Sei sulla pagina 1di 361

COOLING TOWERS

Selection, Design and Practice

- - ,"",_.. _...........

._".. _ .. __ ., _ _ ----,.""""" __ .,.,_".,.;.'_ ,.,.-",.",,,. ,,,.,-..

..c:::":;;,:

~.:'.".:~"".""''''."=:''':.'''.c :,,.,,::,,''''','',~::,'''::,'',: , ::::,~,,"'o.~,,""'"":".,

~.

_ ,. ___..,_____._____ ,__"----_.,.,,,,,_"'.

.."... _. _ _ _=-_. ___

- - _- - -

-~

COOLING TOWERS
Selection, Design and Practice

by
Nicholas P. Cheremisinoff
Paul N. Cheremisinoff

Copyright 1981 by Ann Arbor Science Publishers, Inc.


P.O. Box 1425,230 Collingwood, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48106
Library of Congress Card Catalog Number 81-65711
ISBN 0-250-40407-9
Manufactured in the United States of America
All Rights Reserved

PREFACE
As the least expensive and most efficient alternative, once-through cooling
has historically been the preferred method for cooling hot process waters
in industrial operations and power plants. However, since thermal pollution
has become a major environmental problem, the unlimited use of water for
cooling purposes has become one of the major social and political issues
constraining plant siting in many parts of the country. As an example, a
WOO-megawatt power plant utilizing once-through cooling requires 300,000
to 700,000 gallons per minute of water consumption. Plant sites have
drastically diminished near water sources where such water usage is possible. Consequently, closed-cycle cooling methods thaFrattempt to make
maximum use of limited water supplies have become the primary cooling
option.
Cooling tower technology progressed slowly until very recently. New
developments aim at improving the thermal efficiencies and minimizing
maintenance of existing designs to save large capital investments. When sound
engineering principles are applied to upgrade existing designs or new installations, cooling towers can produce colder process water and save input
energy, while at the same time can minimize pollution impacts. To meet these
objectives, design and process engineers' must thoroughly understand the
operating principles and the limitations of the best technology that is
presently available. Equally important is some insight into how technology
needs are likely to change in the near future.
'
This book gives state-of-the-art evaporative cooling tower techniques.
Design practices and applications of modern cooling tower technology are
presented. A design basis can be established through the detailed calculation
procedures outlined and with selected use of the nearly 400 references
compiled at the end of the book. Detailed abstracts of more than half of
these references have been prepared so that the reader can readily obtain
the most useful information for his or her specific problems,
Nicholas P. Cheremisinoff
Paul N. Cheremisinoff
iii

Nicholas P. Cheremisinoff is Senior Project Engineer with


: Exxon Research & Engineering Co. in Florham Park, N.J.
He received his BS, MS and PhD degrees in Chemical
, Engineering from Clarkson College of Technology, where
he was an instructor from 1976 to 1977. Dr. Cheremisinoff
is the author of a number of books and has contributed
to the industrial press. He is a member of a number of
professional and honor societies including Tau Beta Pi, Sigma Xi and AIChE.
His special research interests, include heat and mass transfer phenomena and
new energy technology.

Paul N. Cheremisinoff is Associate Professor of Environmental Engineering at the New Jersey Institute of Technology. A consultant and registered professional engineer,
he has more than 30 years of practical design, development
and manufacturing engineering experience in a wide range
of organizations, specifically in chemical processing. He is
the author/editor of many Ann Arbor Science Publishers
handbooks, including Pollution Engineering Practice Handbook, Carbon
Adsorption Handbook and Environmental Impact Data Book.

iv

CONTENTS
1.

Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Historical Developments. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Operating Principles. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Cooling Tower Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Design Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .' . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

.
.
.
.
.
.

1
2
3
5
8

2.

Properties and Definitions for the Air-Water System. . . . . . . .


Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Vapor Pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .". . . . . . .
Saturated Condition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . '. . . . . . .
Definitions in Thermodynamics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Wet Bulb Temperature. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Humidity Charts . . . . . . . . . . '. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Notation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Problems . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

..
..
..
..
"
..
"
..
..

13
13
13
16
18
26
29
31
33

3.

