Sei sulla pagina 1di 157

Being responsible is our foundation

PUMP HANDBOOK
Thinking ahead makes it possible
Innovation is the essence
GRUNDFOS PUMP HANDBOOK

U.S.A. Canada Mexico


GRUNDFOS Pumps Corporation GRUNDFOS Canada Inc. Bombas GRUNDFOS de Mexico S.A. de C.V.
17100 West 118th Terrace 2941 Brighton Road Boulevard TLC No. 15
Olathe, Kansas 66061 Oakville, Ontario Parque Industrial Stiva Aeropuerto
L-IND-HB-01 8/2008 (US)

Phone: (913) 227-3400 L6H 6C9 C.P. 66600 Apodaca, N.L. Mexico
Telefax: (913) 227-3500 Phone: (905) 829-9533 Phone: 011-52-81-8144 4000
Telefax: (905) 829-9512 Telefax: 011-52-81-8144 4010

www.grundfos.com
PUMP HANDBOOK

Copyright 2008 GRUNDFOS Pumps Corporation. All rights reserved.

Copyright law and international treaties protect this material. No part of this material
may be reproduced in any form or by any means without prior written permission from
GRUNDFOS Pumps Corporation.

Trademarks and tradenames mentioned herein are the property of their respective owners.

Disclaimer
All reasonable care has been taken to ensure the accuracy of the contents of this material;
however, GRUNDFOS shall not be liable or responsible for any loss whether direct, indirect,
incidental or consequential arising out of the use of or reliance upon any of the contents of
this material.
Foreword
Today’s processes place heavy demand on pumps when it comes to optimum operation,
high reliability and low energy consumption. Therefore, we have developed the
Grundfos Pump Handbook which, in a simple manner, deals with various considerations
when sizing pumps and pump systems.

This handbook, developed for engineers and technicians who work with design and the
installation of pumps and pump systems, includes answers to a wide range of technical
questions. The handbook can either be read from cover-to-cover or in part on specific
topics.

The handbook is divided into five chapters which deal with different phases when
designing pump systems.

Chapter 1 includes a general presentation of different pump types and components.


Also described are precautions to consider when dealing with viscous liquids. Further,
the most used materials, as well as different types of corrosion, are presented. Termi-
nologies in connection with reading pump performance are presented in Chapter 2.
Chapter 3 deals with system hydraulics and some of the most important factors to
consider for optimum operation of the pump system. Pump performance adjustment
methods are discussed in Chapter 4. Chapter 5 describes life cycle costs, as energy con-
sumption plays an important role in today’s pumps and pump systems.

We sincerely hope that you will find this handbook useful in your daily work.

Grundfos Pumps Corporation


Table of Contents

Chapter 1 Design of pumps and motors. .....................7 Section 1.5 Liquids........................................................................................53


1.5.1 Viscous liquids.........................................................................................54
1.5.2 Non-Newtonian liquids................................................................... 55
Section 1.1 Pump construction............................................................. 8 1.5.3 The impact of viscous liquids on the
performance of a centrifugal pump.................................... 55
1.1.1 The centrifugal pump................................................................... 8 1.5.4 Selecting the right pump for a liquid
1.1.2 Pump curves................................................................................................9 with antifreeze........................................................................................56
1.1.3 Characteristics of the centrifugal pump.......................... 11 1.5.5 Calculation example..........................................................................58
1.1.4 Most common end-suction and 1.5.6 Computer-aided pump selection for dense and
in-line pump types............................................................................... 12 viscous liquids..........................................................................................58
1.1.5 Impeller types (axial forces)........................................................14
1.1.6 Casing types (radial forces).......................................................... 15 Section 1.6 Materials. ............................................................................... 59
1.6.1 What is corrosion?.............................................................................. 60
1.1.7 Single-stage pumps............................................................................ 15 1.6.2 Types of corrosion................................................................................61
1.1.8 Multistage pumps................................................................................16 1.6.3 Metal and metal alloys....................................................................65
1.1.9 Long-coupled and close-coupled pumps.........................16 1.6.4 Ceramics........................................................................................................ 71
1.6.5 Plastics............................................................................................................ 71
Section 1.2 Types of pumps. ..................................................................17 1.6.6 Rubber............................................................................................................. 72
1.2.1 Standard pumps. ................................................................................... 17 1.6.7 Coatings. ....................................................................................................... 73
1.2.2 Split-case pumps................................................................................... 17
1.2.3 Hermetically sealed pumps.........................................................18
1.2.4 Sanitary pumps.......................................................................................20
1.2.5 Wastewater pumps............................................................................ 21 Chapter 2 Installation and performance
1.2.6 Immersible pumps...............................................................................22 reading.............................................................................................................75
1.2.7 Groundwater pumps.........................................................................23
1.2.8 Positive displacement pumps. ..................................................24 Section 2.1 Pump installation ............................................................ 76
2.1.1 New installation. ...................................................................................76
Section 1.3 Mechanical shaft seals...................................................27 2.1.2 Existing installation-replacement.........................................76
1.3.1 The mechanical shaft seal’s 2.1.3 Pipe flow for single-pump installation. ............................ 77
components and function............................................................29 2.1.4 Limitation of noise and vibrations........................................78
1.3.2 Balanced and unbalanced shaft seals................................30 2.1.5 Sound level ................................................................................................81
1.3.3 Types of mechanical shaft seals..............................................31
1.3.4 Seal face material combinations............................................34 Section 2.2 Pump performance ........................................................ 83
1.3.5 Factors affecting the seal performance. ..........................36 2.2.1 Hydraulic terms......................................................................................83
2.2.2 Electrical terms. ..................................................................................... 90
Section 1.4 Motors..................................................................................... 39 2.2.3 Liquid properties....................................................................................93
1.4.1 Standards.................................................................................................... 40
1.4.2 Motor start-up........................................................................................ 46
1.4.3 Voltage supply.........................................................................................47
1.4.4 Frequency converter. .........................................................................47
1.4.5 Motor protection.................................................................................. 49
Chapter 3 System hydraulics.................................................. 95 Chapter 5 Life cycle costs calculation .........................127

Section 3.1 System characteristics ..................................................96 Section 5.1 Life cycle costs equation. ........................................... 128
3.1.1 Single resistances. ................................................................................97 5.1.1 Initial cost, purchase price (Cic).............................................. 129
3.1.2 Closed and open systems............................................................. 98 5.1.2 Installation and commissioning costs (Cin)................. 129
5.1.3 Energy costs (Ce).................................................................................. 130
Section 3.2 Pumps connected in parallel and series. ..................101 5.1.4 Operating costs including labor (Co)................................. 130
3.2.1 Pumps in parallel. ...............................................................................101 5.1.5 Environmental costs (Cenv).......................................................... 130
3.2.2 Pumps connected in series........................................................ 103 5.1.6 Maintenance and repair costs (Cm)..................................... 131
5.1.7 Downtime costs (loss of production) (Cs)...................... 131
5.1.8 Decommissioning or disposal costs (Cd). ....................... 131
Chapter 4 Performance adjustment
of pumps..................................................................................................... 105
Section 5.2 Life cycle costs calculation
Section 4.1 Adjusting pump performance...............................106 – an example.................................................................................................132
4.1.1 Throttle control. ...................................................................................107
4.1.2 Bypass control........................................................................................107 Appendix..........................................................................................................133
4.1.3 Modifying impeller diameter.................................................. 108 A) Notations and units..........................................................................134
4.1.4 Speed control......................................................................................... 108 B) Unit conversion tables...................................................................135
4.1.5 Comparison of adjustment methods...............................110 C) SI-prefixes and Greek alphabet............................................. 136
4.1.6 Overall efficiency of the pump system........................... 111 D) Vapor pressure and specific gravity of water at
4.1.7 Example: Relative power consumption different temperatures. ................................................................137
when the flow is reduced by 20%........................................ 111 E) Orifice ...........................................................................................................138
F) Change in static pressure due to change
Section 4.2 Speed-controlled pump solutions ..................... 114 in pipe diameter.................................................................................. 139
4.2.1 Constant pressure control..........................................................114 G) Nozzles. ....................................................................................................... 140
4.2.2 Constant temperature control. .............................................. 115 H) Nomogram for head losses in
4.2.3 Constant differential pressure in a bends, valves, etc....................................................................... 141-150
circulating system.............................................................................. 115 I) Periodic system..................................................................................... 151
4.2.4 Flow-compensated differential J) Pump standards...................................................................................152
pressure control...................................................................................116 K) Viscosity for typical liquids as a function
of liquid temperature. ............................................................153-157
Section 4.3 Advantages of speed control..................................117
Index .......................................................................................................... 158-162
Section 4.4 Advantages of pumps with integrated
frequency converter............................................................................... 118
4.4.1 Performance curves of speed-controlled
pumps. ..........................................................................................................119
4.4.2 Speed-controlled pumps in different systems.........119

Section 4.5 Frequency converter. ................................................... 122


4.5.1 Basic function and characteristics.......................................122
4.5.2 Components of the frequency converter......................122
4.5.3 Special conditions regarding frequency
converters.................................................................................................124
Chapter 1. Design of pumps and motors

Section 1.1: Pump construction

1.1.1 The centrifugal pump


1.1.2 Pump curves
1.1.3 Characteristics of the centrifugal pump
1.1.4 Most common end-suction and in-line
pump types
1.1.5 Impeller types (axial forces)
1.1.6 Casing types (radial forces)
1.1.7 Single-stage pumps
1.1.8 Multistage pumps
1.1.9 Long-coupled and close-coupled pumps

Section 1.2: Types of pumps

1.2.1 Standard pumps


1.2.2 Split-case pumps
1.2.3 Hermetically sealed pumps
1.2.4 Sanitary pumps
1.2.5 Wastewater pumps
1.2.6 Immersible pumps
1.2.7 Groundwater pumps
1.2.8 Positive displacement pumps
Section 1.1
Pump construction

1.1.1 The centrifugal pump

In 1689, the physicist Denis Papin invented the cen-


trifugal pump. Today, this kind of pump is the most
commonly used around the world. The centrifugal
pump is built on a simple principle: Liquid is led to
the impeller hub and is flung towards the periphery
of the impeller by means of centrifugal force.
Fig. 1.1.1: The liquids flow through the pump
The construction is fairly inexpensive, robust and
simple, and its high speed makes it possible to con-
nect the pump directly to an asynchronous motor.
The centrifugal pump provides a steady liquid flow,
and it can easily be throttled without causing any
damage to the pump.

See figure 1.1.1 for liquid flow through the pump. The
inlet of the pump leads the liquid to the center of the
rotating impeller from where it is flung towards the
periphery. This construction provides high efficiency
and is suitable for handling pure liquids. Pumps
which have to handle impure liquids, such as waste-
water pumps, are fitted with an impeller that pre- Radial flow pump Mixed flow pump Axial flow pump
vents objects from getting lodged inside the pump, Fig. 1.1.2: Different kinds of centrifugal pumps
see section 1.2.5.

If a pressure difference occurs in the system while the


centrifugal pump is not running, liquid can still pass
through due to its open design.

As you can tell from figure 1.1.2, the centrifugal pump


can be categorized in different groups: Radial flow
H [ft] H [m]
pumps, mixed flow pumps and axial flow pumps. 10000
Radial flow pumps and mixed flow pumps are the 6
4
most common. These types of pumps are discussed 10000
2
on the following pages with a brief presentation of a 1000 Multistage radial
positive displacement pump in section 1.2.8. 6
4
flow pumps
1000
2
The different demands on the centrifugal pump’s 100
Single-stage radial
performance, especially with regard to head, flow, 6
4 flow pumps
and installation, together with the demands for eco- 100
2
nomical operation, are only a few of the reasons why 10 Mixed flow pumps
so many types of pumps exist. Figure 1.1.3 shows the 6
4
different pump types with regard to flow and head. 10
2 Axial flow pumps

1 2 4 6 10 2 4 6 100 2 4 6 1000 2 4 6 10000 100000


3
Q [m /h]

Q [GPM]
10 100 1000 10000 100000

Fig. 1.1.3: Flow and head for different types of centrifugal


pumps

8
1.1.2 Pump curves H
[ft]
60
η
[%]

50
The performance of a centrifugal pump is shown by
40
a set of performance curves. The performance curves 70
30 60
for a centrifugal pump are shown in figure 1.1.4. Head, 50
20 Efficiency 40
power consumption, efficiency and NPSH are shown as 30
10 20
a function of the flow. 10
0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 Q [GPM] 0
P2 NPSH
[hp]
Normally, pump curves in Grundfos product guides Power consumption
(ft)

0.6
only cover the liquid end hydraulic performance. 0.4
20
15

Therefore, the power consumption, the P2-value which 0.2 NPSH


10
5

is listed in the product guides as well, only covers the 0 0

power going into the pump – see figure 1.1.4. The same
Fig. 1.1.4: Typical performance curves for a centrifugal
applies for efficiency value, which only covers the pump. Head, power consumption, efficiency and NPSH
liquid end (η = ηP). are shown as a function of the flow

In some pump types with integrated motors and possibly


integrated frequency converters, e.g. canned motor pumps Q
(see section 1.2.3), the power consumption curve and the
η-curve cover both the motor and the pump. In this case
the P1-value has to be taken into account, see figure 1.1.5. P1 M P2 H
3~
In general, pump curves are designed according to
ηM ηP
Hydraulic Institute test standards or ISO 9906 Annex
A, which specifies the tolerances of the curves. Fig. 1.1.5: The curves for power consumption and
efficiency will normally only cover the pump part of
the unit – i.e. P2 and ηP

Following is a brief presentation of the different pump


performance curves.

Head, the QH-curve


H
[ft]

The QH-curve shows the head, identifying where the 60

pump is able to perform at a given flow, see figure 1.1.6. 50

Head is measured in feet liquid column [ft]; normally 40

the unit feet [ft] is applied. The advantage of using


30
the unit [ft] as the unit of measurement for a pump’s
20 Efficiency
head is that the QH-curve is not affected by the type of
liquid the pump has to handle, see section 2.2 for more 10

information. 0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 Q [GPM]

Fig. 1.1.6: A typical QH-curve for a centrifugal pump;


low flow results in high head and high flow results
in low head

9
Section 1.1
Pump construction

Efficiency, the η-curve side of the pump to avoid cavitation (see section
The efficiency is the relationship between the supplied 2.2.1). The NPSHr value is measured in [ft] and
power and the utilized amount of power. In the depends on the flow. When flow increases, the
world of pumps, the efficiency ηp is the relationship NPSHr value increases, see figure 1.1.9. For more
between the power which the pump delivers to the information concerning cavitation and NPSH, go to
water (PH) and the power input to the shaft (P2 ): section 2.2.1.

PH QH . SG
ηp = = η
P2 3960 x P2 [%]
80

70

60

where: 50

SG is the specific gravity of the liquid. 40

Q is the flow in GPM and H is the head in ft. 30

ηp is the pump efficiency


20

10

0
For water at 68oF and with Q measured in GPM and H 0 25 50 75 100 125 150 17 5 200 225 250 275 300 325 350 375
Q [GPM]
in ft, the hydraulic power can be calculated as: Fig. 1.1.7: The efficiency curve of a typical centrifugal
pump
PH = lb of liquid per minute . H
33,000

Power consumption, the P2-curve


The relationship between the power consumption of
the pump and the flow is shown in figure 1.1.8. The P2
[hp]
P2-curve of most centrifugal pumps is similar to the 14
12

one in figure 1.1.8 where the P2 value increases when 10


8

the flow increases. 6


4
2

Q . H . SG 0

P2 = Q [GPM]
0 25 50 75 100 125 150 175 200 225 25 0 275 300 325

3960 x ηp Fig. 1.1.8: The power consumption curve of a typical


centrifugal pump

As it appears from the efficiency curve shown in figure


1.1.7, the efficiency depends on the duty point of the
pump. It is important to select a pump that fits the flow
requirements and ensures the pump is working in the
most efficient flow area.
NPSH
[ft]
20

15

NPSH - curve (Net Positive Suction Head 10

Required)
5

0
0 25 50 75 100 125 150 175 200 225 250 275 300 325 Q [GPM]
The NPSHr value of a pump is the minimum absolute Fig. 1.1.9: The NPSH curve of a typical centrifugal
head pressure that has to be present at the suction pump

10
1.1.3 Characteristics of the
centrifugal pump
The centrifugal pump has several characteristics
and the most important ones are presented in this
chapter. A more thorough description of the different
pump types are given at the end of the chapter.

• The number of stages


Depending on the number of impellers in the pump,
a centrifugal pump can be either a single-stage pump
or a multistage pump.

• The position of the pump shaft


Single-stage and multistage pumps come with horizontal
or vertical pump shafts and are normally designated as
horizontal or vertical pumps. For more information, go to
section 1.1.4.

• Single-suction or double-suction impellers


Depending on the construction of the impeller, a pump
can be fitted with either a single-suction impeller or a
double-suction impeller. For more information, go to
section 1.1.5.

• Construction of the pump casing


Two types of pump casings are discussed: Volute
casing and return channels. For more information, go
to section 1.1.6.

Fig 1.1.10: Example of multiple stage pump

11
Section 1.1
Pump construction

1.1.4 Most common end-suction and in-line pump types

End-suction

Horizontal

Single-stage Multistage

Long-coupled Close-coupled Close-coupled

End-suction pump = Liquid runs directly into the impeller. Inlet and outlet have a
90° angle. See section 1.1.9
In-line pump = Liquid runs directly through the pump in-line. The suction pipe and the discharge
pipe are placed opposite one another and can be mounted directly in the piping system
Split-case pump = Pump with an axially divided pump housing. See section 1.2.2
Horizontal pump = Pump with a horizontal pump shaft
Vertical pump = Pump with a vertical pump shaft
Single-stage pump = Pump with a single impeller. See section 1.1.7
Multistage pump = Pump with several series-coupled stages. See section 1.1.8
Long-coupled pump = Pump connects to the motor by means of a flexible coupling. The motor and
the pump have separate bearing constructions. See section 1.1.9
Close-coupled pump = Pump connects to the motor by means of a rigid coupling. See section 1.1.9

12
In-line

Horizontal Vertical

Split-case

Single-stage Multistage

Single-stage

Long-coupled Long-coupled Close-coupled Close-coupled

13
Section 1.1
Pump construction

1.1.5 Impeller types

There are three common types of pump impellers:


open, enclosed and semi-open, see figure 1.1.11.
The open impeller has a series of vanes attached
to the center hub and is commonly chosen for low
horsepower applications of clean, non-abrasive fluids
Open Semi-open Enclosed
or fluids with large solids. The enclosed impeller
Fig. 1.1.11: Impeller types
has vanes sandwiched between two shrouds. While
the shrouds result in a slightly lower mechanical
efficiency, they decrease the amount of pump casing
wear caused by dirty or abrasive liquids. This design
usually includes replaceable wear rings so critical
clearances can be renewed. The semi-open impeller Axial forces

has a single shroud on one side of the vanes and it


leaves one side open. This design can handle abrasives
or solids well and often allows for simple axial
Fig. 1.1.12: Single-suction
adjustment of critical impeller-to-casing clearances
impeller
without pump disassembly.
Fig. 1.1.13: Standard pump with
Axial Force Balancing single-suction impeller
A centrifugal pump generates pressure, exerting
forces on both stationary and rotating parts of the
pump. Pump parts are made to withstand these
forces. Fig. 1.1.14: Balancing the axial forces in
a single-stage centrifugal pump with
balancing holes only
If axial and radial forces are not counterbalanced in the
pump, the forces have to be taken into consideration
when selecting the driving system for the pump, such
as angular contact bearings in the motor. In pumps Fig. 1.1.15: Balancing the axial forces in a
single-stage centrifugal pump with seal
fitted with a single-suction impeller, large axial forces ring gap at discharge side and
may occur, see figures 1.1.12 and 1.1.13. These forces balancing holes
are balanced or avoided as follows:

• Mechanically via thrust bearings.


• Via balancing holes on the impeller, see figure
Fig. 1.1.16: Balancing the axial forces in
1.1.14 a single-stage centrifugal pump with
• Via throttle regulation from a seal ring mounted blades on the back of the impellers
on the back of the impellers, see figure 1.1.15
• Via blades on the back of the impeller, see figure
1.1.16
• Through the use of double-suction impellers, see Fig. 1.1.17: Balancing the axial forces in a
double-suction impeller arrangement
figure 1.1.17

14
1.1.6 Casing types Fig. 1.1.18: Single-suction
Radial forces
impeller

Radial forces are a result of the static pressure in the


casing. Therefore, axial deflections may occur and lead
to interference between the impeller and the casing.
The magnitude and the direction of the radial force
depend on the flow rate and the head.

When designing the casing for the pump, it is possible


to control the hydraulic radial forces. Two casing
Fig. 1.1.19: Single-volute casing Double-volute casing
types worth mentioning are the single-volute and the
double-volute. As seen in figure 1.1.19, both casings
are shaped as a volute. The double-volute has a guide

Radial force
vane.

The single-volute pump is characterized by a symmetric Single-volute


casing

pressure in the volute at the optimum efficiency point,


which leads to zero radial load. At all other points,
the pressure around the impeller is not symmetrically Double-volute
casing

equal and consequently a radial force is present. 1.0 Q/Qopt

Fig. 1.1.20: Radial force for single and double-volute casing


As seen in figure 1.1.20, the double-volute casing develops
a constant low radial reaction force at any capacity.

Return channels (figure 1.1.21) are used in multistage


pumps and have the same function as volute casings. Fig. 1.1.21: Vertical multistage
Liquid is led from one impeller to the next. At the in-line pump with return
channel casing
same time, water rotation is reduced and the dynamic
pressure is transformed into static pressure. Because Return channel

of the return channel casing’s circular design, no radial


forces are present.

1.1.7 Single-stage pumps

Generally, single-stage pumps are used in applications


that do not require a total head of more than 450 ft.
Normally, single-stage pumps operate in the range
of 6-300 ft.

Single-stage pumps are characterized by a low head


relative to the flow, see figure 1.1.3. Single-stage pumps
come in both a vertical and horizontal design, see Fig. 1.1.22: Horizontal single-stage Fig. 1.1.23: Vertical single-stage
end-suction close-coupled pump in-line close-coupled pump
figures 1.1.22 and 1.1.23.

15
Section 1.1
Pump construction

1.1.8 Multistage pumps Close-coupled pumps


These pumps can be constructed as follows: The pump’s
Multistage pumps are used in installations where a impeller can be mounted directly on the extended
high head is needed. Several stages are connected in motor shaft or the pump can have a standard motor
series and the flow is guided from the outlet of one and a rigid or a spacer coupling, see figures 1.1.28 and
stage to the inlet of the next. The final head that a 1.1.29.
multistage pump delivers is equal to the sum of the
pressure that each of the stages provide.

Multistage pumps provide high head relative to


the flow and have a steeper curve that is more
advantageous for variable speed drive, also known as
variable frequency drive (VFD) applications. Like the
single-stage pump, the multistage pump is available
in both vertical and horizontal versions, see figures
1.1.24 and 1.1.25.
Fig. 1.1.24: Vertical multi- Fig. 1.1.25: Horizontal multistage
stage in-line pump end-suction pump
Horizontal, Multistage Pumps
This type of pump is somewhat unique. With the same
benefits mentioned in 1.1.8, horizontal multistage
pumps meet flow and head requirements of single-stage
end-suction pumps but with significant reductions in Fig. 1.1.26: Long-coupled pump
required horsepower. In general, multistage pumps with basic coupling
offer higher efficiencies when compared to single-stage
end-suction pumps resulting in energy savings. Due to
design, horizontal multistage pumps do not encounter Fig. 1.1.27: Long-coupled pump with spacer
coupling
the same vibration problems often associated with
single-stage end-suction pumps.

1.1.9 Long-coupled and close-coupled


pumps
Fig. 1.1.28: Close-coupled pump
with rigid coupling
Long-coupled pumps
Long-coupled pumps have a flexible coupling (basic or
spacer) that connects the pump and the motor. If the
pump is connected to the motor by a basic coupling,
the motor must be disconnected when the pump is
Fig. 1.1.29: Close-coupled pump with
serviced. The pump must therefore be aligned upon impeller directly mounted on motor
mounting, see figure 1.1.26. If the pump is fitted with shaft
a spacer coupling, the pump can be serviced without
removing the motor and alignment is less of an issue,
see figure 1.1.27.

16
Section 1.2
Types of pumps

1.2.1 Standard pumps

Few international standards deal with centrifugal


pumps. In fact, many countries have their own
standards, which more or less overlap one another. A
standard pump is a pump that complies with official
regulations pertaining to the pump’s duty point. A
couple of examples of international standards for Fig. 1.2.1: Long-coupled standard pump
pumps follow:

• ANSI B73.1 standard covers centrifugal pumps of


horizontal end-suction single-stage, centerline design.
This standard includes dimensional interchangeability
requirements and certain design features to facilitate
installation and maintenance.

• DIN 24255 applies to end-suction centrifugal


pumps, also known as standard water pumps, with
a rated pressure (PN) of 145 psi.

The standards mentioned above cover the installation


dimensions and the duty points of the different pump Fig. 1.2.2: Bare shaft standard pump
types. The hydraulic parts of these pump types vary
according to the manufacturer – so, no international
standards are set for these parts.

Pumps designed according to standards provide


end users with advantages in installation, service, spare
parts and maintenance.

1.2.2 Split-case pumps


Fig. 1.2.3: Long-coupled split-case pump
A split-case pump is designed with the pump housing
divided axially into two parts. Figure 1.2.4 shows a
single-stage split-case pump with a double-suction
impeller. The double-inlet construction eliminates
the axial forces and ensures a longer life span of the
bearings. Usually, split-case pumps have a rather
high efficiency, are easy to service and have a wide
performance range. Fig. 1.2.4: Split-case pump
with double-suction
impeller

17
Section 1.2
Types of pumps

Liquid
1.2.3 Hermetically sealed pumps Seal

Atmosphere
The penetration point of the pump liquid by the
shaft that allows it to connect to the impeller has to
be sealed. Usually, this is addressed by a mechanical
shaft seal, see figure 1.2.5. The disadvantage of the
mechanical shaft seal is its poor handling of toxic
and aggressive liquids, which consequently leads to
leakage. This problem can often be solved by using a
double mechanical shaft seal. Another solution is to
use a hermetically sealed pump.

There are two types of hermetically sealed pumps:


Canned motor pumps and magnetic-driven pumps.
In the following two sections, additional information
about these pumps is provided. A disadvantage of Fig. 1.2.5: Example of a standard pump with mechanical shaft seal
hermetically sealed pumps is that they can handle very
little, if any, solids in the pumped liquid.

Canned motor pumps Motor can

A canned motor pump is a hermetically sealed pump


with the motor and pump integrated in one unit
without a seal, see figures 1.2.6 and 1.2.7. The pumped
liquid is allowed to enter the rotor chamber that
is separated from the stator by a thin rotor can.
The rotor can serves as a hermetically sealed barrier
between the liquid and the motor. Chemical pumps Fig. 1.2.6: Chemical pump with canned motor
are made of materials, such as plastics or stainless
steel, that can withstand aggressive liquids. Motor can

The most common canned motor pump type is


the circulator pump. This type of pump is typically
used in heating or cooling applications because the
construction provides low noise and maintenance-
free operation.

Fig. 1.2.7: Circulator pump with canned motor

18
Magnetic-driven pumps
Outer magnets Inner magnets
In recent years, magnetic-driven pumps have become
increasingly popular for transferring aggressive and
toxic liquids.
Can
As shown in figure 1.2.8, the magnetic-driven pump is
made of two groups of magnets: An inner magnet and
an outer magnet. A non-magnetic can separate these
two magnets. The can serves as a hermetically sealed
barrier between the liquid and the atmosphere. As
it appears from figure 1.2.9, the outer magnet is
connected to the pump drive and the inner magnet
is connected to the pump shaft. The torque from
the pump drive is transmitted to the pump shaft by
means of attraction between the inner and outer
magnets. The pumped liquid serves as lubricant Fig. 1.2.8: Construction of magnetic drive
for the bearings in the pump. Therefore, sufficient
venting is crucial for the bearings.

Inner magnets

Can

Outer magnets

Fig. 1.2.9: Magnetic-driven multistage pump

19
Section 1.2
Types of pumps

1.2.4 Sanitary pumps

Sanitary pumps are mainly used in food, beverage,


pharmaceutical and bio-technological industries where
liquid is pumped gently and pumps are easy to clean
using clean-in-place (CIP) techniques.

In order to meet process requirements in these


industries, the pumps have to have a surface
roughness less than 32 µ-in (0.8 µ-m) or better. This
can be best achieved by using forged or deep-drawn Fig. 1.2.10: Sanitary pump
rolled stainless steel as the material of construction,
see figure 1.2.12. These materials have a compact
pore-free surface finish that can be easily worked up
to meet the various surface finish requirements. The
U.S. recommended interior surface finishes range
from 32 µ-in for food and beverage applications
down to 10 µ-in for bioprocessing applications.

The main features of a sanitary pump are ease of


cleaning and ease of maintenance.

The leading U.S. manufacturers of sanitary pumps


have designed their products to meet the material
specifications of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration
(FDA) and the voluntary standards developed by 3-A Fig.1.2.11: Sanitary self-priming side-channel pump
Sanitary Standards Inc., as well as other well known
globally-recognized standards such as:

EHEDG – European Hygienic Engineering Design


Group

QHD – Qualified Hygienic Design


Sand casting

Precision casting

Rolled steel
Fig.1.2.12: Roughness of material surfaces

20
1.2.5 Wastewater pumps

Wastewater pumps can be classified as submersible


and dry pit pumps. In submersible installations with
sliderail systems, double rails are normally used. The Fig. 1.2.13: Detail of a sewage pump
auto-coupling system facilitates maintenance, repair for wet installations

and replacement of the pump. It is not necessary to


enter the pit to perform service. In fact, it is possible to
connect and disconnect the pump automatically from
the outside of the pit. Wastewater pumps can also be
installed dry, like conventional pumps, in vertical or
horizontal installations. This type of installation provides
easy maintenance and repair as well as uninterrupted
operation of the pump in case of flooding of the dry pit,
see figure 1.2.14.

Normally, wastewater pumps must be able to handle Fig. 1.2.14: Wastewater pump for dry
installations
large particles (i.e. 3-inch solids) and are fitted with
special impellers to avoid blockage and clogging.
Different types of impellers include: Single-channel
impellers, double-channel impellers, three and four-
channel impellers and vortex impellers. Figure 1.2.15
shows the different designs of these impellers.

Wastewater pumps with submersible motors shall


carry the Underwriters Laboratories Inc label for
class I, Divison I, Group D environment. Submersible
wastewater pump motors are hermetically sealed
and have a common extended shaft with a tandem
mechanical shaft seal system in an intermediate oil
chamber, see figure 1.2.13. Wastewater pumps are
able to operate either intermittently or continuously,
depending on the installation in question.

Vortex Single-channel Double-channel


impeller impeller impeller

Fig. 1.2.15: Impeller types for wastewater

21
Section 1.2
Types of pumps

1.2.6 Immersible pumps

An immersible pump is a pump type where the


pump part is immersed in the pumped liquid and
the motor is kept dry. Normally, immersible pumps
are mounted on top of or in the wall of tanks or
containers. Immersible pumps are used in the machine
tool industry, in chip conveyor systems, grinding
machines, machining centers, cooling units or in other
industrial applications involving tanks or containers,
such as industrial washing and filtering systems.

Pumps for machine tools can be divided into two


groups: Pumps for the clean side of the filter and
pumps for the dirty side of the filter. Pumps with
closed impellers are normally used for the clean side
of the filter because they provide a high efficiency
and a high pressure if necessary. Pumps with open or
semi-open impellers are normally used for the dirty
side of the filter because they can handle metal chips
and particles. Refer to page 14 for more discussion on
impeller types.

Fig. 1 .2.16: Immersible pump

22
1.2.7 Groundwater pumps

There are two primary types of pumps used for


groundwater applications: The submersible turbine
pump type, which features a pump directly attached
to a submersible motor and are completely submerged
in the groundwater, and the line shaft turbine pump
type with a motor mounted at the top of the well
which is connected to the submerged pump by a long
shaft. Both pump types are used to pump groundwater
from a well, typically for water supply and irrigation.
Because these pump types must fit into deep, narrow
wells, they have a reduced diameter compared to
above-ground pumps making them long and thin
compared to most other pump types.

Submersible turbine pumps are specially designed to be


fitted to a submersible motor, and the entire assembly
is submerged in a liquid. The submersible motor is
sealed to prevent water intrusion, and generally no
regular maintenance is required on these pumps.
Submersible pumps are preferred in deep installations
and those requiring low to medium flow rates,
generally up to 2,500 GPM. The liquid surrounding the
submersible motor cools it, so submersible pumps are
not suitable for hot water applications.

Line shaft turbine pumps have been replaced in many


applications by submersible turbine pumps but are
A B
preferred for certain applications such as shallow
wells and those applications requiring higher flow Fig. 1.2.17: Submersible turbine pump (A) and Line shaft turbine (B)
rates. The long shaft is a drawback in deep settings
making installation difficult and requiring frequent
service. Because the line shaft turbine’s motor is air-
cooled, it is often used in industrial applications to
pump hot water.

23
Section 1.2
Types of pumps

Fig. 1.2.19: Typical relation between


H
1.2.8 Positive displacement pumps flow and head for 3 different pump
types:
1) Centrifugal pumps
The positive displacement pump provides an 2) Rotary pumps
3) Reciprocating pumps
approximate constant flow at fixed speed, despite
changes in the back pressure. Two main types of positive
displacement pumps include: 1
H
• Rotary pumps
• Reciprocating pumps

The difference in performance between centrifugal, 3 2


rotary and reciprocating pumps is illustrated in figure
1.2.19. Depending on the pump type, a small change
in the pump’s back pressure results in differences in 2 1 Q
the flow. 3

The flow of a centrifugal pump will change to the larger seal area of the rotary pump is greater.
considerably with back pressure. Changing back The pumps are typically designed with the finest
pressure on rotary pumps will result in a minimal flow tolerances possible to obtain the highest possible
change. However, the flow of the reciprocating pump efficiency and suction capability. However, in some
is almost constant with the back pressure change. cases, it is necessary to increase the tolerances,
The performance difference between reciprocating for example, when the pumps must handle highly
pumps and rotary pumps is due to the rotary pump’s viscous liquids, liquids containing large particles or
larger seal surface area. Even though the two pumps liquids of high temperature.
are designed with the same tolerances, the loss due

Fig. 1.2.18: Rotary Lobe pump

24
Metering pumps

The metering pump belongs to the positive displacement electrical parts caused by the solenoid operation,
pump family and is typically of the diaphragm type. stepper motor-driven diaphragm pumps enable a
Diaphragm pumps are leak-free, because the diaphragm more steady dose of additive.
forms a seal between the liquid and the surroundings.

The diaphragm pump is usually fitted with two or


three non-return valves; one or two on the suction
side and one on the discharge side of the pump.
On smaller diaphragm pumps, the diaphragm is
activated by the connecting rod, which is connected
to a solenoid, permitting the coil to receive the exact
amount of strokes needed, see figure 1.2.21.

On larger diaphragm pumps, the diaphragm is typically


mounted on the connecting rod, which is activated by a
camshaft. The camshaft is turned by way of a standard
asynchronous motor, see figure 1.2.22.
Fig. 1.2.20: Dosing pump

The flow of a diaphragm pump is adjusted by changing


the stroke length and/or the frequency of the strokes. If
it is necessary to expand the operating area, frequency
converters can be connected to the larger diaphragm
pumps, see figure 1.2.22.

