + y + z) + 4(xy + zx).8xyz ~ xyz ¢:> 4f(x, y, z) ~ 1 + xyz

1

¢:> f(x,y,z) ~ -(1 + xyz), '<t(x,y,z) E D.

4

Lai theo b~t dAng thuc Co-si, ta eo

1 1 [ ( x + y + Z)3] 1 28 7

"4(l+xyz)~"4 1+ 3 ="4'27 = 27'

Tu (4) va (5) ta di de'n

(4)

(5)

7

f(x,y,z)~-, '<t(x,y,z)ED.

27

L· , f( 1 1 1) 7 a d (1 1 1) D A

al eo -. - - = -. va 0 - - - E nen

. 3' 3 ' 3 27 3' 3 ' 3

7 max f(x,y,z) =-.

(x,y,z)eD 27

Nhg,n xet :

1. Muon tim he't cac giatri ella bie'n so' ella mien D lam eho ham so' f(x, y, z) dat gia tri be nh~t thi ta lam nhu sau (neu dfiu bai yeu efiu): .

Di~u do xay ra ¢:> d6ng thoi eo dau bang trong (1) va (2)

{Xy = yz = zx ¢:> ~ (xyz)2 == xyz

(*)

(**)

Do x ~ ° ; y ~ ° ; z ~ ° va xyz < 1 nen tu (**) suy ra xyz = 0.

Ke't hop vdi x + y + z = 1, thi •

[X = 1 Y = z = Ohoae (*) (**) ¢:> y = l:x = y = ° ho~e z=l,x=y=O.

Vf}.y ham so' f(x, y, z) dat gia tri be nh~t tren D. tai ba phan tl1 sau (1, 0, 0) ; (0, 1, 0) ; (0, 0, 1) ella mien D.

2. D~ th~y (~,~,.~) la phan tl1 duy nhat ella D lam eho ham so' 333

f(x, y, z) dat gia tri ldn nhat tren D.

43

Biti 14.

Tim gia tri be nhflt cua ham sCS 222

f(x,y,z) = + +-::---

x3(y + z) y3(x + z) z3(x + y)

tren mi~n

D = {(x, y, z): x > 0, y > 0, z > ° ; xyz = 1}.

Bai gidi:

Th h·A' he dA'. b·A' X 1 Y 1 Z 1 Kh· d'

uc ien p ep 01 len = -, = -, = -. 1 0

X Y z

2 2 2 2X3yZ 2y3ZX 2Z3xy

, + + = + + .

x3(y+z) y3(Z+X) z3(x+y) Y+Z Z+X. X+Y

M~t khac do xyz = 1 nen XYZ = 1. Vi the ta co

min f(x, y, z) = min F(X, Y, Z), d day

(x,Y,z)eD (X,Y,Z)eD

F(X, Y, Z) = 2 (__!:._ + .s: + _!!_J, Y+Z Z+X X+Y

D' = {(X, Y, Z): X > 0, Y > 0, Z > ° va XYZ = 1}.

Ap dung bflt dAng thirc Co-si, ta co vdi moi (X, Y, Z) E D' thi

__!:._+Y+Z~X

Y+Z 4 '

2 '

_!_+Z+X~Y Z+X 4 '

_!!_+ X+ Y ~Z.

X+Y 4

CQng tung ve' ba bflt dAng thuc tren ta co

.!. F(X, Y, Z) ~ X + Y + Z .

2 2

Lai theo bflt dAng thuc Co-si, thi

X + Y + Z ~ 3~XYZ = 3.

Tu (1), (2) BUY ra

F(X, Y,Z) ~ 3, V(X,Y,Z) ED'.

M~t khac F(1, 1, 1) = 3 nen

44

(1)

(2)

min F(X, Y,Z) = 3. (X.Y.Z)eD

Do vay min f(x,y,z) = 3.

(x.y.s)

Bili 15.

Tim gia tri ldn nhB:t cua ham so

f( ) x y.z

x,y,z =--+--+-x+1 y+1 z+1

tren mien

D={(x, y, z):x>o, yo O, z c- O, x+y+z=1}.

Bcii gidi:

LB:y (x, y, z)tuy Y E D. Ta co

f(x, y, z) = _x_ + _y_ + _z_ x+1 y+1 z -e l

=(1 __ 1 )+(1 __ 1 )+(1 __ 1 )

x+1 y+1 z+1

=3-(X~1 + y~1 + Z:1}

Ap dung bB:t dAng thuc Co-si co

(_1_+_1_+_1_. )[(X+1)+(Y+1)+(Z+1)] ~ 9. x+1 y+1 z+1

Do x + Y + z = 1, nen tit (2) co

1 1. 1 9

--+--+--~-.

x+1 y+1 z+1 4

Bay gid tit (1) va (3) suy ra

f(x,y,z) ~~, va do (.!.,.!.,.!.) E D, nen 433 3

3

max f(x,y,z) =-.

(x.y.z)eD 4

Nhq,n xet :

1. Bang l~p luan tuong tu, ta co ket qua sau :

max f(x1,x2, ... ,xn)

(X!'X2 ..... xn )eD

n • dA = --, o ay

n+1

(1)

(2)

(3)

45

Xl X2 Xn

f(xl,X2, ... ,Xn)=--+--+ va

Xl + 1 X2 + 2 xn + n

D={(xl, ... , xn):xi>O vi s= Ln va x, +x2 +",+Xn =1}.

X Y z Y + z z + X X+ Y

f(x,y,z)=--+--+--+--+--+--,

y+Z Z+X X+y X Y z

xet tren mien D={(x, y, Z):X>O, y c- O, z c- O].

Tim gia tri be nhat cua ham so f(x, y, z) tren mien D.

Biti 16.

Cho ham so

BiLi giai:

La"y (x, y, z) tuy Y E D. Ta co

f(x, y, z) = _x_+_y_+_z_+ y+z + z+x + x+y

y+z z+x x+y X y Z

= (x + y + Z)(_1_ +_1_ +_1_)_

y+ z z+x x+ y

-3 +(~ + y)+(x +~)+(y +~).

y x z x z x

Do (x+y+Z)(_1_+_1_+_1_)= y+z z -s x x+ y

= .![(x + y) + (y + z) +(z + X)](_1_ +_1_ +_1_),

2 x-i-y y+ z z t x

nen theo ba"t dllng thuc Co-si co

(x + y + Z)(_1_ + _1_ + _1_) ~~ .

