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Giai Toan Hinh Khong Gian Bang Pp Toa Do

Giai Toan Hinh Khong Gian Bang Pp Toa Do

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Chuyen ae s

? " A

GIAI TOAN HINH HOC KHONG GIAN

BANG PHlJONG PHAp TO~ DO

Chung ta biet rang, n6i chung, moi sir kien cua Hinh hoc khong gian deu c6 the the hien theo each tlurc cua Hinh hoc gild tfch. Do d6, c6 the giai mot bai roan Hinh hoc khong gian bang each toa do hoa de chuyen thanh bai toan Hinh hoc giai tich. Vice chuyen d6i nay bao gom nhirng buoc sau :

BII6'c 1 : Chon he toa do

Biroc nay se de dang thirc hien neu trong bai toan Hinh hoc khong gian dang xet c6 san g6c tam dien vuong, hai mat phang vuong g6c voi nhau hay c6 cac quan he vuong g6c khac, Tuy vay, khong it tnrong hop ta phai tv ke them dirong phu de gay nen g6c tam dien vuong.

Trong khi chon g6c tam dien vuong de gao voi he toa do, ta cling can hru y de cac biroc sau diroc thuan loi.

BII6'c 2 : Tinh toa d9 cua cac diem trong de bai theo he toa d9 vita chon. Thuc ra chi can tfnh toa d9 cua nhimg diem lien quan toi gift thiet va ket luan cua bai toan. Doi voi nhirng bai toan Hinh hoc khong gian rna trong de bai da c6 san so lieu thi viec tinh toa do cua tirng diem n6i chung la dua tnrc tiep vao hinh ve. Doi voi nhtrng bai roan rna de bai chua cho so lieu thi tnroc het can tv dua so lieu vao bai toan va sau d6 dua vao hinh ve de tinh toa do cac diem dua theo so lieu d6 ..

BII6'c 3 : The hien gift thiet cua bai toan theo each thirc cua Hinh hoc giai tich.

N6i chung rnoi sir kien cua Hinh hoc giai tich deu diroc tim ra bang con Quang tinh toano Do do, gift thiet cua Hinh hoc giai tich nen de i:J dang rang bU9C cua cac so lieu.

BII6'c 4 : Giai quyet ket luan cua bai roan theo each thirc cua Hmh hoc giai tich. 6 day, cling nhu Buoc 3, mot Ian nfra can phai "phien dich" tir ngon ngfr cua bai loan Hinh hoc khong gian sang bai roan Hinh hoc giai tich.

Can hru y rang mac du cac su kien cua Hinh hoc khong gian n6i chung deu c6 the the hien theo each tlurc cua Hinh hoc giai tfch, tuy vay rmrc do kh6, de khac nhau. Dieu d6 d<in toi viec c6 rat nhieu bai toan Hinh hoc khong gian g<;ip nhieu kh6 khan khi chuyen sang bai roan Hinh hoc giai tich. Phuong phap toa do hoa bai toan Hinh hoc khong gian kha hiru hieu trong viec giai toan Hinh hoc khong gian, tuy vay khong nen tuyet doi hoa n6.

207

Tnroc khi quyet dinh giai quyet mot bai toan Hinh hoc khong gian e1;1 th~ bang phirong phap toa d¢, ta nen xet nhtrng kh6 khan e6 th~ g~p trong nhirng buck tren,

D~ lam ro binh luan tren, ta xet vi d1;1 sau :

Vi du 1. Cho hinh lap phuong ABCD.A'B'C'D'. Cac diem M, N Ian hrot thay d6i tren cac doan thang BD va AD' sao eho DM = AN.

a) Xac dinh V! tri cua hai diem M, N d~ MN nho nhat. Chung minh rang khi

d6 M N vuong g6e voi BD va AD'.

b) Chung minh rang MN vuong g6e voi mot dirong thang eo dinh. L&i gidi (h.65)

Chon he true toa do Oxyz e6 goc 0 trung diem A, cac tia Ox, Oy, Oz Ian hrot trung cac tia AB, AD, AA'.

Gia sir canh hinh lap phuong e6 do dai bang a. D~t AN = DM = t(o ~ t ~ aJi).

A(O; 0; 0), B(a; 0; 0), D(O; a ;0), D'(O;a; a),

M( Jz ; a - Jz; 0). +; Jz; Jz}

Do do : Mil = (- h; tJi - a; h J

Ta co: MN' = (- Jz)' + (,)2 - a)' + (Jz)' = 3t' - 2,{iat + a2

Khi do ta e6

D'I---t-----f \ I

\ I

\ I

\ I

Nf~--------

,r _--

liM ............

I I _ .... - 1_- ....

y D

Hinh 65

Xet ham so f(t) = 3t2 - 2Jiat + a2. Ham so nay e6 d6 thi la mot parabol

be 1- le hi , D de f() h" ha khi , hi khi aJi

quay e om en p ia tren. 0 0 t non at 1 va ell t = --.