Yet another kind of diaphragm pump exists. In this


case, the diaphragm is activated by means of an Fig.1.2.21: Solenoid spring return
eccentrically driven connecting rod powered by
a stepper motor or a synchronous motor, figures
+

1.2.20 and 1.2.23. A stepper motor drive increases the


pump’s dynamic range, thus improving its accuracy.
This construction no longer requires stroke length
adjustment because the connecting rod is mounted
directly on the diaphragm. The result is optimized 1.2.22: Cam-drive assembly spring return
suction and operation due to full suction.

+
Stepper motor drive design simplifies control of
both the suction side and the discharge side of
the pump. Compared to traditional electromagnetic-
driven diaphragm pumps which provide undesirable
pulsations as well as fast wearing of mechanical and
1.2.23: Stepper motor drive

25
Chapter 1. Design of pumps and motors

Section 1.3: Mechanical shaft seals

1.3.1 The mechanical shaft seal’s components


and function
1.3.2 Types of mechanical shaft seals
1.3.3 Balanced and unbalanced shaft seals
1.3.4 Seal face material combinations
1.3.5 Factors affecting the seal performance
Section 1.3
Mechanical shaft seals

From the middle of the 1950s, mechanical shaft


seals gained ground in favor of the traditional seal-
ing method - the stuffing box. Compared to stuffing
boxes, mechanical shaft seals provide the following
advantages:

• None or minimal leakage of the fluid being


pumped.

• No adjustment required

• Seal faces provide a small amount of friction,


minimizing power loss

• The shaft does not slide against any of the seal’s


components and therefore reduces wear and
associated repair costs.

The mechanical shaft seal is the part of a pump that


separates the liquid from the atmosphere. Figure
1.3.1 illustrates mechanical shaft seal mounting in
different types of pumps.

Before choosing shaft seal material and type, consider


the following:

• Determine the type of liquid

• Determine the pressure that the shaft seal is


exposed to

• Determine the speed that the shaft seal is


exposed to

• Determine the shaft-seal housing dimensions


Fig. 1.3.1: Pumps with mechanical shaft seals

The following pages present how a mechanical shaft


seal works, the different types of seals, materials used
in mechanical shaft seals, and the factors that affect the
mechanical shaft seal’s performance.

28
1.3.1 The mechanical shaft seal’s • The hydrodynamic lubricating film is created by
components and function pressure generated by the shaft’s rotation.

The mechanical shaft seal is made of two main


Mechanical shaft seal Designation
components: A rotating part and a stationary part. The
parts of a shaft seal are listed in figure 1.3.2. Figure 1.3.3 Seal face (primary seal)
shows where the different parts are placed in the seal. Secondary seal
Rotating component
Spring
• The stationary component of the seal is fixed in the Spring retainer (torque transmission)
pump housing. The rotating component of the seal Seat (seal faces, primary seal)
Stationary component
is fixed on the pump shaft and rotates when the Static seal (secondary seal)
pump operates. Fig. 1.3.2: The mechanical shaft seal’s components

• The two primary seal faces are pushed against


each other by the spring (or other devices such as a Secondary seal Stationary part
Spring Primary seal Rotating part
metal bellows) and the liquid pressure. During
operation, a liquid film is produced in the narrow gap
between the two seal faces. This film evaporates
Spring retainer
before it enters the atmosphere making the
mechanical shaft seal leak-free, see figure 1.3.4.
Shaft

• Secondary seals prevent leakage from occurring


between the assembly and the shaft.
Secondary seal

• The spring or metal bellows press the seal faces Fig. 1.3.3: Main components of the Primary seal

together mechanically. mechanical shaft seal

• The spring retainer transmits torque from the shaft Vapor


Evaporation
begins
to the seal. In connection with mechanical bellows
shaft seals, torque is transferred directly through the
Lubrication film
bellows. Liquid force

Spring force

Seal gap

During operation, the liquid forms a lubricating film


between the seal faces. This lubricating film consists
Fig. 1.3.4: Mechanical shaft seal in operation
of a hydrostatic and a hydrodynamic film.

• The hydrostatic element is generated by the pumped


liquid which is forced into the gap between the seal
faces.

29
Section 1.3
Mechanical shaft seals

Start of
evaporation 1.3.2 Balanced and unbalanced shaft
1 atm Exit into
atmosphere seals
To obtain an acceptable face pressure between the
primary seal faces, two kinds of seal types exist: A
balanced shaft seal and an unbalanced shaft seal.

Balanced shaft seal


Stationary Rotating Entrance
seal face seal face in seal Figure 1.3.6 shows a balanced shaft seal indicating
Pressure

Pump pressure Liquid Vapor Atmosphere


where the forces impact on the seal.

Fig. 1.3.5: Optimum ratio between fine lubrication Unbalanced shaft seal
properties and limited leakage
Figure 1.3.7 shows an unbalanced shaft seal indicating
where the forces impact the seal.
The thickness of the lubricating film depends on the
pump speed, the liquid temperature, the viscosity
of the liquid and the axial forces of the mechanical Contact area of seal faces

shaft seal. The liquid in the seal gap is continuously Contact area of seal faces
Hydraulic forces
Spring forces
renewed due to: Hydraulic forces

• evaporation of the liquid to the atmosphere A B


A B

• Recirculation of the liquid

Figure 1.3.5 shows the optimum ratio between fine


lubrication properties and limited leakage. The
optimum ratio occurs when the lubricating film Fig. 1.3.6: Impact of Fig. 1.3.7: Impact of
covers the entire seal gap, except for a very narrow forces on the balanced forces on the unbalanced
shaft seal shaft seal
evaporation zone close to the atmospheric side of the
mechanical shaft seal.

Deposits on the seal faces may cause leakage. When Several different forces have an axial impact on the
using coolant agents, deposits build up quickly from seal faces. The spring and the hydraulic forces from the
evaporation at the atmosphere side of the seal. pumped liquid press the seal together while the force
When the liquid evaporates in the evaporation zone, from the lubricating film in the seal gap counteracts
microscopic solids in the liquid remain in the seal this. With high liquid pressure, the hydraulic forces
gap as deposits, causing wear. These deposits are can be so powerful that the lubricant in the seal
seen with most types of liquid. When the pumped gap cannot counteract the contact between the seal
liquid crystallizes, it can become a problem. The best faces. Because the hydraulic force is proportionate
way to prevent wear is to select seal faces made of to the area that the liquid pressure affects, the axial
hard material such as WC (tungsten carbide) or SiC impact can only be reduced by obtaining a reduction
(silicon carbide). The narrow seal gap between these of the pressure-loaded area.
materials (approx. Ra 0.3 µin) minimizes the risk of The balancing ratio (K) of a mechanical shaft seal is
solids entering the seal gap, resulting in less buildup
of deposits.

30
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140
defined as the ratio between the area A and the area Comparative wear
Temperature (oC)
rates valid for water

B : K=A/B K = 1.15
K = 1.00
K = 0.85
K = Balancing ratio
A = Area exposed to hydraulic pressure
B = Contact area of seal faces

The balancing ratio for balanced shaft seals is around


68 104 140 176 212 230
K=0.8 and for unbalanced shaft seals is around K=1.2.
Temperature (oF)

Fig. 1.3.8: Wear rate for different balancing ratios


1.3.3 Types of mechanical shaft seals

The main types of mechanical shaft seals include: O-


ring, bellows, cartridge single-unit seal.
Advantages and
disadvantages of
O-ring seals O-ring seal
Sealing between the rotating shaft and the rotating seal
Advantages:
face is affected by an O-ring’s movement (see figure Suitable in hot liquid and
1.3.9). The O-ring must be able to slide freely in the axial high pressure applications

direction to absorb axial displacements as a result of Disadvantages:


changes in temperature and wear. Incorrect positioning Deposits on the shaft,
such as rust, may prevent
of the stationary seat may result in rubbing, which can
the O-ring shaft
cause wear on the O-ring and shaft. O-rings are made of seal from moving axially
different types of rubber material, such as NBR, EPDM, causing leakage and
premature failure
Buna -N and FKM, depending on operating conditions. Fig. 1.3.9: O-ring seal

Bellows seals
Common to bellows seals is a rubber or metal bellows
which functions as a dynamic sealing element Rubber bellows seal with folding
bellows geometry
between the rotating ring and the shaft.
Advantages and
disadvantages of
Rubber bellows seals
rubber bellows seal
The bellows of a rubber bellows seal (see figure 1.3.10)
can be made of different types of rubber, such as NBR, Advantages:
Not sensitive to deposits,
EPDM, Buna-N and FKM, depending on the operating such as rust, on the shaft
conditions. Two designs are used for rubber bellows:
Suitable for pumping
solid-containing liquids
• Folding bellows
• Rolling bellows Disadvantages:
Not suitable in hot liquid and
high pressure applications
Fig. 1.3.10: Rubber bellows seal

31
Section 1.3
Mechanical shaft seals

Metal bellows seals Advantages and


disadvantages of cartridge
In an ordinary mechanical shaft seal, the spring metal bellows seal
produces the closing force required to close the
seal faces. In a metal bellows seal, the spring is Advantages:
Not sensitive to deposits,
replaced by a metal bellows with a similar force such as rust and lime, on
(see figure 1.3.11). Metal bellows act both as a the shaft
dynamic seal between the rotating ring and the Suitable in hot liquid and
shaft and as a spring. The bellows have a number high-pressure applications
of corrugations to provide the desired spring force.
Low balancing ratio leads
to low wear rate and
consequently longer life
Fig. 1.3.11: Cartridge metal
bellows seal
Disadvantages:
Fatigue failure of the
mechanical shaft seal may
occur when the pump is not
aligned correctly

Fatigue may occur as a


Cartridge seals result of excessive
In a cartridge mechanical shaft seal, all parts form temperatures or pressures
a compact unit on a shaft sleeve and are ready to
be installed. A cartridge seal offers many benefits Advantages of the
compared to conventional mechanical shaft seals, see cartridge seal:

figure 1.3.12. • Easy and fast service

• The design protects the


seal faces

• Preloaded spring

• Safe handling
Flushing

In certain applications it is possible to extend the


Fig. 1.3.12: Cartridge seal
performance of the mechanical shaft seal by installing
a flushing device, see figure 1.3.13. Flushing can lower
the temperature of the mechanical shaft seal and
Fig 1.3.13: Flushing device of a
prevent deposits from occurring. A flushing device
single mechanical shaft seal
can be installed internally or externally. Internal
flushing is done when a small flow from the pump’s
discharge side is bypassed to the seal area. Internal
flushing is primarily used to prevent further heat
generation from the seal in heating applications.
External flushing is done by a flushing liquid and is
used to ensure trouble-free operation when handling
liquids that are abrasive or contain clogging solids.

32
Double mechanical shaft seals

Double mechanical shaft seals are used when the life


span of a single mechanical shaft seal is insufficient due
to wear caused by solids, or too high/low pressure and
temperature. Double mechanical shaft seals help protect
the surroundings when aggressive and explosive liquids Quench liquid

are pumped. Two types of double mechanical shaft


seals include: The double seal in a tandem arrangement Quench liquid

Quench liquid
and the double seal in a back-to-back arrangement. •

Pumped liquid •

Double seal in tandem Pumped liquid


This seal consists of two mechanical shaft seals Fig. 1.3.14: Tandem seal arrangement with external barrier
Pumped liquid

mounted in tandem, one behind the other, and liquid circulation


placed in a separate seal chamber, see figure 1.3.14.
The tandem seal arrangement must be fitted with an
external barrier liquid system which:

• Absorbs leakage
• Monitors the leakage rate Quench liquid

• Lubricates and cools the outboard seal to


Quench liquid
prevent icing Quench liquid

• Protects against dry-running Pumped liquid


• Stabilizes the lubricating film


• Prevents air from entering the pump in case of

Pumped liquid •

Pumped liquid
vacuum

Fig. 1.3.15: Tandem seal arrangement with external barrier


Pressure of the external barrier liquid must always be liquid dead end
lower than the pumped liquid pressure.

Tandem - circulation
For external barrier liquid circulation via a pressureless
tank, see figure 1.3.14. External barrier liquid from the
elevated tank circulates by thermosiphon action and/or
by the pumping action in the seal.
Pumped •

liquid •

Tandem - dead end


Pumped
For external barrier liquid from an elevated tank, see

liquid •

Pumped •

liquid
figure 1.3.15. No heat is dissipated from the system.

Tandem - drain
Fig. 1.3.16: Tandem seal arrangement with external barrier liquid
The external barrier liquid runs through the seal chamber
to drain
to be collected for reuse or directed to drain, see figure
1.3.16.

33
Section 1.3
Mechanical shaft seals

Seal chamber with


Barrier pressure liquid barrier pressure liquid industrial applications: Tungsten carbide/tungsten
carbide, silicon carbide/silicon carbide and carbon/tungsten
carbide or carbon/silicon carbide.

Tungsten carbide/tungsten carbide

Cemented tungsten carbide covers the type of hard metals that


Pumped liquid
are based on a hard tungsten carbide (WC) phase and usually
a softer metallic binder phase. The correct technical term is
cemented tungsten carbide; however, the abbreviated term
tungsten carbide (WC) is used by Grundfos for convenience.

Cobalt-bonded (Co) WC is only corrosion resistant in water if


the pump incorporates base metal, such as cast iron.

Fig. 1.3.17: Back-to-back seal arrangement Chromium-nickel-molybdenum-bonded WC has a higher


corrosion resistance.

Double seal in back-to-back Sintered binderless WC has the highest corrosion


This type of seal is the optimum solution for handling resistance. However, its resistance to corrosion in liquids,
abrasive, aggressive, explosive or sticky liquids which would such as hypochlorite, is not as high. The material pairing
wear out, damage or block a mechanical shaft seal. WC/WC has the following features:

The back-to-back double seal consists of two shaft • Extremely wear resistant
seals mounted back-to-back in a separate seal chamber, • Very robust; resists rough handling
see figure 1.3.17. The back-to-back double seal protects the • Poor dry-running properties. In case of dry-running, the
surrounding environment and the people working temperature increases to several hundred degrees
with the pump. Fahrenheit in just a few minutes and consequently damages
the O-rings.
The pressure in the seal chamber must be 14.5-29 psi higher
than the pump pressure. The pressure can be generated If a certain pressure and temperature are exceeded, the
by: seal may generate noise. Noise is an indication of poor
seal operating conditions that, in the long term, may cause
• An existing, separate pressure source. Many wear of the seal. The limits of use depend on seal face
applications incorporate pressurized systems. diameter and design.

• A separate pump, e.g. a metering pump A WC/WC seal face pair might be noisy during the break in
period. Usually the noise dissapears after a couple of days
1.3.4 Seal face material combinations of operation. In some cases noise may last up to
3-4 weeks.
What follows is a description of the most important
material combinations used in mechanical shaft seals for

34
Silicon carbide/silicon carbide In warm water, the Q 1P / Q 1P face material pair generates
less noise than the WC/WC pair; however, noise from
Silicon carbide/silicon carbide (SiC/SiC) is an alternative porous SiC seals must be expected during the running-in
to WC/WC and is used where higher corrosion resistance wear period of 3-4 days.
is required.
Q 1G self-lubricating, sintered SiC
The SiC/SiC material pair has the following features:
Several variants of SiC materials containing dry lubricants
• Very brittle material requiring careful handling are available on the market. The designation Q1G applies
to a SiC material which is suitable for use in distilled or
• Extremely wear resistant demineralized water, as opposed to the above materials.

• High resistance to corrosion. SiC (Q 1s, Q 1P and Q 1G ) hardly Pressure and temperature limits of Q 1G / Q 1G are similar to
corrodes, independent of the pumped liquid type with those of Q 1P / Q 1P.
the exception of water with very poor conductivity, such as
demineralized water, which attacks the SiC variants Q 1s The dry lubricants, such as graphite, reduce the friction in
and Q 1P. Q 1G is also corrosion - resistant in demineralized case of dry-running and are critical to the durability of a
water seal during dry-running.

• In general, these material pairs have poor dry-running Carbon/tungsten carbide or carbon/
properties. However, the Q 1G / Q 1G material withstands silicon carbide features
a limited period of dry-running due to the graphite
content of the material Seals with one carbon seal face have the following
features:
For different purposes, SiC/SiC variants include:
• Brittle material requiring careful handling
Q 1s, dense-sintered, fine-grained SiC
• Are worn by liquids containing solid particles
A dense-sintered, fine-grained SiC with a small amount of
tiny pores. • Good corrosion resistance

For a number of years, this SiC variant was used as a • Good dry-running properties (temporary dry-running)
standard mechanical shaft seal material. Pressure and
temperature limits are slightly below those of WC/WC. • Self-lubricating properties (of carbon) make the seal
suitable for use even with poor lubricating conditions
P
Q 1 , porous, sintered, fine-grained SiC (high temperature) without generating noise. However,
such conditions will cause wear of the carbon seal face
This porous-sintered SiC variant has large circular closed leading to reduced seal life. The wear depends on
pores. The degree of porosity is 5-15% and the size of the pressure, temperature, liquid diameter and seal
pores is Ra 10-50 µin. The pressure and temperature limits design. Low speeds reduce the lubrication between
exceed those of WC/WC. the seal faces resulting in possible increased wear
However, since the distance that the seal faces have
to move is reduced, a shorter seal life may not be
experienced

35
Section 1.3
Mechanical shaft seals

• Metal-impregnated carbon (A) offers limited corro- • The centrifugal pumping action of the seal’s rotating
sion resistance, but improved mechanical strength and parts increases power consumption dramatically with
heat conductivity, thus reducing wear the speed of rotation (to the third power)

• With reduced mechanical strength, but higher • The seal face friction
corrosion resistance, synthetic resin-impregnated Friction between the two seal faces consists of
carbon (B) covers a wide application field. Synthetic – friction in the thin liquid film and
resin-impregnated carbon is suitable for drinking – friction due to points of contact between the seal faces
water
The amount of power consumed depends on seal design,
• The use of carbon/SiC for hot water applications may lubricating conditions and seal face materials.
cause heavy wear of the SiC, depending on the
quality of the carbon and water. This type of wear
primarily applies to Q1 S/carbon. The use of Q1 P,
Power loss (hp)
Q 1G or a carbon/WC pair causes far less wear. Thus, 0.25

carbon/WC, carbon/Q1P or carbon/Q1G are recommended 0.2

for hot water systems 0.15

0.1
3600
0.05

1.3.5 Factors affecting the seal 0


0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000
performance Speed (rpm)
Fig. 1.3.18: Power consumption of a 1/2 Pumping
inch mechanical shaft seal action
As mentioned previously, no seal is completely tight.
Friction
On the next pages, factors which have an impact on the
seal performance, such as energy consumption, noise
and leakage, will be presented. While these factors will
be presented individually, it is important to stress that Figure 1.3.18 is a typical example of the power consumption
they are closely interrelated and should be considered as of a mechanical shaft seal. The figure shows that up to
a whole. 3600 rpm friction is the major reason for the mechanical
shaft seal’s energy consumption.

Energy consumption

The following factors contribute to the power consumption


of a mechanical shaft seal:

36
Energy consumption is, especially in connection with
Standard pump 50 ft WCH; 2 inch shaft
packed stuffing box, an important issue. Replacing
Energy consumption
a stuffing box with a mechanical shaft seal leads to
Stuffing box 2.0 kwh
considerable energy savings, see figure 1.3.19.
Mechanical shaft seal 0.3 kwh

Leakage
Stuffing box .02 GPD (when mounted correctly)
Noise Mechanical shaft seal .005 GPD

The choice of seal face materials is critical for the Fig. 1.3.19: Stuffing box versus mechanical shaft seal
function and the life of the mechanical shaft seal.
Noise is generated as a result of the poor lubricating
conditions in seals handling low viscosity liquids. The
viscosity of water decreases with increasing temperature. psi

This means that the lubricating conditions decrease as 350

the temperature rises. If the pumped liquid reaches or 300


Noise
exceeds boiling temperature, the liquid on part of the 250 Duty range

seal face evaporates resulting in decreased lubricating 200

conditions. A speed reduction has the same effect, see 150 Speed at 3600 rpm
figure 1.3.20. 100
Speed at 3000 rpm
Speed at 1800 rpm
50
Speed at 1200 rpm
0
Leakage 0 50 75 100 125 150 175 200 225 °F

Fig. 1.3.20: Relationship between duty range and speed


The pumped liquid lubricates the seal face of a
mechanical shaft seal, providing improved lubrication
resulting in less friction and increased leakage.
Conversely, less leakage means poor lubricating
conditions and increased friction. In practice, the amount
of leakage and power loss occurring in mechanical shaft 1 atm Exit into
atmosphere
seals can vary because leakage depends on factors which
are impossible to quantify theoretically due to seal face Start of
type, liquid type, and spring load. evaporation

Figure 1.3.21 shows how the lubricating film of fluid is


evaporated into the atmosphere.
Stationary Rotating Entrance
seal face seal face in seal
Pressure
Pump pressure liquid vapor Atmospheric

Fig. 1.3.21: Sealing gap

37
Chapter 1. Design of pumps and motors

Section 1.4: Motors

1.4.1 Standards
1.4.2 Motor start-up
1.4.3 Voltage supply
1.4.4 Frequency converter
1.4.5 Motor protection
Section 1.4
Motors

Motors are used in many applications all over the world.


The purpose of the electric motor is to create rotation, that is
to convert electric energy into mechanical energy. Pumps are
operated by means of mechanical energy which is provided by
electric motors.

Fig. 1.4.1: Electric motor

1.4.1 Standards

Fig. 1.4.2: NEMA and IEC standards

NEMA IEC
The National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC)
sets standards for a wide range of electric products, including sets standards for motors used in many countries
motors. NEMA is primarily associated with motors used in around the world. The IEC 60034 standard contains
North America. The standards represent general industry recommended electrical practices that have been
practices and are supported by the manufacturers of electric developed by the participating IEC countries.
equipment. The standards can be found in NEMA Standard
Publication No. MG1. Some large motors may not fall under
NEMA standards.

40
Introduction to potentially explosive Area Classification
atmospheres Process plants are divided into Divisions (North American
method) or Zones (European and IEC method) according
Potentially explosive atmospheres exist where there to the likelihood of a potentially explosive atmosphere
is a risk of explosion due to mixtures of gas/air, vapor/ being present.
air, dust/air or other flammable combinations. In such Note: North American legislation now allows Zones
areas there is a need to eliminate ignition sources such to classify areas, and when used, the IEC Zone method
as sparks, hot surfaces or static electricity which may is followed. See figure 1.4.3.
ignite these mixtures.
When electrical equipment is used where there is
risk of explosion, the area must be so designed and Gas Groups (plus dusts and fibers)
constructed to avoid sources of ignition capable of There are two main gas groups: Group I - Mining only
igniting these mixtures. Before electrical equipment and Group II - Surface Industries.
can be used in a potentially explosive atmosphere, These categories are used in European and I.E.C.
a represenative sample must be fully tested and groupings.
certified by an independent authority such as UL in Group I gases relate to underground mining where
the U.S.A. methane and coal dust are present.
This information is intended as a guide only, and further Group II gases relate to surface industries and
expert guidance should be sought before placing are sub-grouped according to their volatility. This
the equipment into service or before maintaining enables electrical equipment to be designed with
or repairing any item of equipment in a potentially less onerous tolerances if it is to be used with the
explosive atmosphere. Where showing comparisons, least volatile gases. See figure 1.4.4.
i.e., North American and European practices, these may
be approximations and individual standards/codes of
practice should be observed for precise details.

European & IEC Classification Definition of zone or division North American Classification
Zone 0 (ga ses) A n a rea in which a n explosive mixture is C la ss I Division 1 (ga ses)
Zone 2 0 (dusts) continuously present or present for long periods C la ss II Division 1 (dusts)
Zone 1 (ga ses) A n a rea in which a n explosive mixture is C la ss I Division 1 (ga ses)
Zone 2 1 (dusts) likely to occur in norma l opera tion C la ss II Division 1 (dusts)
Zone 2 (ga ses) A n a rea in which a n explosive mixture is not C la ss I Division 2 (ga ses)
Zone 2 2 (dusts) likely to occur in norma l opera tion a nd if it C la ss II Division 2 (dusts)
occurs it will exist only for a short time Class III Division 1 (fibers)
Class III Division 2 (fibers)
Fig. 1.4.3: Area Classification

Typica l ga s/ ma teria l N or th A merica n G as Group Europea n/ I.E.C . G as G roup


Metha ne - I
A cetylene A IIC
Hydrogen B IIC
Ethylene C IIB
Propa ne D IIA
Meta l dust E -
C oa l dust F -
G ra in dust G -
Fig. 1.4.4: Gas Groups

41
Section 1.4
Motors

Types of electrical equipment suitable for


use in potentially explosive atmospheres
Different techniques are used to prevent electrical
equipment from igniting explosive atmospheres. See
fig 1.4.5 for restrictions as to where these different USA IEC European
types of equipment can be used. Area of use Area of use Area of use
Designation Designation Designation
Standard Standard Standard
Flameproof Enclosure – An enclosure used to house electrical Class I Zones 1 & 2 Zones 1 & 2
equipment which, when subjected to an internal explosion, will not Divisions 1 & 2
ignite a surrounding explosive a tmosphere. – Exd EExd
UL1203 IEC60079-1 EN50018
Intrinsic Safety– A technique whereby electrical energy is limited Class I Zones 1 & 2 Zones 0, 1 & 2
such that any sparks or heat generated by electrical equipment is Divisions 1 & 2
sufficiently low a s to not ignite a n explosive a tmosphere. – Exi EExi
UL1203 IEC60079-11 EN50020
Increased Safety – This equipment is so designed as to eliminate – Zones 1 &2 Zones 1 & 2
spa rks a nd hot surfa ces ca pa ble of igniting a n explosive – Exi EExe
a tmosphere. – IEC 6007 9-7 EN 5 001 9
Purged and Pressurized – Electrical equipment is housed in an Class l Zones 1 & 2 Zones 1 & 2
enclosure which is initially purged to remove any explosive mixture Divisions 1 & 2
then pressurizedto prevent ingress of the surrounding atmosphere – Exp EExp
prior to energiza tion. NFPA 496 IEC 6007 9-2 EN 5 001 6
Encapsulation – A method of exclusion of the explosive atmosphere – Zone 1 & 2 Zones 1 & 2
by fully encapsulating the electrical components in an approved – Exm EExm
ma teria l. – EC 6007 9-1 8 EN 5 002 8
Oil Immersion – The electrical components are immersed in oil, Class l Zones 1 & 2 Zone 1 & 2
thus excluding the explosive atmosphere from any sparks or hot Division 2
surfa ces. – Exo EExo
UL698 EC 6007 9-6 EN50015
Powder Filling – Equipment is surrounded with a fine powder, such as – Zones 1 & 2 Zones 1 & 2
quartz, which does not allow the surrounding atmosphere to come – Exq EExq
into conta ct with a ny spa rks or hot surfa ces. – IEC 6007 9-5 EN 5 001 7
Non-sparking – Sparking contacts are sealed against ingress of the – Zone 2 Zone 2
surrounding a tmosphere;, hot surfa ces a re elimina ted. – Exn EExN
– EC 6007 9-1 5 EN50021
Special Protection– Equipment is certified for use in a Potentially Explosive – Zones 0, 1 & 2 Zones 0, 1 & 2
Atmosphere but does not conform to a type of protection listed above. – Exs * Exs

Fig 1.4.5: Standards and methods of protection

North American practice for general electrical requirements, e.g. light fittings.
After successful testing, a listing is issued allowing
Sample equipment and supporting documentation the manufacturer to place the product on the market.
are submitted to the appropriate authority, e.g U.L., The product is marked with the certification details
F.M., C.S.A. Equipment is tested in accordance with such as the gas groups A,B,C,D and the area of use,
relevant standards for explosion protection and also e.g. Class 1 Division 1.

42
Temperature Temperature Classification
Maximum Surface Temperature
North America European/IEC
T1 T1 842 ° F
Hot surfaces can ignite explosive atmospheres. To prevent T2 T2 5 7 2° F
T2 A 5 3 6° F
this from happening, all electrical equipment intended T2 B 5 00° F
for use in a potentially explosive atmosphere is classified T2 C 4 4 6° F
T2 D 41 9° F
according to the maximum surface temperature it will
T3 T3 3 92 ° F
reach while in service. This maximum temperature is T3 A 3 5 6° F
T3 B 3 2 9° F
normally based on a surrounding ambient temperature of T3 C 3 2 0° F
104° F (40° C). This temperature can then be compared to T4 T4 27 5 ° F
the ignition temperature of the gas(es) which may come T4A 2 4 8° F
T5 T5 21 2° F
into contact with the equipment and a judgement can be T6 T6 185° F
reached as to the suitabillity of the equipment to be used Fig 1.4.6����������������������������
:���������������������������
Temperature classification
in that area, see figure 1.4.6.
and the second digit stands for protection against
ingress of water, see figure 1.4.7.
NEMA Motor Enclosures
Drain holes enable the escape of water entering the
The following describes NEMA Motor Enclosures:
starter housing, i.e., through condensation. When
the motor is installed in a damp environment, the
• Open Drip Proof (ODP)
bottom drain hole should be opened. Opening the
Internal fan pulls air in, blows it across windings
drain hole changes the motor’s enclosure class from
inside motor and exits opposite drive end. Motor is
IP55 to IP44.
protected from drops of liquid or particles falling at any
First digit Second digit
angle from 0-15 degrees.
Protection against contact and Protection against
ingress of solid objects ingress of water
• TEFC-Totally Enclosed
0 No special protection 0 No special protection
External fan pulls air in through fan cover and blows it over
1 The motor is protected against 1 The motor is protected against
the exterior (only) surface of the motor. More resistant to solid objects bigger than vertically falling drops of water,
55 mm, e.g. a hand such as condensed water
the liquid and particles.
2 The motor is protected against 2 The motor is protected against
• Washdown - Totally Enclosed Spray Proof objects bigger than 12 mm, e.g. vertically falling drops of water,
a finger even if the motor is tilted at an
Corrosion-resistant. There can be a HP limit for rolled angle of 15 degrees
3 The motor is protected against
steel frame motors. Cast Iron finned motors do not meet solid objects bigger than 25 mm, 3 The motor is protected against
i.e. wires, tools, etc. water spray falling at an angle
FDA requirements. of 60 degrees from vertical
4 The motor is protected against
• Explosion Proof (xp) solid objects bigger than 1 mm,
e.g. wires
4 The motor is protected against
water splashing from any
Enclosed motor designed to withstand an explosion 5 The motor is protected against
direction

of a specified dust, gas or vapor according to explosive ingress of dust 5 The motor is protected against
water being projected from a
environment standards. 6 The motor is completely
dust-proof
nozzle from any direction

6 The motor is protected against


heavy seas or high-pressure
IEC Motor Enclosures water jets from any direction

7 The motor is protected when


submerged from 15 cm to 1 m in
The IP rating states the degrees of protection of the water for a period specified by
the manufacturer
motor against ingress of solid objects and water. 8 The motor is protected against
The rating is stated by the letters “IP” followed by continuous submersion in water
under conditions specified by
two digits, for example IP55. The first digit stands for the manufacturer

protection against contact and ingress of solid objects, Fig 1.4.7: Two-digit IP enclosure class identification (IEC)

43
Section 1.4
Motors

Frame size

Figure 1.4.8 gives an overview of the relationship


between frame size, shaft end, and motor power. The
figure shows where the different values that make
up the frame size are measured on the motor.

Flanges and shaft end comply with NEMA standards


or EN 50347 and IEC 60072-1 for IEC. Some pumps
have a coupling which requires a smooth motor shaft
end or a special shaft extension which is not defined
in the standards. D

2F
Distance between
Fig 1.4.8: Frame size holes

Insulation class
Hot-spot overtemperature
[°f] 356
The insulation class is defined in the NEMA standard 15
and tells something about how robust the insulation 311
10
system is relative to motor operating temperatures. 266
248 10
The life of an insulation material is highly dependent
on the temperature to which it is exposed. The various
insulation materials and systems are classified into Maximum temperature increase 176 221 257

insulation classes depending on their ability to resist


high temperatures, see figure 1.4.9. 104

Maximum ambient temperature 104 104 104

B F H

Maximum ambient Maximum Hot-spot Maximum


Class temperature temperature increase overtemperature winding temperature
(°F) (°F) (°F) (Tmax) (°F)

B 104 144 18 266


F 104 189 18 311
H 104 225 27 356

Fig 1.4.9: Different insulation classes and temperature increases


at nominal voltage and load

44
1 2 3
Frame Size Shaft end Rated power (TEFC Motors)
(C-face motors) diameter 2-pole 4-pole 6-pole 8-pole
[in] [HP] [HP] [HP] [HP]
42C 0.375 In these fractional size motors, specific frame assignments
48C 0.5 have not been made by horsepower and speed. It is possible
56C 0.625 for more than one HP and speed combination to be found in a
66C 0.75 given frame size.
143TC 0.875 1.5 1
145TC 0.875 2 1.5, 2.0 1
182TC 1.125 3 3 1.5 1
184TC 1.125 5 5 2 1.5
213TC 1.375 7.5 7.5 3 2
215TC 1.375 10 10 5 3
254TC 1.625 15 15 7.5 5
256TC 1.625 20 20 10 7.5
284TC 1.875 25 15 10
286TC 1.875 30 20 15
284TSC 1.625 25
286TSC 1.625 30
324TC 2.125 40 25 20
326TC 2.125 50 30 25
324TSC 1.875 40
326TSC 1.875 50
364TC 2.375 60 40 30
365TC 2.375 75 50 40
364TSC 1.875 60
365TSC 1.875 75
404TC 2.875 60 50
405TC 2.875 100 75 60
404TSC 2.125
405TSC 2.125 100
444TC 3.375 125 100 75
445TC 3.375 150 125 100
444TSC 2.375 125
445TSC 2.375 150
Fig 1.4.10: The relationship between frame size and power input

45
Section 1.4
Motors

1.4.2 Motor start-up

Methods of starting referred to in this section


include: Direct-on-line starting, star/delta starting,
autotransformer starting, soft starter and frequency
converter starting, see figure 1.4.11.

Starting method Pros Cons


Direct-on-line starting (DOL) Simple and cost-efficient. High locked-rotor current.
Safe starting.

Star/delta starting (SD) Reduction of starting current by a factor of 3. Current pulses when switching over from star to delta.
(Y/∆) Not suitable if the load has a low inertia.
Reduced locked-rotor torque.

Autotransformer starting Reduction of locked-rotor current and torque. Current pulses when switching from reduced to full voltage.
Reduced locked-rotor torque.

Soft starter "Soft" starting. No current pulses. Reduced locked-rotor torque.


Less water hammer when starting a pump.
Reduction of locked-rotor current as required,
typically 2-3 times.

Frequency converter starting No current pulses. Reduced locked-rotor torque.


Less water hammer when starting a pump. Expensive
Reduction of locked-rotor current as required,
typically 2 to 3 times.
Can be used for continuous feeding of the motor.

Fig 1.4.11: Starting method

Direct-on-line starting Autotransformer starting

As the name suggests, direct-on-line starting (DOL) As the name states, autotransformer starting makes
means that the motor is started by connecting it use of an autotransformer. The autotransformer
directly to the supply at rated voltage. Direct-on- is placed in series with the motor during start and
line starting is suitable for stable supplies as well varies the voltage up to nominal voltage in two to
as mechanically stiff and well-dimensioned shaft four steps.
systems, i.e. pumps. Whenever applying the direct-
on-line starting method, it is important to consult local Soft starter
authorities.
A soft starter is a device which ensures a soft start of
Star/delta starting a motor. This is done by raising the voltage within a
preset voltage rise time.
The objective of this starting method, which is used
with three-phase induction motors, is to reduce Frequency converter starting
the starting current. Current supply to the starter
windings is connected in star (Y) configuration Frequency converters are designed for continuous
for starting. Current supply is reconnected to the feeding of motors, but they can also be used for soft
windings in delta (∆) configuration once the motor starting.
has gained speed.