. y r z z+x x s y 2

V~n theo ba"t dAng thirc Co-si, thi

x + y ~ 2; ~ + ~ ~ 2; Y + ~ ~ 2.

y x z x z Y

Vi the' V(x, y, z) E D bat dAng thirc sau luon dung

9 15

f(x,y,z)~--3+6 hay f(x,y,z)~-.

2 2

Mi[tt khac chang han

46

f(l, 1, 1) = I;, VI do (1, 1, 1) E D, 'nen ta di de'n ~e't luan sau 15

2

min f(x.y,z) = (x,y,z)eD

Nhg,n xet t

Neu trong bai toan tren ta lam nhu sau :

Lffy (x, y, z) tuy Y E D. Theo bfft dAng thuc Co-si, ta eo

x y+ z 2

__ + __ ~ ,

y+ z X

_y_+ z+x ~2,

z+ x y

_z_+x+y~2.

x+y z

Tli do suy ra f(x,y,z) ~ 6.

Dau bang trong (1) xay ra <=> _x_ = y + z <=> (x)2 = (y + z)2

ye z X

<=> y + z = x (do x, y, z > 0) Tuong tu dau bang trong (2) xay ra <=> z + x = y dau bang trong (3) xay ra <=> x + y = z.

(1)

(2)

(3) (4)

(5) (6) (7)

Vi x, y, z > 0 suy ra khong t6n tai (x, y, z) E D d6ng thoi thoa man (5), (6), (7). Dieu do eo nghia la khong t6n tai (x, y, z) E D d~ eo f(x, y, z) = 6. V~y khong th~ ke't luan diroc

min f(x,y,z) = 6

(x,y,z)eD

(va thuc te' khong eo di~u do !) Qua day cac ban thay ro tfim quan trong cua phan 2 trong cac dinh nghia v~ gia tri IOn nhat, nho nhat cua ham so tren mien D da eho.

Bai 17.

Cho ham so f(x, y) = x2y(4 - x - y) xet tren mien D={(x, yj r x z O, y~O; x+y~6}

Tim gia tri Ion va nho nhfft cua f(x, y) tren mien D.

Bai gidi:

1. D~t D, = {(x, yj i x z O, y~O; 4~x+y~6} D2 = {(x, y): x ~ 0, y ~ 0 ; x + y s 4}

47

Khi do d~ thiy D = n, UD2

Theo tinh chat 4 (nguyen If phan ra), ta co

max f(x,y) = maxi max f(x,y) ; max f(X,Y)}. (1)

(x,y)eD (x,y)eD, (x,y)eD2

Lay (x, y) tuy y e Dl thi 4 - x - y ~ 0, do vay

f(x, y) s 0, 'v'(x,y) e D1.

M~t khac f(2, 2) = ° va do (2,2) e D1•

max f(x,y) = 0. (2)

(x,y)eD

L~y·(x,y) tuyy eD2, tirc la x z O, y~o; 4-x-y~0. Khi do theo b~t dAng thtrc Co-si, ta co

[X x ]4

. --y(4 - x - y)

f(x,y) = 4 x ~y(4 - x - y) s 4 .:2'-=2=--- _

22 4

=> f(x, y) s 4, 'v'(x,y) e D2

M~t khac f(2, 1) = 4 va do (2, 1) e D2 =>

max f'(x.y) = 4. (x,y)eD2

Bay gid tU (1), (2), (3) suy ra

max f(x,y) = max{0,4} = 4. (x,y)eD

2. Vfin thea nguyen If phan ra (tfnh ch~t 4), ta co

min f(x,y) = mini min f(x.y), min f(X,Y)}. (4)

(x,y)eD (x,y)eD, (x,y)eD2

Theo tinh chat 2

(3)

mm f(x,y)=-max(-f(x,y»). (5)

(x,y)eD (x,y)eD

Ta c6 -f(x,y) = x2y(xy + Y - 4).

Vfin theo nguyen If phan ra (tinh ch~t 4), thi

max(-f(x,y») =max{max (-f(x,y»); max (-f(X,y»)}. (6)

(x,y)eD (x,y)eD, (x,y)eD2

L~y (x, y) tuy y e D2 ' thi x + y - 4 ~ ° , suy ra -f(x,y) s 0, 'v'(x,y) e D2•

48

Lai co -f(2, 2) = 0, va lai vi (2, 2) E D2 nen max( -f'(x.yj] = 0. '

(x,y)eD

LB:y (x, y) tuy Y E D1, thi x + y - 4 ~ 0, nen theo bB:t dAng thuc

Co-si

[X X ]4

-.-y(x + Y -4)

-f(x,y) = 4 x .~y(x + Y _ 4) ~ -=2--'2=--- _

224

~ -f(x,Y)~4(X+~-2r

Vi (x, y) E Dl' nen x + y - 2 ~ 4 ~ -f(x,y) ~ 64, 'i(x,y) E D1•

Lai co -f(4, 2) = 64 vdi (4, 2) E D1, nen

max(-f(x,y»)=64. (8)

(x,y)eD

Bay gid tu (6), (7), (8) co max(-f(x,y») = max{O, 64} = 64.

(x,y)eD

Do vay min f(x,y) = -64. (x,y)eD

Tom lai ta di de'n ke't qua sau :

max f(x,y) = 4 va min f(x,y)=-64.

(x,y)eD (x,y)eD

Biti 18.

Tim gia tri nho nhat cua cac ham s6

1 4

f(x,y)=x+ ;g(x,y)=x+ 2

y(x - y) (x - y)(y + 1)

h(x,y)=x+ 1 va k(x,y)=x+ 1 ,

y(x - y)2 xy(x - y)

tren cung mien D = {(x,y): x > y > O}.

Bdi gicii:

LB:y (x,y) tuy Y E D. Khi do theo bB:t dAng thuc Co-si ta co

1 1 1

x + = y + (x - y) + . ~ 33 y(x - y)--,--. -

y(x - y) y(x - y) y(x - y)

~ f(x,y) ~ 3, 'i(x,y) E D.