Heat and Mass Transfer Principles. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . '. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The General Energy Balance Equation. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Principles of Energy and Material Balances. . . . . . . . . . .
Principles of Direct-Contact Transfer. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Heat and Mass Transfer Analogies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Mass Transfer Theory. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Transfer Units. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Lewis Number Relationship. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Notation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Problems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

..
..
..
..
..
"
..
..
..
..
..

35
35
35
39
43
44
46
51
52
53
55

4.

Cooling Tower Classifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..


Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
Cooling Tower Subclassifications and Configurations. . . . ..

59
59
59

Fill Arrangements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Distribution Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Mechanical-Draft Cooling Towers. . . . . . . . . . .
Factory-Assembled Towers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fan Assisted Hyperbolic Towers. . . . . . . . . . . .
New Tower Designs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Dry Cooling Towers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Wet/Dry Tower Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . :

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
:

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

70
70
70
74
75
77
79
83

5.

Theory and Design Principles. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Gas-Liquid Contacting. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Application of Psychrometric Chart. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Application of the Energy Balance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Construction of Equilibrium Curves . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Guidelines for Tower Specification. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
General Design Considerations and Packing Coefficients.
Correcting for Liquid Film Resistance. . . . . . . . . . . . .
Integrating Procedures for Tower Sizing. . . . . . . . . . . .
Notation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Problems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

87
87
87
91
96
102
104
108
112
113
119
120

6.

Operation and Design Practices . . . . . . . . . . . .


Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tower Coefficients . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tower Characteristics and Performance. . . .
Power Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Considerations in Cooling Tower Selection. .
Empirical Approach to Tower Sizing. . . . . .
Problems Related to Outside Installation. . .
Winter Operation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Problems with Fog Formation. . . . . . . . . .
Blowdown . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Water Consumption and Recirculation Rates
Gas Cooling Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fire Hazard and Safety Precautions with
Cooling Towers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Cooling Tower Plumes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Cooling Tower Specification Guide. . . . . . .
Notation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Problems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

vi

.. ..
.. ..
....
....
.. ..
... .
....
....

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.. 125
.. 125
.. 125
.. 127
.. 130
.. 134
.. 136
.. 138
.. 141
.. 143
.. 146
.. 149
.. 150

.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.

.. 153
.. 154
.. 158
.. 159
.. 160

7.

Mechanical Components of Cooling Towers . . . . . . . . . . . . .


Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Circulating Pumps. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fans. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Speed Reducers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . '. . . . . . . . . . .
Drive Shafts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Instrumentation, Valves and Flowsheets . . . . . . . . . . . .
Example of Cooling Tower Requisition. . . . . . . . . . . . .
Cooling Tower Testing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Bids Evaluation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Cooling Tower Economics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

" 163
.. 163
.. 163
.. 165
.. 167
.. 167
.. 168
.. 169
.. 179
.. 179
.. 183

8.

Cooling Tower Water Treatment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Problems Inherent to Water Contaminants. . . . . . . . . . .
Pretreatment of Cooling Water Systems. . . . . . . . . . . . .
Corrosion Detection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Methods of Evaluating Cooling Water Inhibitors. . . . . . .
Langelier and Ryznar Equations: Saturation and
Stability Index. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Organic Growths . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ,", . . . . . .
Legionnaires' Disease . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .'. . . . . . .
Water Analysis and Treatment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Plastic Cooling Towers ...... : . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

..
..
..
..
"
..

185
185
186
188
190
191

..
..
..
..
..

191
192
193
194
198

Guidelines for Winter Operation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Overall Ice Prevention System Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Mechanics of the Fill Bypass and Ice Prevention
Ring Sections. . . . . . . . . . .'. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Supplemental Ice Control: Fill Zoning. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Guidelines for Integrated System Operation. . . . . . . . . .
Conclusions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

.. 207
" 207
.. 207

9.

Appendix A': Steam Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


Appendix B: Conversion Factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Appendix C: Solutions to Selected Chapter Problems ......
Appendix D: Source Listing and Abstracts of the Cooling
Tower Literature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Author Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Subject Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

vii

..
..
..
..

209
211
212
213

.
.
.

215
225
245

.
.
.