46
1.4.3 Voltage supply Typical North America voltage examples

60 Hz
The motor’s rated voltage lies within a certain voltage 60 Hz motors come with the following voltages:
range. Figure 1.4.12 shows typical voltage range
• 1 x 115 – 230 ∆ / 346 – 400 Y
examples for 60 Hz motors. • 1 x 115/208-230
• 1 x 208-230
• 1 x 230
According to the NEMA standard, the motor has to • 3 x 208-230/460
be able to operate with a main voltage tolerance of • 3 x 230/460
• 3 x 575
± 10% from the lowest and highest voltage in the
range.
Fig 1.4.12: Typical voltages

1.4.4 Frequency converter

Frequency converters are often used for speed


controlled pumps, see chapter 4. The frequency
converter converts the main voltage into a different
voltage and frequency, causing the motor to run at a
different speed. This way of regulating the frequency
might result in some problems:

• Acoustic noise from the motor which is sometimes


transmitted to the system as noise

• High voltage peaks on the output from the


frequency converter to the motor

47
Section 1.4
Motors

Insulation for motors with frequency Phase insulation also referred


converters to as phase paper

The discussion below highlights different kinds of motors


with frequency converters and how different kinds of
insulation affect the motor.

Motors without phase insulation


For motors constructed without phase insulation,
continuous voltages known as Root Mean Square
voltages (RMS) above 460 V can increase the risk of
disruptive discharges in the windings and destroy
the motor. This applies to all motors constructed
according to these principles. Continuous operation
with voltage peaks above 650 V can cause damage
to the motor. Fig 1.4.13: Stator with phase insulation

Motors with phase insulation


Phase insulation is normally used in three-phase
motors. Specific precautions are not necessary if the
voltage supply is less than 500 V.

Motors with reinforced insulation


With supply voltages between 500 V and 690 V,
the motor has to have reinforced insulation or be
protected with delta U /delta T filters. For supply
voltages of 690 V and higher, the motor has to be
fitted with both reinforced insulation and delta U
/delta T filters.

Motors with insulated bearings


In order to avoid harmful current flows through the
bearings, the motor bearings have to be electrically
insulated. This generally applies to motors -> 40 hp run
with variable frequency drives. Motor manufacturers
will use special ceramic coatings to insulate one or both
bearings.

48
Motor efficiency Motors can fail due to overload for long periods of
time so are often intentionally oversized and operate
In general, electric motors are quite efficient. Some at 75% to 80% of their full load capacity. At this
have electricity-to-shaft power efficiencies of 80- level of loading, motor efficiency and power remain
93% depending on the motor size and sometimes relatively high, but when motor load is less than 25%,
even higher for bigger motors. There are two types of efficiency and power decrease.
energy losses in electric motors: Load-dependent and
load-independent losses. Motor efficiency drops quickly below a certain
percentage of rated load. Therefore, it is important
Load-dependent losses vary with the square of the to size the motor so that losses associated with
current and cover: running the motor too far below its rated capacity
are minimized. It is common to choose a motor that
• Stator winding losses (copper losses) meets the power requirements of the pump.
• Rotor losses (slip losses)
• Stray losses (in different parts of the motor) 1.4.5 Motor protection

Load-independent losses in the motor refer to: Motors are usually protected against high
temperatures that can damage the insulation
• Iron losses (core losses) system. Depending on motor construction and
• Mechanical losses (friction) application, thermal protection can also prevent
damaging temperatures in the frequency converter
Motors are categorized according to efficiency. The if it is mounted on the motor.
most important classifications are Environmental
Protection Act in the US (EPact) and CEMEP in the Thermal protection varies with motor type. Motor
European Union (EFF1, EFF2 and EFF3). construction and its power consumption must be
1 100
considered when choosing thermal protection.
Generally, motors must be protected against the
0.8 80
following:
0.6 60
Percent

Errors causing slow temperature increase in


Cos j

0.4 40
Fig 1.4.14: Efficiency vs. load the windings:
and power vs. load
0.2 20 Efficiency
(schematic drawing) • Slow overload
Power factor
• Long start-up periods
0 25 50 75 100 125 150
Per cent of rated load • Reduced cooling / lack of cooling
100 • Increased ambient temperature
100 hp
90
10 hp • Frequent starts and stops
80

70 1 hp
• Frequency fluctuation
60
• Voltage fluctuation
Efficiency %

50
Fig 1.4.15: The relationship Errors causing fast temperature increase in
40
between efficiency and rated
30
load of different the windings:
20 sized motors (schematic • Blocked rotor
drawing)
10
• Phase failure
0
0 25 50 75 100 125 150 175
Percent of rated load

49
Thermal protection Positive Temperature Coefficient (PTC thermistors) can
be fitted into the windings of a motor during production
A motor’s thermal protection (TP) is provided by a or afterwards. Usually three PTCs are fitted in series; one
temperature-sensing device that is built in to the in each phase of the winding.They can be purchased
motor. When motor temperature becomes excessively with trip temperatures ranging from 194°F to 356°F.
hot due to failure-to-start or overloading, the sensor PTCs have to be connected to a thermistor relay which
device shuts off the motor. This is especially important detects the rapid increase in resistance of the thermistor
for motors that start automatically, are unattended, when it reaches its trip temperature.
or for motors that are located remotely or operated
off-sight. Thermal switch and thermostats
Thermal switches are small bi-metallic switches that
The basic types of temperature sensing devices include: change state due to the temperature. They are available
• Automatic Reset - The thermal protector with a wide range of trip temperatures; normally open
automatically restores power after the motor cools. and closed types, with closed being the most common.
Note: This should not be used where unexpected One or two, in series, are usually fitted in the windings
restarting would be hazardous. like thermistors and can be connected directly to the
circuit of the main contactor coil, requiring no relay. This
• Manual Reset - Power to the motor is type of protection is less expensive than thermistors;
restored by pushing an external button. This type however, it is less sensitive and is not able to detect a
is preferred where unexpected restarts would be locked rotor failure.
hazardous.
Thermal switches are also referred to as Klixon thermal
• Impedance Protected - The motor is designed to switches and Protection thermal overload (PTO). Thermal
protect itself under locked rotor (stalled) switches always carry a TP111 designation.
conditions, in accordance with UL standards.
Single-phase motors
Single-phase motors normally come with thermal
According to the IEC 60034-11 standard, the thermal
protection. Thermal protection usually has an
protection (TP) of the motor has to be indicated on the
automatic reclosing. This implies that the motor has
nameplate with a TP designation. Figure 1.4.16 shows
to be connected to the main voltage supply in a way
an overview of the TP designations.
to ensure that accidents caused by the automatic
reclosing are avoided.
Symbol Technical overload with Number of levels and Category 1
variation (1 digit) function area (2 digits) (3 digits) Three-phase motors
TP 111 1
Only slow
1 level at cutoff
2
Three-phase motors have to be protected according
TP 112
TP 121
(i.e. constant 2 levels at emergency 1 to local regulations. This kind of motor usually has
overload) signal and cutoff 2
TP 122 contacts for resetting in the external control circuit.
TP 211 1
Slow and fast 1 level at cutoff
TP 212 2
(i.e. constant overload
TP 221 and blocked condition ) 2 levels at emergency 1
TP 222 signal and cutoff 2
PTC thermistors
TP 311 Only fast
(i.e. blocked condition)
1 level at cutoff
1
TP 312 2
Indication of the permissible temperature level when the motor is exposed to thermal
overload. Category 2 allows higher temperatures than category 1 does.

Fig 1.4.16: TP designations

50
Space Heater The fixed bearing in the drive end can be a deep-groove
ball bearing or an angular contact bearing.
A heating element ensures the standby heating of
the motor and is used with applications that struggle Bearing clearances and tolerances are stated according
with humidity and condensation. By using the space to ISO 15 and ISO 492. Because bearing manufacturers
heater, the motor is warmer than the surroundings, must fulfill these standards, bearings are internationally
and thereby, the relative air humidity inside the motor interchangeable.
is always lower than 100%.
In order to rotate freely, a ball bearing must have a
certain internal clearance between the raceway and
the balls. Without this internal clearance, the bearings
can be difficult to rotate or they may seize up and
be unable to rotate. Conversely, too much internal
clearance will result in an unstable bearing that may
generate excessive noise or allow the shaft to wobble.

Depending on the pump type to which the motor


is fitted, the deep-groove ball bearing in the drive
end must have C3 or C4 clearance. Bearings with C4
clearance are less heat sensitive and have increased
Fig 1.4.17: Space heater axial load-carrying capacity.

The bearing carrying the axial forces of the pump can


have C3 clearance if:

Maintenance • The pump has complete or partial hydraulic relief


• The pump has many brief periods of operation
The motor should be checked at regular intervals. • The pump has long idle periods
It is important to keep the motor clean to ensure
adequate ventilation. If the pump is installed in a dusty C4 bearings are used for pumps with fluctuating high
environment, the pump must be cleaned and checked axial forces. Angular contact bearings are used if the
regularly. pump exerts strong one-way axial forces.

Non-drive end Drive end


Bearings

There are several types of bearing designs. Normally,


motors have a locked bearing in the drive end and
a bearing with axial play in the non-drive end. Axial
play is required due to production tolerances, thermal
expansion during operation, and other factors. The Spring washer Non-drive end bearing Drive end bearing
motor bearings are held in place by wave spring
washers in the non-drive end, see figure 1.4.18. Fig 1.4.18: Cross-sectional drawing of motor

51
Section 1.4
Motors

Axial forces Bearing types and recommended clearance


Drive end Non-drive end

Moderate to strong forces.


Primarily outward pull on Fixed deep-groove ball bearing (C4) Deep-groove ball bearing (C3)
the shaft end

Strong outward pull Fixed angular contact bearing Deep-groove ball bearing (C3)
on the shaft end

Moderate forces.
Primarily outward pull on Fixed deep-groove ball bearing (C3) Deep-groove ball bearing (C3)
the shaft end (partly
hydraulically relieved in
the pump)

Small forces
(flexible coupling) Fixed deep-groove ball bearing (C3) Deep-groove ball bearing (C3)

Strong inward Deep-groove ball bearing (C4) Fixed angular contact bearing
pressure
Fig:1.4.19: Typical types of bearings in pump motors

Motors with permanently lubricated bearings The grease zerks are visible and are easily accessible.
For closed permanently lubricated bearings, one of The motor is designed so that:
the following high temperature resistant types of
• there is a flow of grease around the bearing
grease are normally used:
• new grease enters the bearing
• old grease is removed from the bearing
• Lithium-based grease
• Polyurea-based grease Motors with lubricating systems are normally labeled
on the fan cover and are supplied with a lubricating
instruction. Apart from that, instructions are given in
Motors with lubrication system the installation and operating instructions.
Many integral size motors have lubricating nipples
for the bearings both in the drive end and the non- The lubricant is often a lithium-based, high
drive end. This may vary by manufacturer. temperature grease. The basic oil viscosity must be:

• Higher than 50 cSt at 104°F


• 8 cSt at 212°F

52
Chapter 1. Design of pumps and motors

Section 1.5: Liquids

1.5.1 Viscous liquids


1.5.2 Non-Newtonian liquids
1.5.3 The impact of viscous liquids on the
performance of a centrifugal pump
1.5.4 Selecting the right pump for a liquid
with antifreeze
1.5.5 Calculation example
1.5.6 Computer-aided pump selection for
dense and viscous liquids

53
Section 1.5
Liquids

1.5.1 Viscous liquids

While water is the most common liquid that pumps


handle, in a number of applications, pumps have to handle
other types of liquids, e.g. oil, propylene glycol, gasoline.
Compared to water, these types of liquids have different
densities and viscosities.

Viscosity is a measure of the resistance of a substance to


flow.

The higher the viscosity, the more difficult the liquid


will flow on its own. Propylene glycol and motor oil are
examples of thick or high viscous liquids. Gasoline and
water are examples of thin, low viscous liquids.

Two kinds of viscosities exist:


• The dynamic viscosity (μ), which is normally measured
μ
in Poise (1 Poise)
ν=
• The kinematic viscosity (ν), which is normally measured
ρ
in centiStokes (cSt)
ρ = density of liquid
The relationship between the dynamic viscosity (μ) and the
kinematic viscosity (ν) is shown in the formula at right.

On the following pages, we will focus on kinematic


Liquid Density Kinematic
viscosity (ν). Liquid temperature ρ [lb/ft3] viscosity
t [°f] ν [cSt]

The viscosity of a liquid changes considerably with the Water 68 62.4 1.004
change in temperature; hot oil is thinner than cold oil. As Gasoline 68 45.75 0.75
you can tell from figure 1.5.1, a 50% propylene glycol liquid Olive oil 68 56.18 93
increases its viscosity 10 times when the temperature 50% Propylene glycol 68 65.11 6.4
50% Propylene glycol -4 66.23 68.7
changes from +68 to –4oF.
Fig. 1.5.1: Comparison of viscosity values for water and a few
For more information concerning liquid viscosity, go to other liquids. Density values and temperatures are also shown
Appendix K.

54
1.5.2 Non-Newtonian liquids freezing. When glycol or a similar antifreeze agent
is added to the pumped liquid, the liquid obtains
The liquids discussed so far are referred to as properties different from those of water. The liquid
will have a:
Newtonian fluids. The viscosity of Newtonian liquids
is not affected by the magnitude and the motion that
• Lower freezing point, tf [°F]
they are exposed to. Mineral oil and water are typical • Lower specific heat, cp [btu/lbm °F]
examples of this type of liquid. On the other hand, • Lower thermal conductivity, λ [btu ft/h ft2 °F]
the viscosity of non-Newtonian liquids does change • Higher boiling point, tb [°F]
when agitated. • Higher coefficient of expansion, β [ft/°F]
• Higher density, ρ [lb/ft3]
A few examples of non-Newtonion liquids include: • Higher kinematic viscosity, ν [cSt]
• Dilatant liquids, like cream, exhibit a viscosity
These properties must be considered when designing
increase when agitated
a system and selecting pumps. As mentioned, the
higher density requires increased motor power and
• Plastic fluids, like ketchup, have a yield value which the higher viscosity reduces pump head, flow rate
must be exceeded before the flow starts. From that and efficiency resulting in a need for increased motor
point on, the viscosity decreases with an increase power, see figure 1.5.2.
in agitation

• Thixotropic liquids, like non-drip paint, exhibit a H, P, η


P
decrease in viscosity with an increase in agitation

The non-Newtonian liquids are not covered by the


viscosity formula described earlier in this section.
H

1.5.3 The impact of viscous liquids on


the performance of a centrifugal pump η

Liquid with higher viscosity and/or higher density Q


than water affects the performance of centrifugal
Fig. 1.5.2: Changed head, efficiency and power input for
pumps in different ways: liquid with higher viscosity

• Power consumption increases, i.e. a larger motor


may be required to perform the same task

• Head, flow rate and pump efficiency are reduced

For example, when a pump is used for pumping a


liquid in a cooling system with a liquid temperature
below 32oF, an antifreeze agent like propylene glycol
is added to the water to prevent the liquid from

55
Section 1.5
Liquids

1.5.4 Selecting the right pump for a


liquid with antifreeze

Pump characteristics are usually based on water


temperature at around 68°F, i.e. a kinematic viscosity
of approximately 1 cSt and is 1.0 specific gravity.
When pumps are used for liquids containing
antifreeze below 32°F, it is necessary to determine,
most importantly, that the pump can meet the
required performance or if a larger motor is required.
The following section presents a simplified method
used to determine pump curve corrections for pumps
in systems that must handle liquids with a viscosity
between 5 cSt - 100 cSt and (specific gravity of 1.0).
Please notice that this method is not as precise as
the computer-aided method described later in this
section.

Pump curve corrections for pumps handling Fig. 1.5.3: It is possible to determine the correction factor for head
and power consumption at different flow, head and viscosity
high viscous liquid
values
Based on knowledge about required duty point,
flow (QS,), head (HS,) and kinematic viscosity of the
pumped liquid, the correction factors of H and P2 can
be found, see figure 1.5.3.

To get the correction factor for multistage pumps,


the head of one stage has to be used.

56
Figure 1.5.3 is read in the following way: H

When kH and kP2 are found in the figure, the equivalent


head for clean water HW and the corrected actual Hw
Water
Hw = kH . HS 2
shaft power P2S can be calculated by the following
Hs
formula 1

HW = kH . HS
Mixture

ρs
P2S = kP2 . P2w .
( )
ρw
Qs

3
Q

P
where
HW : is the equivalent head of the pump if the P2s
Mixture
ρ 5
pumped liquid is “clean” water ( )
P2S = KP2 . P2w . ρ s
w
P2w Water
P2W : is the shaft power at the duty point (QS,HW) 4
when the pumped liquid is water

HS : is the desired head of the pumped liquid Q


with agents Fig. 1.5.4: Pump curve correction when choosing the right pump
for the system

P2S : is the shaft power at the duty point (Qs,Hs) for


the viscous pumped liquid water (with The pump and motor selection procedure contains
agents) the following steps:

• Calculate the corrected head Hw (based on


ρs : is the specific gravity of the pumped liquid
Hs and kH ), see figure 1.5.4 lines 1 and 2
ρw : is the specific gravity of water = 1.0
• Choose a pump capable of providing performance
according to the corrected duty point (Qs, Hw)

The pump selection is based on the normal data • Read the power input P2w at the duty point (Qs,Hw),
sheets/curves applying to water. The pump should see figure 1.5.4 lines 3 and 4
cover the duty point flow and head, and the motor
should be powerful enough to handle the power • Based on P2w, kp2, ρw, and ρs calculate the cor-
input on the shaft. rected required shaft power P2s, see figure 1.5.4, lines
4 and 5
Figure 1.5.4 shows how to proceed when selecting a
pump and testing whether the motor is within the • Check if P2s is less than P2 max of the motor. If that is
power range allowed. the case, the motor can be used. Otherwise select a
more powerful motor

• Ensure NPSHr < NPSHa

57
Section 1.5
Liquids

1.5.5 Calculation example 1.5.6 Computer-aided pump selection


for dense and viscous liquids
A circulator pump in a refrigeration system is to
pump a 40% (weight) propylene glycol liquid at 14°F. Some computer-aided pump selection tools
The desired flow is QS = 260 GPM, and the desired include a feature that compensates for the pump
head is HS = 40 ft. If the required duty point is known, performance curves based on input of the liquid
it is possible to find the QH-characteristic for water and density and viscosity. Figure 1.5.5 shows the pump
choose a pump to cover the duty point. Once the pump performance curves from the example at left.
type and size is determined, the pump is fitted with a
motor which can handle the specific pump load. The figure shows both the performance curves for
the pump when it handles viscous liquid (the full
The liquid has a kinematic viscosity of 20 cSt and a lines) and the performance curves when it handles
specific gravity of 65.48 lb/ft3. With QS = 260 GPM, HS water (the broken lines). As indicated, head, flow
= 40 ft and ν = 20 cSt, the correction factors can be and efficiency are reduced resulting in an increase
found in figure 1.5.3. in power consumption. The value of P2 is 4.5 hp
which corresponds to the result as shown in the
calculation example in section 1.5.4.
kH = 1.03
kP2 = 1.15
HW = kH · HS = 1.03 · 12 = 40 ft
H η
[ft]
QS = 260 GPM [%]
60

50

The pump selection has to cover a duty point 40


70
equivalent to Q,H = 260 GPM, 40 ft. Once the 30 60
50
necessary pump size is selected, the P2 value for the 20 40
duty point is determined, which in this case is P2W = 30
10 20
3.8 hp. It is now possible to calculate the required 10
motor power for the propylene glycol mixture: 0
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 Q [GPM] 0
P2 NPSH
[hp] (ft)

4
ρS
P2S = kP2 . P2w . 2
ρw 0
Q [GPM]
Fig. 1.5.5: Pump performance curves

1049
P2S = 1.15 . 3.8 . = 4.6 hp
998

The calculation shows that the pump has to be fitted


with a 5 hp motor, which is the smallest motor size
able to cover the calculated P2S = 4.6 hp.

58
Chapter 1. Design of pumps and motors

Section 1.6: Materials

1.6.1 What is corrosion?


1.6.2 Types of corrosion
1.6.3 Metal and metal alloys
1.6.4 Ceramics
1.6.5 Plastics
1.6.6 Rubber
1.6.7 Coatings
Section 1.6
Materials

This section discusses the different materials used


for pump construction, including the features that
every single metal and metal alloy have to offer.
Corrosion will be defined, and the different types
will be identified, as well as what can be done to
prevent corrosion from occurring.

1.6.1 What is corrosion? Environmental variables that affect the


corrosion resistance of metals and alloys

Corrosion is usually referred to as the degradation pH (acidity)


of the metal by chemical or electrochemical reaction Oxidizing agents (such as oxygen)
Temperature
with its environment, see figure 1.6.1. Considered
Concentration of solution constituents
broadly, corrosion may be looked upon as the (such as chlorides)
tendency of the metal to revert to its natural state Biological activity
similar to the oxide from which it was originally Operating conditions
(such as velocity, cleaning procedures and shutdowns)
melted. Only precious metals, such as gold and
platinum, are found in nature in their metallic state. Fig. 1.6.1: Environmental variables that affect the corrosion
resistance of metals and alloys
Some metals produce a tight protective oxide layer
on the surface which hinders further corrosion. If Rust on steel
the surface layer is broken, it is self-healing. These
metals are passivated. Under atmospheric conditions,
the corrosion products of zinc and aluminum form
a fairly tight oxide layer and further corrosion is
prevented. Likewise, on the surface of stainless steel, Non-protective corrosion product
a tight layer of iron and chromium oxide is formed,
and on the surface of titanium, a layer of titanium Oxide layer on stainless steel
oxide is formed. The protective layers of these metals
demonstrate their good corrosion resistance. Rust, on
the other hand, is a non-protective corrosion product
on steel. Rust is porous, not firmly adherent and does
not prevent continued corrosion, see figure 1.6.2. Protective corrosion product
Fig. 1.6.2: Examples of corrosion products

60
1.6.2 Types of corrosion

Generally, metallic corrosion involves the loss of metal


at a spot on an exposed surface. Corrosion occurs in
various forms ranging from uniform attacks over the
entire surface to severe local attacks. The environment’s
chemical and physical conditions determine both the
type and the rate of corrosion attacks. The conditions
also determine the type of corrosion products that are
formed and the control measures that must be taken.
In many cases, it is impossible or rather expensive to
completely stop the corrosion process; however, it is
usually possible to control the severity to acceptable
levels.

On the following pages, different forms of corrosion


and their characteristics will be discussed.

Uniform corrosion
Uniform or general corrosion is characterized by
corrosive attacks spreading evenly over the entire
surface or on a large part of the total area. General
thinning continues until the metal is broken down.
Uniform corrosion results in waste of most of the
metal. Fig. 1.6.3: Uniform corrosion

Examples of metals subject to uniform corrosion include:


• Steel in aerated water
• Stainless steel in reducing acids [such as AISI 304
(EN 1.4301) in sulfuric acid]

Pitting corrosion
Pitting corrosion is a localized form of a corrosive
attack. Pitting corrosion forms holes or pits on the
metal surface. It perforates the metal while the total
corrosion, measured by weight loss, might be rather Fig. 1.6.4: Pitting corrosion
minimal.  The rate of penetration may be 10 to 100
times that of general corrosion depending on the
aggressiveness of the medium. Pitting occurs more
often in a stagnant environment.

An example of metal subject to pitting corrosion:


• Stainless steel in seawater

61
1. Design
Sectionof
1.6pumps and motors
Materials
1.1 Pump construction, (10)

Crevice corrosion
Crevice corrosion, like pitting corrosion, is a localized
form of corrosion attack. However, crevice corrosion
is more aggressive. Crevice corrosion occurs at narrow
openings or spaces between two metal surfaces
or between metals and non-metal surfaces and
is usually associated with a stagnant condition in
the crevice. Crevices, such as those found at flange
joints or at threaded connections, are often the most
critical spots for corrosion. Fig. 1.6.5: Crevice corrosion

An example of metal subject to crevice corrosion:


• Stainless steel in seawater

Intergranular corrosion
Intergranular corrosion occurs at grain boundaries.
Intergranular corrosion, also called intercrystalline
corrosion, typically occurs when chromium carbide
precipitates at the grain boundaries during the
welding process or in connection with insufficient
heat treatment. A narrow region around the grain
boundary may become deplete in chromium and
become less resistant to corrosion than the rest of
the material. This is unfortunate because chromium
plays an important role in corrosion resistance. Fig. 1.6.6: Intergranular corrosion

Examples of metals subject to intergranular corrosion


include:
• Insufficiently welded or heat-treated stainless steel
• Stainless steel AISI 316 (EN 1.4401) in nitric acid

Selective corrosion Brass


Selective corrosion attacks one single element of an Zinc corrosion products
alloy and dissolves the element in the alloy structure. Copper
Consequently, the alloy’s structure is weakened.

Examples of selective corrosion:


• The dezincification of unstabilized brass producing
a weakened, porous copper structure
• Graphitization of gray cast iron leaving a brittle
graphite skeleton due to the dissolution Fig. 1.6.7: Selective corrosion
of iron.

62
Erosion corrosion
Flow
Erosion corrosion is a process whereby the rate of
corrosion attack is accelerated by the relative motion
of a corrosive liquid and a metal surface. The attack
is localized in areas with high velocity or turbulent
flow. Erosion corrosion attacks are characterized by
grooves with a directional pattern.

Examples of metals subject to erosion corrosion: Fig. 1.6.8: Erosion corrosion


• Bronze in seawater
• Copper in water

Cavitation corrosion
Cavitation corrosion occurs when a pumped liquid
with high velocity reduces the pressure, and it drops
below the liquid vapor pressure forming vapor
bubbles. In the areas where the vapor bubbles form,
the liquid boils. When the pressure rises again,
the vapor bubbles collapse and produce intensive
shockwaves. Consequently, the collapse of the vapor
bubbles remove metal or oxide from the surface.
Fig. 1.6.9: Cavitation corrosion
Examples of metals that are subject to cavitation:
• Cast iron in water at high temperature
• Bronze in seawater

Stress corrosion cracking


Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) refers to the com-
bined influence of tensile stress (applied or internal)
and corrosive environment. The material can crack
without any significant deformation or obvious
deterioration of the material. Often, pitting corro-
sion is associated with SCC.

Examples of metals that are subject to SCC: Fig. 1.6.10: Stress corrosion cracking
• Stainless steel AISI 316 (EN 1.4401) in chlorides
• Brass in ammonia

63
1. Design
Section of
1.6pumps and motors
Materials
1.1 Pump construction, (10)

Corrosion fatigue
<

Pure mechanical fatigue occurs when a material


subjected to a cyclic load far below the ultimate
tensile strength fails. If the metal is simultaneously
exposed to a corrosive environment, the failure
can take place at an even lower stress and after a
shorter period of time. Contrary to a pure mechanical Fig. 1.6.11: Corrosion fatigue
fatigue, there is no fatigue limit in corrosion-assisted
fatigue.

An example of a metal subject to corrosion fatigue:


• Aluminium structures in a corrosive atmosphere

Galvanic corrosion
Galvanic corrosion occurs when a corrosive electrolyte
and two metallic materials are in contact (galvanic
cell) and corrosion increases on the least noble
material (the anode) and decreases on the noblest
material (the cathode). The tendency of a metal or
an alloy to corrode in a galvanic cell is determined by Aluminium - less noble
Fig. 1.6.12: Galvanic corrosion Copper - most noble
its position in the galvanic series. The galvanic series
indicates the relative nobility of different metals
and alloys in a given environment (e.g. seawater,
see figure 1.6.13).The farther apart the metals are
in the galvanic series, the greater the galvanic
corrosion effect will be. Metals or alloys at the upper
end are more noble than those at the lower end.

Examples of metals that are subject to galvanic


corrosion include:
• Steel in contact with AISI 316 (EN 1.4401)
• Aluminum in contact with copper

The principles of galvanic corrosion are used in


cathodic protection. Cathodic protection is the
reduction or prevention of the corrosion of a metal
surface through the use of sacrificial anodes (zinc or
aluminum) or impressed currents.
Fig. 1.6.13: Galvanic series for metals and alloys in seawater

64
1.6.3 Metal and metal alloys

On the following pages, the features of different


metals and metal alloys used for construction of
pumps are discussed.

Cavitation corrosion of bronze impeller Ferrous alloys

Ferrous alloys are alloys where iron is the prime


constituent. Ferrous alloys are the most common of
all materials because of their availability, low cost,
and versatility.

Steel
Erosion corrosion of cast iron impeller Steel is a widely used material primarily composed
of iron alloyed with carbon. The amount of carbon
in steel varies in the range from 0.003% to 1.5% by
weight. The content of carbon has an important
impact on the material’s strength, weldability,
machinability, ductility, and hardness. Generally, an
increase in carbon content will lead to an increase in
strength and hardness but to a decrease in ductility
and weldability. The most common type of steel
is carbon steel. Carbon steel is grouped into four
Pitting corrosion of AISI 316 (EN 1.4401)
categories, see figure 1.6.14.

Steel is available in wrought and cast grades. Cast


steel is closely comparable to wrought; both are
relatively inexpensive to make, form, and process
but have low corrosion resistance compared to
alternative materials such as stainless steel.

0.0394 inch
Type of steel Content of carbon

Low carbon or mild steel 0.003% to 0.30% of carbon


Medium carbon steel 0.30% to 0.45% of carbon

High carbon steel 0.45% to 0.75% of carbon


Very high carbon steel 0.75% to 1.50% of carbon
Intergranular corrosion of Crevice corrosion of
stainless steel SAF 2205 (EN 1.4462) Fig 1.6.14: Four types of carbon steel

65
1. Design
Section of
1.6pumps and motors
Materials
1.1 Pump construction, (10)

Cast iron Nodular (ductile) iron


Cast iron is an alloy of iron, silicon and carbon. Typically, Nodular iron contains around 0.03-0.05% (by weight) of
the concentration of carbon is between 3-4% by weight, magnesium. Magnesium causes the flakes to become
most of which is present in insoluble form (e.g. graphite globular, so the graphite is dispersed throughout a ferrite
flakes or nodules). The two main types are grey cast iron or pearlite matrix in the form of spheres or nodules.
and nodular (ductile) cast iron. The corrosion resistance The round shape of nodular graphite reduces the stress
of cast iron is comparable to that of steel; and sometimes concentration and consequently, the material is much
even better. Cast iron can be alloyed with 13-16% (by more ductile than grey iron. Figure 1.6.16 shows that
weight) silicon or 15-35% (by weight) nickel (Ni-resist) the tensile strength is higher for nodular iron than for
to improve corrosion resistance. Various types of cast grey iron. Nodular iron is normally used for pump parts
irons are widely used in industry, especially for valves, with high strength requirements (high pressure or high
pumps, pipes and automotive parts. Cast iron has good temperature applications).
corrosion resistance to neutral and alkaline liquids (high
pH) but has poor resistance to acids (low pH).
Stainless steel
Stainless steel is composed of chromium containing steel
Grey iron alloys. The minimum chromium content in standardized
In grey iron, the graphite is dispersed throughout a stainless steel is 10.5%. Chromium improves the corrosion
ferrite or pearlite matrix in the form of flakes. Fracture resistance of stainless steel. This is due to a chromium
surfaces take on a grey appearance (hence the name). oxide film that is formed on the metal surface. This
The graphite flakes act as stress concentrators under extremely thin layer is self-repairing under the right
tensile loads making the material weak and brittle conditions. Molybdenum, nickel and nitrogen are other
in tension, but strong and ductile in compression. examples of typical alloying elements. Alloying with
Grey iron is used for the construction of motor blocks these elements brings out different crystal structures
because of its high vibration damping ability. Grey iron which enable different properties in connection with
is an inexpensive material and is relatively easy to cast machining, forming, welding and corrosion resistance.
with a minimal risk of shrinkage. That is why grey iron In general, stainless steel has a higher resistance to
is often used for pump parts with moderate strength chemicals (i.e. acids) than steel and cast iron.
requirements.

ASTM 0 ASTM

400 EN-GJS-400-18 GGG-40 400-18 -


150 EN-GJL-150 GG-15 50 -
400 EN-GJS-400-15 GGG-40.3 400-15 -
172 - - - A 48 Gr 25A
- 430 - - - A 536 Gr 60-40-18
200 EN-GJL-200 GG-20 200
450 EN-GJS-450-10 - 450-10 -
207 - - - A 48 Gr 30A
460 - - - A 536 Gr 65-45-12
241 - - - A 48 Gr 35A
500 EN-GJS-500-7 GGG-50 500-7 -
250 EN-GJL-250 GG-25 250 -
575 - - - A 536 Gr 80-55-06

Fig 1.6.15: Comparison and designations of grey iron Fig 1.6.16: Comparison and designations of nodular iron

66
In environments containing chlorides, stainless steel resistance is taken into consideration. The higher the
can be attacked by localized corrosion, such as pitting PRE, the higher the resistance to localized corrosion. Be
corrosion and crevice corrosion. The resistance of aware that the PRE value is a rough estimate of the pitting
stainless steel to these types of corrosion is highly resistance of a stainless steel and should only be used for
dependent on its chemical composition. It is common comparison/classification of different types of stainless
to use the so-called Pitting Resistance Equivalent (PRE) steel. To follow, the four major types of stainless steel:
values as a measure of pitting resistance for stainless ferritic, martensitic, austenitic and duplex are presented.
steel. PRE values are calculated by formulas where
the relative influence of a few alloying elements
(chromium, molybdenum and nitrogen) on the pitting

Fig 1.6.17: Chemical composition of stainless steel

Chemical composition of stainless steel [w%]

Microstructure Designation % % % % % PRE 5)


EN/AISI/UNS Carbon max. Chromium Nickel Molybdenum Other

Ferritic 1.4016/430/ S43000 0.08 16-18 17

Martensitic 1.4057/431/ S43100 0.12-0.22 15-17 1.5-2.5 16

Austenitic 1.4305/303/ S30300 0.1 17-19 8-10 S 0.15-0.35 18


Austenitic 1.4301/304/ S30400 0.07 17-19.5 8-10.5 18

Austenitic 1.4306/304L/ S30403 0.03 18-20 10-12 18

Austenitic 1.4401/316/ S31600 0.07 16.5-18.5 10-13 2-2.5 24

Austenitic 1.4404/316L/ S31603 0.03 16.5-18.5 10-13 2-2.5 24

Austenitic 1.4571/316Ti/ 0.08 16.5-18.5 10.5-13.5 2-2.5 Ti > 5 x carbon 24


S31635 Ti < 0.70
Austenitic 1.4539/904L/ N08904 0.02 19-21 24-26 4-5 Cu 1.2-2 34

Austenitic 1.4547/none / 0.02 20 18 6.1 N 0.18-0.22 43


S 31254 3) Cu 0.5-1
Ferritic/ 1.4462/ none/ 0.03 21-23 4.5-6.5 2.5-3.5 N 0.10-0.22 34
austenitic S32205 2)
Ferritic/ 1.4410/none/ 0.03 25 7 4 N 0.24-0.32 43
austenitic S 32750 4)

Microstructure Designation % % % % % PRE


EN/ASTM/UNS Carbon max. Chromium Nickel Molybdenum Other
Austenitic 1) 1.4308/CF8/ J92600 0.07 18-20 8-11 19

Austenitic 1) 1.4408/CF8M/ J92900 0.07 18-20 9-12 2-2.5 26

Austenitic 1)
1.4409/CF3M/ J92800 0.03 18-20 9-12 2-2.5 N max. 0.2 26
Austenitic 1.4584/none/ none 0.025 19-21 24-26 4-5 N max. 0.2 35
Cu 1-3
Ferritic/
austenitic 1.4470/CD3MN/ J92205 0.03 21-23 4.5-6.5 2.5-3.5 N 0.12-0.2 35

Ferritic/ 1.4517/CD4MCuN/ N 0.12-0.22


austenitic J93372 0.03 24.5-26.5 2.5-3.5 2.5-3.5 Cu 2.75-3.5 38
1)
Contains some ferrite 2) Also known as SAF 2205, 3) Also known as 254 SMO, 4)
Also known as SAF 2507
5)
Pitting Resistance Equivalent (PRE): Cr% + 3.3xMo% + 16xN%.