3

Vi a~ E [0, aJi] nen MN nho nhat khi t = a~ <=> M, N thuoc doan BD, AD' urong irng sao eho DM = !BD, AN = !AD'.

3 3

208

., h' , aJ2 ---->N( a a a)

Khl M N nho n at ta co : t = -3- nen M -3; -3; 3 .

Mat khac Bi3 = (-a; a ; 0), AiY = (0; a ; a) nen

MN.BD = (-~}(-(l) + (-~}a + ~.o = 0,

--> ~ (a) (a) a

MN.AD' = -3.0 + -3·a + 3.a = o.

Vay MN vuong goc voi BD va AD'.

b) Tnroc het ta tim phuong -; = (x; y; z) :f. 0 vuong goc voi vecto MN.

Dieu do nrong dirong voi

-;.MN = 0 Vt E [O;aJ2]

¢:> .r( - h) + y(tJ2 - a) + (h) = 0 Vt E [O;aJ2]

¢:> ( - h- + yJ2 + /i} - ya = 0 Vt E [0; aJ2]

¢:> {- h- + yJ2 + h = 0 ¢:> {x = z

y = O. ya = 0

Chon -; = (I ; 0 ; I).

V ~y M N vuong goc voi mot duong thang co dinh nhan -; = (I ; 0 ; I) lam vecto chi phirong.

C 1111 :v : Ta co ket I uan luang tu la M N I uon song song voi mot mat phang eo dinh.

Vi du 2. Cho tam giac ABC vuong tai A va duong thang i\ vuong goc voi mat phang (ABC) tai diem A. Cac diem M, N thay doi tren duong thang t\ sao cho

(MBC) j_ (NBC).

a) Chirng minh ding AM.AN khong doi.

b) Xac dinh vi trf cua M, N de tv dien MNBC co the tich nho nhat.

'4· BTNC&MSCEJHH12

209

Loi gidi (h.66)

Chon he true Oxyz co g6c 0 trung diem A, Z

cac tia Ox, Oy, Oz Hin luot trung cac tia AB, AC,AM.

Dat AB = b, AC = c, AM = m (h, c khong doi). Khi do

A(O;O;O), B(h;O;O), C(O; c. ; 0), M(O; 0; m).

Gia sir N = (0; 0; 11).

Taco (MBC): x +I+~-l =0

b (' m

, ha ~( 1 1 1)

co p ap vecto a t: -:; m ;

Hlnh 66

(NBC) : ~ + I + ~ - 1 = 0 co phap vecto p( _!_;-!- ;-!-).

hen \_h c n

~ ~ 1 1 1

Vay (MBC) 1. (NBC) ¢::> a.Ii = 0 ¢::> 2" + 2 + - = 0

b c rnn

_h2('2

¢::> m.n = 2 2·

b + c

Mat khac m > 0 nen 11 < O. Vay M va N nam v~ hai phia cua A. 2 2

a) Ta co: AM.AN = Iml.1nI = Im.nl = ~ c 2 khong d6i. b + c

b) Ta co : IiC = (-b ; c ; 0), liM = (-b ; 0 ; m), liN = (-b ; 0 ; n ),

[liM, liN] = (O;b(n- m);O).

Vay VMNBC = iIIiC.[liM, BN] = ilhc(n - m)l.

Ap dung bat dang thirc Cauchy ta co :

1 1 1 b2 ('2

VMNBC = (;bc(m - 1/) ~ (;bc.2.jm.(-n) = -3 /

. \j b2 + c2

210

B

x

Dau dang thirc xay ra khi va chi khi m = -n = .J be . -. b2 + ("2

V V h' h' khi M N' 'h' hf , A ' N AB.AC

~y MNBC non at 1 , nam ve ai p ia cua va AM = A = Be

C h fA Y : Co the tinh the tich nr dien M NBC theo each :

1 1

VMNBC = VMABC + VNABC = -AM.SMBC + -AN.SMBC

3 3

1 1

= -(AM + AN),SMBC = -bc(m - n).

3 6

Vi du 3. Cho tam giac deu ABC c6 canh a, Ila trung diem cua BC, D la diem

doi xu ,. A I D d SD a16 ". h' (ABC)

01 xung VO"l qua. irng oan = -2- vuong goc VO"l mat p ang .

Chirng minh rang:

a) (SAB) l_ (SAC) ;

b) (SBC) l_ (SAD).

Lui gidi (h.67)

Chon he tTl:IC Oxyz c6 goc 0 trung diem I, cac tia Ox, Oy Ian Iirot trung cac tia ID, IC, tia Oz song song va cung chien voi tia DS. Khi d6

z

s

Hinlz 67

SA "I' di ;/ M ' SA T' (0 0 a16) cat z tai trung rem cua . a co: M = ;; -4- .

