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their familiarity with the piece—they don't know what's going to happen next. On the other hand, it won't be a piled-on set of crashing dissonances, so they can judge for themselves as well as anybody whether what happens succeeds or fails. And that’s a very hor seat for the performer. For me it's a place where use about as much adrenaline as I do throughour the rest of the concerto. Ir takes a vast amount of concentration and coordination, and if the mind and body are not perfectly synchronized there'll be a calamity, The cadenzas are perhaps the clearest example of your methods of master- ing Mozart's language. You've written that the cadenza is “less a prolonged vir- tuoso display than a decorated cadence"—a way to create harmonic tension be- fore the final resolution—and you mention that a Mozart cadenza has three sections—well, I'm reading back to you what you've written.'* It doesn’t mask the fact that there are Mozart cadenzas which don’t do those things. The cadenza in K. 488 uses a tiny snippet of material from one of the least noticeable places in the concerto, just a little passagework, which shows up in the beginning of the development; all of the big tunes are ne- glected. That cadenza, revealingly enough, is not preserved on a separate piece of paper, as was Mozart's usual practice, but is written into the autograph score itself; that may suggest that this concerto is a unique case. But it's marvelous to have that cadenza, beeause it shows that the harmonic principles are invio- lable even though the question of how much motivic stuff you need isn’t. You can improvise a great cadenza that has just about nothing in it in terms of tunes but keeps the harmonic juggling act going. What you can’t do is write a ca- denza that is harmonically stable but obediently reminds everyone that “and then I played, and then I played...” You said earlier that you can hear things in other people's cadentas that aren't Mozartian; in an essay you give examples that have what you call “for- eign accents”—stylistic features that are not in Mozart's language—in some published embellishments of Mozart concertos.'* ‘When you hear great Mozartians play, you can often hear a little Brahms, a little Beethoven thar creeps in. What’s fascinating to me, though, is thar mu- sicians have never been concerned about this kind of temporal cleanness, the kind of historicity we've been discussing in terms of linguistics and so on. It has never been considered a sin to have Beethoven or Brahms present in a 15. In “Instrumental Ornamentation, Improvisation and Cadenzas,” pp. 279 and 283, which gives a technical analysis of the Mozart cadenza. 16. Ibid, pp. 277-78, That Mozart's music would have been embellished in, for example, the returns of a condo theme or in many sparsely notated passages in concertos, has been clearly demonstrated. See ibid., pp. 269-79, and especially Levin's article “Improvised Em- bellishment in Mozart’s Keyboard Music,” Early Music 20 (May 1992), pp. 221-33. Sec also this chapter's “For Further Reading” section.