4A-GTLN&NNHS

(7)

(1)

49

4 y+1 y+1 .4

x+ =(x-y)+--+--+ -1

(x-y)(y+1)2 2 2 (x-y)(y+1)2

~44(Xy)(Y+1)2 4 -1

2 (x - y)(y + 1)2

=> g(X, y) ~ 3, 'v'(x,y) E D

1 x-y x-y 1

x+ =y+--+--+---

y(x_y)2 2 2 (x_y)2

>44y(X-y)2 1

- , 2 (x _ y)2

=> h(x,y) ~ 2../2, 'v'(x,y) E D.

y(X-y):$[y+(;-y)f =:

4

=> x+y(x-y)~x+3·

x

Lai thea b~t dAng thtrc Co-si, ta co

4 xxx 4 xxx 4

x + - = - + - + - + - ~ 44 - + - + - +-

x3 3 3 3 x3 3 3 3 x3

4 44~

hay x+3~-~12.

x 3

Ti:t (4) va (5) SUY ra

k(x,y) ~ .!~, 'v'(x,y) E D. 3

V~n thea b~t dAng thirc Co-si, thi - Dau b~ng trong (1) xay ra

x= 2y 1 y=y2

y=x-y 1

<=> Y = <=>

y(x - y)

{x= 2

<=> .

y=1

x>y>O x>y>O

- Dau bang trong (2) xay ra

j x - y = y; 1 {y + 1 = 2(x _ y)

<=> . <=>

4 x-y=1

x-y=----~

(x - y)(y + 1)2

<=> {x = 2 y = 1.

50

,

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

(6)

4B-GTLN&NNHS

- Dau bang trong (3) xay ra

j x-y

y=--

2 <=>

x-y 1

-2-= (X_y)2

{x-y= ~ <=>

x=3y

{x=~

y=}_~. 2

- Dau bAng trong (4) xay ra

<=> {; = :3 <=>

y=x-y

Nhu vay ta co

{x=~

y=}_~. 2

f(2, 1) = 3, g(2, 1) = 3,

h( ~,~~)=2J2

va h(.~ }_~)=.i~.

'2 3·

R5 ~ang cac phan tlt (2,1), ( ~,~~) va ( ~,~~) d~u thuoc D. Vi Ie do ket hop vdi (1), (2), (3), (4) suy ra

min f(x,y) = 3; min g(x,y) = 3;

(x,y)eD (x,y)eD

min h(x,y) = 2J2 va min k(x,y) = .i~.

(x,y)eD (x,y)eD 3

Bili 19.

Tim gia tri nho nhfft cua ham s6

x y z

f(x, y, z) = 2 2 + 2 2 + 2 2 .

Y +z Z +x x +y

tren mien D = {(x,y,z): x > O,y > O,z > 0 va x2 + y2 + z2 = 1}

Bdi gicii:

Lffy (x, y, z) tuy Y E D. Do x > 0, y > 0, z > 0 va x2 + y2 + z2 = 1 nen O<x<l;O<y<l;O<z<l.

Ap dung bfft dAng thuc Co-si cho ba s6 2x2, 1 - x2, 1 - x2, ta co

51

2X2 + (1- x2) + (1- x2) ~ ~2x2(1- x2)2 => x2(1- x2l s _i_

27

2 2

=> x(1 - x ):s; a/3

=> _x_ ~ a/3 x2

1-x2 2

X > a/3 2

=> 2 2 _--x.

Y +z 2

Lap luan tirong tt;t e6

y > a/3 2 2 2---Y'

z+x 2

z > a/3 2

x2 +y2 --2-z .

CQng tung v€ (1), (2), (a) va chu y Ia x2 + y2 + Z2 = 1 suy ra a/3

f(x,y,z) ~-.

2

Milt khac do (/3 /3 /3) ED va (/3 /3 /3) = a/3

. a'a'a a'a'a 2'

nen suy ra

. f( ) a/3

mIn x,y,Z = --.

(x,y,z)eD 2

Bili 20.

1. Cho ham s6 f(x, y, z) = x2 + y2 + z2, xet tren mien

D = {(x,y,z): x > 0, y > 0, z > Ova X2002 + y2002 + z2002 = a} Tim gia tri Ion nhat cua f(x,y,z) tren mien D.

20 20 20

2. Tim gia tri nBC, nhAt cua ham f(x,y,z) = Xu + Y11 + Z 11 Y z x

tren mi~n D = {(x,y,z): x > 0, y:> 0, z > ° va x + y + z = 2001.

Bitigidi:

LAy (x,y,z) tuy Y E D.

52

(1)

(2)

(a)

Ap dung bdt ding thirc Co-si cho 2000 s6 1 va 2 s6 x2002, ta co 1 + '" + 1 + x2002 + x2002

'----v----'

2000 86 ~ 200~ X2002 .x2002

2002

2000 + 2x2oo2

hay ~ x2.

2002

L~p luan tuong t1;1 co

2000 + 2y2002 2

2002 ~ Y .

2000 + 2z2002 _____ ~z2.

2002

CQng tUng v€ (1), (2), (3) va co

3 . 2000 + 2(X2001 + y2002 + z2002)

____ ....;....... __ ;;.._ -'- ~ x2 + y2 + z2. (4)

2002.

(1)

(2)

(3)

Vi (x, y, z) ED=> x2002 + y2002 + z2002 = 3, nen tit (4) co f(x,y,z) s 3.

Nhu th€ f(x,y,z) ~ 3, V(x.y.z) E D.

Ml}t khac f(l, 1, 1) = 3 va do (1, 1, 1) E D, nen suy ra max f(x, y, z) = 3.

