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WHY WE CHOOSE THIS TOPIC:

I selected this topic of intelligence because it is an integral part of human beings.


Intelligence differentiates people on the basis of a creativity of human mind .Human are
considered superior creatures amongst all because they possess better intelligence
abilities than others. When we go back to history, we see that most successful people
who brought revolutionary development in the service of humanity used their mental
capabilities.
Intelligence is art which should be used in every field because it brings very
productive results. For example, students who work hard may not bring good results if
they will not plan their studies intelligently. Also in business we observe that those
businessmen are highly successful who know the pros & cons of business techniques.
Thus, we see that intelligence plays very important role in every walk of life.
Intelligence requires human mind to be used in an intensive way
.Intelligence creates analytical abilities, logical capabilities and enhances thinking
capabilities. Due to these attributes, we selected the topic of intelligence.
INTRODUCTION OF INTELLIGENCE:-
DEFINITION OF INTELLIGENCE:
Intelligence (also called intellect) is an umbrella term used to describe a property of
the mind that encompasses many related abilities, such as the capacities to reason, to
plan, to solve problems, to think abstractly, to comprehend ideas, to use language, and
to learn. There are several ways to define intelligence. In some cases, intelligence may
include traits such as creativity, to include these traits in the definition of intelligence.

The dictionary meaning defines intelligence as


"The Capacity to Acquire and Apply Knowledge By Means Of Thought And
Reason."

NOTE:
This meaning leaves out many other capabilities which we might also consider
intelligent.

To have intelligence means having the ability to think. All forms of thinking (excluding,
perhaps extremely insane forms of thinking) results in some kind of intelligent action,
even if it may seem very low intelligence to us.

EXAMPLE:
For example an artist who creates an abstract painting does not
necessarily need to acquire knowledge nor even apply it through reason, yet we label
many artists as intelligent or genius.

RELATION OF INTELLIGENCE AND THINKING:-


The neurological understanding of the mechanisms of intelligence remains unclear but I
suspect that we will discover that the term "intelligence" and "thinking" will prove
entirely synonymous.

EXPLAINATION:
A key to understanding intelligence requires the understanding
of its basic mechanism for obtaining it: thinking. Again, most people confuse thinking
with consciousness and awareness, probably due to the fact that most people believe
that only humans have the capacity to think.

DO ONLY HUMANS THINK?


Do only humans think? I submit that anything with a brain, thinks. Natural selection
evolved brains because brains allow an organism to gather knowledge about the outside
world and to utilize it to help them survive. In spite of past philosophers attempts to put
humans on the pedestal of life and to declare that only humans think, research into
brain biology over the past 30 years has shown that even a lowly worm has the capacity
to think and reason at some basic level. And because nervous systems developed into
simple brains and simple brains evolved into complex brains, so did the capacity to
think and acquire knowledge. And since intelligence comes from mechanisms that think,
so also does intelligence evolve along with the brains that hold intelligence.

EVOLUTION OF HUMAN INTELLIGENCE:-


The evolution of human intelligence refers to a set of theories that attempt to
explain how human intelligence has evolved. The question is closely tied to the evolution
of the human brain, and to the emergence of human language.
The timeline of human evolution spans some 7 million years from the separation of the
Pan genus until the emergence of behavioral modernity by 30,000 years ago. Of this
timeline, the first 3 million concern Sahelanthropus, the following 2 million concern
Australopithecus, while the final 2 million span the history of actual human species (the
Paleolithic).
Many traits of human intelligence, such as empathy, theory of mind, mourning, ritual,
use of symbols and tools are already apparent in great apes, specifically Chimpanzees,
although in lesser sophistication than in humans.

DIFFERENCE BETWEEN INTELLIGENCE AND


KNOWLEDGE:-
“Knowledge is an acquired quality and it is acquired with the help of the atmosphere. It
increases with the acquirement.”