211

., . (aJ3 ] ( a) M(O . 0 . aJ6]

a) Mat phang (SAB) di qua A --2-; 0 ; 0, B 0; -2; 0 , "4

nen co phirong trinh doan chan :

(SA B) : - 2x _ 2y + ~ _ 1 = 0

aJ3 a aJ6

___,( -2 -2 4)

va co phap vecto III r;; ; - ; r;:'

a,,3 a a,,6

, . (aJ3 ] ( a )

M;:tt phang (SAC) di qua A --2-;0;0 , C 0;2;0 ,

phirong trlnh doan chan :

(SAC) : -~ + 2y + ~ - 1 = 0

aJ3 a aJ6

(0 0 aJ6] , ,

M ; ;4 nenco

, , ha ~(-2 2 4)

va co p ap vecto "2 r;; ; - ; r;:'

a" 3 a a,,6

___, ~ -2 -2 2 (2) 4 4

Ta co: "1·112 = aJ3' aJ3 + -;;. --;; + aJ6' aJ6 = O.

Do do: (SAB) j_ (SAC).

b) Mat phang (SBC) co cap vecto chi phirong la :

BC(O; a; 0) II ;(0; 1; 0),

c:s(aJ3 . -a . aJ6] IlfJ->(J3· -1' J6).

2 '2 ' 2 "

V~y (SBC) co vecto phap tuyen ~3 = [;, Ii] = (J6; 0; -J3).

Mat phang (SAD) trung mat phang toa d¢ (xOz) nen co phap vecto ;;;(0; 1; 0). Do -;;;.;;; = 0 nen (SBC) j_ (SAD).

Vi du 4. Cho hinh vuong ABCD. Cac tia Am va Cn cung vuong goc voi mat ABCD va cung chieu. Cac diem M, N Ian hrot thuoc Am, CI1.

Chung minh rang (BMN) .L (DMN) ~ (MBD) .L (NBD).

212

Lvi gidi (h.68)

Chon he true toa dQ Oxyz co g6c 0 trung diem A, cac tia Ox, Oy, Oz Ian hrot trung cac tia AB, AD, Am. Gilt sir hlnh vuong ABCD co canh bang a.

D~tAM=m,CN=II. Taco:

B(a;O;O), D(O;a;O), M(O;O;m),

N(a;a;n), C(a;a;O).

Mat phang (BM N) co cap vecto chi phirong liM = (-a; 0 ; m ), EN = (0; a ; n ).

Do do (BM N) co phap vecto [liM, EN] = (-am; an; _(2) II -;;; (m ; -n ; a).

y

Hinh 68

Mat phang (DM N) co cap vecto chi phuong DM = (0; -a ; m ), DN = (a ; 0 ; n ).

Do do (DM N) co phap vecto [OM, DN] = (-an; am ; (2) II ~ (-n ; m ; a).

- ... ---+ a2

V~y(BMN) .1 (DMN) <=> al·a2 = 0 <=> m.n = 2.

Ta co: (MBD) : x + l. +!... - I = 0 co phap vecto P; = (_!_)_; _!_).

a a m a a m

(I)

ED = (-a; a; 0),

Mat phang (BD N) co cap vecto chi phuong EN = (0; a ; n ).

Do do (NBD) co phap vecto [ED, liN] = (an; an; _(2) II P; (11 ; 11; -a).

--+ ---+ n n a a2

V~y (MBD).l (NBD) <=> /31./32 = 0 <=> - + - - - = 0 <=> mn = -. (2)

a a m 2

TiT (1) va (2) ta co dieu phai clurng minh.

Vi du 5. Cho hinh lang tru deu ABC.A'B'C' co tat ca cac canh bang nhau, M la trung diem cua BB'. Chung minh rang A'M vuong goc voi AC' va CB'.

213

Lui gidi (h.69)

GQi 0 la trung di~m cua AB. Chon he true toa dQ Oxyz c6 cac tia Ox, Oy lfin hrot trung voi cac tia OC, OB, tia Oz song song cung chieu voi tia AA'. Gilt sir cac canh cua hlnh lang tru bang a. Khi d6 :

C = (aJ3 .0.oJ B = (o.~.o)

2 ' " '2"

(-a) (a)

A = o· - . 0 - B' = o· - . a

, 2" '2"

(-a) (aJ3 J

A' = O'-'a C' = --'O'a

, 2" 2 ' , ,

IT ~ ( - a~ ; % ; a J II r( -13 ; 1 ; 2).

z

A'

Hinh 69

Do a.f3 = 0, a.y = 0 nen A'M _j_ AC' va A'M _j_ CB'.

Vi du 6. Cho hinh ch6p deu S.ABCD, day c6 canh bang a. GQi M, N lan hrot la trung diem cua SA, sc. Biet rang BM .L DN. Tinh th~ tich khoi ch6p S.ABCD.