(x,i,z)eD

2. Ldy (x,y,z) tuy thuQc D. Ap dung bdt dAng thuc Co-si cho 20 s6 sau: .

20

11 s6y, 8 s6667, va s6 1~ 8' ta co

y 667

x20 x20 11 8

11 8 + lly + 8.667 ~ 2020 11 8'y .667 = 20x. (1)

v 667 y 667

Hoan toan tuong t1;1 co

y20

11 8 + 11y + 8.667 ~ 20y, (2)

z 667

z20

11 8 + llx + 8.667 ~ 20z. (3)

x 667

CQng tUng v€ (1), (2), (3), suy ra

1

--8 f(x,y,z) + 11(x + Y + z) + 24.667 ~ 20(x + Y + z). (4)

667

53

Vi x + y + Z = 2001, nen tit (4) co

f(x,y,z) + 16008 ~ 18009 6678

=> f(x,y,z) ~ 2001.6678 = 3.6679

Vf}.y f(x, y, z) ~ 3.6679, V'(x,y,z) E D.

Lai thay (667, 667, 667) E D va f(667, 667, 667) = 3.6679, nen di de'n ke't qua sau :

min f(x,y,z) = 3.6679. (x,y,z)eD .

Bili 21.

Tim gia tri ldn nha't cua ham s6

f(x, y, z) = x3y + y3z + z3x tren mien

D = {(x, y, z): x ~ 0, y ~ 0, z ~ 0 ; x + y + z = 1}.

Bdi gicii:

La'y (x,y,z) tuy Y E D. Luon co th~ cho r~ng x = max{x,y,z} (do do suy ra y3z S x2yz, z3x S z2x2). Vi vf}.y

3 1 1

f(x, y, z) = x3y + y3z + z3X S X Y + x2yz + "2z3x + "2z3x

S x3y + x2yz + .!.zx3 + .!.z2x2 = x2(x - Z)(y + ~). 222

Tom lai

f(x,y,z) S x2(x + Z)(y + i).

(1)

Chu y la

x2(x + Z)(y +i) = 33 [; .~. x; z (y +i)]' vi the theo ba't ditng thuc

Co-si ta co,

54

Do x + y + z = 1, nen tit (1), (2) di de'n 33

f(x,y,z) s 4' v'(x.y,z) E D.

4

Ma. t khac ta co (~ .!. 0) E D va f(~ .!. 0) =~. Do do ta di de'n

4'4' 4'4' 44

ke't luan sau day:

27 max f(x,y,z) = -.

(x,y,z)eD 81

Nhlj,n xet :

1. Ta giai thich vi sao lai chon di~m (~, ~, 0) nh u tren D~ trong (2) co d~u bltng ta clln co

x x-r z z

a=-3-=y+"2

x ~ 0, y ~ 0, z ~ 0 <=> x+y+z=l

z=o 3

x= -

4

1

Y = -'

4

3 1

Chu Y la vdi x = 4' y = 4' z = 0 lam cho trong (1) ciing co dau

bang. Ngoai ra, qua each giai thich tren ta thay chi co cac di~m sau day cua mien D

(3 1 0) . (3 0 1) . (1 3 0) . (0 3 1) . (1 0 3) '(0 1 3) 4'4' , 4' '4 ' 4'4' , '4'4 ' 4' '4' '4'4

lam cho f(x,y,z) dat gia tri ldn nh~t tren D.

yz zx xy

h(x,y,z) = + + ,

Z2(y + z) y2(y + x) z2(x + y)

'( ) 1 1 1

va g x,y,z =-+-+-+---

xy yz zx x+y+z

xet cling tren mien D = {(x,y,z): x > 0, y > 0, z > 0 va xyz = 1}.

Bili 22.

Tim gia tr] nho nh~t cua cac ham s6 y2 z3 f(x,y,z)=x+-+-,

2 3

3

55

Btii gicii:

a) LB:y (x,y,z) E D tuy s. Theo bB:t dAng thuc Co-si, ta co y2 z3

f(x y z) = x + _. + -

, , 2 3

Do xyz = 1, nen ta co f(x,y,z) ~ g, v'(x.y.z) E D 6

M~t khac f(l, 1, 1) = g, va do (1, 1, 1) E D, nen 6

min f(x,y,z) = g.

(x,y,z)eD 6

b) LB:y (x,y,z) E D, sau do d~t x = ~, y = ~, z = ~.

Nhu v~y se co X > 0, Y> 0, Z > ° va XYZ = 1. Khi do ta co

X2 y2 Z2

h(x,y,z)= Y +Z + Y +Z + Z+X

= X2 + X(Y + Z) + y2 + Y(Z + X) + Z2 + Z(X + Y) _ (X + Y + Z)

Y+Z Z+X X+Y

=(X+ Y +Z)(_!_+__r_+_Z __ I).

Y+Z Z+X Y+Z

Theo bB:t dAng thuc Co-si thi

X + Y + Z ~ 3~XYZ = 3,

(_!_+__r_+_Z __ I) ~~-1 =~.

Y +Z Z+X Y +Z 2 2

Vi the'til (1) suy ra

3

h(x,y,z) ~ '-, 'v'(x,y,z) E D.

2

Mat khac h(I,I,I)=%, va lai fl , 1, I)E Dnen

min h(x,y,z) = ~.

(x,y,z)eD 2

(1)

56

c) Ta co g(x, y, z) = J:_ + _!_ + _!_ + 3

xy yz zx x + y + z

x+y+z 3

= +---

xyz x+y+z

La'y (x,y,z) E D, khi do do xyz = 1, nen

3 g(x,y,z) = x + y +z +---

x+y+z

Theo ba't d~ng thuc Co-si ta co x + y + z ~ 3~xyz ~ x+y+z~3.

R6 rang V'(x,y,z) E D, thi

g(x,y,z) ~ 4.

(2)

(3)

(4)

Th~t v~y

3

(4) ~ (x + y + z) + ~ 4

(x+y s z)

~ (x + y + z)2 - 4(x + Y + z) + 3 ~ 0

~ (x + y + z -l)(x + Y + z - 3) ~ O. (5)

Theo (3), thi (5) dung, vi the' (4) dung.

M~t khac (1, 1, 1) E D va g(l, 1, 1) = 4, nen tit (4) suy ra min g(x,y,z) = 4.

(x,y,z)ED

Bili 23.

Tim gia tri nho nhat cua ham s6

va gia trj Ion nhat cua cac ham s6

g(x,y,z) = x + 16xyz,

h(x, y, z) = x + .JxY + ~xyz,

tren mien

D={(x,y,z):x>O, y o-D, z>Ovax+y+z= 1}.