A man may be learned and he may have a good deal of knowledge, but it is not necessary
that he should be intelligent also similarly, Intelligent may not acquire knowledge.
Generally intelligence is determined and fixed. It cannot he increased by practice. On
the other hand, it is possible to develop and increase the knowledge. Knowledge of many
things is called “Learning”. In other words, knowledge is nothing but knowing about
many things. It is the intelligence help the application of all this knowledge in the
practical life of man.
INTELLIGENCE AND LEARNING:-

FACTORS OF INTELLIGENCE:-

GENERAL FACTOR:
Spearman proposed that intelligence consisted of two factors. The general underlying
factor is referred to as the G factor and represents our capacity to develop more specific
skills.

FOR EXAMPLE:-
A person with an IQ of 80 may be able to tune an engine while a
person with an IQ of 130may not. Therefore, people have multiple intelligence.

INTELLIGENCE AND CREATIVITY:-


Creativity also has a special relationship with intelligence. Guilford another theorist of
intelligence, believes creativity is an important part of our ability to reason. He defines
two types of reasoning:

CONVERGENT THINKING:-
Which applies when an individual reaches a
conclusion by working within a given framework, where he/she starts from a wide
range of facts and narrow them down converges.

DIVERGENT THINKING:-
Where an individual starts form one or several
ideas and works out wards, often involving the generation of many new ideas this is
also sometimes referred to as lateral thinking.

THE ROLE OF INTELLIGENCE:-


Intelligence has played a major
role in psychology but a very minor, almost nonexistent role in organizational behavior.
INTELLIGENCE IS GENETICALLY DETERMINED:-
Ou
r primary intelligence development takes place during the early years of our lives. Most
people's intelligence is developed by the time they enter the work force. Over the years
some psychologists have argued that intelligence is genetically determined and exists at
birth. Research shows that intelligence unfolds through a series of stages.Eech stage
places an upper limit on restrict the speed of learning.

INTELLLIGENCE IS DETERMINED BY THE EXTERNAL


ENVOIRNMENT:-
On the other hand, other psychologists have argued that intelligence is determined by
the external environment in which the individual grows up. People brought up in a 'rich'
environment a home where learning is encouraged and a highly differentiated social and
ideal setting for development of intelligence.
Today it is generally agreed that intelligence is a product of both genetics and the
environment.

KINDS OF INTELLIGENCE:-

FLUID AND CRYSTALLIZED INTELLIGENCE:-


Some psychologists suggest that there
are two different kinds of intelligence:
1 Fluid intelligence.

2 Crystallized intelligence.

FLUID INTELLIGENCE:

Fluid intelligence reflects information-processing capabilities, reasoning, and memory.

EXAMPLE:

If we asked to solve an analogy group a series of letter according to some


criterion or remember a set of number we would be using fluid intelligence.

CRYSTALLIZED INTELLIGENCE:-
Crystallized intelligence is the accumulation of information, skills, and strategies that
people have learned through experience and that they can apply in problem-solving
situations.

EXAMPLE:
We would be likely to rely on crystallized intelligence, for instance, if we
were asked to participate in a discussion about a solution to the causes of poverty, a task
that allows us to draw on our own past experiences and knowledge of the world.
In contrast to fluid intelligence, which reflects a more general kind of intelligence,
crystallized intelligence is more a reflection of the culture in which a person is raised.

GARDNER’S MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCE


(The many way of showing intelligence):-
Gardner
argues that we have minimum eight different forms of intelligence, each relatively
independent of the others:

1- MUSICAL INTELLIGENCE (Musical Smart):-


Musical intelligence is the capacity to discern pitch, rhythm, timbre, and tone. This
intelligence enables us to recognize, create, reproduce, and reflect on music, as
demonstrated by composers, conductors, musicians, vocalist, and sensitive listener.
Interestingly, there is often an affective connection between music and the
emotions; and mathematical and musical intelligences may share common thinking
processes. Young adults with this kid of intelligence are usually singing or drumming to
themselves. They are usually quite aware of sounds others may miss.

2- BODILY KINESTHETIC INTELLIGENCE:-

It skills in using the whole body or various portions of it in the solution of problems or in
the construction of products or displays, exemplified by dancers, athletes, actors, and
surgeons.