Lui gidi (h.70)

Chon h~ true toa dQ Oxyz c6 goc toa dQ 0 la tam cua hinh vuong ABCD, cac

tia Ox, Oy, Oz Ian hrot trung cac tia OA, OB, OS.

Dat SO = h. Khi do

B=(O;52;O)' D=(O;h;O)

A =(52;0;0). C=(7z;o;o)

214

S = (0;0;11), M = (2h ;O;~).

N = ( - 2h ; 0; ~) (do M, N Ian luot la trung diem cua SA, SC).

Ta co: BM = (2h ; h ; ~).

ON = (2h; Jz ;~).

c

Hinh 70

~~ . _a2 a2 h2 aJIO

Ta co: BMDN = 0 <=> - - - + - = 0 <=> h = --.

8 2' 4 2

. I a3JIO

V<;1Y VS.ABCf) = 3S0.dt(ABCD) = 6 .

Vi du 7. Cho hinh chop deu SABC, day co canh bang a. GQi M, N Ian hrot la trung diem cua SB, SC. Bier rang (AMN) .L (SBC). Tinh the tfch hinh chop S.ABC.

LiJi gidi (h.7I)

Chon he true toa d¢ Oxyz co a lit tam tam giac deu ABC, cac tia Oy, Oz Ian hrot trung voi cac tia OB, as, tia Ox cung huang voi tia CA.

D~t SO = II. Khi do : z

M=(O;2:6;H N=(:\~;n .

Mat phang (AM N) co cap vecto chi phirong

AM = ( -;1 ; :fi ; ~). AN = ( - ~a ; 4~ ; ~ ).

s

c

x

A

Hinh 71

215

Vay (AMN) co phap vecto

[-M__' ~J = (30/7 . -oh . 502 J II ---+(3011 . -/ . 5a2 J

A ,AN t; , <:.«: a t:: an ; t: .

8vr3 8 8vr3 vr3 -n

Mal phang (SBC) cat true Ox tai K( -;' ; 0; 0) va di qua B( 0; :/J ; 0 ).

S(O; 0; 11) nen co phirong trinh doan chan:

-3x J3y z

(SBC) : -- + -- + - - 1 = O.

a a h

Y~y (SBC) co phap vecto p[-3 ; J3 ; _!_J.

a a h

Taco:

---+ ~ -917 r; 5a2 H;

(AMN) .L (SBC) <=> a.B = 0 <=> r::; - IIvr3 + r::; = 0 <=> II = -(1.

-i: hvr3 12

, 1 1 H; (/J3 .s:

Yay Vs ABC = -SO.dt(ABC) = - -(1.-- = --.

'. 3 3 12 4 24

Vi du 8. Cho hinh chop S.ABCD eo day la hinh vuong canh (1, tam giac SAB

dcu. G9i M, N, P, K bIn IUo11ft trung diem cua BC, CD, SD, SB.

a) Tinh khoang each gifra hai duong thang MK va AP.

b) Chung minh rang (ANP) .L (ABCD).

LiJi gidi (h.72)

G9i 0 la trung diem cua AB. Chon he true toa d¢ Oxyz co cac tia Ox, Oy, Oz Hin luot trung cac tia ON, OB, OS. Khi do:

( -([) ((/)

A = 0'-.'0 B = 0'-'0

, 2" , 2' ,

N~(a;O;O). s~(o;o;a~}

216

D

.r

v

Hlllh 72

D = (a . .: . 0) P = (!!_ . .: . aJ3]

, 2" 2' 4' 4 '

a) Duong thang MK co vecto chi phuong la

_____, (-a -a aJ3) ~( ~)

MK = _._._ I/a 2·1·-v3.

2 ' 4 ' 4 ' ,

, [~__'J (~ ~) ~ ( 3a aJ3)

Taco: a,p = 2v3;-4v3;0, AK = 0;4;4-'

,. _IAK.[;, ,8] _ 3J3a _ 3a

V<,1Y d(MK, AP) - I[~ __'JI - ~ - zr:

a,p 2v15 2v5

b) Mat phang (AN P) co cap vecto chi phirong la

NP ~ ( ~;I ; ~4a ; a~) II ;;(2; 1; ~v'3),

AP ~ ( ~ ; ~ ; a~) II p( 2 ; I ; v'3)

Do do (ANP) co phap vecto la [;,,8J = (2J3; -4J3 ;0) II ~(1; -2 ;0). M~t phang (ABCD) co phap vecto la -;;; = (0; 0; 1).

Do ~.-;;; = 0 nen (ANP) l_ (ABCD).

Vi du 9. Trong he toa d(> Oxyz cho hinh hop ABCD.A'B'C'D' co A(O ; 0 ; 0), D(O; 1 ; 0), D'(O ; 1 ; 2), B'( 1 ; 0 ; 2). G9i E la diem d6i xtrng v6i A qua B. Diem M thuoc doan CD sao cho mat phang (A'ME) tao voi mat (ABB'A') goc qJ thoa man

tane = 12.