67
1. Design
Sectionof
1.6pumps and motors
Materials
1.1 Pump construction, (10)

Ferritic (magnetic)
Ferritic stainless steel is characterized by good If low carbon grades of stainless steel are used, the
corrosion properties, resistance to stress corrosion risk of sensitization is reduced. Stainless steel with
cracking, and moderate toughness. Low alloyed a low content of carbon is referred to as AISI 316L
ferritic stainless steel is used in mild environments (EN 1.4306), or AISI 304L (EN 1.4404). Both grades
(teaspoons, kitchen sinks, washing machine drums, contain 0.03% of carbon compared to 0.07% in the
etc.) where maintenance-free and non-rusting is regular type of stainless steel, AISI 304 (EN 1.4301)
required. and AISI 316 (EN 1.4401), see illustration 1.6.17.

The stabilized grade AISI 316Ti (EN 1.4571) contains


Martensitic (magnetic) a small amount of titanium. Because titanium has
Martensitic stainless steel is characterized by a higher affinity for carbon than chromium, the
high strength and limited corrosion resistance. formation of chromium carbides is minimized. The
Martensitic steels are used for springs, shafts, surgical content of carbon is generally low in modern stainless
instruments and for sharp-edged tools, such as knives steel, and with the easy availability of ‘L’ grades, the
and scissors. use of stabilized grades has declined significantly.

Austenitic (non-magnetic) Ferritic-austenitic or duplex (magnetic)


Austenitic stainless steel is the most common type Ferritic-austenitic (duplex) stainless steel is
of stainless steel and is characterized by a high characterized by strength, toughness, high corrosion
corrosion resistance, good formability, toughness resistance and excellent resistance to stress corrosion
and weldability. Austenitic stainless steel, especially cracking and corrosion fatigue. Ferritic-austenitic
the AISI 304 and AISI 316, are used for almost any stainless steel is typically used in applications that
type of pump components. This kind of stainless steel require high strength, high corrosion resistance and
can be either wrought or cast. low susceptibility to stress corrosion cracking or a
combination of these properties. Stainless steel SAF
AISI 303 is one of the most popular stainless steel 2205 is widely used for making pump shafts and
types of all the free machining stainless steel types. pump housings.
Due to its high sulphur content (0.15-0.35 w%), the
machinability improves considerably but corrosion
resistance and weldability decrease. Over the years,
free machining grades with a low sulphur content and
a higher corrosion resistance have been developed.

If stainless steel is heated up to 932°F - 1472°F for


a relatively long period of time during welding,
the chromium may form chromium carbides with
the carbon in the steel. This reduces chromium’s
capability to maintain the passive film and may
lead to intergranular corrosion, also referred to as
sensitization (see section 1.6.2).

68
Nickel alloys Copper alloys

Nickel based alloys are defined as alloys in which Pure copper has excellent thermal and electrical
nickel is present in greater proportion than any properties but is a very soft and ductile material.
other alloying element. The most important Alloying additions result in different cast and
alloying constituents are iron, chromium, copper, wrought materials suitable for use in the production
and molybdenum. The alloying constituents make it of pumps, pipelines, fittings, pressure vessels and
possible to form a wide range of alloy classes. Nickel for many marine, electrical and general engineering
and nickel alloys have the ability to withstand a wide applications.
variety of severe operating conditions, including
corrosive environments, high temperatures, high
stresses or a combination of these factors.

HastelloyTM alloys are commercial alloys containing


nickel, molybdenum, chromium, and iron. Nickel
based alloys - such as InconelTM Alloy 625, HastelloyTM
C-276 and C-22 - are corrosion resistant, not subject
to pitting or crevice corrosion in low velocity seawater
and do not suffer from erosion at high velocity.
1) Lead can be added as an alloying element to improve
machinability.
The price of nickel based alloy limits its use in certain 2) Bronze can be alloyed with aluminium to increase strength.
Fig 1.6.18: Common types of copper alloys
applications. Nickel alloys are available in both
wrought and cast grades. However, nickel alloys are
more difficult to cast than the common carbon steels
and stainless steel alloys. Nickel alloys are often used Brasses are the most widely used of the copper alloys
for pump parts in the chemical process industry. because of their low cost and easy or inexpensive
fabrication and machining. However, they are inferior
in strength to bronzes and must not be used in
environments that cause dezincification. Red brass,
bronze and copper nickels, compared to cast iron,
have a high resistance to chlorides in aggressive
liquids, such as seawater. In such environments, brass
is unsuitable because of its tendency to desincificate.
All copper alloys have poor resistance to alkaline
liquids (high pH), ammonia, and sulfides and are
sensitive to erosion. Brass, red brass and bronze
are widely used for making bearings, impellers and
pump housings.

69
1. Design
Sectionof
1.6pumps and motors
Materials
1.1 Pump construction, (10)

Aluminum Titanium

Pure aluminum is a light and soft metal with a density Pure titanium has a low density, is quite ductile and
of about a third of that of steel. Pure aluminum has a relatively low strength. When a limited amount
has a high electrical and thermal conductivity. of oxygen is added, it will strengthen titanium and
The most common alloying elements are silicon produce commercial-pure grades. Additions of various
(silumin), magnesium, iron and copper. Silicon alloying elements, such as aluminum and vanadium,
increases the material’s castability, copper increases increase its strength significantly but at the expense
its machinability, and magnesium increases its of ductility. The aluminum and vanadium-alloyed
corrosion resistance and strength. titanium (Ti-6Al-4V) is the “workhorse” alloy of
the titanium industry. It is used in many aerospace
An advantage of aluminum is its ability to generate a engine and airframe components. Because titanium
protective oxide film that is highly corrosion resistant is a high-price material, it is seldom used for making
if it is exposed to the atmosphere. Treatment, such pump components.
as anodizing, can further improve this property.
Aluminum alloys are widely used in structures where Titanium is a reactive material. Like stainless steel,
a high strength to weight ratio is important, such as titanium’s corrosion resistance depends on the
in the transportation industry. The use of aluminum formation of an oxide film. Titanium’s oxide film
in vehicles and aircrafts reduces weight and energy is more protective than stainless steel’s. Therefore,
consumption. titanium performs much better than stainless steel
in aggressive liquids, such as seawater, wet chlorine
A disadvantage of aluminum is its instability at low or or organic chlorides, where pitting and crevice
high pH or in chloride-containing environments. This corrosion can occur.
property makes aluminum unsuitable for exposure
to aqueous solutions, especially under conditions
with high flow.

This is further emphasized by the fact that aluminum


is a reactive metal, i.e. has a low position in the
galvanic series and may easily suffer from galvanic
corrosion if coupled to nobler metals and alloys (see
section on galvanic corrosion pg. 64).

Designation Major alloying element


CP: commercial pure (titanium content above 99.5%)
1000-series Unalloyed (pure) >99% Al
Fig 1.6.20: Titanium grades and alloy characteristics
2000-series Copper is the principal alloying element, though other
elements (magnesium) may be specified
3000-series Manganese is the principal alloying element
4000-series Silicon is the principal alloying element
5000-series Magnesium is the principal alloying element
6000-series Magnesium and silicon are principal alloying elements
Zinc is the principal alloying element, but other elements,
7000-series such as copper, magnesium, chromium, and zirconium
may be specified
Other elements (including tin and some lithium
8000-series
compositions)

Fig 1.6.19: Major alloying elements of aluminum

70
1.6.4 Ceramics Thermoplastics
Ceramic materials are composed of metallic and Thermoplastic polymers consist of long polymer
non-metallic elements and are typically crystalline in molecules that are not cross-linked to each other.
nature. Common technical ceramics are aluminum They are often supplied as granules and heated to
oxide (alumina - Al2O3), silicon carbide (SiC), tungsten permit fabrication by methods such as molding or
carbide (WC), and silicon nitride (Si3N4). extrusion. A wide range is available from low-cost
commodity plastics (e.g. PE, PP, PVC) to high cost
Ceramics are suitable for applications requiring high engineering thermoplastics (e.g. PEEK) and chemical
thermal stability, strength, wear resistance, and resistant fluoropolymers (e.g. PTFE, PVDF). PTFE is
corrosion resistance. Disadvantages of ceramics one of the few thermoplastics that is not melt-
include low ductility and high tendency for brittle processable. Thermoplastics are widely used for
fractures. Ceramics are mainly used for making making pump housings or for lining of pipes and
bearings and seal faces for shaft seals. pump housings.

1.6.5 Plastics Thermosets


Some plastics are derived from natural substances Thermosets harden permanently when heated,
like plants but most types are synthetic. Most as cross-linking hinders bending and rotations.
synthetic plastics come from crude oil, but coal Cross-linking is achieved during fabrication using
and natural gas are also used. There are two main chemicals, heat, or radiation; a process called curing
types of plastics: Thermoplastics and thermosets or vulcanization. Thermosets are harder, more
(thermosetting plastics), with thermoplastics dimensionally stable and brittle than thermoplastics
being the most common used worldwide. Plastics and cannot be remelted. Some thermosets include
often contain additives which transfer additional epoxies, polyesters, and polyurethanes. Thermosets
properties to the material. Furthermore, plastics can are, among other things, used for surface coatings.
be reinforced with fiberglass or other fibers. These
plastics, together with additives and fibers, are also
referred to as composites.

Examples of additives found in plastics:


Linear polymer chains
Thermoplastics
• Inorganic fillers for mechanical reinforcement
• Chemical stabilizers, e.g. antioxidants
• Plasticizers Branched polymer chains
• Flame retardants

Abbreviation Polymer name Elastomers

PP Polypropylene Weakly cross-linked polymer chains


PE Polyethylene
PVC Polyvinylchloride
PEEK Polyetheretherketone Thermosets
PVDF Polyvinylidene fluoride
PTFE* Polytetrafluoroethylene Strongly cross-linked polymer chains
*Trade name: Teflon®
Fig 1.6.22: Different types of polymers
Fig 1.6.21: Overview of polymer names

71
1. Design
Section of
1.6pumps and motors
Materials
1.1 Pump construction, (10)

1.6.6 Rubber Ethylene-propylelediene rubber


Ethylene propylelediene (EPDM) has excellent water
The term rubber includes both natural rubber resistance which is maintained to approximately
and synthetic rubber. Rubbers, also known as 248-284°F. This rubber type has good resistance
elastomers, are flexible long-chain polymers that to acids, strong alkalis and polar fluids such as
can be stretched easily to several times their length. methanol and acetone. It has very poor resistance to
Rubbers are cross-linked (vulcanized) but have a mineral oil and fuel.
low cross-link density, see figure 1.6.22. The cross-
link is the key to the elastic or rubbery properties
Fluoroelastomers
of these materials. The elasticity provides resilience
Fluoroelastomers (FKM) cover a whole family of
in sealing applications. Different components in a
rubbers designed to withstand oil, fuel and a wide
pump are made of rubber, such as gaskets and O-
range of chemicals including non-polar solvents. FKM
rings (see section 1.3 on shaft seals). In this section,
offers excellent resistance to high temperatures (up
the different kinds of rubber qualities and their main
to 392°F depending on the grade) in air and different
properties, in regards to temperature and resistance
types of oil. FKM rubbers have limited resistance
to different kinds of liquid groups, will be presented.
to steam, hot water, methanol, and other polar
fluids. This type of rubber also has poor resistance
to amines, strong alkalis and many freons. There
Nitrile rubber
are standard and special grades - the latter have
At temperatures up to about 212°F, nitrile rubber
improved low-temperature properties or chemical
(NBR) is an inexpensive material that has a high
resistance.
resistance to oil and fuel. Different grades of nitrile
rubber exist - the higher the acetonitrile (ACN)
content, the higher the oil resistance but the poorer Silicone rubber
the low-temperature flexibility. Nitrile rubbers have Silicone rubbers (Q) have outstanding properties,
high resilience and high-wear resistance but only such as low compression set in a wide range of
moderate strength. Further, this rubber has limited temperatures (from -76°F to 392°F in air), excellent
weathering resistance and poor solvent resistance. electrical insulation and non-toxic. Silicone rubbers
It can generally be used at about -22°F, but certain are resistant to water, some acids and oxidizing
grades can operate at lower temperatures. chemicals. Concentrated acids, alkalines and
solvents should not be used with silicone rubbers.
In general, these rubber types have poor oil and
fuel resistance. However, the FMQ silicone rubber
resistance to oil and fuel is better than that of types
AbbreviationCommon types
Common copper alloys Examples
ofname of MQ, VMQ, and PMQ.
trade name

NBR Nitrile rubber Buna-N

EPDM, EPM Ethylene-propylelediene Nordel® Perfluoroelastomers


FKM Fluoroelastomers Viton® Perfluoroelastomers (FFKM) have very high chemical
MQ, VMQ, PMQ, FMQ Silicone rubber Siloprene ® resistance, almost comparable to that of PTFE
Perfluoroelastomers Chemraz® (polytetrafluorethylene, e.g. Teflon®). They can be
FFKM
Kalrez®
used in high temperatures, but their disadvantages
Fig 1.6.23: Rubber types
are difficult processing, very high cost and limited
use at low temperatures.

72
1.6.7 Coatings

Protective coatings such as metallic, non-metallic


(inorganic) or organic coatings, are a common
method of corrosion control. The main function of
coatings, aside from galvanic coatings such as zinc,
is to provide a barrier between the metal substrate
To protect the base steel, Steel coated with a more noble
and its environment. They allow for the use of zinc coating sacrifices itself metal, such as nickel, corrodes
slowly by galvanic action. more rapidly if the coating
normal steel or aluminum instead of more expensive is damaged.
materials. In the following section, the possibilities of
preventing corrosion by means of different coatings Fig 1.6.24: Galvanic vs. barrier corrosion protection
will be examined.

Metallic coatings
There are two types of metallic coatings. One is
where the coating is less noble than the substrate,
and the other, electroplating, is where a more noble
metal is applied to the substrate as a barrier layer.

Metallic coatings less noble than the substrate


Zinc coatings are commonly used for the protection of
steel structures against atmospheric corrosion. Zinc
has two functions. It acts as a barrier coating, and it
provides galvanic protection. Should an exposed area
of steel occur, the zinc surface preferentially corrodes
at a slow rate and protects the steel. The preferential
protection is referred to as cathodic protection. When
damage is minimal, the protective corrosion products
of zinc will fill the exposed area and stop the attack.

Metallic coatings nobler than the substrate


Electroplating of nickel and chromium coatings on
steel are nobler than the substrate. Unlike galvanic
coatings where the coating corrodes near areas
where the base metal is exposed, any void or damage
in a barrier coating can lead to an immediate base
metal attack.

73
1. Design
Section of
1.6pumps and motors
Materials
1.1 Pump construction, (10)

Non-metallic coatings Paints


<

(conversion coatings)
As mentioned, paints are an important class of
Conversion coatings are included in non-metallic organic coating. Figure 1.6.25 shows several types of
coatings, also known as inorganic coatings. Conversion organic coatings. A typical paint formulation contains
coatings are formed by a controlled corrosion reaction polymeric binders, solvents, pigments and additives.
of the substrate in an oxidized solution. Examples of For environmental reasons, organic solvents are
conversion coatings are anodizing or chromating often replaced by water or simply eliminated, as in
of aluminum and phosphate treatment of steel. powder coating. Painted metal structures usually
Anodizing is mainly used for surface protection of involve two or more layers of coating applied on a
aluminum, while chromating and phosphating are primary coating, which is in direct contact with the
usually used for pre-treatment to improve paint metal.
adhesion and to help prevent the spreading of rust
under layers of paint.

Organic coatings

Organic coatings contain organic compounds and are


available in a wide range of different types. Organic
coatings are applied to the metal by methods of Physical states of common organic coatings

spraying, dipping, brushing, lining or electro-coating Resin Solvent- Water- Powder Two comp.
(paint applied by means of electric current). They may type based based coating liquid

or may not require heat-curing. Both thermoplastic Acrylic X X X


Alkyd X X
coatings (i.e. polyamide, polypropylene, polyethylene,
Epoxy X X X X
PVDF and PTFE) and elastomer coatings are applied Polyester X X X
to metal substrates to combine the mechanical Polyurethane X X X X
Vinyl X X X
properties of metal with the chemical resistance of
plastics, but paints are by far the most widely used Fig 1.6.25: Physical states of common organic coatings
organic coating.

74
Chapter 2. Installation and performance reading

Section 2.1: Pump installation

2.1.1 New installation


2.1.2 Existing installation-replacement
2.1.3 Pipe flow for single-pump installation
2.1.4 Limitation of noise and vibrations
2.1.5 Sound level

Section 2.2: Pump performance

2.2.1 Hydraulic terms


2.2.2 Electrical terms
2.2.3 Liquid properties
Section 2.1
Pump installation

Accuracy of suited pump type for an installation has 2.1.2 Existing installation–replacement
significant impact on optimum operation. The larger
the pumps, the greater the costs with respect to
Tips for optimum pump selection for existing installation
investment, installation, commissioning, operation
follows.
and maintenance – basically the life cycle costs
(LCC). An extensive product portfolio combined
Pre-investigation of the installation should
with competent advice and after-sales service is include:
the foundation of a proper selection. The following • Basic pipe flow – pipes in and out of the building, e.g.
analysis, recommendations and pump tips are from the ground, along the floor or from the ceiling
general for any installation but, to a greater extent, • Specific pipework at the point of installation, e.g.
relevant for medium to large sized installations. in-line or end-suction, dimensions, manifolds
Recommendations for new and existing installations • Space availability – width, depth and height
follow. • Accessibility for maintenance, i.e., doorways
• Availability/accessibility of lift equipment
• Floor type, e.g. solid or suspended floor with
basement
2.1.1 New installation • Existing foundation
• Existing electrical installation
• If the pipework has not been planned, the selection Previous pump installation
of a pump type can be based on other primary • Pump make, type, specifications including old duty
criteria, such as efficiency, investment costs or point, shaft seal, materials, gaskets, controlling
lifecycle costs (LCC). This will be covered in a later • History, e.g. lifetime, maintenance
section.
Future requirements
• If the pipework has been planned, pump selection • Desired improvements and benefits
is equivalent to pump replacement in an existing • New selection criteria including duty points and
installation. operating times, temperature, pressure, liquid specs
• Supplier criteria, e.g. availability of spare parts

Advisory
• Major changes might be beneficial in long or short
term and should be documented, e.g. installation
savings, life cycle costs (LCC), reduced environmental
impact (noise, vibration accessibility for maintenance)

Selection
• Should be based on priorities agreed to by customer

For the selection of correct pump type and installa-


tion advice, two main areas are important: Pipe flow
and limitation of noise and vibrations. This will be
dealt with on the following pages.

76
2.1.3 Pipe flow for single-pump installation

Figure 2.1.1 is based on single-pump installation. In parallel installations, accessibility plays a


major role for suitability of a pump choice.

Simple pipework with few bends as possible is the criteria for pump choice in a single-pump installation.

Scores:
Best choice
Good choice
Acceptable choice
Not applicable

Pump type

A. In-line close-coupled B. End-suction close- coupled C. End-suction long-coupled


Pipework (horizontal or vertical
mounting)
(horizontal or vertical
mounting)
(only horizontal mounting)

To the pump: From the pump:

Along floor Best choice Good choice Good choice


Along floor To ground Best choice Good choice Good choice
To ceiling Good choice Best choice Best choice
Along floor Good choice Best choice Acceptable choice

From ground To ground Good choice Best choice Acceptable choice


To ceiling Good choice Best choice Best choice
Along floor Best choice Acceptable choice Acceptable choice
From ceiling To ground Best choice Good choice Good choice
To ceiling Good choice Best choice Best choice

Wall- Wall- Best choice Good choice Not applicable


mounted mounted

Fig. 2.1.1 Pipework and pump type

77
Section 2.1
Pump installation

Accessibility plays a major role in how well a specific


pump choice is suited to an installation of several
pumps in parallel. In-line pumps installed in parallel
do not always provide the best accessibility because
of the pipwork, see figure 2.1.2. End-suction pumps
installed in parallel provide better accessibility, see
figure 2.1.3.

Fig. 2.1.2:
Three in-line pumps in parallel; limited maintenance
2.1.4 Limitation of noise and vibrations access because of pipework

To achieve optimum operation and minimize noise


and vibration, vibration dampening of the pump may
be necessary. Generally, this should be considered for
pumps with motors above 7.5 hp. Smaller motor sizes,
however, may also cause noise and vibration due to
rotation in the motor and pump and by the flow in
pipes and fittings. The effect on the environment
depends on correct installation and the condition
of the entire system. Three ways to limit noise and
Fig. 2.1.3:
vibration in a pump installation are: Foundation Three end-suction pumps in parallel; easier maintenance
considerations, dampeners and expansion joints. access because of pipework

Floor
Solid ground
Foundation

Floor constructions can be solid or suspended.


Fig. 2.1.4: Solid floor construction
Solid – minimum risk of noise due to low Floor

transmission of vibrations, see figure 2.1.4. Ground floor

Basement
Suspended – risk of floor amplifying the noise. Wall
Basement can act as a resonance box,
see figure 2.1.5.

The pump should be installed on a plane on a rigid


surface. There are four basic installations for the Floor
two types of floor constructions: Floor, foundation, Solid ground

floating foundation and foundation suspended on


vibration dampeners.
Fig. 2.1.5: Suspended floor construction

78
Floor
Direct mounting on floor, hence direct vibration Fig. 2.1.6: Floor

transmission, see figure 2.1.6.

Floor Base plate Pump unit

Foundation
Poured directly on concrete floor, see figure 2.1.7. Fig. 2.1.7: Foundation

Floor Foundation Base plate Pump unit

Floating foundation
Resting on a dead material, e.g. sand, hence reduced Fig. 2.1.8:
Floating foundation
risk of transmitting vibration, see figure 2.1.8.

Floor Sand Foundation Base plate Pump unit

Foundation suspended on vibration dampeners Fig. 2.1.9: Foundation


Optimum solution with controlled vibration suspended on
vibration dampeners
transmission, see figure 2.1.9.

The weight of a concrete foundation should be 1.5 x


the pump weight. This weight is needed to get the Floor
dampeners to work efficiently at low pump speed. Vibration dampeners Foundation Base plate Pump unit

Pump unit

Fig. 2.1.10: The same


foundation rules apply
to vertical in-line
pumps Foundation

Vibration
dampeners
Floor

79
Section 2.1
Pump installation

Dampeners pressure loss on the pressure side. At high water


velocities (16.4 ft/s or greater), it is best to install larger
Vibration dampener selection requires the following expansion joints, corresponding to the pipework.
data:

• Forces acting on the dampener


• Motor speed with consideration of speed control
• Required dampening in % (suggested value is 70%)

Expansion
Dampener selection varies from installation to Foundation
joint
installation. An incorrect selection may increase the Pump unit
vibration level. The supplier should, therefore, size
vibration dampeners.

Pumps installed with vibration dampeners should


always have expansion joints fitted at both the Base plate
Vibration
suction and the discharge side to prevent the pump dampeners
from being supported by the flanges.
Floor

Expansion joints Fig. 2.1.11: Installation with expansion joints, vibration


dampeners and fixed pipework

Expansion joints are installed to:

• Absorb expansions/contractions in the pipework


caused by liquid temperature changes

• Reduce mechanical strain in connection with


pressure waves in the pipework

• Isolate mechanical noise in the pipework (not for


metal bellows expansion joints)

Expansion joints should not be installed to


compensate for inaccuracies in the pipework, such
as center displacement or misalignment of flanges.

Expansion joints are fitted at a minimum distance


of 1 to 1.5 times the pipe diameter from the pump
on the suction side as well as on the discharge side.
This prevents the development of turbulence in the
expansion joints, resulting in better suction conditions
and a minimum

80
Figures 2.1.12-2.1.14 show examples of rubber bellows
expansion joints with or without tie bars.
Fig. 2.1.12: Rubber bellows
expansion joints with tie bars
Expansion joints with tie bars can be used to minimize
the forces caused by the expansion joints and are
recommended for sizes larger than four inches. An
expansion joint without tie bars will exert force on Fig. 2.1.13: Rubber
bellows expansion
the pump flanges, which in turn affects the pump
joints without tie
and the pipework. bars

The pipes must be fixed so that they do not stress the


expansion joints and the pump, see figure 2.1.11. The
Fig. 2.1.14: Metal
fixed points should always be placed as close to the bellows expansion
expansion joints as possible. Follow the expansion joints with tie bars
joint supplier’s instructions.

At temperatures above 212°F combined with a high


pressure, metal bellows expansion joints are often
preferred, due to the risk of rupture.
Lp (dB)
Pain threshold
120
Threshold of hearing
100
2.1.5 Sound level 80 Music

60
The sound level (L) in a system is measured in decibel Speech
40
(dB). Noise is unwanted sound. The level of noise can
20
be measured in the following three ways:
0
20 50 100 200 500Hz 1 2 5 10 20kHz
1. Pressure – Lp : The pressure of the air waves Frequency
2. Power – Lw : The power of the sound kHz
Fig. 2.1.15: Threshold of hearing vs. frequency
3. Intensity - Ll: The power per m2 (will not be
covered in this book)

It is not possible to compare the three values directly,


but it is possible to calculate between them based on
standards. A rule-of-thumb is:

Smaller pumps, e.g. 2 hp: Lw = LP + 11 dB


Larger pumps, e.g. 150 hp: Lw = LP + 16 dB

81
Section 2.1
Pump installation

Sound levels are indicated as pressure when they dB (A)

are below 85 dB(A) and as power when exceeding 10


0
85 dB(A).
-10
-20
Noise is subjective and depends on a person´s ability to
-30
hear. Therefore, the above mentioned measurements -40
get weight according to the sensitivity of a standard ear, -50
see figure 2.1.15. The weighting is known as A-weighting -60
[dB(A)], expressed as: LpA, and the measurements are -70
-80
adjusted depending on frequency. In some cases the
10 100 1000 10000 Hz
weighting increases and in other cases it decreases,
see figure 2.1.16. Other weightings are known as B and Fig. 2.1.16 A-weighting curve

C but they are used for other purposes not covered in


this book.
15
In the case of two or more pumps in operation, the
sound level can be calculated. If the pumps have the
same sound level, the total sound level can be calculated
10
by adding the value, see figure 2.1.17. For example, two
pumps is Lp + 3 dB, three pumps is Lp + 5 dB. If the
pumps have different sound levels, values from figure
2.1.18 can be added. 5

Indications of sound level should normally be stated as


free field conditions over reflecting surface, meaning the
sound level on a hard floor with no walls. Guaranteeing 4 8 12 16 20 24

values in a specific room in a specific pipe system is


Fig. 2.1.17 Increase of the total sound pressure level with equal
difficult because these values are beyond the reach of the sources
manufacturer. Certain conditions could have a negative
impact (increased sound level) or a positive impact on
the sound level. Recommendations to installation and
foundation can be given to eliminate or reduce the 3

negative impact of sound level.


2.5

1.5

Experience values:
1
Rise of Perceived as:
+ 3 dB Slightly noticeable 0.5
+ 5 dB Clearly noticeable
+10 dB Twice as loud
2 4 6 8 10

Fig. 2.1.18 Increase of the total sound pressure level with


different sources

82
Section 2.2
Pump performance

When examining a pump, several things should


be evaluated. For example, if the pump is rusty or
makes abnormal noise, a number of values must
be identified in order to determine if the pump is
performing properly. On the next pages, three values
are presented for examining a pump’s performance:
Hydraulic terms, electrical terms, mechanical terms
and liquid properties.

2.2.1 Hydraulic terms

Flow, pressure and head are the most important


hydraulic terms pertinent to pump performance.

Flow

Flow is the amount of liquid that passes through


a pump within a certain period of time. Volume
flow and mass flow are the two flow parameters Q
considered for a performance reading. Qm = ρ . Q ; Q = m
ρ
Volume flow
Volume flow (Q) is read from a pump curve - or, put Water
Examples Unit
in another way, a pump can move a given volume at 68°F at 248°F
per unit of time, measured in gallons per minute, no Volume flow Q GPM 44.02
matter the density of the liquid. For water supply,
Density lb/ft3 62.30 58.86
for example, volume flow is the most important
lb/h 22000 20730
parameter because a certain volume of water is Mass flow Qm
needed for drinking or irrigation. Throughout this lb/s 6.1 5.7
book the term flow refers to volume flow.
Fig. 2.2.1: Calculation examples
Mass flow
Mass flow (Qm) is the mass which a pump moves per
unit of time and is measured in pounds per second. The
liquid temperature has an influence on how big a mass
flow can move per unit of time since the liquid density
changes with the temperature. In heating, cooling and
air-conditioning systems, the mass flow is essential to
identify because the mass is the carrier of energy (see
section on Heat Capacity).

83
Section 2.2
Pump performance

Later in this chapter, dynamic pressure in connection


Pressure
with determining the head of a pump will be
discussed.
Pressure (p) is a measure of force per unit area. Total
������
pressure is the sum of the static pressure and the
dynamic pressure:
psta ptot pdyn

Q psta psta
Static pressure ptot ptot
Static pressure psta is the
1 pressure measured with a
pressure gauge placed perpendicular
2 to the flow or
Fig. 2.2.2: How to determine the static pressure Psta, the
in a non-moving liquid, see figure 2.2.2. dynamic pressure Pdyn and the total pressure Ptot

Dynamic pressure 1
Dynamic pressure p is2 caused by liquid velocity and is
dyn
calculated by the following formula:

1
p1 p2
2
v1 v2
where: D1 D2
ρ is the density of the 1liquid in [lb/ft3]
v is the velocity of the2liquid in [ft/s] A B

P ptot
Dynamic pressure can be converted into static pressure psta

by reducing the liquid velocity and vice versa. Figure


2.2.3 shows a part of a system where the pipe diameter
increases from D1 to D2 resulting in a decrease in liquid pdyn
speed from v1 to v2. Assuming that there is no friction
1 the sum of the static pressure and
loss in the system,
2 Fig. 2.2.3: The static pressure increases if the liquid velocity is reduced.
the dynamic pressure is constant throughout the The figure applies for a system with insignificant friction loss
horizontal pipe.
1
2

So, an increase in pipe diameter, as the one shown in


figure 2.2.2 results in an increase in the static head
which is measured with the pressure gauge p2.

In most pumping systems, the dynamic pressure


pdyn has a minor impact on the total pressure. For
example, if the velocity of a water flow is 14.7 ft/s,
the dynamic pressure is around 1.45 psi, which is
considered insignificant in many pumping systems.

84
H(m)
Duty point for diesel at 20°C
12

Duty point for water at 95°C


10
Duty point for water at 20°C
8
Duty point for brine at 20°C

Measuring pressure Q

Pressure is measured in psi (Ib/in²), or bar (105 Conversion table for pressure units
Pa). When dealing with pressure, it is important designation psi kPa ft of H2O m of H2O atm bar

to know the point of reference for the pressure 1 psi 1 6.895 2.307 0.703 0.068 0.069
1 kPa 0.145 1 0.335 0.102 0.0097 0.01
measurement. Two types of pressure are essential 1 feet of H2O 0.4335 2.969 1 0.305 0.0295 0.03
with pressure measurement: Absolute pressure and 1 m of H2O 1.422 9.806 3.281 1 0.097 0.098

gauge pressure. 1 m H 2O 14.696 101.325 33.9 10.333 1 1.013


1 bar 14.504 100 33.5 10.197 0.987 1
* Physical atmosphere
Absolute pressure
Fig. 2.2.4: Conversion table for pressure units
Absolute pressure (Pabs) is defined as the pressure
above absolute vacuum, 0 atmospheres, that is
the absolute zero for pressure. Usually, “absolute
pressure” is used in cavitation calculations.

Gauge pressure
Gauge pressure (Pg), often referred to as overpressure,
26.1 ft

42.5 ft
35.4 ft
34.1ft
is higher than normal atmospheric pressure (1 atm).
Normally, pressure p is stated as gauge pressure because Brine at 68°F Water at 68°F Water at 203°F Diesel oil at 68°F

SG = 1.3 SG = 0.997 SG = 0.96 SG = 0.80


most sensor and pressure gauge measurements account 14.7 psi = 35.4 ft 14.7 psi = 42.5 ft
14.7 psi = 26.1 ft 14.7 psi = 34.1ft
for the pressure difference between the system and the
14.7 psi 14.7 psi 14.7 psi 14.7 psi

atmosphere. Throughout this book the term pressure


refers to gauge pressure.

H(m)
Fig. 2.2.5: Pumping four different liquids atfor14.7
Duty point diesel psi at the
at 20°C

Head 1 12
discharge side of the pump results in four different heads
Duty point for water at 95°C

The head (H) of a pump 2is an expression of how high


(ft), hence four different duty
10 points Duty point for water at 20°C
8
Duty point for brine at 20°C
the pump can raise a liquid. Head is measured in
6

feet (ft) and is independent of the liquid density. The


1 4

following formula shows2 the relationship between 2

pressure (p) and head (H):


Q

2.307 Conversion table for pressure units


SG ft of H2O m of H2O
designation psi kPa atm bar
where : 1 psi 1 6.895 2.307 0.703 0.068 0.069
H is the head in [ft] 1 kPa 0.145 1 0.335 0.102 0.0097 0.01

p is the pressure in psi2.31 1 feet of H2O 0.4335 2.969 1 0.305 0.0295 0.03
1 m of H2O 1.422 9.806 3.281 1 0.097 0.098
SG is the specific gravity ofSG
the liquid 1 m H2O 101.325 33.9
14.696 10.333 1 1.013
Pressure p is measured in [psi]. 1 bar 14.504 100 33.5 10.197 0.987 1
* Physical atmosphere

0.4085
Other pressure units are used as well, see figure
2.2.4.��������������������������������������������
The relationship between pressure and head
is shown in figure 2.2.5, where a pump handles four
different liquids.

2.31 0.4085 Q
SG

85
Section 2.2
Pump performance

How to determine the head


The pump head is determined by reading the pressure The correction due to the difference in port diameter
on the flanges1 of the pump p2, p1 and then converting is caused by the difference in the dynamic pressure.
2
the values into head, see figure 2.2.6. However, if a static Instead of calculating the correction from the formula, the
difference in head is present between the two measuring contribution can be read in a nomogram, see appendix F.
points, as it is1 in the case in figure 2.2.6, it is necessary to v2
compensate 2for the difference. And if the port dimensions D2
of the two measuring points differ from one another, the
actual head has to be corrected for this as well. p2
2.307
SG
The actual pump head1 H is calculated by the following v1
formula: 2 D1 p1

2.31 h2 h1
SG 1
2
where : Fig. 2.2.6: Standard end-suction pump with dimension difference
H is the actual pump head in [ft] on suction and discharge ports
2.3070.4085
p is the pressure at the flanges in [ft] v2 = 5.43 m/s2
SG
SG is the specific gravity of the liquid D2= 125 mm
g is the acceleration of gravity in [ft/s2]
h is the static height2.31
in [ft] p2 = 1.1 bar
v is the liquid velocity in [ft/s]
SG h2 - h1 = 355 mm

1 2.31 0.4085 Q D1 = 150 mm


2 SG v is calculated by the following
The liquid velocity v1 = 3.77 m/s2
p1 = 0.5 bar
formula:
1
0.4085
2
where:
v is the2.307 2.31in [ft/s]
velocity 0.4085 Q
SG
Q is the volume
SG
flow in [GPM]
D is the port diameter2.31in [in] 0.4085 Q
A is the area
2.31 SG
SG
2.31 (15.9 - 7.25)
1 0.4085
Combining these two formulas, head, 1057on the
H, depends
1.0pressure measurements p and p4.9
following factors: The , 5.9
1 2
the difference in0.4085
static height between the measuring
2.31through the pump Q, and
points h2-h1, the flow the Q
0.4085
SG
diameter of the two ports D1 and D2 .