3- LOGICAL-MATHEMATICAL INTELLIGENCE
(Number/Reasoning Smart):-
Logical-mathematical intelligence is the ability to calculate, quantify, consider
propositions and hypotheses, and carry out complete mathematical operations. It
enables s to perceive relationships and connections and deductive thinking
patterns. Logical intelligence is usually well developed in mathematicians,
scientists, and detectives. Young adults with lots of logical intelligence are
interested in patterns, categories, and relationships. They are drawn to arithmetic
problems, strategy games and experiments.

4- LINGUISTIC INTELLIGENCE:-

Skills involved in the production and use of language.

5- SPATIAL INTELLIGENCE:-

Skills involving spatial configurations, such as those used by artist and architects.

6- NATURALIST INTELLIGENCE (Nature Smart):-


Designates the human ability to discriminate among living things (plants, animals) as
well as sensitivity to other features of the natural world (clouds, rock configurations).
This ability was clearly of value in our evolutionary past as hunters, gatherers,
and farmers; it continues to be central in such roles as botanist or chef. It is also
speculated that much of our consumer society exploits the naturalist intelligences, which
can be mobilized in the discrimination among cars, sneakers, kinds of makeup and the
like.

7- INTERPERSONAL INTELLIGENCE:-
Interpersonal intelligence is the ability to understand and interact effectively with
others. It involves effective verbal and non-verbal communication, the ability to note
distinctions among others, sensitivity to the moods and temperaments of others, and the
ability to entertain multiple perspectives.
Teachers, social workers, actors, and
politicians all exhibit interpersonal intelligence. Young adults with this kind of
intelligence are leaders among their peers, are good at communicating and seem to
understand others’ feelings and motives.
8- INTRAPERSONAL INTELLIGENCE:-

Knowledge of the internal aspects of oneself; access to one’s own feelings and
emotions.

INFORMATION PROCESSING INTELLIGENCE:-


One of the newer contributions to understand intelligence comes from the work of
cognitive psychologists who take an information-processing approach. They assert that
the way people store material in memory and use that material to solve intellectual
task provides the most accurate measure of intelligence.

BIOLOGICAL INTELLIGENCE:-
Evidence suggests that genetic variation has a significant impact on IQ, accounting for
three fourths in adults. Despite the high heritability of IQ, few genes have been found to
have a substantial effect on IQ, suggesting that IQ is the product of interaction between
multiple genes.
Other biological factors correlating with IQ include ratio of brain weight to body weight
and the volume and location of gray matter tissue in the brain.
Because intelligence appears to be at least partly dependent on brain structure and the
genes shaping brain development, it has been proposed that genetic engineering could
be used to enhance the intelligence of animals, a process sometimes called biological
uplift in science fiction. Experiments on mice have demonstrated superior ability in
learning and memory in various behavioral tasks.

EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE:-
“Emotional intelligence is once ability to detect and to manage emotional cues and
information”
People who know their own emotions are good at reading others. Emotions may be
more effective in their jobs. That in essence is theme underlying recent (EI) research.

Emotional intelligence composed of five dimensions:


• SELF AWARENESS: Being aware of what you are feeling.

• SELF MANAGEMENT: The ability to manage your own emotions and

Impulses.

• SELF MOTIVATION: The ability to persist in the face of setbacks and

failures.

• EMPATHY: The ability to sense how others are feeling.

• SOCIAL SKILLS: The ability to handle the emotions of others.

ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE:-

Artificial intelligence (AI) is the intelligence of machines and the branch of computer
science which aims to create it.
Major AI textbooks define the field as “The study and design of agents, “where an
intelligent agent is a system that perceives its environment and takes actions which
maximize its chances of success”.

John McCarthy, who coined the term in 1956, defines it as "The science and engineering
of making intelligent machines."

EXISTENTIAL INTELLIGENCE:-
Sensitivity and capacity to tackle deep questions about human existence, such as the
meaning of life, Why do we die? And how did we get here?