Bdigidi:

a) La'y (x,y,z) tuy y thuoc D. Ap dung ba't d~ng thuc Co-si, ta co 2 +.!. = 1 + 1 + x + y + Z = 1 + 1 + 1 + Y + ~ ~ 55Fz.

x x x x V-;?

57

TUdngt\1

2+.!.~55~,

y VY2

1 ~y 2+-~552'

z z

Nhan tung veba b~t dling thuc tren va th~y

f(x.y,z) ~ 125, V(x,y,z) E D.

Mat khac do (!):,.!-) E D va f(!'!'!) = 125, nen

. 333 333

min f(x,y,z) = 125. (x,y,z)eD

b) Lay (x, y, z) E D, ta co (d~ y r&ng x + y + Z = 1) g(x,y,z) = x + 16xyz

= 1- (y + z) + 16yz(1 - Y - z) = 1 + 16yz - (y + z)(1 + 16yz).

Theo b~t dling thirc Co-si, ta co

y + z ~ 2.jY;"

1 + 16yz ~ 8.jY;,.

Vi the ta di den

(y + z)(16yz + 1) ~ 16yz.

re (1), (2) suy ra

g(x,y,z) s 1, V(x,y,z) E D.

Dau bang' trong (3) xay ra ~ dau bang trong (2) xay ra

{x= !

¢> y=z2=~.

y=z 16yz = 1 ~

x+y+z=l

x > 0, y > 0, z > ° Vi g(~,~,~) = 1, nen ket hop vdi (3) ta thu duoc ket qua sau max g(x, y, z) = 1.

(x,y,z)eD

c) Lay (x,y,z) E D. Ta co

h(x,y,z) = x + M +ejxAy.16z.

= x +! ~xAy + .!.ejXAy.16z:

2 4

58

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

Ap dung bB:t d~ng thuc Co-si, ta co r::-;;:: x + 4 Y vxAy ~ 2 '

3/ 4 16 < xAy.16z "x. y. z - 3 .

Tit (4), (5), (6) suy ra

h( ) x+4y x+4y+16z

x,y,z s x « 4 +12

4

=> h(x, y, z) ~ - (x.y, z).

. 3

VI x + y + z = 1, nen

h(x,y,z) ~ i, V(x,y,z) E D. 3

16

x=-"

21

4 ~y= 21

1

Z=-.

21

x=4y 4y =16z DB:u bang xay ra trong (7) ~

x+y+z=l

x > 0, y > 0, z > °

VI h(16 _!_ _!_) = i va do (16 _!_ _!_) E D nen co

21'21'21 3 21'21'21

4 max h(x,y,z) =-.

(x,y,z)eD 3

(5)

(6)

(7)

Hili 24.

Cho ham s6 f(x,y) = x2 + 3x + y2 + 3y + 2 92 .

X +y +1

Tim gia tr] nho nhB:t cua f(x,y) tren midn D={(x,y):x>O, y o Il va xy > 1}.

Bdi gicii:

LB:y (x,y) tuy Y thuoc D. Ta co

. 9

f(x, y) = (x2 + y2 + 1) + 3x + 3y + 2 2 -1.

x +y +1

.

Theo b[t dling thuc Co-si, thi

f(x,y) ~ 44 3x.3y.(x2 + y2 + 1). 2 92 -1 hay

x +y +1

59

f(x,y) ~ 4#81xy-l.

Do xy = 1, nen co f(x,y) ~ 11, V(x.y) E D.

Lai thay f(l, 1) = 11 vi do (1, 1) E D, nen suy ra min f(x,y) = 11. (x,y)eD

tren mien

D={(x,y,z,t):0<y~x~4 ;x+y~7 ;2~z~3~t}.

Bai 25.

Tim gia tri be nhat cua ham s6

1 2

2z+- +t+-

f(x,y,z,t)= 2z 2 t

x +y

Bai gitii :

Lay (x.y.z.t) tuy Y E D.

Dox ~ 4 va x - y ~ 0 ~ x(x - y) ~ 4(x - y).

Dau bang trong (1) xay ra ~ x = 4 hoac x = y. Do y > 0 va x + y ~ 7 nen y(x + y) ~ 7y.

Dau bang trong (2) xay ra ~ x + y ~ 7.

Tu (1) va (2) sau khi cQng tung v€ ciia chung ta dl1QC x2 + y2 ~ 4x +3y = x + 3(x + y) ~ 4 + 21 = 25.

Dau bitng trong (3) xay ra ~ x = 4 ; Y = 3. Ap dung bat dling thuc Co-si ta co

1 1 Z 7z ~ 7z

2z + -;- = -;- + 4" + 4 ~ 2V-;-·4" + 4·

v, 2A2 19 1 Z ~ nen z + - ~ -.

z 2

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

{1 z

Dau bitng trong (4) xay ra ~ -;- = 4" z=2

~ z=2.

2 11

-+t~-.

t 3

(5)

60

{2 2

Dau bang trong (5) xay ra <=> gt = t <=> t = 3. t=3

Tit (3), (4), (5) c6

9 11 -+·23 f(x,y,z, t) ~-=---=-

25

49

hay f(x,y,z,t)~-, 'v'(x,y,z,t)eD. 150

M~t khac

f(4,3,2,3) = 49 va (4,3,2,3) e D nen ta di de'n ke't qua 150

min f(x,y,z, t) = 49 .

(x,y,z,t)eD 150

Bai 26.

1. Tim gia tri IOn nha:t va nho nhat cua ham s6

f( ) _ xy~ + yz,Jx - 2 + zx~y - 3

~~z- ,

xyz

tren mien D={(x,y,z):x~2, y z S, z z l]. 2. Tim gia tri Ion nhat cua ham s6

f(x) = 13~x2 - X4 + 9~""'x-2 -+-x-4

tren mien D = {x : 0 :s; x :s; 1} .