2.31 0.4085 Q
SG 2.31 (15.9 - 7.25)
1 0.4085 1057
1.0 4.9 5.9

2.31 0.4085 Q
SG
86
1
2

1
2
1
Calculation example v2 = 17.8 ft/s2
2
A pump2.307
of the same type as the one shown in figure 2.2.7 D2= 4.9 in
SG
is installed in a system with the following data:
1
2 p2 = 15.9 psi
Q = 1057
2.31GPM
p1 = 7.25 psiSG h2 - h1 = 1 ft

p2 = 15.92.307
psi D1 = 5.9 in
SG
Liquid: Water at 680F
v1 = 12.3 ft/s2
0.4085 p1 = 7.25 psi
Suction port diameter D1 = 6 in
2.31
Discharge SG port diameter D2 = 5 in
The difference in height between the two ports where the
Fig. 2.2.7: Standard end-suction pump with different
pressure gauges are installed is h2-h1 = 1 ft dimensions of suction and discharge ports (Example)
2.31 0.4085 0.4085 Q
SG
We are now able to calculate the head of the pump:

2.31 0.4085 Q
0.4085 Q
SG

2.31 (15.9 - 7.25)


2.31 1 0.4085 1057Q
1.0 0.4085 4.9 5.9
SG

19.98
2.31 (15.9 - 7.25) 1 1 5.82
0.4085 26.80
1057 ft
1.0 4.9 5.9

As it appears from the calculation, the pressure difference


measured by pressure gauges is about 1 ft lower than what
the pump is actually performing. The deviation is caused
by the difference in height between the pressure gauges (1
ft) and by the difference in port dimensions, which in this
case is 1 inch.

87
Section 2.2
Pump performance

If the pressure gauges are placed at the same static


height or if a differential pressure gauge is used for
the measurement, it is not necessary to compensate
for the difference in height (h2-h1). With in-line
pumps, where inlet and outlet are placed at the same
p1 p2
level, the two ports often have the same diameter.
For these types of pumps a simplified formula is used
to determine the head:
h1 h2

(
2.31 ( Fig.2.2.7.a: Inline pump with same static height on inlet
and outlet. h2 = h1
SG
H = head in ft
P = psi
SG = specific gravity

Differential pressure
The differential pressure (∆p) is the pressure difference
between the pressures measured at two points, that is,
the pressure drops across valves in a system. Differential Dry cooler

pressure is measured in the same units as pressure.

System pressure
Chiller
The system pressure is the static pressure, which refers
to when the pumps are not running. System pressure Hsyst

is important to consider when dealing with a closed


Hsyst > h
system. The system pressure, measured in feet in the
lowest point, must always be higher than the height Fig.2.2.8: The system pressure Hsta in a closed system
of the system to ensure that the system is filled with has to be higher than the physical height of the installation
liquid and can be vented properly.

88
Cavitation hmax = Maximum suction head
Cavitation in a pump occurs when the suction pressure Hb = Atmospheric pressure at the pump site; this is the
is lower than the vapor pressure of the liquid pumped, theoretical maximum suction lift, see figure 2.2.13
see figures 2.2.9 and 2.2.10. When the pressure on Hf = Friction loss in the suction pipe
the suction side of the pump drops below the vapor NPSHr = Net Positive Suction Head read at the NPSH
pressure of the pumped liquid (figure 2.2.10 yellow dot), curve at the highest operational flow, see figure 2.2.12.
vapor bubbles form. As the pressure in the pump rises,
the bubbles collapse releasing shock waves (figure
a = Front of impeller vanes
2.2.10 red dot) which can damage impellers. The rate b = Back of impeller vanes
of damage depends on the properties of the impeller
material. Stainless steel is more resistent to cavitation a

than bronze, and bronze is more resistant than cast b


iron, see section 1.6.3. Additional damage to bearings,
shaft seals and welds may occur due to increased noise Imploding vapor bubbles
and vibration caused by cavitation. This damage is often
only detected when the pump is disassembled. Pump Fig.: 2.2.9: Implosion of cavitation bubbles on the back of impeller vanes
performance is harmed by cavitation due to decreases
p
in both flow (Q) and head (H), see figure 2.2.11.
a = Front of impeller vanes
Pressure [Pa]

a b
H H
Net Positive Suction Head b = Back of impeller vanes
To calculate the risk of cavitation, the Net Positive
p1
Suction Head Required (NPSHr) for the pump is p
Vapor pressure
compared with the Net Positive Suction Head Available NPSH
(NPSHa) of the system. NPSHr, which is the amount of Impeller inlet Impeller outlet
suction head required to ensure the pump performs at Q
Fig.: Q
2.2.10: Development of pressure through a centrifugal
full capacity, is determined by the manufacturer and pump
typically included on the performance curve. NPSHa
is a function of the system in which the pump will be H

applied and is calculated as follows:

NPSHa = Hb + Hs — Hf — Vp
Hb = Barometric Pressure, in feet absolute
Curve when
Hs = Suction Head, in feet absolute (positive or negative) pump cavitates

Hf = Friction loss in suction piping, in feet absolute Q

Vp = Vapor pressure at the maximum operating Fig.: 2.2.11: Pump curve when pump cavitates
temperature, in feet absolute
H H

NPSHa must be greater than the NPSHr to avoid cavitation.

Calculation of the risk of cavitation


NPSH
To avoid cavitation, the following formula is used to
calculate the maximum suction head:
Q Q
hmax = Hb — Hf — NPSHr — Hv — Hs Fig.: 2.2.12: NPSH - curve

89
Section 2.2
Pump performance

The NPSH value indicates to what extent the pump is Height above Barometric Water Boiling point
unable to create absolute vacuum, that is to raise a sea level pressure column of water
full water column 33.89 ft above sea level, see figure (ft) p (psi) H (ft) (°f)
b b

2.2.13. 0 14.692 33.89 212


1640.4 13.567 31.92 210.2
NPSH can either be considered in terms of NPSHr
3280.8 13.039 30.05 204.8
(required) or NPSHa (available).
6561.6 11.531 26.57 199.4

NPSHrequired The required suction head for the pump Fig.: 2.2.13: Barometric pressure above sea level

NPSHavailable The available suction head in the system

The NPSH value of a pump is determined by Hydraulic tm Hv


tm(°F Hv
) (ft )
Institute testing standards and is made as follows. (˚C )

150
370
(m)
413
45

The suction head is reduced while the flow is kept 14036040


35
30
328
13032025 259
at a constant level. When the differential pressure 120 20
300 148
has decreased by 3%, the pressure at the pump’s 110 15
131
Hf 10028012
10
115
suction side is read and the NPSH value of the pump 902706,0
8,0 98
82
is defined. The testing is repeated at different flows, 80
2504,0
5,0
66
70 3,0
forming the basis of the NPSH curve. 60
2302,0 49
1,5 39
502121,0 33
NPSH 26
h 40
1940,6
0,8

Hv – Vapor pressure of the liquid. For more information Hb 20


30 0,4
1760,3 16
concerning vapor pressure of water, go to Appendix D. 20
0,2
13
101580,1 10
0
Hv 140 6.6
Hs – Safety factor. Hs depends on the situation and 122
4.9

3.3
normally varies between 1.5 ft and 3 ft. For typical 104 2.6
Fig.: 2.2.14: System with indication 2.0
curve for liquid containing gas see figure 2.2.15. of the different values that are 86 1.3
0.9
important in connection with suction 68 0.7
calculations
50
0.3

2.2.2 Electrical terms 32

To examine a pump’s performance, a range of values


H [ft]

must be considered. In this section the most important


electrical values are presented: Power consumption, NPSH
voltage, current and power factor. Liquid with air

Vented liquid

Q [GPM]

Fig.: 2.2.15: Typical NPSH curve for liquid containing gas

90
Power consumption

Pumps are made of several components, see figure


2.2.16. The power consumption (P) of the different
components is designated as follows:
P1
P1 The power input from the mains, or the amount
of power the consumer must purchase.
P2
P2 The power input to the pump, or the power
output from the motor, often referred to as
shaft power or brake horsepower (Bhp).

PH Hydraulic power; the power that the pump


transfers to the liquid in the form of flow
and head, also known as water hp (Whp).

For the most common pump types, the term power


consumption normally refers to P2. Power is measured
in horsepower (hp).

Efficiency
PH
Efficiency (η) normally only covers the efficiency of
the pump part, ηP. A pump’s efficiency is determined
by several factors, including the shape of the pump
housing, the impeller and diffuser design and the
surface roughness. For typical pump units consisting
of both pump and electric motor, the total efficiency
ηT also includes the efficiency of the motor:
Fig. 2.2.16: Pump unit with indication of different power
consumption levels

If a frequency converter is also included, the efficiency


of the entire unit must include the efficiency of the
frequency converter (ηfc ):

91
Section 2.2
Pump performance

Voltage

Like pressure drives flow through a hydraulic system, L1


voltage (v) drives a current (I) through an electrical L2 } 480V Three-phase
supply
circuit. Voltage is measured in volts (V) and can be L3
direct current (DC), e.g. 1.5 V battery – or alternating N } 230V Single-phase
supply
current (AC), e.g. electricity supply for houses, etc. Ground
Normally, pumps are supplied with AC voltage
Fig. 2.2.17: Mains supply, e.g. 3 x 480 V
supply.

The layout of an AC main supply differs from one


country to another. The most common layout is four
wires with three phases (L1, L2, L3) and a neutral (N).
A ground connection is added to the system as well,
see figure 2.2.17.

For a 3x480 V/230 V main supply, the voltage between


The ratio between the phase-phase voltage
any two of the phases (L1, L2, L3) is 480 V. The voltage
and the phase-neutral voltage is:
between one of the phases and neutral (N) is 230 V.
The ratio between the phase-phase voltage and the
phase-neutral voltage is determined by the formula
at right.

Current

Current (I) is the flow of electricity and is measured


in ampere (A). The amount of current in an electrical
circuit depends on the supplied voltage and the
resistance/ impedance in the electrical circuit.

Power and power factor


AC single-phase motor, e.g. 1 x 230 V
Power (P) consumption is of high importance when
it comes to pumps. For pumps with standard AC
motors, the power input is found by measuring the AC three-phase motor, e.g. 3 x 480 V
input voltage and input current and by reading the
value cosj on the pump motor nameplate. The term
cosj is the phase angle between voltage and current
and is referred to as power factor (PF). The power
consumption P1 can be calculated by the formulas
shown at right for a single-phase or a three-phase
motor.

92
2.2.3 Liquid properties Viscosity
When making system calculations, the following liquid Kinematic viscosity is measured in centiStokes [cSt]
properties should be considered: Liquid temperature, (1 cSt = 10-6 m2/s). The unit [SSU] Saybolt Universal is
specific gravity, heat capacity, and viscosity. also used in connection with kinematic viscosity.
For kinematic viscosity above 60 cSt, the Saybolt
Universal viscosity is calculated by the following
Liquid temperature formula:
[SSU] = 4.62 . [cSt]
The liquid temperature (t,T) is measured in °F
(Fahrenheit), °C (Celcius), or K (Kelvin). Temperature
Btu/lbm °F
units of °C and K are actually the same, but 0°C is the 18.42
freezing point of water and 0°K is the absolute zero; 0% pure water
16.74
that is -273.15°C, the lowest possible temperature. The 20%
calculation between Fahrenheit and Celcius is °F = °C .
15.07 34%
1.8 + 32. Hence, the freezing point of water is 0°C and
44%
32°F, and the boiling point is 100°C and 212°F. 13.39
52%

11.72
Specific Gravity
10.04

The Specific Gravity (SG) is a dimensionless unit 8.37


defined as the ratio of density of the material to the -40 -4 32 68 104 140 176 212 248°F
density of water at a specified temperature of 68°F. Fig. 2.2.18: Heat capacity vs. temperature for ethylene glycol
See appendix K.

Liquid heat capacity

The heat capacity (Cp) shows how much additional


energy a liquid can contain per mass when it is
heated. Liquid heat capacity depends on temperature,
see figure 2.2.18. Heat capacity is considered in
systems for transporting energy, such as heating,
air-conditioning and cooling. Mixed liquids, such as
glycol and water for air-conditioning, have a lower
heat capacity than pure water, so higher flow is
required to transport the same amount of energy.

93
Chapter 3. System hydraulics

Section 3.1: System characteristics

3.1.1 Single resistances


3.1.2 Closed and open systems

Section 3.2: Pumps connected in parallel and series

3.2.1 Pumps in parallel


3.2.2 Pumps connected in series
Section 3.1
System characteristics

Previously, in section 1.1.2, the basic characteristics


of pump performance curves were discussed.
In this chapter the pump performance curve at
different operating conditions as well as a typical
system characteristic will be examined. Finally, the
interaction between a pump and a system will be
discussed.

System characteristic describes the relation between


flow (Q) and head (H). The system characteristic
depends on the type of system in question, closed
or open.
Fig. 3.1.1: The point of intersection between the pump curve and
the system characteristic is the duty point of the pump
• Closed systems
A closed system is a circulating system like heating
or air-conditioning systems, where the pump has
to overcome the friction losses in the pipes, fittings,
valves, etc. in the system.

• Open systems
An open system is a liquid transport system like a
water supply system where the pump must address
the static head as well as overcome the friction losses
in the pipes and components.

When the system characteristic is drawn in the same


system of co-ordinates as the pump curve, the duty
point of the pump can be determined as the point of
intersection of the two curves, see figure 3.1.1.

Open and closed systems consist of resistances


(valves, pipes, heat exchanger, etc.) connected in
series or parallel, which altogether affect the system
characteristic. Following is a discussion on how these
resistances affect the system characteristic.

96
3.1.1 Single resistances

Every component in a system constitutes a resistance


against the liquid flow which leads to a head loss.
The following formula is used to calculate the head
loss:

∆H = k . Q2

k is a constant, which depends on the component in


question, and Q is the flow through the component.
As it appears from the formula, the head loss is
proportional to the flow to the second power. So, if it
is possible to lower the flow in a system, a substantial
reduction in the pressure loss occurs.

Resistances connected in series Fig. 3.1.2: The head loss for two components connected in series
The total head loss in a system consisting of several is the sum of the two individual head losses
components connected in series is the sum of head
losses that each component represents. Figure 3.1.2
shows a system consisting of a valve and a heat
exchanger. If we do not consider the head loss in
the piping between the two components, the total
head loss, ΔHtot, is calculated by adding the two head
losses:

∆Htot = ∆H1 + ∆H2

Figure 3.1.2 shows how the resulting curve will look


and what the duty point will be if the system is a
closed system with only these two components. As it
appears from the figure, the resulting characteristic
is found by adding the individual head losses, ΔH,
at a given flow Q. The figure shows that the more
resistance in the system, the steeper the resulting
system curve will be.

97
Section 3.1
System characteristics

Resistances connected in parallel


Contrary to connecting components in series,
connecting components in parallel results in a
more flat system characteristic. This is because the
components installed in parallel reduce the total
resistance in the system, and thereby the head loss.
The differential pressure across the components
connected in parallel is always the same. The resulting
system characteristic is defined by adding all the
components’ individual flow rates for a specific ΔH.
Figure 3.1.3 shows a system with a valve and a heat
exchanger connected in parallel.

The resulting flow can be calculated by the following


formula for a head loss equivalent to ΔH

Q tot = Q 1 + Q2 Fig. 3.1.3: Components connected in parallel reduce the resistance in


the system and result in a more flat system characteristic

3.1.2 Closed and open systems

As mentioned previously, pump systems are split into


two types: Closed and open systems. This section will
examine the basic characteristics of these systems.

Closed systems
Typically, closed systems are systems which transport
heat energy in heating systems, air-conditioning
systems and process cooling systems. A common
feature of these closed systems is that the liquid
Fig. 3.1.4: Schematic drawing of a closed system
is circulated and is the carrier of heat energy. Heat
energy is what the system must transport.

Closed systems are characterized as systems with


pumps that overcome the sum of friction losses
which are generated by all the components. Figure
3.1.4 shows a schematic drawing of a closed system
where a pump circulates water from a heater through
a control valve to a heat exchanger.

98
All these components, along with the pipes and
fittings, result in a system characteristic as shown in
figure 3.1.5. The required pressure in a closed system
(which the system curve illustrates) is a parabola
starting at the point (Q,H) = (0,0) and is calculated by
the following formula:

H = k . Q2

As the formula and curve indicate, the pressure loss is


Fig. 3.1.5: The system characteristic for a closed system is a
approaching zero when the flow drops.
parabola starting at point (0,0)

Open systems
Open systems use the pump to transport liquid from
one point to another, e.g. water supply irrigation
and industrial process systems. In these systems, the
pump deals with the static head of the liquid and
must overcome the friction losses in the pipes and
the system components.

There are two types of open systems:

• Open systems where the total required static head


is positive.
• Open systems where the total required static head
Fig. 3.1.6: Open system with positive static head
is negative.

Open system with positive static head


Figure 3.1.6 shows a typical open system with posi-
tive static head. A pump transports water from a
break tank at ground level up to a roof tank on the
top of a building. The pump must provide a head Q1 Q
higher than the static head of the water (h), as well
as the necessary head to overcome the total friction
loss between the two tanks in piping, fittings, valves,
etc. (Hf). The pressure loss depends on the rate of
Q
flow, see figure 3.1.7. Q1
Fig. 3.1.7: System characteristic together with the pump performance
curve for the open system in figure 3.1.6

99
Section 3.1
System characteristics

Figure 3.1.7 shows that, in an open system, no water


flows if the maximum head (Hmax) of the pump is
lower than the static head (h). Only when H > h will
water start to flow from the break tank to the roof
tank. The system curve also shows that the lower
the flow rate, the lower the friction loss (Hf) and,
consequently, the lower the power consumption of
the pump.

So, the flow (Q1) and the pump size have to match
the need for the specific system. This is a general rule
for liquid transport systems: A larger flow leads to a
higher pressure loss, whereas a smaller flow leads to
a smaller pressure loss and, consequently, a lower
energy consumption.

Open system with negative static head


A typical example of an open system with negative
required head is a pressure booster system, as in
a water supply system. The static head (h) from
the water tank brings water to the consumer. The
water flows, although the pump is not running. The
difference in height between the liquid level in the
tank and the altitude of the water outlet (h) results
in a flow equivalent to Qo. However, the head is
insufficient to ensure the required flow (Q1) to the Fig. 3.1.8: Schematic drawing of a open system

consumer, so the pump has to boost the head to


the level (H1) in order to compensate for the friction
loss (Hf) in the system. The system is shown in figure
3.1.8, and the system characteristic and the pump
performance curve are shown in figure 3.1.9.

The resulting system characteristic is a parabolic


curve starting at the H-axes in the point (0,-h).

The flow in the system depends on the liquid level


in the tank. If the water level in the tank is reduced,
the height (h) is reduced. This results in a modified
system characteristic and a reduced flow in the
system, see figure 3.1.9. Fig. 3.1.9: System characteristic and the pump performance curve
for the open system shown in figure 3.1.8

100
Section 3.2
Pumps connected in parallel and series

To increase total pump performance in a system,


pumps are often connected in parallel or series. This
section will focus on these two ways of connecting
pumps.

3.2.1 Pumps in parallel

Pumps connected in parallel are often used when:

• The required flow is higher than one single pump


can supply
• The system has variable flow requirements which
are met by switching parallel-connected pumps on
and off

Normally, pumps connected in parallel are of similar type


and size. However, the pumps can be of different size, or ,
one or several can be speed-controlled, and thereby have
different performance curves.

To avoid bypass circulation in pumps that are not running,


a check valve is connected in series with each pump. The
resulting performance curve for a system consisting of
several pumps in parallel is determined by adding the
flow, which the pumps deliver at a specific head.

Figure 3.2.1 shows a system with two identical pumps Fig. 3.2.1: Two pumps connected in parallel with similar
performance curves
connected in parallel. The system’s total performance
curve is determined by adding Q1 and Q2 for every
value of head which is the same for both pumps,
H1=H2 . Because the pumps are identical, the resulting
pump curve has the same maximum head, Hmax, but
the maximum flow, Qmax, is double. For each value of
head, the flow is the double as for a single pump in
operation:

Q = Q1 + Q2 = 2 Q1 = 2 Q2

101
Section 3.2
Pumps connected in parallel and series

Figure 3.2.2 shows two different sized pumps


connected in parallel. When adding Q1 and Q2 for a
given head H1=H2, the resulting performance curve is
defined. The hatched area in figure 3.2.2 shows that
P1 is the only pump to supply in that specific area
because it has a higher maximum head than P2.

Speed-controlled pumps connected in parallel


For varying flow demand, speed-controlled pumps
connected in parallel offer efficient pump performance.
Fig 3.2.2: Two pumps connected in parallel with unequal
This method is common to water supply and pressure performance curves
boosting systems. Later in chapter 4, speed-controlled
pumps will be discussed in detail.

A pumping system with two speed-controlled pumps


with the same performance curve covers a wide
performance range, see figure 3.2.3. A single pump
covers the required pump performance up to Q1.
Above Q1 both pumps must operate to meet the
performance needed. If both pumps are running at
the same speed, the resulting pump curves look like
the orange curves shown in figure 3.2.3.

Note that the duty point at Q1 is reached with one Fig. 3.2.3: Two speed-controlled pumps connected in parallel (same
pump running at full speed. The duty point can size). The orange curve shows the performance at reduced speed

also be achieved when two pumps are running at


reduced speed, see figure 3.2.4 (orange curves). The
figure also compares efficiency. The duty point for
one pump running at full speed results in low pump
efficiency because the duty point is located far out on
the pump curve. The total efficiency is much higher
when two pumps run at reduced speeds, although
the maximum efficiency of the pumps decreases
slightly at reduced speeds.

Even though one single pump is able to maintain the


required flow and head, it is sometimes necessary
due to efficiency and, thus, energy consumption to
use both pumps at the same time. Whether to run
one or two pumps depends on the actual system
characteristic and pump type.
Fig. 3.2.4: One pump at full speed compared to two pumps at
reduced speed. In this case the two pumps have the highest total
efficiency

102
3.2.2. Pumps connected in series

Normally, pumps connected in series are used in


systems where high pressure is required. This is also
the case for multistage pumps that are based on
the series principle; that is, one stage equals one
pump. Figure 3.2.5 shows the performance curve
of two identical pumps connected in series. The
resulting performance curve is made by marking the
double head for each flow value in the system of
co-ordinates. This results in a curve with the double
maximum head (2⋅Hmax) and the same maximum Fig. 3.2.5: Two equal sized pumps connected in series
flow (Qmax) as each of the single pumps.

Figure 3.2.6 shows two different sized pumps


connected in series. The resulting performance curve
is determined by adding H1 and H2 at a given common
flow Q1=Q2.

The hatched area in figure 3.2.6 shows that P2 is the


only pump to supply in that area because it has a
higher maximum flow than P1. Q

Fig. 3.2.6: Two different sized pumps connected in series


As discussed in section 3.2.1, unequal pumps can be
a combination of different sized pumps or of one or Q

several speed-controlled pumps. The combination


of a fixed-speed pump and a speed-controlled
pump connected in series is often used in systems
where a high and constant pressure is required. The
fixed-speed pump supplies the liquid to the speed-
controlled pump whose output is controlled by a
pressure transmitter, (PT), see figure 3.2.7.

Fig. 3.2.7: Equal sized fixed-speed pump and speed-controlled


pump connected in series. A pressure transmitter PT together
with a speed controller is making sure that the pressure is
constant at the outlet of P2.

103
Chapter 4. Performance adjustment of pumps

Section 4.1: Adjusting pump performance

4.1.1 Throttle control


4.1.2 Bypass control
4.1.3 Modifying impeller diameter
4.1.4 Speed control
4.1.5 Comparison of adjustment methods
4.1.6 Overall efficiency of the pump system
4.1.7 Example: Relative power consumption when the flow
is reduced by 20%

Section 4.2: Speed-controlled pump solutions

4.2.1 Constant pressure control


4.2.2 Constant temperature control
4.2.3 Constant differential pressure in a circulating system
4.2.4 Flow-compensated differential pressure control

Section 4.3: Advantages of speed control

Section 4.4: Advantages of pumps with integrated


frequency converter

4.4.1 Performance curves of speed-controlled pumps


4.4.2 Speed-controlled pumps in different systems

Section 4.5: Frequency converter

4.5.1 Basic function and characteristics


4.5.2 Components of the frequency converter
4.5.3 Special conditions regarding frequency converters
Section 4.1
Adjusting pump performance

When selecting a pump for a given application, it is H η


[ft] [%]
important to choose one where the duty point is in 60

the high-efficiency area of the pump. Otherwise, the 50


power consumption of the pump is unnecessarily high,
40
see figure 4.1.1. 70
30 60
50
However, sometimes it is not possible to select a 20 40
30
pump that fits the optimum duty point because the 10 20
requirements of the system change or the system curve 10
0
10 15 20 25 30 35 40 Q [GPM] 0
changes over time. Therefore, it may be necessary to 0 5

adjust the pump performance so that it meets the Fig.: 4.1.1: When selecting a pump it is important to choose one
where the duty point is within the high efficiency area.
changed requirements.

The most common methods of changing pump


performance are:

• Throttle control
• Bypass control
• Modifying impeller diameter
• Speed control

Choosing a method of pump performance adjustment


is based on an evaluation of the initial investment along
with the operating costs of the pump. All methods can
be carried out continuously during operation apart
from the modifying impeller diameter–method. Often,
oversized pumps are selected for the system. It is then
necessary to limit the performance – primarily the flow
rate, and in some applications, the maximum head.

The four adjusting methods are discussed on the


following pages.

106
4.1.1 Throttle control

A throttle valve may be placed in series with the Hp


pump, permitting the duty point to be adjusted. Throttle valve

Throttling results in a flow reduction, see figure 4.1.2.


The throttle valve adds resistance to the system, System
Hv Hs
raising the system curve. Without the throttle valve,
the flow is Q2. With the throttle valve connected in
series with the pump, the flow is reduced to Q1.
H
Pump
Throttle valves can be used to limit the maximum flow.
In the example, the flow will never be higher than Q3 Resulting characteristic
Smaller pump
even if the original system curve is completely flat, System
Hv
meaning there is no resistance in the system. When the
Throttle valve
pump performance is adjusted with this method, the
Hs
pump will deliver a higher head than necessary for that
particular system.
Q
Q1 Q2 Q3
Fig.: 4.1.2: The throttle valve increases the resistance in the
system, consequently reducing the flow.
If the pump and the throttle valve are replaced by
a smaller pump, the pump will be able to meet the
desired flow Q1 at a lower pump head, resulting in less
power consumption, see figure 4.1.2.

Bypass valve
4.1.2 Bypass control QBP

Compared to the throttle valve, installing a bypass QP QS System


valve will result in a certain minimum flow, QBP, in the HP
pump independent of the system characteristics, see
figure 4.1.3. The flow, QP, is the sum of the flow in the
system, QS, and the flow in the bypass valve, QBP.. H
Bypass valve
Hmax
Smaller
pump System
Qs QBP Resulting characteristic
The bypass valve will introduce a maximum limit of
HP
head to the system, Hmax , see figure 4.1.3. Even when
Pump
the required flow in the system is zero, the pump will
never run against a closed valve. Like the throttling
valve method, the required flow, QS, can be met by
QBP QS QP Q
a smaller pump and no bypass valve, resulting in a
Fig.: 4.1.3: The bypass valve diverts part of the flow from the
lower flow and less energy consumption.
pump, reducing the flow in the system

107
Section 4.1
Adjusting pump performance

4.1.3 Modifying impeller diameter

Another way to adjust the performance of a


centrifugal pump is to modify the impeller diameter,
reducing the diameter which, consequently, reduces
pump performance. Compared to the throttling and
bypass methods, which can be carried out during
operation, the impeller trimming has to be done in
advance before the pump is installed or in connection
with service; it cannot be done while the pump
D
is in operation. The following formula shows the
relationship between the impeller diameter and the
pump performance:

Note that the formulas are an expression of an ideal


pump. In practice, the pump efficiency decreases
when the impeller diameter is reduced. For minor H
changes of the impeller diameter, Dx > 0.8 . Dn, the
efficiency is only reduced by a few percentage points.
Hn
The degree of efficiency reduction depends on pump
type and duty point. Hx Dn
Dx
As it appears from the formulas, the flow and the head
change with the same ratio: that is, the ratio change of
the impeller diameter to the second power. The duty
Qx Qn Q
points following the formulas are placed on a straight
line starting in (0,0). The change in power consumption Fig. 4.1.4: Change in pump performance when the impeller
diameter is reduced
is following the diameter change to the fourth power.

4.1.4 Speed control

The last method of controlling the pump performance


to be covered in this section is the variable speed
control method. Speed control by means of a frequency
converter is the most efficient way of adjusting pump
performance exposed to variable flow requirements.

108
The following equation applies with close
approximation to how the change in speed of a
centrifugal pump influences the performance of the
pump:

The affinity laws apply when the system characteristic


remains unchanged for nn and nx and forms a parabola
through (0,0) – see section 3.1.2 (p 99). The power
equation implies that the pump efficiency is unchanged
at the two speeds.

The formulas in figure 4.1.5 show that the pump


flow (Q) is proportional to the pump speed (n). The
head (H) is proportional to the second power of the
speed (n) whereas the power (P) is proportional to
the third power of the speed. In practice, a reduction
of the speed will result in a slight fall in efficiency.
The efficiency at reduced speed (nx) can be estimated
by the following formula, which is valid for speed
reduction down to 50% of the maximum speed:

If the need for precise power saved is desired,


frequency converter and motor efficiencies must be
taken into account.

Fig. 4.1.5: Pump parameters for different affinity equations

109
Section 4.1
Adjusting pump performance

4.1.5 Comparison of adjustment


methods
When the pump and its performance-changing
device is considered as one unit, the resulting QH-
characteristic of this device can be compared to
different systems. Overall efficiency Relative power
The resulting performance
curve will have of the pump consumption by 20%
The resulting performance Overall efficiency reduction
system in flow
Relative power
The resulting
curve
Throttle control Overall
performance
will have efficiency Relative
of the pump powerby 20%
consumption
Reduced
curve
The will Q
resulting The throttling method
have
performance of theimplies
Considerably
system pump a valve connected
efficiency consumption
94%
reduction
Relative byin20%
in flow
power
Overall a b
series
curve will have with a reduced
system
pump, see figure
of the pump 4.1.6a. reduction
This in flow
connection
consumption by 20%
Reduced Q acts as a new pump Considerably
system 94%
reduction
at unchanged maximum inhead
flow Throttle valve
Reduced Q Considerably
reduced 94%
but reduced flow performance.
reduced For an illustration of
Reduced Q Considerably 94% Throttle valve
the pump curve, Hn, the valve curve, and the curve for Throttle valve
Hn reduced
Hx the complete system, - Hx, see figure 4.1.6b. Throttle valve
Valve Hn Hx Valve
Hn
Fig. 4.1.6: Throttle valve connected in series with a pump
Hnx
H
Reduced Bypass
H and control Considerably
changed 110%
Valve
H x
Hn Hx Valve
curve
H
Valve
n When connectingreduced
a valve across the pump, the Hn Hx Valve
Hx Bypass valve
Reduced H and changed
connection acts as Considerably
a 110%
new pump at reduced maximum
Valve
Reduced Considerably 110% a b Hn Hx Valve
curve H and changed
head and a QH curve reduced
with a changed characteristic,
curve reduced Bypass valve
Reduced H and Considerably 110%
seechanged
figure 4.1.7a. The curve will be more linear than Bypass valve
Hn
curve reduced
Hx quadratic, see figure 4.1.7b. Bypass valve
Valve Hn Hx Valve
Hn
Hnx
H Modifying impeller diameter
Reduced
Valve
H Q and H Slightly reduced 67% Hn Hx Valve
Hnx
Valve
This method does not imply extra components.
Hx Fig. 4.1.7: Bypass valve connected across theHpump
n Hx Valve
Reduced Figure 4.1.8 shows Slightly
Valve Q and H
the reduced QH curve (Hx)67%
reduced and the
Hn Hx Valve
Reduced Q andoriginal
H Slightly reduced
curve characteristics (Hn). 67%
D
Reduced Q and H Slightly reduced 67%
Speed control
D
Hn The speed control method results in a new QH curve at
Hx D
Hn Hx
reduced head and flow, see figure 1.4.9. The characteristics D
Hn
Reduced
Hnx
H Q andofHthe curves remain the same.
Slightly However, when65%
reduced speed is Hn Hx
Hx reduced the curves become more flat as the head is Hn Hx
Hn Speed controller
Reduced Q andreduced
H Slightly reduced 65% Fig. 4.1.8: Impeller diameter adjustment
Hx to a higher degree than the flow. 65%
Hn Hx
Reduced Q and H Slightly reduced
Speed controller
Reduced
Hn Q and H Slightly reduced 65% Speed controller
In comparison, the speed control method also makes
Hx Speed controller
Hy it possible to extend the performance range of the Hn Hx Hy
Hn
Hnx
H pump above the nominal QH curve by increasing the
Hxy
H speed above nominal speed level of the pump; see Hn Hx Hy
H
Hyn Hn Hx Hy
Hx the Hy curve in figure 4.1.9. If this over-synchronous
Hy Hn Hx Hy
operation is used, the size of the motor has to be
taken into account. Fig. 4.1.9: Speed controller connected to a pump

110
4.1.6 Overall efficiency of the pump system

Both the throttling and the bypass method introduce


some hydraulic power losses in the valves (Ploss = k
Q H), therefore reducing efficiency of the pumping
system. Reducing the impeller size in the range
of Dx/Dn>0.8 does not have a significant impact
on pump efficiency and does not have a negative
influence on the overall efficiency of the system.

The efficiency of speed-controlled pumps is only


affected to a limited extent if the speed reduction
does not drop below 50% of the nominal speed. The
efficiency is only reduced by a few percentage-points,
and it does not have an impact on the overall running
economy of speed-controlled solutions, see figure
1.4.16 in section 1.4.5.

4.1.7 Example: Relative power


consumption when the flow is reduced
by 20 %
In a given installation the flow has to be reduced
from Q = 260 GPM to 220 GPM. In the original starting
point (Q = 260 GPM and H = 230 ft) the power input
to the pump is set relatively to 100%. Depending on
the method of performance adjustment, the power
consumption reduction will vary. This is further
discussed on the following pages.