SOCIAL INTELLIGENCE:-
Social intelligence according to the original definition of Edward Thorndike, is "The
ability to understand and manage men and women, boys and girls, to act wisely in
human relations" .It is equivalent to interpersonal intelligence

USES AND ABUSES OF INTELLIGENCE:-


All intelligence processes contains many merits and demerits and have been used and
abused in so many ways.
Let us take a look at these aspects of INTELLIGENCE,

USES:
1: USE IN SELECTION:
Result of intelligence can be properly used for selection of suitable candidates for
educational and professional activities.

EXAMPLE:-

*Admission into a special educational program.


*Identification and offer of scholarship to gifted students.

2: USE IN CLASSIFICATION:-

Intelligence helps in classifying individuals according to their mental make-up. In the


school his is possible for the teacher to classify the students in his class as backward
average, bright and gifted. Enrichment program for the gifted and remedial education
for the backward and dull can thus be possible with the help of classification done
through intelligence.

3: USE IN ASSESSMENT FOR PROMOTION:-

The result of intelligence along with the achievement can be successfully used for
promotion of student to the next higher grades of classes.

ABUSES OF INTELLIGENCE:

Intelligence has sufficient scope for being misused leads to unhealthy effects on the
welfare of individuals and society. These effects can be briefly summarized as follows;

1: ILL-EFFECT ON STUDENTS:-

The subjects whose intelligence is tested through intelligence test may be adversely
affected by the knowledge of their I.Q findings may color not only their interests and
attitudes towards learning and work but also personality in dealing with their
environment.

2: MISUSE BY TEACHERS AND PARENTS:-

The I.Q tables tagged to the children are very carefully remembered and misutilized by
their teachers and parents. They try to see them in the light of their I.Q.

3: MISUSE BY SOCIETY:-

Not only students and teachers but society in general has tried to misinterpret and
misutilized the results of intelligence testing for maintain the theory resulting in
segregation, sectarianism and racial discrination in many societies include the most
developed societies of the west.

I.Q:-

An Intelligence Quotient or IQ is a score derived from one of several different


standardized tests attempting to measure intelligence. The term "IQ," a calque of the
German Intelligenz-Quotient, was coined by the German psychologist William Stern in
1912 as a proposed method of scoring early modern children's intelligence tests such as
those developed by Alfred Binet and Theodore Simon in the early 20th Century.

UNDERSTANDING IQ:-
Binet develop the concept of the I.Q (Intelligence Quotient).The I.Q is mental age
divided by chronological age and express as a percentage.

L.Q = M.A/C.A * 100

What is a good IQ score? What is a high IQ score? What is a low IQ score? These are
common questions, particularly after someone finds out their score from an IQ test.
Lewis Terman (1916) developed the original notion of IQ and proposed this scale for
classifying IQ scores:

• Over 140 - Genius or near genius


• 120 - 140 - Very superior intelligence
• 110 - 119 - Superior intelligence
• 90 - 109 - Normal or average intelligence
• 80 - 89 - Dullness
• 70 - 79 - Borderline deficiency
• Under 70 - Definite feeble-mindedness

Normal Distribution & IQ Scores:

The properties of the normal distribution apply to IQ scores:

• 50% of IQ scores fall between 90 and 110


• 70% of IQ scores fall between 85 and 115
• 95% of IQ scores fall between 70 and 130
• 99.5% of IQ scores fall between 60and140

Low IQ & Mental Retardation:-

5% of people have an IQ under 70 and this is generally considered as the benchmark for
"mental retardation", a condition of limited mental ability in that it produces difficulty
in adapting to the demands of life.

