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APPENDIXES

Convection Heat Transfer,

© 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Published 2013 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Fourth Edition.

A

CONSTANTS AND CONVERSION FACTORS

CONSTANTS

Universal ideal gas constant

Boltzmann’s constant Planck’s constant Speed of light in vacuum Avogadro’s number Stefan–Boltzmann constant

Atmospheric pressure

P . R = 8.314 kJ/kmol · K P atm = 1.9872 cal/mol · K P atm = 1.9872 Btu/lbmol · R P atm = 1545.33 ft · lbf/lbmol · R k = 1.38054 × 10 23 J/K h = 6.626 × 10 34 J · s c = 2.998 × 10 8 m/s N = 6.022 × 10 23 molecules/mol

σ = 5.669 × 10 8 W/m 2 · K 4 P atm = 0.1714 × 10 8 Btu/h · ft 2 · R 4

P atm = 0.101325 MPa

Ice point at 1 atm Gravitational acceleration

Calorie

Mole

P atm = 1.01325 bar P atm = 1.01325 × 10 5 N/m 2 T ice = 0 C = 273.15 K g = 9.807 m/s 2 P atm = 32.17 ft/s 2 1 cal = 4.187 J 1 mol = sample containing 6.022 × 10 23 elementary entities (e.g., molecules); also abbreviated as 1 gmol, or

609

610 A

CONSTANTS AND CONVERSION FACTORS

Natural logarithm

Important numbers

1 mol = 10 3 kmol

= 10 3 kgmol

=

1

lbmol

453.6

ln x = 2.30258 log 10 x

log 10 x = 0.4343 ln x

e = 2.71828

π = 3.14159

CONVERSION FACTORS

 Acceleration 1 m/s 2 = 4.252 × 10 7 ft/h 2 Area 1 in 2 = 6.452 cm 2 1 ft 2 = 0.0929 m 2 1 yd 2 = 0.8361 m 2 1 mi 2 = 2.59 km 2 1 hectare = (100 m) 2 1 acre = 4047 m 2 Density 1 kg/m 3 = 0.06243 lbm/ft 3 1 lbm/ft 3 = 16.018 kg/m 3 Energy 1 kJ = 737.56 ft · lbf = 0.9478 Btu = 3.725 × 10 −4 hp · h = 2.778 × 10 −4 kW · h 1 Btu = 1055 J = 778.16 ft · lbf = 3412.14 kW · h = 2544.5 hp · h 1 cal = 4.187 J 1 erg = 10 −7 J Force 1 lbf = 4.448 N = 0.4536 kgf

1 dyne = 10 5 N

Heat ﬂux

Heat transfer coefﬁcient

Heat transfer rate

Kinematic viscosity (ν), thermal diffusivity (α), mass diffusivity (D)

Latent heat, speciﬁc energy, speciﬁc enthalpy

CONVERSION FACTORS

611

1 W/m 2 = 0.317 Btu/h · ft 2

1 Btu/h · ft 2 = 3.154 W/m 2

1 W/m 2 · K = 0.1761 Btu/h · ft 2 · F

= 0.8598 kcal/h · m 2 · C

1 Btu/h · ft 2 · F = 5.6786 W/m 2 · K

1 Btu/s = 1055 W

1 Btu/h = 0.2931 W

1 hp = 745.7 W

1 ft · lbf/s = 1.3558 W

 1m 2 /s = 10 4 cm 2 /s = 10 4 stokes = 3.875 × 10 4 ft 2 /h = 10.764 ft 2 /s

1 kJ/kg = 0.4299 Btu/lbm

= 0.2388 cal/g

1 Btu/lbm = 2.326 kJ/kg

 Length 1 in = 2.54 cm 1 ft = 0.3048 m 1 yd = 0.9144 m 1 mile = 1.609 km Mass 1 lbm = 0.4536 kg