15A- BTNC&MSC8HH12

217

a) Viet phirong trinh mat phang (A"ME).

b) Viet phirong trinh mat cau (S) di qua C, B", D" va eo tam thuoc mat phang (A"ME).

LIJi gidi (h. 73)

D~ dang suy ra diroc toa do cua cac diem A"(O; 0; 2), B(I; 0; 0),

C(I; 1 ;0), C(I; 1; 2), E(2 ;0;0).

Dat DM = t (0 ~ t ~ 1). Khi do M = (t; 1; 0).

Mat phang (A"ME) eo cap --

D M

vecto chi phuong PfM = (t ; 1 ; - 2), Y

A'E = (2;0;-2)1/;(1;0;-1).

Do do (A"ME) eo phap vecto [PfM,;] = ~ (-1; t - 2; -1).

Hlnh 73

Mi;\t phang (ABB"A ") eo phap vecto -;;;(0; 1 ; 0).

Ta co cose = Icos(;;;,;;;'~ = ~ .It - ~ 2' 2 + (t - 2)

. 'I 2 J2

suy ra smtp =" - eos tp = ~2 + (t _ 2)2 .

Vay Fz = lanq> = It ~21 "'" It - 21 = 1 "'" t = 1 (vi O ~ t ~ 1). Vay M = (l ; 1 ; 0) (trung vai diem C).

a) Mat phang (A"ME) eo phap vecto ~ =(-1; t-2; -1)=(-1; -1; -1) II (1; 1; 1) va di qua diem E(2 ; 0 ; 0) nen eo phuong trinh

(A"ME) : 1.(x - 2) + 1.(Y - 0) + 1.(z - 0) = 0

hay

(A"ME) : x + y + z - 2 = o.

218

15B-BTNC&MSC8HH12

b) (S) di qua C, B', D' nen eo tam I thuoc cac mat phang (a), (jJ) lan lirot la cac

mat phang trung true cua CB', CD'.

(a) di qua trung diem K(I; ~; I) cua CB' va eo phap vecto Cii' = (0; -1; 2).

v~y(a):-(Y-~)+2(Z-I)=0 ~ 2y-4z+3=0.

(jJ) di qua trung diem L(~; I; I) cua CD' va eo phap vecto IYC = (I; 0; -2).

Do do (/3) : I.(X -~) + O,(y -I) - 2.(z - I) = 0 ~ 2x - 4z + 3 = O.

V ~y toa d¢ cua I la nghiem cua he

{X+Y+Z-2=0 2y - 4z + 3 = 0 2x - 4z + 3 = 0

Mat cau(S) co ban kinh R = IC = /3.

. ~2

( 112 ( 1)2 3

Vay (S): x - 2) + y - 2 + (z - 1)2 = 2"

Bal tap

1. Cho tt! dien OABC vuong tai O. Cac mat phang (OBC), (OCA), (OAB) tao voi mat phang (ABC) cac goc 0.., /3, y nrong irng. G9i So' SA' S8' Sc Ian hrot la dien tfch cac mat d6i dien voi cac dinh 0, A, B, C cua nr dien, Chung minh rang:

a) _1_ = _1_ + _1_ + _1_ voi H la hinh chieu vuong goc cua 0

OH2 OA2 OB2 OC2

tren (ABC).

b) So 2 = S / + S B 2 + S/

c) sin2 a + sin2 f3 + sin2 r = 2.

2. Cho nr dien OABC vuong tai O. Diem P bat ki thuoc mat phang (ABC). G9i rp la goc gitra duong thang OP va mp(ABC). Chung minh ding:

(~~)' + (:~)' + (~~)' = 2 + cotan2~

219

3. Cho hinh chit nhat ABCD co AB = a, AD = h. Cac tia Am va Cn cung lurong va vuong goc v6i mat phang (ABCD). Cac diem M, N Ian luot thay d6i tren cac

tia Am, Cn sao cho (MBD) .1 (NBD). Chung minh rang AM.CN khong d6i.

4. Cho hinh chop d~u S.ABCD, day co canh bang (/. G9i M, N Ian hrot la trung diem cua SA va BC, 0 la tam cua day ABCD. Biet MN tao voi mat phang

(ABC D) goc 30°.

a) Chirng minh rang: SO = M N.

b) Tinh goc giira M N va (SBD).

S. Cho hinh chop S.ABC co SA vuong goc voi mat (ABC). Tam giac ABC vu6ng tai B, AB = a, BC = h. Duong thang SC tao voi mat phang (ABC) goc 60°. Tinh the tich hinh chop va ban kinh mat cau ngoai tiep hinh chop.

6. Cho hinh chop deu S.ABC, day co canh bang a, M, N Ian hrot la trung diem cua SA, sc. Biet BM .1 AN. Tinh the tich va ban kinh mat cau ngoai tiep hinh chop S.ABC.