111
Section 4.1
Adjusting pump performance

Throttle control H
H [ft]
[ft]
H [ft]
= Modified duty point
= Original duty point
The power consumption is reduced to about 94%
249
249
when the flow drops from 264 to 220 GPM. The 249
229
229
229
180
throttling results in an increased head, see figure 180
180

4.1.10. The maximum power consumption for some


Q
Q
pumps is at a lower flow than the maximum flow. P
P22
P2
Q
100%
100%
If this is the case, the power consumption increases 100%
94%
94%
94%
because of the throttle.
220
220 264
264 Q [GPM]
Q [GPM]
220 264 Q [GPM]
Bypass control Fig. 4.1.10: Relative power consumption - throttle control

To reduce the flow in the system, the valve has to H


H [ft]
[ft]
H [ft]
reduce the head of the pump to 180 ft. This can only = Modified duty point
= Original duty point
be done by increasing the flow in the pump. As it 229
229
appears from figure 4.1.11, the flow is consequently 229
180
180
180
increased to 356 GPM, which results in an increased
power consumption of up to 10% above original P
P22
P2
Q
Q
Q
110%
110%
consumption. The degree of increase depends on the 100%
110%
100%
100%

pump type and the duty point. Therefore, in some


cases, the increase in P2 is equal to zero and in rare 220 264 356 Q [GPM]
Q [GPM]
220 264 356
Q [GPM]
cases, P2 might decrease slightly. 220 264 356
Fig. 4.1.11: Relative power consumption - bypass control

H
H [ft]
[ft]
Modifying impeller diameter H [ft]

When the impeller diameter is reduced, both the flow = Modified duty point
= Original duty point
and the head of the pump drop. By a flow reduction 229
229
229
180
180
of 20%, the power consumption is reduced to around 180

67% of its original consumption, see figure 4.1.12.


P Q
Q
P22 Q
P
100%2
100%
Speed control 100%
67%
67%
67%
When the speed of the pump is controlled, both the
flow and the head are reduced, see figure 4.1.13. 220
220 264
264
Q
Q [GPM]
[GPM]
220 264 Q [GPM]
Consequently, the power consumption has reduced
Fig. 4.1.12: Relative power consumption - modifying impeller diameter
to around 65% of the original consumption.
H [ft]
H [ft]
H [ft]

To obtain the best possible efficiency, the impeller = Modified duty point
= Original duty point
diameter adjustment method or the speed-controlled 70
70
70
55
55
method of the pump are the best options for reducing 55

the flow in the installation. When the pump has to Q


Q
Q Q
Q
operate in a fixed, modified duty point, the impeller P
P22
P2
Q
100%
100%
diameter adjustment method is the best solution. 100%
65%
65%
65%
However, in installations where the flow demand varies,
the speed-controlled pump is the best solution. 50
50 60
60 Q
Q [GPM]
[GPM]
Q [GPM]
50 60
Fig. 4.1.13: Relative power consumption - speed control

112
Summary
Figure 4.1.14 gives an overview of the different
adjustment methods that are presented in the
previous section. Each method has its pros and
cons which should be considered when choosing an
adjustment method for a system.

Method Continuous The resulting performance Overall efficiency Relative power


adjustment curve will have of the pump consumption by 20%
possible? system reduction in flow

Throttle control Yes Reduced Q Considerably 94%


reduced
Throttl
Throttle valve

Hn
Hx
Valve

Bypass control Yes Reduced H and changed Considerably 110%


curve reduced
Bypass va
Bypass valve

Hn
Hx
Valve

Modifying impeller No Reduced Q and H Slightly reduced 67%


diameter

Hn
Hx

Speed control Yes Reduced Q and H Slightly reduced 65%


Speed con
Speed controller

Hn
Hx
Hy

Fig. 4.1.14: Characteristics of adjustment methods.

113
Section 4.2
Speed-controlled pump solutions

As discussed in the previous section, speed control


of pumps is an efficient way of adjusting pump
Setpoint pset Actual value p1
performance to the system. In this section the PI-
H
controller
possibilities of combining speed-controlled pumps
Pressure nn
with PI-controllers and sensors measuring system Break transmitter
Speed
parameters, such as pressure, differential pressure tank nx
controller
and temperature, are discussed. The different options PT pset
h
will be presented by examples. Q1 p1 Taps

H1
h Q1

Setpoint pset PI- Actual value p1


H
controller
4.2.1 Constant pressure control Pressure nn
Break transmitter
Speed
A pump has to supply tap water
tankfroma break tank nx
controller
to different taps in a building. The demand for tapPT pset
h
water is varying, so the system characteristic varies
p Taps
Q1
according to the required flow. Due to comfort 1
H1
and energy savings, a constant supply pressure is h Q1 Qmax Q
recommended.

Fig. 4.2.1: Water supply system with speed-controlled pump deliv-


As it appears from figure 4.2.1, the solution is a ering constant pressure to the system
speed-controlled pump with a PI-controller. The
PI-controller compares the needed pressure, pset,
with the actual supply pressure, p1, measured by
a pressure transmitter, PT. If the actual pressure is
higher than the setpoint, the PI-controller reduces
the speed and, consequently, the performance of
the pump until p1 is equal to pset. Figure 4.2.1 shows
what happens when the flow is reduced from Qmax
to Q1 . The controller reduces the speed of the pump
from nn to nx to ensure that the required discharge
pressure is p1 = pset. The pump installation ensures
that the supply pressure is constant in the flow range
of 0 to Qmax. The supply pressure is independent of
the level, (h), in the break tank. If h changes, the PI-
controller adjusts the speed of the pump so that p1
always corresponds to the setpoint.

114
4.2.2 Constant temperature control

Performance adjustment through speed control is


suitable for a number of industrial applications. Figure
4.2.2 shows a system with a water-cooled injection
molding machine for high quality production.

The machine is cooled with water at 59oF from a


cooling plant. To ensure that the molding machine
runs properly and is cooled sufficiently, the return
pipe temperature has to be kept at a constant
level; tr = 68oF. The solution is a speed-controlled
pump controlled by a PI-controller. The PI-controller
compares the needed temperature, tset, with the
actual return pipe temperature, tr, which is measured
by a temperature transmitter, TT. This system has
a fixed system characteristic, and, therefore, the
duty point of the pump is located on the curve Fig. 4.2.2: System with injection molding machine and tem-
between Qmin and Qmax. The higher the heat loss in perature- controlled circulator pump ensuring a constant return
pipe temperature
the machine, the higher the flow of cooling water is
needed to ensure that the return pipe temperature is
kept at a constant level of 68 oF.

4.2.3 Constant differential pressure in


a circulating system
Circulating systems, typically closed systems, are well
suited for speed-controlled pumps, see Chapter 3. A
differential pressure controlled circulator pump is
recommended for circulating systems with variable
system characteristic, see figure 4.2.3.

This figure shows a heating system with a heat


exchanger where the circulated water is heated up
and delivered to three consumers, such as radiators,
by a speed-controlled pump. A control valve is
connected in series at each consumer to control the
flow according to the heat requirement. The pump Fig. 4.2.3: Heating system with speed-controlled circulator
is controlled according to a constant differential pump delivering constant differential pressure to the system

pressure measured across the pump. As depicted by


the horizontal line in figure 4.2.3, the pump system
offers constant differential pressure in the Q-range
of 0 to Qmax.

115
Section 4.2
Speed-controlled pump solutions

4.2.4 Flow-compensated differential Setpoint Hset PI- Actual value H1


controller
pressure control
The main function of the pumping system in figure Speed H
controller
4.2.4 is to maintain a constant differential pressure
across the control valves at the consumers, such as Q1
radiators. In order to do so, the pump must overcome
friction losses in pipes, heat exchangers, fittings, etc. Hset
DPT1
Hf H1
Setpoint Hset PI- Actual value H1 DPT2
As discussed in Chapter 3, the pressure loss in a
controller
system is proportional to the flow in second power.
The best way to control a circulator pump in a system
like the one shown in the figureSpeed
at right is to allow H
controller
the pump to deliver a pressure that increases when
nn
the flow increases. Q1
nx
When the demand of flow is low, the pressure losses Hset
DPT1
in the pipes, heat exchangers, fittings, etc. are low Hf H1
DPT2
as well, and the pump supplies only a pressure
equivalent to what the control valve requires, Hset- Q1 Qmax Q
Hf. When flow demand increases, pressure losses
increase to the second power, and the pump has to Fig. 4.2.4: Heating system with s�������������������������������
peed-controlled circulator pump
increase the delivered pressure, depicted as the blue delivering flow-compensated differential pressure to the system
curve in figure 4.2.4.

Such a pumping system can be designed as follows:

• The differential pressure transmitter is placed pump curve data has to be stored in the controller.
across the pump and the system is running with This data is used to calculate the flow as well as how
flow-compensated differential pressure control much the setpoint Hset must be reduced at a given
– DPT1, see figure 4.2.4. flow to ensure that the pump performance meets
the required blue curve in figure 4.2.4.
• The differential pressure transmitter is placed close
to the consumers and the system is running The second solution requires more installation costs
with differential pressure control – DPT2, see fig. because the transmitter has to be installed at the
4.2.4. installation site, and the necessary cabling has to be
added. Both systems are equal in performance. The
The first solution places the pump, PI-controller, transmitter measures the differential pressure at the
speed control and the transmitter close to one consumer and compensates automatically for the
another providing easy installation and making it increase in required pressure in order to overcome
possible to get the entire system as one single unit, the increase in pressure losses in the supply pipes,
see section 4.4. To get the system up and running, etc.

116
Section 4.3
Advantages of speed control

A large number of pump applications do not require full Reduced energy consumption
pump performance 24 hours a day. Therefore, it is an Speed-controlled pumps use only the amount of
advantage to be able to adjust the pump’s performance energy needed to address a specific pump installation.
in the system automatically. As seen in section 4.1, the Compared to other control methods, frequency-
best possible way of adapting the performance of a controlled speed control offers the highest efficiency
centrifugal pump is by means of speed control of the and the most efficient utilization of the energy, see
pump. Speed control of pumps is normally made by a section 4.1.
frequency converter unit.
Low life cycle costs
On the following pages, speed-controlled pumps As we will see in Chapter 5, the energy consumption
in closed and open systems will be examined. The of a pump is a very important factor when calculating
advantages that speed control provides and the a pump’s life cycle costs. Therefore, it is important to
benefits that speed-controlled pumps with frequency keep the operating costs of a pumping system at
converters offer are presented first. the lowest possible level. Efficient operation leads
to lower energy consumption and results in lower
operating costs. Compared to fixed-speed pumps, it
is possible to reduce the energy consumption by up
to 50% with a speed-controlled pump.

Environment protection
Energy-efficient pumps cause less pollution and
harm to the environment.

Increased comfort
Speed control in different pumping systems provides
increased comfort in water supply systems, automatic
pressure control, and where the soft-start of pumps
reduce water hammer and noise generated by too
high pressure in the system. In circulating systems,
speed-controlled pumps ensure that the differential
pressure is kept at a level so that noise in the system
is minimized.

Reduced system costs


Speed-controlled pumps can reduce the need for
commissioning and control valves in the system,
thus reducing the total system costs.

117
Section 4.4
Advantages of pumps with integrated
frequency converter

In many applications, pumps with integrated frequency


converters are the optimum solution. These pumps combine
the benefits of a speed-controlled pump solution with Setpoint
the benefits gained from combining a pump, a frequency
converter, a PI-controller and sometimes a sensor/pressure
transmitter in one single unit, see figure 4.4.1.
PI-
controller
A pump with an integrated frequency converter
is not just a pump, it is a system that can solve Frequency
application problems or save energy in a variety of converter

pump installations. Pumps with integrated frequency


converters are ideal because they can be used instead
of fixed-speed pumps in replacement installations at
no extra installation cost. The only requirement is a M
power supply connection and a fitting of the pump
with an integrated frequency converter in the pipe
system, and then the pump is ready for operation.
After adjusting the required setpoint pressure, the
system is operational.

What follows is a brief description of the advantages


PT
that pumps with integrated frequency converter
have to offer.

Easy to install
Pumps with integrated frequency converters are just
Fig. 4.4.1: Pump unit with integrated
as easy to install as fixed-speed pumps. The motor frequency converter and pressure transmitter
is connected to the electrical power supply, and the
pump is in operation. The manufacturer has made all
internal connections and adjustments.

Optimal energy savings


Because the pump, the motor and the frequency
converter are designed for compatibility, operation
of the pump system reduces power consumption.

One supplier
One supplier can provide the pump, frequency
converter and sensor which naturally facilitate the
sizing, selection, and ordering procedures, as well as
maintenance and service procedures.

118
Wide performance range performance curve and the system characteristic of a
Pumps with integrated frequency converters have closed and an open system.
a broad performance range which enables efficient
performance under widely varied conditions and
meets a wide range of requirements. Fewer pumps
can replace many fixed speed pump types with H
[ft] 100%
narrow performance capabilities. 320

280 90%

240
80%
200

4.4.1. Performance curves of speed- 160


70%

controlled pumps 120


60%

50%
80

40
The following is a discussion of how a speed-controlled 25%
0
pump’s performance curve is read. 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 Q [GPM]
P 1

[hp]
10
Figure 4.4.2 provides an example of the performance 8

curves of a speed-controlled pump. The first curve shows 6


4
the flow-head (QH) curve, and the second curve shows 2
0
the corresponding power consumption curve. Q [GPM]

Fig 4.4.2: Performance curve for a speed-controlled pump


The performance curves are plotted for every 10%
decrease in speed from 100% down to 50%. Likewise,
the minimum curve represented by 25% of the
maximum speed is also shown. As indicated in the
diagram, you can select a specific duty point, QH, H H H H
Pump curve Pump curve
and find out at which speed the duty point can be
reached and what the power consumption, P1, is.

System System
characteristic HO HO
4.4.2 Speed-controlled pumps in characteristic

different systems Closed system Q Q


Open system Q Q

Speed-controlled pumps are used in a wide range Fig 4.4.3: System characteristic point of a closed and an
open system
of systems. The change in pump performance and,
consequently, the potential energy savings depend on
the system in question.

As discussed in Chapter 3, the characteristic of a


system is an indication of the required head a pump
has to deliver to transport a certain quantity of
liquid through the system. Figure 4.4.3 shows the

119
Section 4.4
Advantages of pumps with integrated frequency converter

Speed-controlled pumps in closed systems Q = 66 GPM


In closed systems, like heating and air-conditioning, the
pump has to overcome the friction losses in the pipes,
H
valves, heat exchangers, etc. In this section, an example Boiler
of a speed-controlled pump in a closed system will be or like
presented. The total friction loss by a full flow of 66 GPM Consumers
is 39.3 ft, see figure 4.4.4. Fig. 4.4.4: Closed system

The system characteristic starts in the point (0,0),


shown by the red line in figure 4.4.5. Control valves H
[ft] 100%
in the system always need a certain operating 99%
320
pressure, so the pump cannot work according to 280 90%

the system characteristic. That is why some speed- 240


80%
controlled pumps offer the proportional pressure 200
70%
control function, which ensures that the pump will 160
60%
operate according to the orange line shown in the 120
50%
80
figure. As you can tell from figure 4.4.5, the minimum
40
performance is around 57% of the full speed. In a 25%
0
circulating system, operating at the minimum curve P 1
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 Q [GPM]

[hp]
(25% of the full speed) can be relevant in some 10
situations, such as night-time duty in heating systems. 8
6
4
2
0
Q [GPM]

Fig. 4.4.5: A speed-controlled pump in a closed system

120
Speed-controlled pumps in open systems
pt = 29 psi
The system characteristic as well as the operating Fig. 4.4.6: Pump in a water supply system
range of the pump depend on the type of system in
question. Figure 4.4.6 shows a pump in a pressure
boosting / water supply system. The pump has to he = 65.6 ft
supply Q = 29 GPM to the tap which is placed h = 65 ft SG
above the pump. The inlet pressure to the pump, ps,
is 14.5 psi, the pressure at the tap, pt, has to be 29 psi pf = 18.8 psi
and the total friction loss in the system by full flow, ps = 14.5 psi
pf, is 18.8 psi. Q = 29 GPM

Figure 4.4.7 shows the QH curve of a pump which H


meets the requirements described. The required head pt - Pressure at tapping point
can be calculated by using the equation at right. ps - Suction pressure
pf - Friction loss
For maximum head at a flow, Q, of 29 GPM, the Q - Flow rate
equation to use follows: h - Static lift

2.31 (pt) 2.31 (ps) 2.31 (pf)


H = He + — +
SG SG SG pt - ps (2-1) . 105
H+ ρ. = 20 + = 99.08 ft
H = 65.6 + 2.31 (pt — ps + pf)
g 998 . 9.81
SG
H = 65.6 + 2.31 (29 — 14.5 + 18.8) H
[ft] 100%

1.0 200 99%

175 90%
H = 65.6 ft + 76.9 ft
150
80%
H = 142.5 ft 125
70%
HO
60%
75
To address this application from zero to maximum 50
50%

flow Q = 29 GPM, the pump operates in a relatively 25


25%
narrow speed band, from about 65%-99% of the full 0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 Q [GPM]
P
speed. In systems with less friction loss, the variation [hp]
1

in speed will be even smaller. If there is no friction 2.5


2.0
loss, the minimum speed in the above case is about 1.5

79% speed. 1.0


0.5
0
Q [GPM]
As seen in the previous two examples, the possible Fig. 4.4.7: A speed-controlled pump in an open system
variation in speed and power consumption is highest
in closed systems. Therefore, the closed system
accounts for the highest energy saving potential.

121
Section 4.5
Frequency converter

As mentioned, speed control of pumps involves a 4.5.2. Components of the frequency


frequency converter. This section will provide a closer converter
look at frequency converters, how they operate, and
related precautions associated with using them. In principle, all frequency converters consist of the
same functional blocks. The basic function, as
mentioned, is to convert the main electric supply
4.5.1 Basic function and characteristics into a new AC voltage with another frequency and
amplitude. The frequency converter rectifies the
The speed of an asynchronous motor depends incoming main electric supply and stores the energy
primarily on the pole number (2-pole, 4-pole, etc.) of in an intermediate circuit consisting of a capacitor.
the motor and the frequency of the voltage supplied. The DC voltage is then converted into a new AC
The amplitude of the voltage supplied and the load voltage with another frequency and amplitude.
on the motor shaft also influence the motor speed,
however, not to the same degree. Changing the The rectifier can handle 50 Hz or 60 Hz frequencies.
frequency of the supply voltage is ideal for achieving Additionally, the incoming frequency will not
asynchronous motor speed control. To ensure correct influence the output frequency, as this is defined
motor magnetization, it is also necessary to change by the voltage/frequency pattern which is defined
the amplitude of the voltage. in the inverter. Using a frequency converter in
connection with asynchronous motors provides the
following benefits:
T

f1 f1 > f2 • The system can be used in both 50 and 60 cycle-


f2 areas without modifications
• The output frequency of the frequency converter is
independent of the incoming frequency
n • The frequency converter can supply output
Fig. 4.5.1: Displacement of motor torque characteristic
frequencies higher than mains supply frequency –
making over synchronous operation possible
Use of frequency/voltage control results in a change
in torque which, in turn, changes speed. Figure As seen in figure 4.5.2, the frequency converter
4.5.1 shows the motor torque characteristic (T) consists of three other components: An EMC filter, a
as a function of the speed (n) at two different control circuit and an inverter.
frequencies/voltages. The load characteristic of the
pump is also shown. As it appears from the figure,
the speed is changed by changing frequency/voltage Mains supply AC
of the motor.
EMC Inter-
Rectifier mediate Inverter
filter
The frequency converter changes frequency and circuit DC

voltage, so it can be concluded that the task of a


frequency converter is to change the fixed supply Control circuit

voltage/frequency; for example, 3x480v/60 Hz into


a variable voltage/frequency.
Fig. 4.5.2: Functional blocks of the frequency converter

122
The EMC filter
This block is not part of the primary function of the
frequency converter and, in principle, could be left
out. However, in order to meet EMC requirements
and local requirements, the filter is necessary. The
EMC filter prevents high noise signals from going
back to the main electric supply and disturbing
other electronic equipment connected to it. It also
ensures that noise signals in the main electric supply
generated by other equipment do not enter the
electronic devices of the frequency converter, and
cause damage or disturbances.

The control circuit


The control circuit block has two functions. It controls
the frequency converter and provides communication
between the product and the surroundings.

The inverter
The output voltage from a frequency converter is not
Vmotor
sinusoidal like the normal mains voltage. The voltage Mean value of voltage
supplied to the motor consists of a number of square- 0
wave pulses, see figure 4.5.3. The mean value of these
pulses forms a sinusoidal voltage of the desired 0
t
frequency and amplitude. The switching frequency
can range from a few kHz up to 20 kHz, depending T = 1/fm
on the brand. To avoid noise in the motor windings,
a frequency converter with a switching frequency Fig 4.5.3: AC voltage with variable frequency (fm) and
variable voltage (Vmotor)
above the range of audibility (~16 kHz) is preferable.

This principle of inverter operation is called Pulse


Width Modulation control (PWM), and it is the control
principle most often used in frequency converters 0
a b
today. The motor current itself is almost sinusoidal.
This is shown in figure 4.5.4a, indicating motor 0 * * Detail

current (top) and motor voltage. In figure 4.5.4b, a


section of the motor voltage is shown, indicating
how the pulse/pause ratio of the voltage changes.
Fig 4.5.4: a) Motor current (top) and motor voltage at Pulse
Width Modulation control. b) Section of motor voltage

123
Section 4.5
Frequency converter

4.5.3 Special conditions regarding


frequency converters a b

There are some conditions which the installer and


user should be aware of when installing and using
frequency converters or pumps with integrated
frequency converters. A frequency converter will
behave differently than a standard asynchronous
Fig 4.5.5 a): Three-phase, two- Fig 4.5.5 b): Three-phase, two-
motor at the main electirc supply side. pole standard asynchronous pole standard asynchronous
motor motor with frequency
converter
Non-sinusoidal power input, three-phase sup-
plied frequency converters
This type of frequency converter will not receive
sinusoidal current from the electrical supply. This
influences the dimensioning of the main elecrical cable,
electric switch, etc. Figure 4.5.5 shows how the current
and voltage appear for a:
a) Three-phase, two-pole standard asynchronous Standard motor Motor with frequency
converter
motor Mains voltage 460 V 460 V
b) Three-phase, two-pole standard asynchronous Mains current RMS 6.4 A 6.36 A

motor with frequency converter. Mains current, peak 9.1 A 13.8 A

In both cases the motor supplies 4.08 hp to the Power input, P1 3.68 KW 3.69 KW
cos ϕ,
shaft. power factor (PF) cosϕ = 0.83 PF = 0.86

Fig. 4.5.6: Comparison of current of a standard motor and a


A comparison of the current shows the following frequency converter
differences, see figure 4.5.6:

• The current for the system with frequency


converter is not sinusoidal
• The peak current is much higher (approx. 52%)
for the frequency converter option

This is due to the design of the frequency converter


connecting the electric supply to a rectifier followed V PF
by a capacitor. The charging of the capacitor occurs
during short time periods where the rectified voltage V
is higher than the voltage in the capacitor at that
moment. As mentioned, the non-sinusoidal current V
causes other conditions at the electric supply side of PF
(
(
the motor. For a standard motor without a frequency
converter, the relation between voltage (V), current
PF
(I) and power (P) is shown in the formula at right. The 4.93 hp
same formula cannot be applied for calculating the
power input for motors with frequency converters.

124
Because these are not sinusoidal, there is no accurate
way of calculating the power input based on simple
current and voltage measurements. Instead, the
power must be calculated by means of instruments
and on the basis of instantaneous measurements of
current and voltage.

If the power (P) and the RMS value of current and


voltage are known, the power factor (PF) can be
calculated by the formula at right.

The power factor has no direct connection with the


way in which current and voltage are displaced in
time.

When measuring the input current in connection with


installation and service of a system with a frequency
converter, it is necessary to use an instrument that
is capable of measuring “non-sinusoidal” currents. In
general, current measuring instruments for frequency
converters must be able to measure “True RMS.”

Frequency converters and earth-leakage circuit


breakers
Earth-leakage circuit breakers (ELCB) are used as extra
protection in electrical installations. If a frequency
converter is to be connected, the ELCB installed must
be able to brake. If failure occurs on the DC side of Fig 4.5.7: Labelling of the ELCB for single-phase frequency converters
the frequency converter, the ELCB must be able to
brake. To ensure that the ELCB will brake in case of
earth-leakage current, it must be labeled as shown in
figures 4.5.7 and 4.5.8

Both types of earth-leakage circuit breakers are


available on the market today. Fig 4.5.8: Labelling of the ELCB for three-phase frequency converters

125
Chapter 5. Life cycle costs calculation

Section 5.1: Life cycle costs equation

5.1.1 Initial cost, purchase price


5.1.2 Installation and commissioning costs
5.1.3 Energy costs
5.1.4 Operating costs
5.1.5 Environmental costs
5.1.6 Maintenance and repair costs
5.1.7 Downtime costs (loss of production)
5.1.8 Decommissioning or disposal costs

Section 5.2: Life cycle costs calculation – an example

Energy costs 90% Maintenance costs 2-5%

Initial costs 5-8%


Section 5.1
Life cycle costs equation

In this section the elements that make up a pump’s life


cycle costs (LCC) as well as how to calculate LCC will
be addressed. Finally, an example will be presented to
demonstrate how the LCC formula is applied.

The life cycle costs of a pump are an expression


of how much it costs to purchase, install, operate,
maintain and dispose of a pump during its lifetime.

The Hydraulic Institute, Europump and the US


Department of Energy have developed the Pump Life
Fig. 5.1.1: A guide to life cycle costs analysis for pumping systems
Cycle Costs (LCC) guide, see figure 5.1.1., This tool
was designed to help companies minimize waste
and maximize energy efficiency in different systems
including pumping systems. Life cycle cost calculations Typical life cycle costs
aid in decision making associated with design of new
or repair of existing installations.
Initial costs

The life cycle costs (LCC) consist of the following: Maintenance costs

Energy costs
Cic Initial cost, purchase price
Cin Installation and commissioning costs
Ce Energy costs
Co Operating costs including labor
Fig. 5.1.2: Typical life cycle costs of a circulating
Cenv Environmental costs system in the industry
Cm Maintenance and repair costs
Cs Downtime costs (loss of production)
Cd Decommissioning or disposal costs

In the following paragraphs, each of these elements


is described. As it appears from figure 5.1.2, energy
costs, initial costs and maintenance costs are the most
important. LCC is calculated by the following formula:

LCC = Cic + Cin + Ce + Co + Cm + Cs + Cenv + Cd

128
5.1.1 Initial cost, purchase price

The initial cost (Cic) of a pump system includes all


Control
equipment and accessories necessary to operate the Pump
panels
system, such as pumps, frequency converters, control
panels and transmitters, see figure 5.1.3.
Initial costs
Often, there is a trade-off between the initial cost
and the energy and maintenance costs. For example,
expensive components often have a longer lifetime Frequency Transmitter
or a lower energy consumption than inexpensive converter
components. Fig. 5.1.3: Equipment that makes up a pumping system

5.1.2 Installation and commissioning


costs 8000

7000

6000

The installation and commissioning costs (Cin) include 5000

the following: 4000

3000

• Installation of the pumps 2000

1000
• Foundation
0
• Connection of electrical wiring and instrumentation System 1 System 2
• Installation, connection and set-up of transmitters Initial costs 5200 7300
and frequency converters, etc
Fig. 5.1.4: Initial costs of a constant speed pump system
• Commissioning evaluation at start-up (System 1) and a controlled pump system (System 2)

As in the case for initial costs, it is important to consider


the trade-off options. Pumps with integrated frequency
converters often have components integrated in the
product. This kind of pump often has a higher initial cost
but lower installation and commissioning costs.

129
Section 5.1
Life cycle costs equation

5.1.3 Energy costs Other use


80%
In most cases, energy consumption (Ce) is the largest
cost in the life cycle costs of a pump system, where Pump systems
pumps often run more than 2000 hours per year. 20%
In fact, around 20% of the world’s electrical energy
consumption is used for pump systems, see figure
5.1.5. Some of the factors influencing the energy
consumption of a pump system includes: Fig. 5.1.5: Energy consumption worldwide

• Load profile
• Pump efficiency (calculation of the duty point,
see figure 5.1.6)
• Motor efficiency (the motor efficiency at partial
load can vary significantly between high efficiency η
[%]

motors and normal efficiency motors) New


80

• Pump sizing (often margins and round-ups tend to Existing


60

suggest oversized pumps) 40

20
• Other system components, such as pipes and
0
valves 0 22 44 66 88 110 132 154 176 198 220 242 Q [GPM]

• Use of speed-controlled solutions. By using speed-


Fig. 5.1.6: Efficiency comparison of a new and an existing�����
�������������
pump
controlled pumps in the industry, it is possible to
reduce the energy consumption by up to 50%

5.1.4 Operating costs including labor

Operating costs (Co) cover labor costs related to the


operation of a pumping system, and, in most cases,
are modest. Today, different types of surveillance
equipment allow connection of the pump system to
a computer network, lowering operating costs.

5.1.5 Environmental costs

The environmental costs (Cenv) include the disposal


of parts and contamination from the pumped liquid.
This contribution to the life cycle costs of a pumping
system in the industry is modest.

130
5.1.6 Maintenance and repair costs

Maintenance and repair costs (Cm) relate to


maintenance and repair of the pump system and
include: Labor, spare parts, transportation and
cleaning. Preventive maintenance will extend pump
life, optimize pump performance and prevent pump
breakdowns.

5.1.7 Downtime costs (loss of produc-


tion)

Downtime costs (Cs) are extremely important to pump


systems used in production processes. Production
stoppage is costly, even for a short period of time.
Though one pump may be enough for the application,
it is a good idea to install a standby pump that can
take over in the event of an unexpected failure, see
figure 5.1.7.

5.1.8 Decommissioning or disposal


costs

Depending on the pump manufacturer, decommissioning Fig. 5.1.7: A standby pump assures that production continues in
case of pump breakdown
or disposal costs (Cd ) of a pump system varies. This cost
is seldom taken into consideration when calculating
LCC.
Simplified: LCC = Cic + Ce + Cm
Calculating the life cycle costs
Cic Initial costs, purchase price
The life cycle costs of a pump system are made up of

the summation of the aforementioned components
Ce Energy costs
over the system’s lifetime. Typically, the lifetime

range is 10 to 20 years. In the pump business, life cycle
Cm Maintenance and repair costs
costs are normally calculated by a simplified formula
with fewer elements to consider. This formula is
shown at right.

131
Section 5.2
Life cycle costs calculation – an
example

The example using the LCC formula mentioned on Pump types Fixed Variable
the previous page follows: speed speed
Average power consumption kw 18.76 11.31
Operating hours per day hours 12 12
An industry needs a new water supply pump and two Working days per year days 220 220
solutions are taken into consideration: Calculation period years 10 10
Total energy consumption kwh 495,264 298,584
• A fixed speed multistage centrifugal pump Electrical power price USD/kwh .07 .07
Pump types Fixed Variable
• A variable speed multistage centrifugal pump Pump price USD 3602
speed 7204
speed
Maintenance
Average power costs
consumption USD
kw 1417
18.76 1417
11.31
Energy costs USD 33,284 20,066
According to the calculations, the variable speed Operating hours per day hours 12 12
Total costs
Working days per year USD
days 38,303
220 28,688
220
pump consumes 40% less energy than the fixed
Calculation period years 10 10
speed pump. However, the initial cost, Cic, of the Total energy
45,000consumption kwh 495,264 298,584
variable speed pump is twice that of the fixed speed Pump price
40,000
Electrical power price USD/kwh .07 .07
Maintenance costs
pump. Pump 35,000
price USD 3602 7204
Energy costs
30,000 costs
Maintenance USD 1417 1417

USD
Life cycle costs calculations will help determine which Energy25,000
costs USD 33,284 20,066
Total costs
20,000 USD 38,303 28,688
pump to install in the system. The application has
15,000
the following characteristics:
10,000
45,000
Pump price
40,000
5,000
• 12 operating hours per day 0
35,000
Maintenance costs
• 220 operating days per year Fixed speed Energy costs speed
Variable
30,000
• Lifetime of 10 years (calculation period) Fig. 5.1.8: Life cycle costs of a fixed and a variable speed pump
USD

25,000
45,000
20,000
40,000
Based on this data, it is possible to calculate the life 15,000
35,000
cycle costs of the two solutions. 10,000
30,000
5,000
25,000
USD

0
Even though the initial cost of a variable speed pump 20,000 Fixed speed Variable speed
is twice as high as a fixed speed pump, the total cost 15,000
10,000
45,000 Fixed speed
of the variable speed solution is 25% lower than the
40,000 Variable speed
5,000
fixed speed pump solution after 10 years.
0
35,000
30,000 0 2 4
Years
6 8 10
Besides the lower life cycle costs the variable speed 25,000
USD

pump provides, as discussed in chapter 4, some 20,000


operational benefits, such as constant pressure in 15,000
the system. 10,000 Fixed speed
Variable speed
5,000
The payback time of the variable speed pump 0
0 2 4 6 8 10
solution is a bit longer because the pump is more Years

expensive. As you can tell from figure 5.1.9, the Fig. 5.1.9: Payback time for a fixed and a variable speed pump
payback time is around 2½ years, and in general
industrial applications, this is considered to be a
good investment.

132
Appendix

A) Notations and units

B) Unit conversion tables

C) SI-prefixes and Greek alphabet

D) ����������������������������������������������������������������������
Vapor�����������������������������������������������������������������
pressure and specific gravity of water at different temperatures

E) Orifice

F) Change in static pressure due to change in pipe diameter

G) Nozzles

H) Nomogram for head losses in bends, valves, etc.

I) Periodical system

J) Pump standards

K) Viscosity for different liquids as a function of liquid temperature


Appendix A

Notations and units


The table below provides an overview of the most
commonly used notations and units for pumps and pump
systems.

U.S. SI
unit unit

ft
GPM gph

psi ft psi
psi ft

ft

lb ft lb gal
ft

lb ft

in
in

ft g = 32.174 ft/s
m
ft

RPM

hp 745.7 w = 1 hp

134
Appendix B

Unit conversion tables

The conversion tables for pressure and flow show the most
commonly used units for pumping systems

CONVERSION FACTORS - UNITS OF LENGTH


Examples: 2 Yards x 3 = 6 Feet x 0.333 = 1 Yard
Unit Inch Foot Yard Centimeter Meter
Inch 1 0.0833 0.0278 2.54 0.0254
Foot 12 1 0.333 30.48 0.3048
Yard 36 3 1 91.44 0.9144
Centimeters 0.3937 0.0328 0.0109 1 0.01
Meter 39.37 3.281 1.094 100 1
1 Mile = 5280 ft. = 1760 yards = 1609.3 meters = 1.61 Kilometers
1 Kilometer = 1000 meters = 1093.6 yards = .62137 miles

CONVERSION FACTORS - UNITS OF FLOW


Examples: 500 U.S. Gpm x .00144 = .72 U.S. Mgd. x 694.5 = 6945 U.S. Gpm
U.S. Imp. U.S. Mgd Imperial Cu. Ft. Cu. Meters Liters Barrels/Min. Barrels/24 Hrs.
Unit Gpm Gpm (2) Mgd (2) /Sec. /Hr. /Sec. (3) (3)
U.S. Gal./Min. 1 0.833 0.00144 0.0012 0.00223 0.227 0.0631 0.0238 34.25
Imp. Gal./Min. 1.2 1 0.00173 0.00144 0.00268 0.272 0.0757 0.0286 41.09
U.S. Mgd (2) 694.4 578.7 1 0.833 1.547 157.73 43.8 16.53 23786.6
Imperial Mgd (2) 833.4 694.5 1.2 1 1.856 189.28 52.56 19.83 28544
Cu. Ft./Sec. 448.8 374 0.646 0.538 1 101.9 28.32 10.68 15360.4
Cu. Meters/Hr. 4.403 3.67 0.00634 0.00528 0.00981 1 0.2778 0.1047 150.8
Liters/Sec. 15.85 13.21 0.0228 0.019 0.0353 3.6 1 0.377 542.86
Barrels/Min. (3) 42 34.99 0.0605 0.0504 0.0937 9.534 2.65 1 1440
Barrels/24 Hrs.(3) 0.0292 0.0243 0.000042 0.000035 0.000065 0.00662 0.00184 0.000694 1
(1) US Mgd = Million U.S. gallons per 24 hr. day. Imp Mgd = Million Imperial gallons per 24 hr. day.
(2) 42 gal. bbl.