Mass transfer coefﬁcient

Power

1 kg = 2.2046 lbm

= 1.1023 × 10 3 U.S. ton

= 10 3 tonne

1 oz = 28.35 g

1 m/s = 1.181 × 10 4 ft/h

1 ft/h = 8.467 × 10 5 m/s

1 Btu/s = 1055 W = 1.055 kW

1 Btu/h = 0.293 W

1 W = 3.412 Btu/h

= 9.48 × 10 4 Btu/s

1 HP = 0.746 kW

= 0.707 Btu/s

612 A

CONSTANTS AND CONVERSION FACTORS

 Pressure, stress 1 Pa = 1 N/m 2 1 psi = 6895 N/m 2

Speciﬁc heat, speciﬁc entropy

1 atm = 14.69 psi

= 1.013 × 10 5 N/m 2

1 bar = 10 5 N/m 2

1 torr = 1 mmHg

= 133.32 N/m 2

1 psi = 27.68 in H 2 O 1 ft H 2 O = 0.4335 psi

1 kJ/kg · K = 0.2388 Btu/lbm · F

=

0.2389 cal/g · C

1 Btu/lbm · F = 4.187 kJ/kg · K

 Speed 1 mi/h = 0.447 m/s = 1.609 km/h 1 km/h = 0.278 m/s = 0.622 mi/h 1 m/s = 3.6 km/h = 2.237 mi/h Temperature 1 K = 1 ◦ C

Temperature difference

Thermal conductivity

1 (K) = (9/5) F

T (K) = T( C) + 273.15

T ( C) = 5/9[T( F) 32]

T ( F) = T( R) 459.67

T (K) = T ( C)

= 5/9 T ( F)

=

5/9 T ( R)

1 W/m · K = 0.5782 Btu/h · ft · F

= 0.01 W/cm · K

= 2.39 × 10 3 cal/cm · s · C

 Thermal resistance 1 Btu/h · ft · ◦ F = 1.7307 W/m · K 1 K/W = 0.5275 ◦ F/Btu · h Viscosity (µ) 1 ◦ F/Btu · h = 1.896 K/W 1N · s/m 2 = 1 kg/s · m

= 2419.1 lbm/ft · h

= 5.802 × 10 6 lbf · h/ft 2

1 poise = 1 g/s · cm

DIMENSIONLESS GROUPS USED IN THIS BOOK

Volume

Volumetric heat generation rate

1 L = 10 3 m 3 = 1 dm 3 1 in 3 = 16.39 cm 3 1 ft 3 = 0.02832 m 3 1 yd 3 = 0.7646 m 3

1 gal (U.S.) = 3.785 L

1 gal (imperial) = 4.546 L 1 pint = 0.5683 L

1 Btu/h · ft 3 = 10.35 W/m 3 1 W/m 3 = 0.0966 Btu/h · ft 3

613

DIMENSIONLESS GROUPS USED IN THIS BOOK a

Bejan number Biot number Boussinesq number Eckert number Fourier number Graetz number Grashof number Lewis number b Mass transfer Rayleigh number b Mass transfer Stanton number Nusselt number

Peclet´

Porous medium Bejan number c

Porous medium Peclet´

Porous medium Prandtl number c

Porous medium Rayleigh number, Darcy ﬂow c Porous medium Rayleigh number based on heat ﬂux, Darcy ﬂow Prandtl number

number

number c

Be = ( PL 2 )/µα

Bi = hL/k s Bo = (gβ T H 3 )/α 2 Ec = U 2 /(c P T) Fo = αt/L 2 Gz = D 2 U/αx = Re D Pr (D/x) Gr = (gβ T H 3 )/ν 2 Le = α/D = Sc/Pr

Ra

m

=

(gβ c ρ i H 3 )/νD

St m = h m /U

Nu = hL/k f Pe = UL/α = Re Pr Be = ( P K)/µα Pe = UL/α Pr = (ν/α)(H/bK) Ra = (KgβH T)/αν

Ra * = Kgβq H 2 /ανk

Pr = ν/α = Sc/Le

a Subscripts: (·) s = solid, (·) f = ﬂuid. b D is the mass diffusivity (m 2 /s). c k and α are properties of the ﬂuid-saturated porous medium.

614 A

CONSTANTS AND CONVERSION FACTORS

 Rayleigh number Ra = gβ TH 3 /αν Rayleigh number based on heat Ra * = gβq H 4 /ανk ﬂux Reynolds number Schmidt number b Sherwood number b Stanton number Stefan number Turbulent Prandtl number Re = UL/ν Sc = ν/D = Le Pr Sh = h m L/D St = h/ρc P U = Nu/Re Pr Ste = (c f T)/h sf Pr t = M / H