7. Cho diem M nam trong goc tam dien vu6ng Oxyz, Mat phang (a) thay d6i di qua M va cat cac tia Ox, Oy, Oz Ian hrot tai cac diem phan bier A, B, C. Tim gia tri nho nhat cua the tich tu dien OABC.

8. Cho hai dirong thang cheo nhau a, b -vuong goc voi nhau, nhan AB lam doan vu6ng goc chung (A thuoc (1, B thuoc h). Cac diem M, N Ian hrot thay d6i tren a, b sao cho MN = AM + BN. Chung minh rang khoang each tir trung diem 0 cua doan AB tci duong thang MN khong doi. Tir do suy ra MN luon tiep xuc voi mat cau dirong kinh AB.

9. Trong khong gian toa d¢ cho cac diem A(O ; 0 ; 1), D(O ; 2 ; 0). Cac diem B va C thay doi tren true Ox sao cho (ACD) .1 (ABD). Xac dinh vi trf cua B va C

de the tich ur dien ABCD nho nhat. Dng voi V! trf do, viet phuong trinh mat phang («) chua AD va tao voi cac mat (ACD), (ABD) nhiing goc bang nhau.

10. Trong khong gian toa do Oxyz cho hinh hop ABCD.A'B'C'D' co A(O; -1 ;0), C(2; 1; 0), B'(2; -1; 2), D'(O; 1; 2). Cac diem M, N Ian hrot thay d6i tren cac doan A'B' va BC sao cho D'M .1 AN.

a) Chung minh rang M N Iuon vu6ng goc voi mot dirong thang co dinh.

b) Khi M la trung diem cua A'B', viet plnrong trinh mat phang (DM N).

220

LUi giai

1. Chon he toa do Oxyz nhir hlnh 74.

Gia sir OA = a, OB = b, OC = c, khi do 0= (O;O;O),A = (a;O;O),

B = (0; b ; 0), C = (0; 0; c).

a) Mat phang (ABC) co phirong trinh :

x y z -+-+-=1 abc

Hinh 74

=> OH = d(O, (ABC)) = ----;::==== 1 1 1 -+-+(i b2 ('2

1 1 1 1

=>--=--+--+--

OH2 OA2 OB2 OC2'

b) Do cac tam giac OAB, OAC, OBC Hi cac tam giac vuong tai 0 nen :

2 2 ( 1 )2 2 b2 ('2

SA = SOBC = 20B.OC => SA = -4-'

e2a2 a2b2

Tuong tir ta co : S~ = -4-' S~ = -4-'

Miftt khac : 5MBC = ~[AB, iiCJI = ~ ~b2c2 + c2a2 + a2b2 => s'/i = S1BC = S~ + S~ + S~.

I~·OAI be

c) Ta co : eosa = ~ --+ = --;::=======

HIOAI ~b2c2 + ('2a2 + a2b2

(~ = (_!_;!--; _!_) la vecto phap tuyen cua mat phang (ABC», abc

221

Mat khac :

(~~)'

( )2 2 ( h)2 2 2 2 2

BBPO = Xu + Yo - + Zo = Xo + Yo + Zo _ 2 Yo + 1

h2 h2 « :>

( )2 2 2 2 2 2

Xo - a + Yo + Zo = Xo + Yo + Zo _ 2xo + 1

"2 2 '

a a a

(2)

(3)

2 2 ( )2 2 2 2

Xo + Yo + Zo - (' = Xo + Yo + Zo _ 2zo + 1

22'

c (' c

(4)

ro (1), (2), (3) va (4) ta diroc

(AP)2 (BP)2 (CP)2

AO + BO + CO = 2 + eotan2tp.

3. Chon he true tOI;1 d¢ Oxyz nhir hinh 76, khi do :

A = (0' 0 . 0) B = (a . 0 . 0) D = (0' h . 0) C = (a . h . 0)

, " '" "",.

Giasu:AM=m,CN=n(m,11 > 0). Taco M = (O;O;m),N = (a;h;n).

Mat phang (MBD) co vecto phap tuyen :

z

Mat phang (NBD) co vecto phap tuyen :

-;; = [NB, NL3J.

Do liB == (0; --h; -n), NL3 = (-a; 0; -n) nen

Hinh 76

-~ (1 1 1)

n' = (hn,an,-ah) = abn ;;;--;;;--;;.

- ...... 1 1 1

(MBD) .L (NBD) ~ n.n' = 0 ~ -2 + 2 - - = O. Dodo

a h mn

223

Gia siX SO = II (Ii > 0). Khi do

[ aJ2 II]

5 = (0 ; 0 ; 11), M 0; --4-; 2

~ liN[ aJ2 . aJ2 . _!!..].