CONVERSION FACTORS - UNITS OF PRESSURE


Examples: 15 Ft. Water x .433 = 6.49 Psi
15 Psi x 2.31 = 34.65 Ft. Water
In. Ft. In. Mm.
Water Water Psi Hg. Hg. Bar atm
In. Water 1 0.0833 0.0361 0.0736 1.87 2.538 0.0025
Ft. Water 12 1 0.433 0.883 22.43 30.45 0.0304
Psi. 27.72 2.31 1 2.04 51.816 70.31 0.0703
In. Hg. 13.596 1.133 0.4906 1 25.4 34.49 0.0345
Mm. Hg. 0.5353 0.0446 0.0193 0.03937 1 1.357 0.0014
Bar 401.86 33.49 14.503 29.54 750.5 1 0.987
atm 407.19 33.93 14.696 29.92 760 1.0133 1
Kilopascal 4.0186 0.3349 0.1451 0.2954 0.7505 — —

135
Appendix C

SI-prefixes and Greek alphabet

Factor Prefix Symbol


9
10 1,000,000,000 giga G
106 1,000,000 mega M
103 1,000 kilo k
102 100 hekto h
10 10 deka da
10-1 0.1 deci d
10-2 0.01 centi c
10-3 0.001 milli m
10-6 0.000.001 mikro µ
10-9 0.000.000.001 nano n

Greek alphabet
Alfa Α α
Beta Β β
Gamma Γ γ
Delta ∆ δ
Epsilon Ε ε
Zeta Ζ ζ
Eta Η η
Theta Θ θ
Jota Ι ι
Kappa Κ κ
Lambda Λ λ
My Μ µ
Ny Ν ν
Ksi ΚΣ κσ
Omikron Ο ο
Pi Π π
Rho Ρ ρ
Sigma Σ σ
Tau Τ τ
Ypsilon Υ υ
Fi Φ φ
Khi Χ χ
Psi Ψ ψ
Omega Ω ω

136
Appendix D

Vapor�����������������������������������������������������������������
pressure and specific gravity of water at different temperatures

This table shows the


specific gravity [sg], vapor
Properties of Water at Various Temperatures
WATER TEMPERATURE SPECIFIC GRAVITY VAPOR PRESSURE DENSITY
pressure p [psi] and the 0 0
F C PSIA FEET lb/ft3
density ρ [lb/ft3] of water 32 0 1.002 0.0886 0.204 62.400
at different temperatures 40 4.4 1.001 0.1217 0.281 62.425
t [oF]. 45 7.2 1.001 0.1474 0.340 62.420
50 10.0 1.001 0.1780 0.411 62.410
55 12.8 1.000 0.2139 0.494 62.390
60 15.6 1.000 0.2561 0.591 62.370
65 18.3 .999 0.3056 0.706 62.340
70 21.1 .999 0.3629 0.839 62.310
75 23.9 .998 0.4296 0.994 62.270
80 26.7 .998 0.5068 1.172 62.220
85 29.4 .997 0.5958 1.379 62.170
90 32.2 .996 0.6981 1.617 62.120
95 35.0 .995 0.8153 1.890 62.060
100 37.8 .994 0.9492 2.203 62.000
110 43.3 .992 1.2750 2.965 61.980
120 48.9 .990 1.6927 3.943 61.710
130 54.4 .987 2.2230 5.196 61.560
140 60.0 .985 2.8892 6.766 61.380
150 65.6 .982 3.7184 8.735 61.190
160 71.1 .979 4.7414 11.172 60.990
170 76.7 .975 5.9926 14.178 60.790
180 82.2 .972 7.5110 17.825 60.570
190 87.8 .968 9.3400 22.257 60.340
200 93.3 .964 11.5260 27.584 60.110
210 98.9 .960 14.1230 33.983 59.860
212 100.0 .959 14.6960 35.353 59.810
220 104.4 .956 17.1860 41.343 59.610
230 110.0 .952 20.7790 50.420 59.350
240 115.6 .948 24.9680 60.770 59.080
250 121.1 .943 29.8250 73.060 58.800
260 126.7 .939 35.4300 87.050 58.520
270 132.2 .933 41.8560 103.630 58.220
280 137.8 .929 49.2000 122.180 57.920
290 143.3 .924 57.5500 143.875 57.600

137
Appendix E

Orifice

Nipple orifices are typically used in boiler feed allows water to flow back to the reservoir tank. During
applications when boiler feed pumps need to discharge feed pump system design, nipple orifices are sized
built-up pressure. These boiler feed pumps operate using performance charts, like the ones shown in the
continuosly in order to provide on-demand hot water; figure below, derived from an acceptable mathematical
but when no hot water is needed, the valve to the boiler approach that assumes a constant discharge coefficient
is closed and the pump ends up operating under a (Cd) of 0.61 for all orifices in the general equation Q =
harmful shut-off condition during extended periods of 19.636 Cd d2 H0.5, where Q is in gpm, d is the nipple
time in which there will be a rise in liquid temperature orifice diameter in inches, and H is the differential head
in the pump because the input horsepower being in ft. of water.
converted to heat in the pump is not dissipated. For that
reason, in order to increase the run life of the pump and
control the temperature rise, the system is designed to
allow the feed pump to discharge its build-up pressure Orifice
size
through a bypass line in which a nipple orifice is
installed. The orifice dissipates the high pressure and

Approximate Discharge Through Bypass Nipple Orifice

1000
1/8" 3/16" 1/4" 5/16" 1/2" 1"
7/16" 7/8"
3/8" 13/16"
3/4"
11/16"
5/8"
9/16"
Head (Feet)

100

10
1 10 100 1000
Flow (GPM)

138
Appendix F

Change in static pressure due to change in pipe diameter

As described in Chapter 2.2, a change in pipe dimension results in a change in liquid velocity and consequently, a
change in dynamic and static pressure.
When head has to be determined (see page 86), the difference in the two port dimensions requires a correction
of the measured head.

Approximate Sudden Expansion Head Loss

100 d D

10
H[ft]

0.1
10 100 1000 10000
Q[GPM]

d/D=1/1.5 d/D=1.25/2 d/D=2/2.5 d/D=2/3 d/D=2.5/3 d/D=2.5/4 d/D=3/4 d/D=3/5


d/D=4/5 d/D=4/6 d/D=5/6 d/D=5/8 d/D=6/8 d/D=8/10 d/D=8/12 d/D=10/12
d/D=10/14 d/D=12/14 d/D=12/16 d/D=14/16 d/D=14/18 d/D=16/18 d/D=16/20 d/D=18/20

Approximate Sudden Contraction Head Loss


100 D d

10
H[ft]

0.1
10 100 1000 10000
Q[GPM]

139
Appendix G

Nozzles

The relationship between the nozzle diameter d [inches], Nozzle


the needed flow Q [GPM] and the required pressure before Diameter (inch)
the nozzle p [psi] is found by the nomogram below. We 1/16 1/8
assume that the nozzle has a quadratic behavior, and d / 3/16 1/4
D is less than 1/3.
n
3/8 1/2
Q1 p1
Q2 = ( )
p2
5/8

7/8 1
3/4

where n = 0.5. Some nozzles have a lower n value (check 1 1/8 1 1/4
with the supplier).
Pressure 1 3/8 1 1/2
p [psi] 1 3/4 2

2 1/4 2 1/2
Flow Nozzle diameter
D 2 3/4 3
Q [GPM] d [inch]
3 1/2 4

4 1/2 5

5 1/2 6

Approximate discharge of a nozzle


400
PSI

100

10
5
0.1 1 10 100 1000 10000 100000
Q [GPM]

140
Appendix H

Friction Loss for Water in New Sch. 40 Steel Pipe at 60° F


(Frict. loss in ft. per 100 ft. - Vel. in ft. per sec.)
1/8” (0.26 ID) 1/4” (0.36 ID) 3/8” (0.49 ID) 1/2” (0.62 ID) 3/4” (0.82 ID) 1” (1.04 ID)
gpm Vel. Frict. Vel. Frict. Vel. Frict. Vel. Frict. Vel. Frict. Vel. Frict. gpm
0.1 0.57 1.36 0.31 0.41 0.1
0.2 1.13 2.72 0.62 0.81 0.2
0.3 1.69 9.70 *** *** 0.3
0.4 2.26 16.2 1.23 3.70 0.4
0.5 2.82 24.2 *** *** 0.84 1.26 0.5
0.6 3.39 33.8 1.85 7.60 1.01 1.74 0.6
0.7 3.95 44.8 *** *** *** *** 0.7
0.8 4.52 57.4 2.47 12.7 1.34 2.89 0.8
0.9 5.08 71.6 *** *** *** *** 0.9
1.0 5.65 87.0 3.08 19.1 1.68 4.30 1.06 1.86 0.60 0.26 0.37 0.11 1.0
1.2 6.77 122 3.70 26.7 *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** 1.2
1.4 *** *** 4.32 35.3 *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** 1.4
1.5 *** *** *** *** 2.52 8.93 1.58 2.85 0.90 0.73 *** *** 1.5
1.6 *** *** 4.93 45.2 *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** 1.6
1.8 *** *** 5.55 56.4 *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** 1.8
2.0 *** *** 6.17 69.0 3.36 15.0 2.11 4.78 1.20 1.21 0.74 0.38 2.0
2.5 *** *** 7.71 105 4.20 22.6 2.64 7.16 *** *** *** *** 2.5
3.0 *** *** 9.25 148 5.04 31.8 3.17 10.0 1.81 2.50 1.11 0.78 3.0
3.5 *** *** 10.8 200 5.88 42.6 3.70 13.3 *** *** *** *** 3.5
4.0 *** *** 12.3 259 6.72 54.9 4.22 17.1 2.41 4.21 1.48 1.30 4.0
4.5 *** *** 13.9 326 7.56 68.4 4.75 21.3 *** *** *** *** 4.5
5.0 *** *** 15.4 396 8.40 83.5 5.28 29.8 3.01 6.32 1.86 1.93 5.0
5.5 *** *** *** *** 9.24 100 5.81 30.9 *** *** *** *** 5.5
6.0 *** *** *** *** 10.1 118 6.34 36.5 3.61 8.87 2.23 2.68 6.0
6.5 *** *** *** *** *** *** 6.86 42.4 *** *** *** *** 6.5
7.0 *** *** *** *** 11.8 158 7.39 48.7 4.21 11.8 2.60 3.56 7.0
7.5 *** *** *** *** *** *** 7.92 55.5 *** *** *** *** 7.5
8.0 *** *** *** *** 13.4 205 8.45 62.7 4.81 15.0 2.97 4.54 8.0
8.5 *** *** *** *** *** *** 8.98 70.3 *** *** *** *** 8.5
9.0 *** *** *** *** 15.1 258 9.50 78.3 5.42 18.8 3.34 5.65 9.0
9.5 *** *** *** *** *** *** 10.0 86.9 *** *** *** *** 9.5
10.0 *** *** *** *** 16.8 316 10.6 95.9 6.02 27.0 3.71 6.86 10.0
12 *** *** *** *** *** *** 12.7 136 7.22 32.6 4.45 9.62 12
14 *** *** *** *** *** *** 14.8 183 8.42 43.5 5.20 12.8 14
15 *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** 9.02 50.0 *** *** 15
16 *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** 9.63 56.3 5.94 16.5 16
18 *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** 10.8 70.3 6.68 20.6 18
20 *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** 12.0 86.1 7.42 25.1 20
25 *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** 15.1 134 9.27 38.7 25
30 *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** 18.1 187 11.1 54.6 30
35 *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** 13.0 73.3 35
40 *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** 14.8 95.0 40
45 *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** 16.7 119 45
50 *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** 18.6 146 50
60 *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** 22.3 209 60

141
Appendix H

Friction Loss for Water in New Sch. 40 Steel Pipe at 60° F


(Frict. loss in ft. per 100 ft. - Vel. in ft. per sec.)
1 1/4” (1.38 ID) 1 1/2” (1.61 ID) 2” (2.07 ID) 2 1/2” (2.47 ID) 3” (3.07 ID) 4” (4.07 ID)
gpm Vel. Frict. Vel. Frict. Vel. Frict. Vel. Frict. Vel. Frict. Vel. Frict. gpm
5 1.07 0.52 0.79 0.25 0.48 0.07 5
10 2.15 1.77 1.58 0.83 0.96 0.25 0.67 0.10 0.43 0.04 10
12 2.57 2.48 1.89 1.16 1.15 0.35 0.80 0.15 *** *** 12
14 3.00 3.28 2.21 1.53 1.34 0.46 0.94 0.20 *** *** 14
16 3.43 4.20 2.52 1.96 1.53 0.59 1.07 0.25 *** *** 16
18 3.86 5.25 2.84 2.42 1.72 0.73 1.21 0.31 *** *** 18
20 4.29 6.34 3.15 2.94 1.91 0.87 1.34 0.36 0.87 0.13 0.50 0.04 20
25 5.37 9.66 3.94 4.50 *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** 25
30 6.44 13.6 4.73 6.26 2.87 1.82 2.01 0.75 1.30 0.27 0.76 0.07 30
35 7.52 18.5 5.52 8.38 3.35 2.42 2.35 1.00 *** *** *** *** 35
40 8.58 23.5 6.30 10.8 3.82 3.10 2.68 1.28 1.82 0.55 1.01 0.12 40
45 9.66 29.5 7.10 13.5 4.30 3.82 3.02 1.57 *** *** *** *** 45
50 10.7 36.0 7.88 16.4 4.78 4.67 3.35 1.94 2.17 0.66 1.26 0.18 50
60 12.9 51.0 9.46 23.2 5.74 6.59 4.02 2.72 2.60 0.92 1.51 0.25 60
70 15.0 68.8 11.0 31.3 6.69 8.86 4.69 3.63 *** *** 1.76 0.33 70
80 17.2 89.2 12.6 40.5 7.65 11.4 5.36 4.66 3.47 1.57 2.02 0.42 80
90 19.3 112 14.2 51.0 8.60 14.2 6.03 5.82 *** *** 2.27 0.52 90
100 21.5 138 15.8 62.2 9.56 17.4 6.70 7.11 4.34 2.39 2.52 0.61 100
120 25.7 197 18.9 88.3 11.5 24.7 8.04 10.0 5.21 3.37 3.02 0.86 120
140 30.0 267 22.1 119 13.4 33.2 9.38 13.5 6.08 4.51 3.53 1.16 140
160 *** *** 25.2 158 15.3 43.0 10.7 17.4 6.94 5.81 4.03 1.49 160
180 *** *** 28.4 199 17.2 54.1 12.1 21.9 7.81 7.28 4.54 1.89 180
200 *** *** 31.5 241 19.1 66.3 13.4 26.7 8.68 8.90 5.04 2.27 200
220 *** *** *** *** 21.0 80.0 14.7 32.2 9.55 10.7 5.54 2.70 220
240 *** *** *** *** 22.9 95.0 16.1 38.1 10.4 12.6 6.05 3.19 240
260 *** *** *** *** 24.9 111 17.4 44.5 11.3 14.7 6.55 3.72 260
280 *** *** *** *** 26.8 128 18.8 51.3 12.2 16.9 7.06 4.28 280
300 *** *** *** *** 28.7 146 20.1 58.5 13.0 19.2 7.56 4.89 300
350 *** *** *** *** *** *** 23.5 79.2 15.2 26.3 8.82 6.55 350
400 *** *** *** *** *** *** 26.8 103 17.4 33.9 10.1 8.47 400
450 *** *** *** *** *** *** 30.2 132 19.6 43.0 11.3 10.5 450
500 *** *** *** *** *** *** 33.5 160 21.7 52.5 12.6 13.0 500
550 *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** 23.9 63.8 13.9 15.7 550
600 *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** 26.0 75.7 15.1 18.6 600
650 *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** 28.2 88.6 16.4 21.7 650
700 *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** 30.4 101 17.6 25.3 700
750 *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** 18.9 28.9 750
800 *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** 34.7 131 20.2 32.8 800
850 *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** 21.4 37.0 850
900 *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** 22.7 41.4 900
950 *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** 23.9 46.0 950
1000 *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** 25.2 50.9 1000
1100 *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** 27.7 61.4 1100
1200 *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** 30.2 72.0 1200
1400 *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** 35.3 97.6 1400

142
Appendix H

Friction Loss for Water in New Sch. 40 Steel Pipe at 60° F


(Frict. loss in ft. per 100 ft. - Vel. in ft. per sec.)
5” (5.05 ID) 6” (6.07 ID) 8” (7.98 ID) 10” (10.02 ID) 12” (11.94 ID) 14” (13.12 ID)
gpm Vel. Frict. Vel. Frict. Vel. Frict. Vel. Frict. Vel. Frict. Vel. Frict. gpm
40 0.64 0.04 40
60 0.96 0.08 60
80 1.28 0.14 80
100 1.60 0.21 1.11 0.09 100
120 1.92 0.29 1.33 0.12 120
140 2.25 0.39 1.55 0.16 140
160 2.57 0.48 1.78 0.20 160
180 2.89 0.60 2.00 0.25 1.15 0.07 180
200 3.21 0.73 2.22 0.30 1.28 0.08 200
220 3.53 0.87 2.44 0.36 1.41 0.10 220
240 3.85 1.03 2.66 0.41 1.54 0.11 240
260 4.17 1.19 2.89 0.48 1.67 0.13 260
280 4.49 1.37 3.11 0.54 1.80 0.15 280
300 4.81 1.58 3.33 0.62 1.92 0.17 1.22 0.06 300
350 5.61 2.11 3.89 0.85 2.24 0.22 1.42 0.07 350
400 6.41 2.72 4.44 1.09 2.57 0.28 1.63 0.09 400
450 7.22 3.41 5.00 1.36 2.89 0.34 1.83 0.12 450
500 8.02 4.16 5.55 1.66 3.21 0.42 2.03 0.14 1.43 0.06 500
550 8.81 4.94 6.11 1.97 3.53 0.50 2.24 0.17 1.58 0.07 550
600 9.62 5.88 6.66 2.33 3.85 0.59 2.44 0.20 1.72 0.08 600
700 11.2 7.93 7.77 3.13 4.49 0.79 2.85 0.25 2.01 0.11 700
800 12.8 10.2 8.88 4.04 5.13 1.01 3.25 0.33 2.29 0.14 1.90 0.09 800
900 14.4 12.9 9.99 5.08 5.77 1.27 3.66 0.41 2.58 0.18 2.14 0.11 900
1000 16.0 15.8 11.1 6.23 6.41 1.55 4.07 0.49 2.87 0.21 2.37 0.13 1000
1100 *** *** 12.2 7.49 7.05 1.86 4.48 0.59 3.15 0.25 2.61 0.16 1100
1200 19.2 22.5 13.3 8.87 7.70 2.20 4.88 0.70 3.44 0.29 2.85 0.18 1200
1300 *** *** 14.4 10.4 8.34 2.56 5.29 0.81 3.73 0.34 3.08 0.21 1300
1400 22.5 30.4 15.5 12.0 8.98 2.96 5.70 0.94 4.01 0.39 3.32 0.24 1400
1500 *** *** 16.7 13.7 9.62 3.38 6.10 1.07 4.30 0.44 3.56 0.28 1500
1600 25.7 39.5 17.8 15.6 10.3 3.83 6.51 1.21 4.59 0.50 3.80 0.31 1600
1700 *** *** 18.9 17.5 10.9 4.29 6.92 1.38 4.87 0.57 4.03 0.35 1700
1800 28.8 49.7 20.0 19.6 11.5 4.81 7.32 1.52 5.16 0.64 4.27 0.39 1800
1900 *** *** 21.1 21.8 12.2 5.31 7.73 1.68 5.45 0.70 4.51 0.43 1900
2000 32.1 61.0 22.2 24.1 12.8 5.91 8.14 1.86 5.73 0.78 4.74 0.48 2000
2500 *** *** 27.7 37.2 16.0 8.90 10.2 2.86 7.17 1.19 5.93 0.73 2500
3000 *** *** *** *** 19.2 12.8 12.2 4.06 8.60 1.68 7.12 1.04 3000
3500 *** *** *** *** 22.4 17.5 14.2 5.46 10.0 2.25 8.30 1.40 3500
4000 *** *** *** *** 25.7 22.0 16.3 7.07 11.5 2.92 9.49 1.81 4000
4500 *** *** *** *** *** *** 18.3 8.91 12.9 3.65 10.7 2.27 4500
5000 *** *** *** *** *** *** 20.3 11.0 14.3 4.47 11.9 2.79 5000
6000 *** *** *** *** *** *** 24.4 15.9 17.2 6.39 14.2 4.00 6000
7000 *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** 20.1 8.63 16.6 5.37 7000
8000 *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** 22.9 11.2 19.0 6.98 8000
9000 *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** 21.4 8.79 9000
10000 *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** 23.7 10.8 10000

143
Appendix H

Friction Loss for Water in New Sch. 40 Steel Pipe at 60° F


(Frict. loss in ft. per 100 ft. - Vel. in ft. per sec.)
16” (15.00 ID) 16” (15.00 ID) 20” (18.81) 24” (22.62 ID) 30” (29.00 ID)* 36” (35.00 ID)*
gpm Vel. Frict. Vel. Frict. Vel. Frict. Vel. Frict. Vel. Frict. Vel. Frict. gpm
1000 1.82 0.07 1000
1500 2.72 0.14 1500
2000 3.63 0.25 2.87 0.14 2.31 0.08 2000
2500 4.54 0.38 3.59 0.21 2.89 0.12 2500
3000 5.45 0.54 4.30 0.30 3.46 0.17 2.39 0.07 3000
3500 6.35 0.72 5.02 0.40 4.04 0.23 2.79 0.09 3500
4000 7.26 0.92 5.74 0.51 4.62 0.30 3.19 0.12 1.94 0.03 4000
4500 8.17 1.15 6.45 0.64 5.19 0.37 3.59 0.15 *** *** 4500
5000 9.08 1.41 7.17 0.78 5.77 0.46 3.99 0.18 2.43 0.05 1.58 0.02 5000
6000 10.9 2.01 8.61 1.11 6.92 0.65 4.79 0.26 2.91 0.08 1.89 0.03 6000
7000 12.7 2.69 10.0 1.49 8.08 0.86 5.59 0.34 3.40 0.10 2.21 0.04 7000
8000 14.5 3.49 11.5 1.93 9.23 1.11 6.38 0.44 3.89 0.13 2.52 0.04 8000
9000 16.3 4.38 12.9 2.42 10.4 1.39 7.18 0.55 4.37 0.16 2.84 0.06 9000
10,000 18.2 5.38 14.3 2.97 11.5 1.70 7.98 0.67 4.86 0.20 3.15 0.07 10,000
12,000 21.8 7.69 17.2 4.21 13.8 2.44 9.58 0.96 5.83 0.28 3.78 0.09 12,000
14,000 25.4 10.4 20.1 5.69 16.2 3.29 11.2 1.29 6.80 0.37 4.41 0.13 14,000
16,000 29.0 13.5 22.9 7.41 18.5 4.26 12.8 1.67 7.77 0.48 5.04 0.16 16,000
18,000 *** *** 25.8 9.33 20.8 5.35 14.4 2.10 8.74 0.60 5.67 0.20 18,000
20,000 *** *** 28.7 11.5 23.1 6.56 16.0 2.58 9.71 0.73 6.30 0.25 20,000
25,000 *** *** *** *** 28.9 10.2 20.0 4.04 12.1 1.13 7.88 0.38 25,000
30,000 *** *** *** *** 34.6 14.6 23.9 5.68 14.6 1.61 9.46 0.54 30,000
35,000 *** *** *** *** *** *** 27.9 7.73 17.0 2.17 11.0 0.72 35,000
40,000 *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** 19.4 2.83 12.6 0.94 40,000
50,000 *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** 15.8 1.45 50,000
Note:
1. Table based on Darcy-Weisback formula; with no allowance for age, differences in diameter, or any other
abnormal condition of interior surface. Any Factor of Safety must be estimated from the local conditions and
the requirements of each particular installation. For general purposes, 15% is a reasonable Factor of Safety.
2. The friction loss data is based on seamless Sch. 40 steel pipe. Cast iron (CI) pipe has a slightly larger ID than
steel pipe in the 3” to 12” dia. range, which generally makes no practical difference with respect to water
supply pumping problems.
3. Ductile Iron (DI) has a larger ID than both Sch. 40 steel and CI pipes for the same nominal diameter. Friction
Losses in DI pipe can be approximated by multiplying the tabulated value by .75 in the 4” to 12” size range
and .60 for 14” and larger sizes.
4. Velocity head values are not included in the table, as they are normally not considered as a component of
Total Head (TH) calculations to solve water supply pumping problem. Velocity and Velocity head can be
calculated using the following formulas:
Vel. (fps) = gpm (.410)/(ID) 2 = gpm (.321)/Area (in. 2); where: Area (in 2) = π (ID) 2/4
Vel. Head (ft.) = (Vel.) 2 /2g = (Vel.) 2/64.4
5. Velocity within column (vertical drop/riser pipe) should be kept within the range of 4 - 15 fps (5.0 fps is optimum).
Velocity within horizontal distribution piping should be kept within the range of 1 - 6 fps (3.0 fps is optimum).
6. Tabulated friction loss values are calculated based on water at 60°F and a kinematic viscosity = 0.00001217 ft
/sec. (31.2 SSU). Correct tabulated values for fluid temperatures other than 60°F as following:
Temp (°F) 32 40 50 60 80 100 150 200 212
Correction factor 1.20 1.10 1.00 1.00 1.00 .95 .90 .85 .80
* The ID value specified for 30” and 36” sizes are for Sch. 20 pipe. Sch. 40 pipe is not available in diameters
greater than 24”

144
Appendix H

Friction Loss for Water in New Type L. Copper Tubing and Sch. 40 PVC Pipe
(Frict. loss in ft. per 100 ft. - Vel. in ft. per sec.)
Tubing Pipe Tubing Pipe
1/2” .545” ID .622” ID 3/4” .785” ID .824” ID
gpm Vel. Frict. Vel. Frict. gpm Vel. Frict. Vel. Frict.
0.5 0.69 0.75 0.52 0.40 1 0.66 0.44 0.60 0.35
1.0 1.38 2.45 1.04 1.28 2 1.33 1.44 1.21 1.16
1.5 2.06 4.93 1.57 2.58 3 1.99 2.91 1.81 2.34
2.0 2.75 8.11 2.09 4.24 4 2.65 4.81 2.42 3.86
2.5 3.44 11.98 2.61 6.25 5 3.31 7.11 3.02 5.71
3.0 4.12 16.48 3.13 8.59 6 3.98 9.80 3.62 7.86
3.5 4.81 21.61 3.66 11.25 7 4.64 12.86 4.23 10.32
4.0 5.50 27.33 4.18 14.22 8 5.30 16.28 4.83 13.07
4.5 6.19 33.65 4.70 17.50 9 5.96 20.06 5.44 16.10
5.0 6.87 40.52 5.22 21.07 10 6.92 24.19 6.04 19.41
6.0 8.25 56.02 6.26 29.09 11 7.29 28.66 6.64 22.99
7.0 9.62 73.69 7.31 38.23 12 7.95 33.47 7.25 26.84
8.0 11.0 93.50 8.35 48.47 13 8.61 38.61 7.85 30.96
9.0 12.4 115.4 9.40 59.79 14 9.27 44.07 8.45 35.33
10.0 13.8 139.4 10.4 72.16 15 9.94 49.86 9.05 39.97
12.0 12.6 115.6 16 10.60 55.97 9.65 44.86
14.0 14.7 157.4 17 11.25 62.39 10.25 50.00
16.0 18 11.92 69.13 10.85 55.40
Tubing Pipe Tubing Pipe
1” 1.03” ID 1.05” ID 1 1/4” 1.27” ID 1.38” ID
gpm Vel. Frict. Vel. Frict. gpm Vel. Frict. Vel. Frict.
2 0.78 0.41 0.72 0.35 5 1.28 0.74 1.09 0.51
3 1.17 0.82 1.08 0.70 6 1.53 1.01 1.31 0.70
4 1.56 1.35 1.45 1.14 7 1.79 1.32 1.53 0.91
5 1.95 2.00 1.81 1.69 8 2.04 1.67 1.75 1.15
6 2.34 2.75 2.17 2.32 9 2.30 2.06 1.96 1.42
7 2.72 3.60 2.53 3.04 10 2.55 2.48 2.18 1.71
8 3.11 4.56 2.89 3.85 12 3.06 3.42 2.62 2.35
9 3.50 5.61 3.25 4.74 15 3.83 5.07 3.27 3.49
10 3.89 6.76 3.61 5.71 20 5.10 8.46 4.36 5.81
12 4.67 9.33 4.34 7.88 25 6.38 12.59 5.46 8.65
14 5.45 12.27 5.05 10.36 30 7.65 17.44 6.55 11.98
16 6.22 15.56 5.78 13.13 35 8.94 23.00 7.65 15.79
18 7.00 19.20 6.50 16.20 40 10.2 29.24 8.74 20.06
20 7.78 23.18 7.22 19.55 45 11.5 36.15 9.83 24.80
25 9.74 34.56 9.03 29.15 50 12.8 43.71 10.9 29.98
30 11.68 47.96 10.84 40.43 60 15.3 60.78 13.1 41.66
35 13.61 63.31 12.65 53.37 70 17.9 80.38 15.3 55.07
40 15.55 80.58 14.45 67.90 80 20.4 102.5 17.5 70.16

145
Appendix H

Friction Loss for Water in New Type L. Copper Tubing and Sch. 40 PVC Pipe
(Frict. loss in ft. per 100 ft. - Vel. in ft. per sec.)
Tubing Pipe Tubing Pipe
1 1/2” 1.51” ID 1.61” ID 2” 1.98” ID 2.07” ID
gpm Vel. Frict. Vel. Frict. gpm Vel. Frict. Vel. Frict.
8 1.44 0.73 1.27 0.55 16 1.66 0.66 1.53 0.55
9 1.62 0.90 1.43 0.67 18 1.87 0.82 1.72 0.68
10 1.80 1.08 1.59 0.81 20 2.07 0.98 1.92 0.82
12 2.16 1.49 1.91 1.12 25 2.59 1.46 2.39 1.22
15 2.70 2.21 2.39 1.65 30 3.11 2.01 2.87 1.68
20 3.60 3.68 3.19 2.75 35 3.62 2.65 3.35 2.21
25 4.51 5.48 3.98 4.09 40 4.14 3.36 3.83 2.80
30 5.41 7.58 4.78 5.65 45 4.66 4.15 4.30 3.46
35 6.31 9.99 5.58 7.45 50 5.17 5.01 4.80 4.17
40 7.21 12.68 6.37 9.45 60 6.21 6.95 5.75 5.79
45 8.11 15.67 7.16 11.68 70 7.25 9.16 6.70 7.63
50 9.01 18.94 7.96 14.11 80 8.28 11.65 7.65 9.70
60 10.8 26.30 9.56 19.59 90 9.31 14.41 8.61 12.00
70 12.6 34.74 11.2 25.87 100 10.4 17.43 9.57 14.51
80 14.4 44.24 12.8 32.93 110 11.4 20.71 10.5 17.24
90 16.2 54.78 14.4 40.76 120 12.4 24.25 11.5 20.18
100 18.0 66.34 15.9 79.34 130 13.4 28.04 12.5 23.33
110 19.8 78.90 17.5 58.67 140 14.5 32.07 13.4 26.69
Tubing Pipe Tubing Pipe
2 1/2” 2.46” ID 2.47” ID 3” 2.95” ID 3.07” ID
gpm Vel. Frict. Vel. Frict. gpm Vel. Frict. Vel. Frict.
20 1.34 0.35 1.31 0.33 20 0.94 0.15 0.87 0.13
25 1.68 0.52 1.63 0.49 30 1.41 0.31 1.30 0.25
30 2.02 0.72 1.96 0.67 40 1.88 0.51 1.74 0.42
35 2.35 0.94 2.29 0.88 50 2.35 0.76 2.17 0.63
40 2.69 1.19 2.61 1.12 60 2.82 1.05 2.61 0.87
45 3.02 1.47 2.94 1.38 70 3.29 1.38 3.04 1.15
50 3.36 1.77 3.26 1.66 80 3.76 1.75 3.48 1.45
60 4.03 2.46 3.92 2.30 90 4.23 2.16 3.91 1.80
70 4.70 3.24 4.57 3.03 100 4.70 2.61 4.35 2.17
80 5.37 4.12 5.22 3.85 110 5.17 3.10 4.79 2.57
90 6.04 5.08 5.88 4.75 120 5.64 3.63 5.21 3.01
100 6.71 6.15 6.53 5.74 130 6.11 4.19 5.65 3.47
110 7.38 7.30 7.19 6.82 140 6.58 4.79 6.09 3.97
120 8.05 8.54 7.84 7.92 150 7.05 5.42 6.52 4.50
130 8.73 9.87 8.49 9.22 160 7.52 6.09 6.95 5.05
140 9.40 11.28 9.14 10.54 170 7.99 6.80 7.39 5.64
150 10.1 12.78 9.79 11.94 180 8.46 7.54 7.82 6.25
160 10.8 14.36 10.45 13.42 190 8.93 8.32 8.25 6.89
170 11.4 16.03 11.1 14.98 200 9.40 9.13 8.70 7.56
180 12.1 17.79 11.8 16.61 220 10.3 10.85 9.56 8.99
190 12.8 19.62 12.4 18.33 240 11.3 12.70 10.40 10.52
200 13.4 21.54 13.1 20.12 260 12.2 14.69 11.3 12.17
220 14.8 25.61 14.4 23.93 280 13.2 16.81 12.2 13.93
240 16.1 30.01 15.7 28.03 300 14.1 19.06 13.0 15.79

146
Appendix H

Friction Loss for Water in New Type L. Copper Tubing and Sch. 40 PVC Pipe
(Frict. loss in ft. per 100 ft. - Vel. in ft. per sec.)
Tubing Pipe Tubing Pipe
3 1/2” 3.43” ID 3.55” ID 4” 3.91” ID 4.63” ID
gpm Vel. Frict. Vel. Frict. gpm Vel. Frict. Vel. Frict.
60 2.09 0.51 2.00 0.46 100 2.68 0.68 2.55 0.60
70 2.44 0.67 2.33 0.60 110 2.94 0.80 2.81 0.71
80 2.78 0.85 2.66 0.77 120 3.21 0.94 3.06 0.83
90 3.13 1.05 3.00 0.95 130 3.48 1.08 3.31 0.96
100 3.48 1.27 3.33 1.14 140 3.74 1.23 3.57 1.10
110 3.82 1.50 3.67 1.35 150 4.01 1.40 3.83 1.25
120 4.18 1.76 4.00 1.58 160 4.28 1.57 4.08 1.39
130 4.52 2.03 4.33 1.83 170 4.55 1.75 4.33 1.56
140 4.87 2.32 4.66 2.09 180 4.81 1.94 4.58 1.73
150 5.21 2.62 5.00 2.36 190 5.08 2.14 4.84 1.91
160 5.56 2.95 5.33 2.66 200 5.35 2.35 5.10 2.09
170 5.91 3.29 5.66 2.96 220 5.89 2.79 5.61 2.48
180 6.26 3.64 6.00 3.28 240 6.42 3.26 6.12 2.90
190 6.60 4.02 6.33 3.62 260 6.95 3.77 6.63 3.36
200 6.95 4.41 6.66 3.97 280 7.49 4.31 7.14 3.84
220 7.65 5.24 7.33 4.72 300 8.02 4.88 7.65 4.35
240 8.35 6.13 8.00 5.52 350 9.36 6.46 8.92 5.75
260 9.05 7.09 8.66 6.39 400 10.7 8.23 10.2 7.33
280 9.74 8.11 9.33 7.30 450 12.0 10.20 11.5 9.08
300 10.4 9.19 10.0 8.28 500 13.4 12.36 12.8 11.00
350 12.2 12.16 11.7 10.95 550 14.7 14.71 14.1 13.09
400 13.9 15.51 13.3 13.97 600 16.0 17.24 15.3 15.35
450 15.6 19.23 15.0 17.32 650 17.4 19.96 16.6 17.77
500 17.4 23.32 16.7 20.99 700 18.7 22.86 17.9 20.35
Note: 1. The friction losses listed under the pipe heading is approximately valid for Regular Weight Copper and
Brass Pipe, in addition to Sch. 40 PVC Pipe
2. Table based on Darcy - Weisback formula
3. No allowance has been made for age, difference in diameter, or any abnormal condition of interior
surface. Any factor of safety must be estimated from the local conditions and the requirements of each
particular installation. It is recommended that for most commercial design purposes a safety factor of
15 to 20% be added to the values in the tables.