Severity of mental retardation can be broken into 4 levels:

• 50-70 - Mild mental retardation (85%)


• 35-50 - Moderate mental retardation (10%)
• 20-35 - Severe mental retardation (4%)
• IQ < 20 - Profound mental retardation (1%)

High IQ & Genius IQ:-

Genius IQ is generally considered to begin around 140 to 145, representing ~.25% of the
population (1 in 400). Here's a rough guide:

• 115-124 - Above average (e.g., university students)


• 125-134 - Gifted (e.g., post-graduate students)
• 135-144 - Highly gifted (e.g., intellectuals)
• 145-154 - Genius (e.g., professors)
• 155-164 - Genius (e.g., Nobel Prize winners)
• 165-179 - High genius

CLASSIFICATION OF INTELLIGENCE TEST:-


INTELLIGENCE TEST may be classified as follows:

1: INDIVIDUAL TEST:-
In which only one individual is tested at a time.

2: GROUP TEST:-

In which a group of individuals is tested at the same time.

CLASSIFICATION OF INTELLIGENCE TEST


(On the basis of their form):-
INTELLIGENCE TEST may also be classified on the basis of their form as:

*VERBAL or LANGUAGE TEST:


*NON-VERBAL or NON-LANGUAGE TEST:

1: INDIVIDUAL VERBAL or LANGUAGE TEST:-

“Test involving the use of language in which the instructions are given in words written,
oral or both are administered to one individual at a time”

The test content is loaded with verbal material which may include varieties of items
listed below:

1: VOCABULARY TEST:-

In these the subject is required to give the meanings of words or phrases.

EXAMPLE:

What is the meaning of word “EVENTUALLY”?


What does the phrase “BARKING DOGS SELDOME BITES” covey?

2: MEMORY TEST:-

These are designed to test the subject’s immediate and long-term memory, and include
recall and recognition type of items.

EXAMPLE:

He may be called upon to tell the full names of teachers who teach him different subject,
his phone number , the date of birth of his siblings and so on.

3: COMPREHENSION TESTS:-
By means of these, the subject is tested for the ability to grasp, understand and react to a
given situation.

EXAMPLE:

The questions may be like: Why do big ships float in the sea while a small needle would
sink in it?

4: INFORMATION TESTS:-

The subject is tested on his knowledge about the things around him by means of these
tests.

EXAMPLE:

Where is Taj Mahal situated?

5: REASONING TESTS:-

In these tests the subject is asked to provide answers which demonstrate his ability to
reason, logically, analytically, synthetically.

EXAMPLE:

Complete the series 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11,……....?

6: ASSOCIATION TESTS:-

Through these tests items the subject is tested for his ability to point out the similarities
or dissimilarities between two or more concepts or objects.

EXAMPLE:

In what ways are animals and plants alike?

INDIVIDUAL NON-VERBAL or NON-LANGUAGE TEST:-

“These tests involve activities in which the use of language is not necessary except for
giving directions”

PERFORMANCE TESTS are typical example of such tests. They are may be in the form
of material objects or through oral or instructions and signs.
Generally the activities on which the performance of an individual is tested are of
different types.

EXAMPLE OF PICTURE ARRANGEMENT:

Here is a JIGSAW, in a jigsaw the task is to arrange the given picture with the help of
given pieces cut out from that picture.

The completion of the picture gave us good estimate of INTELLIGENCE of the subject
without language.

2:*GROUP VERBAL or LANGUAGE TEST:-

“The test which necessitate the use of language and are applied to a group of individuals
at a time”

:*GROUP NON-VERBAL or NON-LANGUAGE TEST:-


“The test which do not necessitate the use of language and are applicable to a group of
individuals at a time”
The non-verbal group test does not, however, contain words or numerical figures. It
contains pictures diagram and geometrical figures etc printed in a booklet.
EXAMPLE:

A student must see the patterns forms by the shapes organized into groups then choose
the answer that completes the picture. In this example the child has to understand 3
shapes form a pattern through 3 by 3 matrix, once the child understand that the circle
form diagonal line and triangle and square form their alternating pattern then he can
choose the correct option no#2.
BY ALL THESE WE CAN TEST THE INTELLIGENCE OF A PERSON.

*************
References:
*Elementary Psychology (KARAMAT HUSSAIN).
*Advance Educational Psychology (S.K. MANGAL).
*I.Q TEST BOOK.
*Google Search.
*Fred Lutkams (organization behavior)

*Robert Lussier & Minas Poulous.