4 ' 2 ' 2

a) Mat phang (ABCD) co phuong trinh z = 0 va co vecto phap tuyen

~ .. . " ° _ 1~·liNl

11(0,0,1), suy ra sm30 - HlliNl (vi MN tao voi (ABCD) goc 30°). Do do

h

---;======2==== = _!_ ~ ---;==h== = 1

2a2 2a2 /72 2 5a2 + 21i

-+-+-

16 4 4 8

~ Ii = 5a2 hay h = aJ30.

6 6

aJ30

Yay SO = h = --.

. 6

Mat khac :

a2 a2 5a2 aJ30

-+-+-=--.

8 2 24 6

V~y SO = MN.

b) Mat phang (SBD) co phtrong trinh : y = 0 va co vecto phap tuyen ;;\0; 1 ; 0).

liN = [aJ2. aJ2. _ aJ30].

4 ' 2' 12

224

GQi a la goc giua M N va (SBD), ta co :

aJ2

!-;i.IiN! J15

sina = = 2 =

. FI.11iN1 aJ30 5

6

5. Chon he toa dQ Oxyz nhir hlnh 78.

Gia sir SA = 11, khi do : B = (0; 0; 0),

A = (a ; 0 ; 0), C = (0; b ; 0), S = (a ; 0 ; II ) ~ SC = (-a; h ; - h).

Mat phang (ABC) co phirong trinh : z = o.

~ = (0; 0; 1) la vecto phap tuyen cua (ABC). Do SC tao voi (ABC) goc 600 nen

z

s

x

Hinh 78

" 0 _!~.SC! sm60 -I~I.ISCI

=> ~ II ~ Jj => h ~ 13( a2 + b').

a2 + b2 + 112 2 "

Gia sir I(xo ; Yo; zo) la tam mat cau ngoai tiep hlnh chop, ta co:

IA2 = IB2 = IC2 = IS2

~ x6 + Y6 + z6 = (xo - a)2 + Y6 + z6 = x6 + (Yo - b)2 + z6

= x6 + Y6 + (zo - J3(a2 + b2)y

. a h J3( a2 + b2)

~ Xo = 2' Yo = 2' Zo = 2 .

GQi R la ban kfnh mat cau ngoai tiep hinh chop, ta co

12 2 2 12 2

R = 1 B = -v Xo + Yo + Zo = V a + h .

225 ..

G9i V Hi the tfch hlnh chop, ta co :

1 1 1 I (2 2)

V = "3SA.SMBc = 6SA.BA.BC = 6ah'V3 a + h .

6. G9i 0 Hi tam cua tam giac deu ABC va K la trung diem cua BC, khi do :

OK = .!AK = aJ3 AO = aJ3 KB = KC = !!__. z

3 6 ' 3 ' 2

Gia sir SO = h (11 > 0).

Chon he toa dQ Oxyz nhu hinh 79 (Oxll BC).

Khi do:

0=(0'0'0) B = (a. aJ3 .0J

' " 2' 6 ' , A C

C = (- a . aJ3 . oJ A = (0' - aJ3 . oJ

2' 6 " '3 ' , B

S = (0 ; 0 ; h). Hinh 79

~ M = (0' - aJ3 .!!_J N = (-!!__ . aJ3 .!!_J

' 6' 2 ' 4' 12 '2

~ EM = (- a ; - aJ3 .!!_J AN =(- a. SaJ3 .!!_J

2 3' 2 ' 4' 12 '2

---+ ----+ a2 ISa2 h2 J42

Do BM j_ AN nen BM.AN = 0 <=> - - -- + - = 0 <=> h = --a.

8 36 4 6

G9i V la the tich hlnh chop, ta co :

V = .!SO,SMBC = .!. aJ42. a2 J3 = a3 J14

3 3 6 4 24

G9i I la tam mat cau ngoai tiep hinh chop, d~ thay I E SO nen I = (0 ; 0 ; m) ..

, 2 2 a2 2 (aJ42 J2

Ta co IA = IS <=> 3 + m = -6- - m

a2 2 7 2 J42. 2

<=> - + m = -a - --a.m + m

3 6 3

Sa <=> m = 2J42'

a2 2Sa2 9

-+-- =--a.

3 168 2J42

Vay R = IA =

226

7. Chon he toa do Oxyz nhu hinh 80.

Gia sir M = (xo ; Yo; zo) va mat phang (a) cat Ox, Oy, Oz tai cac diem :

A( a; 0; 0), B(O; h; 0), C(O; 0; c).

Khi do, mat phang (a) co phuong trinh :

~+I+':'=l.

a h c

Ta co : VOABC = _!_ahc.

6

Vi M E (a) nen Xo + Yo + Zo = 1. a b c

Suy ra 1 Z 33 xoYozo (bat dang thirc Co-si) ahc

{a = 3xo

, , x z 1

Dau "=" xay ra <=> _Q_ = Yo = _Q_ = - <=> b = 3yo

a b c 3

c = 3zo.

8. Ke Ay//h. D~ thay Ay .L a, Ay .L AB.

Chon he toa d¢ Axyz nhir hinh 81.