147
Appendix H

Friction Losses Through Pipe Valves and Fittings


(Straight Pipe in Feet - Equivalent Length)

GLOBE ANGLE CHECK ORDINARY MEDIUM LONG


SIZE OF GATE VALVE VALVE- VALVE- VALVE- ENTRANCE STD. SWEEP SWEEP
PIPE WIDE 1/4 1/2 3/4 WIDE WIDE WIDE TO PIPE 90° 90° 90°
(inches) OPEN CLOSED CLOSED CLOSED OPEN OPEN OPEN LINES ELBOW ELBOW ELBOW
1/8” .14 .85 5.0 19 9 5 2.0 .46 .74 .65 .50
1/4” .21 1.25 7.0 26 12 6 3.0 .60 1.0 .86 .70
3/8” .27 1.80 9.0 36 16 8 4.0 .75 1.4 1.15 .90
1/2” .33 2.10 12.0 44 18 9 5.0 .90 1.6 1.50 1.10
3/4” .46 2.9 14.0 59 23 12 6.0 1.4 2.3 2.0 1.5
1” .61 3.4 18.0 70 29 15 7.0 1.6 2.7 2.5 2.0
1 1/4” .79 4.8 24.0 96 38 20 9.0 2.5 3.6 3.5 2.5
1 1/2” .93 5.6 28.0 116 46 23 11.0 3.0 4.5 4.0 2.9
2” 1.21 7.0 36.0 146 58 29 15.0 3.5 5.4 5.0 3.6
2 1/2” 1.39 8.4 41.0 172 69 35 17.0 4.0 6.5 6.0 4.4
3” 1.69 10.0 52.0 213 86 43 21.0 5.0 8.5 7.0 5.5
4” 2.40 14.0 70.0 285 116 57 27.0 6.5 12.0 9.5 7.2
6” 3.40 20.0 105 425 175 86 39. 9.5 17. 15. 11.2
8” 4.40 26.5 136 555 225 115 53. 14. 22. 19. 15.3
10” 5.70 33.5 172 703 285 141 65. 16. 27. 23. 18.2
12” 6.80 40.6 196 815 336 166 78. 18. 33. 27. 20.2
14” 8.20 48.5 233 978 395 195 92. 21. 37. 31. 23.3
16” 9.10 53.0 274 1110 435 220 106. 26. 43. 36. 27.5
Use the smaller diameter in the column for pipe size.
d Smaller diameter
=
D Larger diameter
ABRUPT CONTRACTION ABRUPT ENLARGEMENT
SIZE OF SQUARE CLOSED d d d d d d
PIPE 45° 90° RETURN STD. STD. D D D D D D
(inches) ELBOW ELBOW BENDS TEE TEE 1/4 1/2 3/4 1/4 1/2 3/4
1/8” .40 1.6 2.0 .50 1.6 .40 .30 .16 .74 .46 .16
1/4” .50 2.3 3.0 .70 2.3 .50 .40 .22 1.0 .62 .22
3/8” .65 3.0 4.0 .90 3.0 .65 .50 .29 1.4 .83 .29
1/2” .80 4.0 5.0 1.10 4.0 .80 .60 .36 1.6 1.2 .36
3/4” 1.0 5.0 6.0 1.5 5.0 1.0 .80 .48 2.3 1.4 .48
1” 1.5 6.0 7.0 2.0 6.0 1.5 1.0 .62 2.7 1.6 .62
1 1/4” 1.7 8.0 9.0 2.5 8.0 1.7 1.4 .83 3.6 2.3 .83
1 1/2” 2.0 9.5 11.0 2.9 9.5 2.0 1.6 .97 4.5 2.7 .97
2” 2.5 13.0 14.0 3.6 13.0 2.5 2.0 1.30 5.4 3.5 1.30
2 1/2” 3.0 15.0 16.0 4.4 15.0 3.0 2.5 1.50 6.5 4.0 1.50
3” 4.0 18.0 19.0 5.5 18.0 4.0 2.9 1.80 8.0 4.8 1.80
4” 5.0 23.0 25.0 7.2 23.0 5.0 4.0 2.40 12.0 6.4 2.40
6” 8.0 34.0 40.0 11.2 34.0 8.0 5.9 3.60 17.0 10.5 3.60
Section 7

8” 11.0 44.0 50.0 15.3 44.0 11.0 7.6 4.50 22.0 14.2 4.50
10” 14.0 57.0 60.0 18.2 57.0 14.0 10.2 5.70 27.0 16.5 6.80
12” 16.0 66.0 72.0 20.2 66.0 16.0 12.3 6.70 33.0 18.4 7.50
14” 18.0 79.0 84.0 23.3 79.0 18.0 14.3 8.20 37.0 22.3 9.00
16” 20.0 88.0 99.0 27.5 88.0 20.0 15.4 9.30 43.0 25.5 10.20
Note: 1. 1/8” to 12” nominal sizes are based on standard steel pipe, 14” to 24” sizes are ID pipe.
2. Friction losses are based on screwed connection from 1/8” to 4” sizes and flanged connections from 6” to 24”

7-21

148
Appendix H

Typical Check Valve Friction Loss Chart

Typical Surface Plate / 90° Discharge Elbow Friction Loss Chart

SURFACE PLATE / 90° DISCHARGE FRICTION LOSS CHART

149
Appendix H

Steel Pipe Friction Loss & Velocity Chart

Note: Above chart indicates average values for standard weight steel pipe. Hazen - Williams roughness constant
(C) = 140.

Equivalent Pipe Capacity Comparison


Smaller Pipe Size
Main
(Number of smaller pipes required to provide carrying capacity equal to a larger pipe)
Size
3/4” 1” 2” 3” 4” 6” 8” 10”
2” 13 6 1
3” 39 18 2 1
4” 84 39 6 2 1
6” 247 115 18 6 2 1
8” 530 247 39 13 6 2 1
10” 957 447 71 24 11 3 1 1
12” 724 115 39 18 6 2 1
14” 1,090 174 59 27 9 4 2
16” 247 84 39 13 6 3
18” 338 115 53 18 8 4
20” 447 153 71 24 11 6
Section 7

NOTE: Comparing the ratio of the square of diameters will provide the capacity equivalent relationship (ie. how
many 12” lines will be required to equal the capacity of a 16” line? - (16 ) / (12 ) = 1.77 or 2 - 12” lines

150
Appendix I

Periodic system

1 2
H He
Hydrogen Helium

3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Li Be B C N O F Ne
Lithium Beryllium Boron Carbon Nitrogen Oxygen Fluorine Neon

11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
Na Mg Al Si P S Cl Ar
Sodium Magnesium Aluminium Silicon Phosphorus Sulphur Chlorine Argon

19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36
K Ca Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se Br Kr
Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese Iron Cobalt Nickel Copper Zinc Gallium Germanium Arsenic Selenium Bromine Krypton

37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54
Rb Sr Y Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh Pd Ag Cd In Sn Sb Te I Xe
Rubidium Strontium Yttrium Zirconium Niobium Molybdenum Technetium Ruthenium Rhodium Palladium Silver Cadmium Indium Tin Antimony Tellurium Iodine Xenon

55 56 57 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86
Cs Ba La Hf Ta W Re Os Ir Pt Au Hg Tl Pb Bi Po At Rn
Caesium Barium Lutetium Hafnium Tantalum Tungsten Rhenium Osmium Iridium Platinum Gold Mercury Thallium Lead Bismuth Polonium Astatine Radon

87 88 89 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118
Fr Ra Ac Rf Db Sg Bh Hs Mt Ds Rg Uub Uut UUq UUp UUh UUs UUd
Francium Radium Actinium Rutherfordium Dubnium Seaborgium Bohrium Hassium Meitnerium Damstadtium Roentgenium Ununbium Ununtrium Ununquadium

58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71
Ce Pr Nd Pm Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb Lu
Cerium Praseodymium Neodymium Promethium Samarium Europium Gadolinium Terbium Dysprosium Holmium Erbium Thulium Ytterbium Lutetium

90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103


Th Pa U Np Pu Am Cm Bk Cf Es Fm Md No Lr
Thorium Protactinium Uranium Neptunium Plutonium Americium Curium Berkelium Californium Einsteinium Fernium Mendelevium Nobelium Lawrencium

151
Appendix J

Pump standards

Pump standards:
ASME B73.1-2001 Specifications for horizontal end suction centrifugal pumps for chemical
process
ASME B73.2-2003 Specifications for vertical in-line centrifugal pumps for chemical process
EN 733 End-suction centrifugal pumps, rating with 145.03 psi with bearing bracket
EN 22858 End-suction centrifugal pumps (rating 232.06 psi) - Designation, nominal
duty point and dimensions

Pump-related standards:
ANSI/HI 1.6 Centrifugal tests; detailed procedures on the setup and conduction of
hydrostatic and performance tests
ANSI/HI 1.3 Rotodynamic (centrifugal) pump applications; the standard cover the design
and application of centrifugal pumps, pump classifications,
impeller types, casing configurations, mechanical features, performance,
selection criteria, and noise levels
ISO 3661 End-suction centrifugal pumps - Base plate and installation dimensions
EN 12756 Mechanical seals - Principal dimensions, designation and material codes
EN 1092 Flanges and their joints - Circular flanges for pipes, valves, fittings and
accessories, PN-designated
ISO 7005 Metallic flanges
DIN 24296 Pumps, and pump units for liquids: Spare parts

Specifications, etc:
ASME/ANSI B16.5-1996 Pipe flanges and flanged fittings
ISO 9905 Technical specifications for centrifugal pumps - Class 1
ISO 5199 Technical specifications for centrifugal pumps - Class 2
ISO 9908 Technical specifications for centrifugal pumps - Class 3
ISO 9906 Rotodynamic pumps - Hydraulic performance tests -Grades 1 and 2
EN 10204 Metallic products - Types of inspection documents
ISO/FDIS 10816 Mechanical vibration - Evaluation of machine vibration by
measurements on non-rotating parts

Motor standards:
Nema MG 1-2007 Information guide for general purpose industrial AC small and medium
squirrel-cage induction motor standards
EN 60034/IEC 34 Rotating electrical machines

152
Appendix K

Viscosity of typical liquids as a Viscosity


function of liquid temperature
Kinematic viscosity is measured in centiStokes [cSt]
The graph shows the viscosity of typical liquids (1 cSt = 10-6 m2/s). The unit [SSU] Saybolt Universal
at different temperatures. As it appears from the is also used in connection with kinematic viscosity.
graph, the viscosity decreases when the temperature The graph below shows the relationship between
increases. kinematic viscosity in [cSt] and viscosity in [SSU]. The
SAE-number is also indicated in the graph.

For kinematic viscosity above 60 cSt, the Saybolt


Universal viscosity is calculated by the following
cSt formula: [SSU] = 4.62 . [cSt]
10000
8
V The densities shown in
6 the graph are for 68° F
4
Glycerol Kinematic viscosity Sekunder Saybolt
ρ: 1260 centiStokes cSt Universal SSU
2 1

1000 2 32
8 35
3
6
4
4 40
Silicone oil 5
Fuel oil
2 50
Olive oil 10
ρ: 900
Cottonseed oil
100 ρ: 900
8 Fruit juice 20 100
6 ρ: 1000
Heavy 30
ρ: 980
4 40 200
50 SAE no.
Mean
Spindle oil 300 o
( at 68 F)
2 ρ: 955
ρ: 850
400
Gas and 100
diesel oil 500
10 ρ: 880 Light SAE 10
8 ρ: 930

6 200 1000
Silicone oil ρ: 1000
SAE 20
4 Milk ρ: 1030 300
Petroleum
ρ: 800 400 2000
Aniline ρ: 1030
500
2 SAE 30
3000
4000 SAE 40
Ethyl Alkohol ρ: 770 1000
1.0 5000
8 SAE 50
Silicone oil
6 Petrol ρ: 750
Water ρ: 1000 2000 10000 SAE 60
4 Acetone ρ: 790 Acetic acid
ρ: 1050
3000
Ether ρ: 700 SAE 70
4000 20000
2
5000
Mercury ρ: 13570 30000
0.1 t
40000
- 10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100°C 10000 50000

20000 100000
30000
40000 200000
50000

100000

153
Appendix K

Ethylene glycol

Density of Aqueous Solutions of Ethylene Glycol


Concentrations in Volume Percent Ethylene Glycol
Temp.,
°F 10% 20% 30% 40% 50%
-30 - - - - 68.12
-20 - - - - 68.05
-10 - - - 67.04 64.98
0 - - - 66.97 67.90
10 - - 65.93 66.89 67.80
20 - 64.83 65.85 66.80 67.70
30 63.69 64.75 65.76 66.70 67.59
40 63.61 64.66 65.66 66.59 67.47
50 63.52 64.56 65.55 66.47 67.34
60 63.42 64.45 65.43 66.34 67.20
70 63.31 64.33 65.30 66.20 67.05
80 63.19 64.21 65.17 66.05 66.90
90 63.07 64.07 65.02 65.90 66.73
100 62.93 63.93 64.86 65.73 66.55
110 62.97 63.77 64.70 65.56 66.37
120 62.63 63.61 64.52 65.37 66.17
130 62.47 63.43 64.34 65.18 65.97
140 62.30 63.25 64.15 64.98 65.75
150 62.11 63.06 63.95 64.76 65.53
160 61.92 62.86 63.73 64.54 65.30
170 61.72 62.64 63.51 64.31 65.05
180 61.51 62.42 63.28 64.07 64.80
190 61.29 62.19 63.04 63.82 64.54
200 61.06 61.95 62.79 63.56 64.27
210 60.82 61.71 62.53 63.29 63.99
220 60.57 61.45 62.27 63.01 63.70
230 60.31 61.18 61.99 62.72 63.40
240 60.05 60.90 61.70 62.43 63.10
250 59.77 60.62 61.40 62.12 62.78
Note: Density in lb/ft3.

Viscosity of Aqueous Solutions of Ethylene Glycol


Concentrations in Volume Percent Ethylene Glycol
Temp.,
°F 10% 20% 30% 40% 50%
-30 - - - - 0.0428
-20 - - - - 0.0271
-10 - - - 0.0132 0.0183
0 - - - 0.0092 0.0130
10 - - 0.0046 0.0068 0.0096
20 - 0.0026 0.0036 0.0052 0.0073
30 0.0015 0.0021 0.0029 0.0041 0.0057
40 0.0012 0.0017 0.0024 0.0033 0.0045
50 0.0010 0.0015 0.0020 0.0027 0.0037
60 0.0009 0.0012 0.0017 0.0023 0.0031
70 0.0008 0.0011 0.0014 0.0019 0.0026
80 0.0007 0.0009 0.0012 0.0017 0.0022
90 0.0006 0.0008 0.0011 0.0014 0.0019
100 0.0006 0.0007 0.0009 0.0013 0.0016
110 0.0005 0.0007 0.0008 0.0011 0.0014
120 0.0005 0.0006 0.0007 0.0010 0.0012
130 0.0004 0.0005 0.0007 0.0009 0.0011
140 0.0004 0.0005 0.0006 0.0008 0.0010
150 0.0004 0.0005 0.0006 0.0007 0.0009
160 0.0003 0.0004 0.0005 0.0006 0.0008
170 0.0003 0.0004 0.0005 0.0006 0.0007
180 0.0003 0.0004 0.0004 0.0005 0.0006
190 0.0003 0.0003 0.0004 0.0005 0.0006
200 0.0002 0.0003 0.0004 0.0005 0.0005
210 0.0002 0.0003 0.0003 0.0004 0.0005
220 0.0002 0.0003 0.0003 0.0004 0.0004
230 0.0002 0.0003 0.0003 0.0004 0.0004
240 0.0002 0.0002 0.0003 0.0003 0.0004
250 0.0002 0.0002 0.0003 0.0003 0.0003

154
Appendix K

Propylene glycol

Density of Aqueous Solutions of Propylene Glycol


Concentrations in Volume Percent Propylene Glycol
Temp.,
°F 10% 20% 30% 40% 50%
-30 - - - - -
-20 - - - - 66.46
-10 - - - - 66.35
0 - - - 65.71 66.23
10 - - 65.00 65.60 66.11
20 - 64.23 64.90 65.48 65.97
30 63.38 64.14 64.79 65.35 65.82
40 63.30 64.03 64.67 65.21 65.67
50 63.20 63.92 64.53 65.06 65.50
60 63.10 63.79 64.39 64.90 65.33
70 62.98 63.66 64.24 64.73 65.14
80 62.86 63.52 64.08 64.55 64.95
90 62.73 63.37 63.91 64.36 64.74
100 62.59 63.20 63.73 64.16 64.53
110 62.44 63.03 63.54 63.95 64.30
120 62.28 62.85 63.33 63.74 64.06
130 62.11 62.66 63.12 63.51 63.82
140 61.93 62.46 62.90 63.27 63.57
150 61.74 62.25 62.67 63.02 63.30
160 61.54 62.03 62.43 62.76 63.03
170 61.33 61.80 62.18 62.49 62.74
180 61.11 61.56 61.92 62.22 62.45
190 60.89 61.31 61.65 61.93 62.14
200 60.65 61.05 61.37 61.63 61.83
210 60.41 60.78 61.08 61.32 61.50
220 60.15 60.50 60.78 61.00 61.17
230 59.89 60.21 60.47 60.68 60.83
240 59.61 59.91 60.15 60.34 60.47
250 59.33 59.60 59.82 59.99 60.11
Note: Density in lb/ft 3.

Viscosity of Aqueous Solutions of Propylene Glycol


Concentrations in Volume Percent Propylene Glycol
Temp.,
°F 10% 20% 30% 40% 50%
-30 - - - - -
-20 - - - - 0.1049
-10 - - - - 0.0645
0 - - - 0.0275 0.0412
10 - - 0.0090 0.0183 0.0273
20 - 0.0036 0.0067 0.0124 0.0187
30 0.0019 0.0028 0.0050 0.0089 0.0132
40 0.0015 0.0023 0.0039 0.0065 0.0096
50 0.0013 0.0019 0.0030 0.0049 0.0072
60 0.0011 0.0016 0.0024 0.0037 0.0055
70 0.0009 0.0013 0.0020 0.0029 0.0043
80 0.0008 0.0011 0.0016 0.0024 0.0034
90 0.0007 0.0010 0.0014 0.0019 0.0027
100 0.0006 0.0008 0.0012 0.0016 0.0023
110 0.0006 0.0007 0.0010 0.0013 0.0019
120 0.0005 0.0007 0.0009 0.0011 0.0016
130 0.0005 0.0006 0.0008 0.0010 0.0014
140 0.0004 0.0005 0.0007 0.0009 0.0012
150 0.0004 0.0005 0.0006 0.0008 0.0010
160 0.0003 0.0004 0.0006 0.0007 0.0009
170 0.0003 0.0004 0.0005 0.0006 0.0008
180 0.0003 0.0004 0.0005 0.0006 0.0007
190 0.0003 0.0003 0.0004 0.0005 0.0007
200 0.0003 0.0003 0.0004 0.0005 0.0006
210 0.0002 0.0003 0.0004 0.0005 0.0005
220 0.0002 0.0003 0.0003 0.0004 0.0005
230 0.0002 0.0003 0.0003 0.0004 0.0005
240 0.0002 0.0002 0.0003 0.0004 0.0004
250 0.0002 0.0002 0.0003 0.0003 0.0004

155
Appendix K

Sodium hydroxide

ρ ν ρ ν ρ ν ρ ν ρ ν ρ ν ρ ν ρ ν ρ ν ρ ν ρ ν

[lb/ft3] [cSt] [lb/ft3] [cSt] [lb/ft3] [cSt] [lb/ft3] [cSt] [lb/ft3] [cSt] [lb/ft3] [cSt] [lb/ft3] [cSt] [lb/ft3] [cSt] [lb/ft3] [cSt] [lb/ft3] [cSt] [lb/ft3] [cSt]
Concentration 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% 40% 45% 50% 55%
wt % =
Temperature
32 66.17 69.73 73.29 76.78 80.21 83.27 86.40 89.58 92.58 95.51 97.32
41 66.04 69.60 73.16 76.59 80.09 83.15 86.21 89.20 92.39 95.38 97.13

50 65.98 69.48 73.04 76.41 79.90 83.02 85.96 88.83 92.26 95.20 96.95
59 65.92 69.35 72.85 76.28 79.72 82.77 85.65 88.64 91.83 94.76 96.51

68 65.79 1.3 69.23 1.7 72.66 2.5 76.09 3.6 79.53 6.2 82.52 10.1 85.33 16.8 88.39 25.4 91.39 38.2 94.32 51.8 96.13

77 65.67 1.1 69.10 1.5 72.54 2.1 75.97 3.1 79.34 5.1 82.34 8.3 85.15 13.3 88.21 19.9 91.20 29.0 94.14 39.0

86 65.54 1.0 68.92 1.3 72.35 1.8 75.78 2.7 79.15 4.0 82.09 6.5 84.90 9.9 88.02 14.4 90.95 19.9 93.89 26.2

95 65.42 0.9 68.79 1.2 72.22 1.6 75.60 2.3 78.97 3.4 81.90 5.5 84.71 8.2 87.83 11.6 90.77 15.9 93.70 20.5

104 65.29 0.8 68.67 1.1 72.04 1.4 75.41 2.0 78.78 2.8 81.71 4.5 84.46 6.6 87.58 8.9 90.52 12.0 93.45 14.7

113 65.17 0.7 68.48 1.0 71.85 1.3 75.22 1.8 78.59 2.6 81.53 3.9 84.09 5.6 87.14 7.5 90.08 9.9 93.01 12.1

122 65.04 0.7 68.29 0.9 71.66 1.2 75.03 1.6 78.40 2.3 81.28 3.3 83.65 4.6 86.71 6.0 89.64 7.8 92.58 9.4

131 64.86 0.6 68.17 0.8 71.48 1.0 74.85 1.5 78.22 2.0 81.09 2.9

140 64.67 0.6 67.98 0.7 71.35 0.9 74.66 1.3 78.03 1.8 80.84 2.4

149 64.48 0.5 67.79 0.7 71.16 0.9 74.47 1.2 77.78 1.6

158 64.30 0.5 67.60 0.6 70.98 0.8 74.28 1.1 77.59 1.5

167 64.11 67.42 70.79 74.03 77.41


176 63.98 67.23 70.60 73.85 77.22

lb/ft3 cSt
99.88 100

55%
50% 50%
45%
93.64
45% 40%
35%
40%
87.39 10 30%
35%
25%
30% 20%
81.15 15%
25%
10%
5%
20% 1
74.91
15%

10%
68.67

5% 0
68 77 86 95 104 113 122 131 140 149 158
62.42 °F
32 50 68 86 104 122 140 158 176 °F

156
Appendix K

Calcium chloride Sodium chloride

ρ ν ρ ν ρ ν ρ ν ρ ν ρ ν ρ ν ρ ν

[lb/ft ]
3
[cSt] [lb/ft ]
3
[cSt] [lb/ft ]
3
[cSt] [lb/ft ]
3
[cSt] [lb/ft ]
3
[cSt] [lb/ft ]
3
[cSt] [lb/ft ]
3
[cSt] [lb/ft ]
3
[cSt]
Concentration 10% 15% 20% 25% Concentration 5% 10% 15% 20%
wt % = wt % =
Temperature Temperature
-13 77.72 7.7 5 72.54 4.0
-4 77.66 6.3 14 69.91 2.9 72.41 3.2

5 74.22 4.3 77.53 5.2 23 67.54 2.2 69.79 2.4 72.29 2.7
14 71.04 3.0 74.16 3.6 77.47 4.4 32 65.11 1.8 67.42 1.8 69.66 2.0 72.10 2.3

23 68.04 2.3 70.98 2.6 74.10 3.1 77.34 3.8 41 65.04 1.5 67.35 1.6 69.54 1.7 71.97 1.9

32 67.92 2.0 70.85 2.2 74.03 2.6 77.22 3.3 50 64.98 1.3 67.23 1.4 69.41 1.5 71.85 1.7

41 67.79 1.7 70.79 1.9 73.91 2.3 77.09 2.9 59 64.92 1.1 67.11 1.2 69.29 1.3 71.66 1.5

50 67.73 1.5 70.66 1.7 73.78 2.0 76.97 2.5 68 64.86 1.0 67.04 1.1 69.17 1.2 71.54 1.3

59 67.60 1.3 70.60 1.5 73.66 1.8 76.78 2.2 77 64.73 0.9 66.92 0.9 69.04 1.0 71.41 1.2

68 67.54 1.1 70.48 1.3 73.54 1.6 76.66 2.0 86 64.67 0.8 66.79 0.9 68.85 0.9 71.23 1.1

77 67.54 1.0 70.35 1.2 73.41 1.4 76.53 1.8


86 67.48 0.9 70.23 1.0 73.22 1.3 76.34 1.6

157
Index

A Constant differential pressure control 115


Absolute pressure 85 Constant pressure control 114
Adjusting pump performance 106 Constant temperature control 115
Aluminum 70 Copper alloys 69
ATEX (ATmosphère EXplosible) 41 Corrosion 60
Austenitic (non-magnetic) 68 Cavitation corrosion 63
Autotransformer starting 46 Corrosion fatigue 64
Axial flow pumps 8 Crevice corrosion 62
Axial forces 14 Erosion corrosion 63
Galvanic corrosion 64
Intergranular corrosion 62
B Pitting corrosion 61
Balanced shaft seal 31 Selective corrosion 62
Basic coupling 16 Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) 63
Bearing 51 Uniform corrosion 61
Insulated bearing 48 Corrosion fatigue 64
Bellows seal 30 Coupling 16
Groundwater pump 23 Basic coupling 16
Bypass control 106 Flexible coupling 16
Spacer coupling 16
Crevice corrosion 62
C
Canned motor pump 18
Cartridge seal 32 D
Casing 15 Decommissioning and disposal costs 131
Double-volute 15 Deep well pump 23
Single-volute 15 Density 10, 93
Return channel 15 Density of water Appendix D
Cast iron 66 Density of brine Appendix K
Cavitation 10, 89 Diaphragm pump 25
Cavitation corrosion 63 Differential pressure 88
Centrifugal pump 8 Differential pressure control 116
Ceramics 71 Dilatant liquid 55
Close-coupled pump 12, 13, 16 Direct-on-line starting (DOL) 46
Closed system 96, 98 Dosing pump 25
Coatings 73 Double mechanical shaft seal 33
Metallic coatings 73 Double seal in tandem 33
Non-metallic coatings 74 Double seal in back-to-back 34
Organic coatings 74 Double-channel impeller 21
Computer-aided pump selection 58 Double-inlet 17
Control 106 Double-suction impeller 11, 17
Throttle control 107 Double-volute casing 15
Bypass control 107 Downtime costs 131
Speed control 108
Index Index

Duty point 96 Frequency converter 47, 108, 118


Dynamic pressure 84
Dynamic viscosity 54
G
Galvanic corrosion 64
E Gauge pressure 85
Earth-leakage circuit breaker (ELCB) 125 Grey iron 66
Efficiency 10
Efficiency at reduced speed 109
Efficiency curve 10 H
Electric motor 40 Head 9, 85
Flameproof motor 42 Heat capacity 93
Increased safety motor 42 Hermetically sealed pump 18
Non-sparking motor 42 Horizontal pump 12, 13
EMC directive 123 Hydraulic power 10, 91
EMC filter 123
Enclosure class (IP), motor 43
End-suction pump 12 I
Energy costs 130 IEC, motor 40
Energy savings 111, 114, 117 Immersible pump 22
Environmental costs 130 Impeller 14, 21
Erosion corrosion 63 Double-channel 21
Ethylene propylelediene rubber (EPDM) 72 Single-channel 21
Expansion joints 80 Vortex impeller 21
Increased safety motor 42
Initial costs 129
F In-line pump 12, 13
Ferritic (magnetic) 68 Installation and commissioning costs 129
Ferritic-austenitic or duplex (magnetic) 68 Insulation class 44
Ferrous alloys 65 Intergranular corrosion 62
Flameproof motor 42
Flexible coupling 16
Floating foundation 79 K
Flow 83 Kinematic viscosity 54, Appendix K
Mass flow 83
Volume flow 83
Units Appendix B
Fluoroelastomers (FKM) 72
Flushing 32
Foundation 78
Floating foundation 79
Floor 79
foundation 79
Vibration dampeners 79
Frame size 44
L N
Life cycle costs 117, 128 NEMA, motor standard 40
Example 132 Newtonian fluid 55
Liquid 54 Nickel alloys 69
Dilatant 55 Nitrile rubber 72
Newtonian 55 Nodular iron 66
Non-Newtonian 55 Noise (vibration) 78
Plastic fluid 55 Non-metallic coatings 74
Thixotrophic 55 Non-Newtonian liquid 55
Viscous 54 Non-sinusoidal current 124
Long-coupled pump 12, 13, 16 Non-sparking motor 42
Loss of production costs 131 NPSH (Net Positive Suction Head) 10, 89

M O
Magnetic drive 19 Open system 96, 99
Maintenance and repair costs 131 Operating costs 106, 130
Martensitic (magnetic) 68 Organic coatings 74
Mass flow 83 O-ring seal 30
Measuring pressure 85 Oversized pumps 106
Mechanical shaft seal 18, 28
Bellows seal 30
Cartridge seal 32 P
Metal bellows seal 32 Paints 74
Rubber bellows seal 31 Perfluoroelastomers (FFKM) 72
Function 29 Phase insulation 48
Flushing 32 PI-controller 114
Metal alloys 65 Pitting corrosion 61
Ferrous alloys 65 Plastic fluid 55
Metal bellows seal 32 Plastics 71
Metallic coatings 73 Positive displacement pump 24
Mixed flow pumps 8 Power consumption 10, 91
Modifying impeller diameter 108, 110 Hydraulic power 10, 91
Motors 40 Shaft power 91
Motor efficiency 49 Pressure 84
Motor insulation 48 Absolute pressure 85
Motor protection 49 Differential pressure 88
Motor start-up 46 Dynamic pressure 84
Direct-on-line starting (DOL) 46 Gauge pressure 85
Star/delta starting 46 Measuring pressure 85
Autotransformer starting 46 Static pressure 84
Frequency converter 46, 47 System pressure 88
Soft starter 46 Units 85, Appendix A
Mounting of motor (IM) 43 Vapor pressure 90, Appendix D
Multistage pump 11, 12, 13, 16
Index Index

Pressure control Q
Constant differential pressure control 115 QH curve 9
Constant pressure 114
Constant pressure control 114
Constant supply pressure 114 R
Pressure transmitter (PT) 114 Radial flow pump 8
Proportional pressure control 120 Radial forces 15
PTC thermistors 50 Reinforced insulation 48
Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) 123 Resistances connected in parallel 98
Pump Resistances connected in series 97
Axial flow pump 8 Return channel casing 15
Borehole pump 23 Rubber 72
Canned motor pump 18 Ethylene propylelediene rubber (EPDM) 72
Centrifugal pump 8 Fluoroelastomers (FKM) 72
Close-coupled pump 12, 13, 16 Nitrile rubber (NBK) 72
Diaphragm pump 25 Perfluoroelastomers (FFKM) 72
Dosing pump 25 Silicone rubber (Q) 72
Hermetically sealed pump 18 Rubber bellows seal 30
Horizontal pump 12, 13
Immersible pump 22
Long-coupled pump 12, 13, 16
S
Magnetic-driven pump 19
Sanitary pump 20
Mixed flow pump 8
Seal face 28
Multistage pump 11, 12, 13, 16
Seal gap 29
Positive displacement pump 24
Selective corrosion 62
Radial flow pump 8
Setpoint 114
Sanitary pump 20
Shaft 11
Single-stage pump 15
Shaft power 91
Split-case pump 12, 13, 17
Shaft seal 28
Standard pump 17
Balanced shaft seal 31
Vertical pump 12, 13
Unbalanced shaft seal 31
Wastewater pump 21
Silicone rubber (Q) 72
Pump casing 15
Single resistances 97
Pump characteristic 9, 96
Resistances connected in series 97
Pump curve 9
Single-channel impeller 21
Pump installation 77
Single-stage pump 11, 12, 13, 15
Pump performance curve 9, 96
Single-suction impeller 11
Pumps connected in series 103
Single-volute casing 15
Pumps in parallel 101
Soft starter 46
Pumps with integrated frequency converter 118
Sound level 81
Purchase costs 129
Sound pressure level 82
PWM (Pulse Width Modulation) 123
Spacer coupling 16
Static head 99
Static lift 99
Speed control 106, 108, 110 T
Variable speed control 108 Temperature 93
Speed-controlled pumps in parallel 102 Units Appendix B
Split-case pump 12, 13, 17 Thermoplastics 71
Stainless steel 66 Thermosets 71
Standard pump 17 Thixotrophic liquid 55
Standards 40 Throttle control 106, 110-113
IEC, motor 40 Throttle valve 107
NEMA, motor 40 Titanium 70
Sanitary standards 20 Twin pump 11
Standstill heating of motor 51
Star/delta starting 46
Static pressure 84 U
Steel 65 Unbalanced shaft seal 31
Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) 63 Uniform corrosion 61
Stuffing box 28
Submersible pump 23
System characteristic 96 V
Closed system 96, 98 Vapor pressure 90, Appendix D
Open system 96, 99 Variable speed control 108
System costs 117 Vertical pump 12, 13
System pressure 88 Vibration dampeners 79
Vibrations 78
Viscosity 54, Appendix K
Dynamic viscosity 54
Viscous liquid 54
Viscous liquid pump curve 55
Voltage supply 47
Volume flow 83
Units Appendix A
Volute casing 11
Vortex impeller 21
Wastewater pump 21
Being responsible is our foundation

PUMP HANDBOOK
Thinking ahead makes it possible
Innovation is the essence
GRUNDFOS PUMP HANDBOOK

U.S.A. Canada Mexico


GRUNDFOS Pumps Corporation GRUNDFOS Canada Inc. Bombas GRUNDFOS de Mexico S.A. de C.V.
17100 West 118th Terrace 2941 Brighton Road Boulevard TLC No. 15
Olathe, Kansas 66061 Oakville, Ontario Parque Industrial Stiva Aeropuerto
L-IND-HB-01 8/2008 (US)

Phone: (913) 227-3400 L6H 6C9 C.P. 66600 Apodaca, N.L. Mexico
Telefax: (913) 227-3500 Phone: (905) 829-9533 Phone: 011-52-81-8144 4000
Telefax: (905) 829-9512 Telefax: 011-52-81-8144 4010

www.grundfos.com