Bcii gicii: 1. * La:y (x,y,z) e D tuy y. Ta co f(x,y,z) ~ 0

M~t khac f(2, 3, 1) = 0, va do (2, 3, 1) e D nen min f'(x.y.z) = 0 (x;y,z)eD

* Ta dua f(x,y,z) v~ dang sau

.Jx-2 ~y-3 .Jz-1

f(x,y,z) = + +--.

x y z

Theo ba:t d&ng thuc Co-si, thi

.J(z -1).1 s ~ ~ .Jz -1 :s;.!.,

2 z 2

61

~(y - 3).3 s r ~ ~ s \~,

2 y 2v3

..j(x-2).2 ~.!~ ~ s lin'

2 x 2v2

Tu do sau khi cQng tung v6ba bfft da.ng thuc tren, ta di d6n

f(X'Y'Z)~~(I+ ~+ ]a}

L1}.ithfiYf(4,6'2)=~(I+ ~+ ]a}

Tir do suy ra maXf(X,y'Z)~.!.(I+ ~+ ~).

xeD 2 -n v3

2. Lay xED tuy y, tuc la 0 ~ X s 1.

Ap dung bfit da.ng thuc Co-si, ta co

~4(1- X2).X2 < 4(1- x2) + x2 = 4 - 3x2

2 2

~ 13~x2 _ X4 ~ 52 - 39x2

. 4

L1}.i theo bfit da.ng thuc Co-si, thi

~9x2 .4(1 + x2) s 9x2 + 4(1 + x2) = 13x2 + 4

2 2

~ 9~x2 + X4 s 39x2 + 12.

4

Cong tung v6 (1), (2) va co

f(x) s 16, "i/x E D.

Dau b~ng trong (3) xay ra ¢:> d~ng thoi co dau b~ng trong (1) (2) ¢:> {4(1- x2) = x2 ¢:> X = 2J5 .

9x2 = 4(1 + x2) 5

Nh h'" , 2J5 D 'f(2J5) 16 u the ta co -5- E va -5- = .

K6t hop vdi (3) suy ra maxf(x) = 16.

xeD

62

(1)

(2)

(3)

Bili 27.

1. Tim gia tri nho nhat cua ham so y-2 z-2 x-2 f(x, y, z) = -2-· + -2- + -2-

X Y z

tren mien D={(x,y,z):x>l, y c- I, z c- L; x s- y-r z e xyz]. 2. Tim gia tri nhc nhB:'t va ldn nhB:'t cua ham so

f(x,y,z) = xyz

tren mien D = {(x,y,z): x2 + 2y2 + 2x2z2 + y2z2 + 3x2y2z2 = 9}.

Bai gicii: 1. LB:'y (x,y,z) tuy Y E D, ta co

x> 1, y> 1, z> 1 va x + y + z = xyz.

Tit do suy ra

1 1 1

-+-+-=1. xy yz zx

, . y-2 z-2 x-2

Ta co f(x,y,z) =-2-+-2-+-2-

x y z

= y - 2 + x + z - 2 + y + x - 2 + y _ (! + ! + .!.)

x2 . y2 Z2 X Y z

= (x -1) + (y -1) + (y -1) + (z -1) + (z -1) + (x -1) _ (..!. +..!. +.!.)

x2 y2 . z2 X Y z

= (x -1)(_!_ +.!.) + (y -1)(_!_ + _!_) + (z -1)(.!. + _!_) - (! +..!. + .!.).

x2 Z2 y2 x2 z2 y2 X Y z

Theo bB:'t dllng thuc Co-si va chii y la x >1, y> 1 , z> 1, ta thu diroc

bB:'t dllng thuc sau .

f(x,y,z)~ 2(x-1) + 2(y-1) +2(z-1) _(..!.+..!.+.!.). (2)

xz yx zy x y z

Tit (1), (2) suy ra

,

111 f(x,y,z) ~ - +- +- -2. x y z

(1)

(3)

(4)

63

Bay gid tit (1), (3), (4) eo

f(x,y,z) ~../3 - 2, 'v'(x,y,z) E D.

Do (../3,../3,../3) s n, va f( ../3,../3,../3) =../3 - 2, nen min f'(x, y, z) = ../3 - 2.

(x,y,z)eD

2. L~y (x,y,z) ED tuy y. Theo dinh nghia cua D ta eo x2 + 2y2 + 2x2z2 + y2z2 + 3x2y2z2 = 9

<=> x2 + y2 + y2 + x2z2 + x2z2 + y2z2 + x2y2z2 + x2y2z2 + x2y2z2 = 9 (*) Ap dung b~t dang thuc C6-si ta eo

VT(*) ~ 9~r-X-12-yl-2-Z1-2 .

Vi the'tit (*) suy ra Ixyzl s 1, hay

-1 s f(x,y,z) s 1, 'v'(x,y,z) E D.

Do (-1, 1, 1) E D va f(-l, 1, 1) =-1

(1, 1, 1) E D va f(l, 1, 1) = 1, nen

max f(x,y,z) = 1; min f(x,y,z) =-1.

(x,y,z)eD (x,y,z)eD

Bili 28.

Tim gia tri IOn nh~t cua ham s6

f(x,y) =..Ix + 2JY tren mien

D={(x,y):x~O, y z O, x3+y3=1}.

Bdi giai:

1· 2Ff2

a = 1 + 2Ff2 ~ = 1 + 2Ff2 .

Gin s11 (x, y) la di~m tuy y cua D. Khi do theo b~t dang thuc Co-si, ta eo

(1)

Tuong tl,1 ta eo

64

CQng tirng v~ (1) va (2) ta co

f( ) x3 + y3 + 5(0. + P)

x,y s -r:

6~o.5

(Chu y la # = 2 =2~)

~(1 + 25-/2)5

Vi x3 + y3 = 1 va 0.+ P = 1, nen tU (3) suy ra V(x,y)e D ta co

f(x,y) s b = 6 (1 +2R12t·

D~u bAng trong (4) xay ra <::> h~ sau thoa man

o.=x3

P =y3

X ~O, y z O x3 + y3 ::;: 1

{x::;:~

y::;:~.

(2)

(3)

(4)

Nhu v~y ta co

(Vc;:,~) e D rna f(~,~) = 6 (1 + 2R12t.

Dodo max f(x,y) =-6(1 +2R12t. (x,y)eD

Bili 29.