Gia_strAB=h, AM = m, BN = n (h,m,n > 0).

Khi do: A(O; 0; 0), B(O; 0; h),

M (m ; 0 ; 0), N (0 ; II ; h), o( 0 ; 0 ; iJ Theo gia thiet M N = AM + BN nen ta co :

~ m2 + n2 + h2 = m + II <=> h2 = 2mn.

Ta co: liN = (-m ; n ; h), OM = ( m ; 0 ; -i-)

~ [liN OM] = (_ hn . hm. -mn)

, 2 ' 2 '

z

x

Hlnh 80

z

.x

Hlnh 81

227

2

V ~y khoang each tir 0 den M N khong d6i va bang A:. Do do M N luon tiep xuc voi mat cau dirong kinh AB.

9. (h.82). Gia sir B = (b;O;O), C = (e;O;O). Khi do Z

(ABD) co plnrong trlnh : x + I + z = 1 va co vecto

b 2

ha ,_, ( 1 1 1)

P ap tuyen n = h; "2 ; .

Mat phang (ACD) co phirong trinh : x + I + z = 1 va (' 2

Dodo

I[MN,(5M]

d(O,MN) = IMNI =

2 3 2 3

rnn m n 22

--+--+m n

4 4

=~-r========-

Jm2 + n2 + 2mn

h

=

, h ' ,->, ( 1 1 1)

co vecto p ap tuyen n = -; - ; .

e 2

Do (ACD) 1. (ABD) nen ~.--;. = 0

1 1 4

~ - + - + 1 = 0 ~ be = --.

be 4 5

Vay ta co OB.OC = ~ va B, C nam khac phia d6i vci O. Taco:

D Y

Hinh 82

1 1

VABCD = VBOAD + VCOAD = -(BO + CO),SMOD = -(BO + CO)

3 3

2 . 4

~ 3../ BO.CO = 3J5'

228

Dau "=" xay ra ¢::> BO = CO = .1. Khi d6, mp(AOD) tao voi cac mat phang (ACD), (ABD) nhirng g6c bang nhau va do d6, mat phang (a) qua AD va vuong g6c voi (AOD) cung tao voi cac mat (ACD), (ABD) nhirng g6c bang nhau.

(AOD) c6 phtrong trinh : x = 0 va c6 vecto phap tuyen ~(1 ; 0; 0).

M~t phang «(x) c6 vecto phap tuyen -;;; = [~, AD] = (0; 1 ; 2). Do d6 (a) c6 plurong trinh :

O.(x - 0) + 1.(y - 0) + 2.(z - 1) = 0 10. (h.83). Ta c6 :

A2 = (2;2;0), /fIJ = (-2;2;0) => AC .L B'D' va AC = B'D'

=> AC .L BD va AC = BD

=> ABCD la hinh vuong.

Tirong ur, ta cluing minh diroc cac mat con lai cua hlnh hop la nhirng hlnh vuong, do d6 ABCD.A'B'C'D' la hinh lap phuong.

Gia sir ~'= [A2, /fIJ] => ~ = (0; 0; 8).

=> (ABCD)c6 vecto phap tuyen ~(O; 0; 8).

=> (ABC D) co phuong trinh z = 0

(A'B'C'D') co phirong trinh z = 2.

Tir do, d~ dang xac dinh diroc toa d¢ cac dinh con lai cua hlnh lap phuong :

hay y + 2z - 2 = 0 .

I I I

!P------- - C

I I

I _-

A I ----

Hinh 83

B( 2 ; -1 ; 0), D( 0 ; 1 ; 0), A '(0 ; -1 ; 2), C'( 2 ; 1 ; 2).

A'B' c6 phirong trtnh :

{X = 2t

y =-1 z=2

229

BC e6 phirong trinh :

{X = 2

y = -1 + 2s z=O

(t, S E lR).

Do M, N nam tren cac doan A' B' va BC nen, M = (2t ; -1 ; 2), N = (2 ; -1 + 2s ; 0) voi 0 ~ t s 1, 0 < S ~ 1.

______, ----+

Theo gia thiet D'M .L AN => D'M.AN :=: 0 => t = S

=> Mil = (2 - 2t; 2t; -2).

a) Xet ~ = (1; 1; 1), ta thay Mil.~ = 0 \It, nen MN luon vuong g6c voi cac dirong thang e6 phirong u, suy ra M N vuong g6c voi mot dirong thang co dinh.

b) Khi M la trung diem cua A'B' thi t = s = !. 2

Ta c6 M = (1 ; -1 ; 2), N = (2 ; 0 ; 0) => Mil = (1 '1' -2) DiVi = (1' -2' 2)

'" "

=> [Mil, DiViJ = (-2; -4; -3)

=> (DMN)qua D(O;I;O) va co vecto phap tuyen -;;; = (2;4;3). Vay (DM N) c6 phirong trinh : 2x + 4y + 3z - 4 = O.

230

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