Cho ham s6

f(x,y,z) = x + 2~1 + r + 3~1 + ~.

y z x

Tim gia tri nho nh~t cua ham s6 da cho tren mign

D = {(x,y,z): x > 0, y > 0, z > 0 va x ~ max{y,z}}.

Btii gidi:

L~y (x,y,z) tuy Y e D. Nhu v~y ta co x > 0, y > o. z > 0 va

x z

-~l;O <-~1.

y x

5A-GTLN&NNHS

(1)

65

Ap dung bfft dAng thirc Co-si, ta co

y ~ Z ~

1 + - ~ 2 -; 1 + - ~ 2 -.

Z Z x x

Dodo

f(x,y,z) ~ x + 2J2.4tr + 3W,6~. (2)

y ~-; '1~

Th\1C hien phep bie'n d6i can thuc, ta co

VF(2) = ~(;+4~+6m+- ~)~+3(~-J2)~. (3)

Lai ap dung bfft dAng thtrc Co-si, co

~+4~+6~ = ~ +[~+'d~]+[~+"'+~]

4 Ian 11 Ian

m

~ 11.1 .

x

Tit (1) va d~ y rang 1- J2 > ° con W, - J2 < 0, nen tit (2), (3), (4)

2 .

di de'n

(4)

f(x,y,z) ~ 11: +(1'- ~)+3(~ -J2), hay f'(x.y.zj z I +2J2 +3W, V(x,y,z) E D.

M~t khac, chAng han (I, I, 1) E D va f(l,l,l) = 1 + 2J2 + 3w'.

Vi the'tit (5) SUY ra

min f(x,y,z) = 1 + 2J2 + 3w'. (x,y,z)eD

(5)

Bili 30.

Tim giatri nhc nhfftcua ham so

f x Y

(x, y) = c=:' + r;---:: v1-x vt1-y

tren mien D={(x,y):x>o, y o G : x+y e I],

66

5B-GTLN&NNHS

Bdi giai:

L~y (x,y) tuy Y E D, thi x > 0, y > 0 va x + y = 1. Do v~y

x y x y

f(x,y) = r.;-- + r;--::. = C + r=: v1-x v1-y vy 'IX

Ap dung b~t dAng thuc Co-si, thi

jJy + JY ~ 2);.,

ix + );. ~ 2JY.

(1)

(2)

(3)

Tit (2), (3) di de'n

f(x,y) +);. + JY ~ 2{);. + JY), hay

f(x,y) ~);. + JY.

(4)

Ta lai co th~ vie't

1- Y 1- x 1 1 (rc)

f(x,y) = JY + );. =);. + JY - 'IX + vy .

Bay gid tit (4), (5), ta co

1 1 2f(x,y) ~ );. + JY' hay

f(x.Y)~H l+ Jy J

Tit (6) va lai theo b~t dAng thuc Co-si suy ra 1 1

f'(x.yj z de:: ~·ff·

~xy x+y

2

(5)

(6)

(7)

Do x + y = 1, vi vay tit (7) ta co

f(x,y) ~ J2, V'(x,y) E D.

(8)

R6 rang (~,~) E D va f(~,~) = J2. Ke't hop vdi (8) ta thu duoc ke't qua sau :

min f(x,y) = J2. (x,y)eD

67

Nh{jn xet :

D~ thay (~,~) la phan ti't duy nhat ella D lam eho ham so' f(x,y) nhan gia tri be nhat.

Biti 31.

Tim gia tri IOn nhat ella ham so'

f(x) = x + .JI - x - 2i.2 2

tren mien D.= {x: -1 s x s ~}.

BiLi giai:

Nhan xet r~ng D chinh la midn xac dinh ella ham so' f(x). Theo b~t dling thuc Co-si, ta co

(. 2)

1+ 1-x-2x

~1-x-2x2 =~1.(1-x-2x2) s ., VxeD.

2

Vi the'

X 1+(1-x-x2) f(x) $ - + ---'------'-

2 2

hay f(x) $1- x2, vx e D.

. Tu (1) suy ra f(x) $1, V'x e D.

Chu Y h~ phuong trinh

(1) (2)

1 = 1- x- x2 1-x2 = 1

1 -1 s x$-

2

co nghiern (va co nghiem duy nhat x * = 0).

Nhu the', tu 0 e D va f(O) == 1, cung vdi (2) ta di de'n maxf(x) = 1.

xeD

Nh{jn xet :

1. Ne'u d bai tren ta kh6ng dung b~t dling thuc Co-si, rna dung bat ddng thuc Bu-nhi-a-cop-eki thi sao ? Cu th~ la vdi xeD va theo bilt dling thuc Bu-nhi-a-cop-ski, thi

68

hay f(x)~ f5. _(_x+.!.)2 +~~~.

V4 2 4· 4

Dau bang' trong (2) xay ra khi va chi khi h~ sau thoa man

(2)

~1 - x - 2x2 = 2x2 1

x+-=O

2

1 -r s x s >.

2

1

~ x=--

2

1

x=-

3

(*)

1 -r s s s -. 2

Vi h~ (*) vo nghiem, nen khong chi ra ducc dau bang' trong (2).

Nghia la each giai nay khong chung nhan duoc, V~y sli dung b~t d~ng thuc Co-si la phuong phap hop If.

2. Bay gid lai xet bai toan sau :

Tim gia tri Ion nh~t cua ham s6

f(x) = 3 - 2x + ~5 - x2 + 4x tren mien D = {x : -1 ~ x ~ 5} .

Ta nhan th~y D ciing chinh Ia mien xac dinh cua ham s6 f(x). v« mat hinh thuc thi bai toan nay "gi6ng het" bai toan tren, Ta thli dung phucng phap vdi b~t d~ng thuc Co-si xem sao. G9i xED la phan tli tuy y. Theo b~t d~ng thuc Co-si, thi

~5 - x2 + 4x = ~1(5 _ x2 + 4x) ~ 1 + (5 - x2 + 4x) . 2

Vi the'

f() 3 2 1 + (5 - x2 + 4x) h

x ~ - x+ , ay

2

x2 f(x)~6--

2

~ f(x) ~ 6, 'Vx E D.

M~t khac xet h~ phuong trinh sau

(3)

69

{I = 5 - X2 + 4x {x = 2 - 2,/2 hoac x = 2 + 2,/2

x=o ~ x=o

-1~x~5 -1~x~5.

R6 la h~ (**) vo nghiem, vi the' bang phuong phap nay khong chi ra duoc hie nao thi dau bang trong (3) xay ra.

Noi each khac phuong phap bfit d!ng thirc Co-si lai khong thich hop cho thf du nay! Ta lai thit ap dung bfit d!ng thirc Bu-nhi-a-cop-ski. Ta co '<Ix e D, thi

(**)

f(x) = -1 + (-2)(x - 2) + ~l.(5 - x2 + 4x) ~-1+.J4+l.~(x2 -4x+4)+(5-x2 +4x), hay

f(x)~-1+3J5, Vx e D, (4)

Xet h~ phuong trinh

{-2.Jr-5---x-2-+-4-x = x - 2 t ' hie

a co ng rem

-1 s x ~ 5

615

x=2---. 5

615 '( 615) r:

Nhu vay 2--5-eD va f 2--5- =3...,5-l.

Ke't hop vdi (4) co maxf(x) = 3J5-l.

xeD

Bfit d!ng thuc Bu-nhi-a-cop-ski to ra co ich trong thf du nay!

Biti 32.

Cho ham so'

f(x,y,z,t) = (x + z)(y + t),

xet tren mi~n

D={(x,y,z,t):a(x2+y2)+b(z2+t2)=1}, d day a va b la hai so' duong cho trlloc. Tim gia tri IOn nhat cua ham so' do.

Btli gicii:· Lfiy (x,y,z,t) tuy Y thuQc D. Ta thfiy f(x,y,z,t) = (x + z)(y + t)

= xy + zt + xt + zy.

(1)

70

Theo bllt dllng thuc Co-si, ta co

x + y ~ 21xYI ~ 2xy.

Via> 0, b > 0, nen co

ab 2 2 2ab

--(x +y )~--xy.

a+b a+b

Lf luan tuong tu co

~(x2 + t2) ~ 2ab zt.

a+b a+b

Ngoai ra ap dung If luan tren lai co

~x2 +JC_t2 ~ 2ab xt,

a+ b a-s b a+b

a2 b2 2 2ab

__ y2 +--z ~ --yz.

a+b a+b a+b

CQng tung ve (2), (3), (4), (5) ta duoc

a(x2 + y2) + b(z2 + t2) ~ 2ab (f(x,y,z, t»). a+b

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

(6)

Do (x,y,z,t) E D nen tu (6) suy ra a+b

f(x,y,z, t) ~ --, V'(x,y,z,t) E D. (7)

2ab

Dau bang trong (7) xay ra ¢:> d6ng thoi co dau bang trong (2) (3) (4) (5)

x=y

z=t

¢:> ax = bt

ay e bz

a(x2 + y2) + b(z2 + t2) = 1

ax ¢:> z=t=-

b

x=y

x = y = - J 2a(: + b) Z= t = -J2b(: + bf

71

Nhu v~y ta thffy

( * .r * *) (~ ~ r-;:-. r-;:-)

x ,y ,z ,t = V~' V~' V~' V~ ED

, (* * * *) a s- b

va f x ,y ,z ,t = --.

2ab

Ke't hop vdi (7) va theo dinh nghia ella gia tr] IOn nhfft ella ham so ta suy ra

a+b max f(x,y,z, t) =--.

(x,y,z,t)eD 2ab

Bai 33.

Tim gia tr] Ion nhfft ella ham so f(x, y, z) = xny + ynz + znx, tren mien

D = {(x, y, z) : x ~ 0, y ~ 0, z ~ ° va x + y + Z = 1}, d day n la so tu nhien,

Bai gidi:

1. Ne'u n = 0, thi f(x,y,z) = x + y + z = 1, 'v'(x,y,z) E D. Do vay

max f'(x.y,z) = 1. (x,y,z)eD

2. Ne'u n = 1, thi f(x,y,z) = xy + yz + zx.

D~ thffy

xY+YZ+ZX:S!(X+y+Z)2. Vi the' 3

1

f'(x.y.zj s; - 'v'(x,y,z) E D.

3

(1 1 1) 1 (1 1 1) A

f - - - = - rna - - - E D nen

3'3'3 3' 3'3'3

max f(x,y,z) =!.

(x,y,z)eD 3

3. Ne'u n > 1, Iffy (x,y,z) tuy Y E D. Co th~ gia stl rna khong h~ lam

giam t6ng quat rAng x = max(x,y,z).

Do y s x ~ ynz :S xn-1yz.

Do y:S x ~ znx :S ZXn va ZnX :S z2Xn-1. . A n -1 1 n-1 z

Vi n > 1 nen -- ~ - hay - z ~ -. Nhu vay ta eo

n 2 n 2 .

72

zx" Z2Xn-1 (Z)

:S xny + xn-1yz + _. + = Xn-1(X + Z) Y +- :S

. 2 2 2

n-1( )( n-l) n[x X X X+Z( n-l)]

s x x-i-z y+~z =n ~'~ y+~z ,

n-1 thua 86

Theo b~t dling thuc Co-si, thi

l X X+Z n-l ]n+1

X X X X+Z( n-l) (n-l) n +~+y+~Z

- - - -- y+--Z <

n'n"'n' n n - n+l

~

n-1 thila 86

Thay (2) vao (1) va rut gon, ta di de'n b~t dl1ng thuc sau

(X y z)n+1 n''

f(x,y,z):Snn " =----

(n + l)n+1 (n + l)n+1

Dau ba.ng trong (3) xay ra chi khi

n x=-n+l

1 y=--

n+l

z = 0,

x+y+z=1 z=o

X -x+z n-l

-=--=y+--z

n n n

(n n ) n"

Nhu vay f --,--,0 = 1 ' Do do

n + 1 n + 1 (n + l)n+

n

max f(x,y,z) = . 1

(x,y,z)eD (n + l)n+

Tom lai ta co ke't qua sau

ne'u n = 0

1, 1 max f(x,y,z) = 3'

(x,y,z)eD

ne'u n = 1

nn

----, ne'u n = 2, 3, '" (n + l)n+1

(1)

(2)

(3)

73

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