259
335
341

FIGURES

1.1
1.2
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6
3.1
3.2
3.3

Cooling tower operation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


Countercurrent and crossflow cooling towers . . . . . . . . . . . . . ,
Vapor pressure curve for water. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
Heat capacity curves for air and water vapor. . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
Graphic representation of enthalpy change. . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
The principle of wet-bulb temperature. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
Psychrometric chart for the air-water vapor system . . . . . . . . ..
Humidity chart example. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
Energy, balance for an open system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ,
Energy balance for a closed system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . "
Process operations or equipment can be represented by a
generalized flow process known as the black
box technique. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
3.4 Generalized flow process considered in Example 1. . . . . . . . . ..
3.5 The action of diffusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ,
3.6 The Arnold diffusion cell. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
3.7 Water tank for problem 3.7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
3.8 Adiabatic gas-liquid contact system for problem 3.9. . . . . . . . ..
4.1 Subclassifications of cooling towers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
4.2 Atmospheric spray tower. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
4.3 Hyperbolic natural draft tower. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
4.4 Counterflow tower . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
4.5 Crossflow tower . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
4.6 Single-structure type wet/dry cooling tower. . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
4.7 Wet/dry cooling tower. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
4.8 Coil shed cooling tower . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
4.9 Cross section of a simple cooling tower formed by enclosing
a spraypond with louvered walls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ,
4.10 Various geometries employed in constructing redwood fill
for cooling towers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
4.11 Power plant installation where multiple tower arrangement is

viii

4
10
14
22
23
27
30
31
36
37

39
41
47
55
56
57
60
61
61
62
63
64
64
65
66
67

4.12
4.13
4.14
4.15
4.16
4.17
4.18
4.19
4.20
4.21
4.22
4.23
4.24
5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
5.5

5.6
5.7
5.8
5.9
5.10
5.11
5.12
5.13
5.14
5.15
5.16
6.1

utilized (towers are operated in parallel). Cooling towers


are placed in a row at right angles to the prevailing winds
Differences between crossflow and counterflow hyperbolic
cooling towers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Operating principles behind splash-packing and. film-packing ... .
Gravity and splash-type water distribution systems employed
in cooling towers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Large mechanical-draft cooling towers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Design elements of mechanical-draft cooling towers . . . . . . . . . .
Factory-assembled units are shipped in modular package form
and erected in the field. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Forced draft tower curves and manufacturer's design procedure ..
Fan-assisted hyperbolic tower . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Cooling tower design developed by Baltimore Aircoil Co. The
system is designed to operate without fill packing ....... .
Direct, dry-type cooling tower condensing system utilizing a
mechanical-draft tower . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Indirect, dry-type cooling tower condensing system employing
a natural-draft tower . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Schematic of advanced dry cooling system proposed by
McHale et al. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ":1 .
Design features of the wet! dry cooling tower ..... ' . . . . . . . . .
Free and interrupted flow through a column . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tower packing configurations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Cross-sectional view of commonly used cooling tower
fill arrangements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Example of adiabatic humidification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Cooling tower operation for Example 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Countercurrent cooling tower operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
General operating diagram for a cooling tower . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Daily and annual variations in ambient air wet-bulb
temperatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Effect of flow variance on cooling tower size factor . . . . . . . . . .
Effect of range variance on tower size factor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Variation in tower size factor with approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Important design parameters for the countercurrent cooling
tower operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Cooling tower operation for Example 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Equilibrium curve and operating line for Example 3 . . . . . . . . . .
Evaluation ofNTU' for Example 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Cooling tower operation for problem 5.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Countercurrent cooling diagram for constant conditions,
variable L:G ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

ix

68
69
71
72

73
74
75
76
77

79
80
81
83
84
89
90
90
92
94
97
102
106
108
108
109
110

115
116
118

122
126

6.2
6.3
6.4
6.5
6.6
6.7

6.8
6.9
6.10
6.11
6.12
6.13
6.14
6.15
6.16
6.17

7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
8.1
9.1
9.2

9.3
9.4

Crossflow tower cooling diagram. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..


Generalized tower characteristic curves. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
Countercurrent cooling tower rating chart for 15 range . . . . . ..
The effects of varying process conditions on a cooling
tower's enthalpy temperature diagram. . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
The effect of variations in performance requirement on tower
ground area for a fixed tower design with constant G . . . . ..
Catwalks are an essential part of the cooling tower package.
Shown here is a small cooling tower with a walkway around
the entire unit for inspection and maintenance purposes. . ..
Interface and recirculation problems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
Proper tower orientation can avoid interference from multiple
tower arrangements .. '. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
Heat balance about a cooling tower. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
Equation 6.8 correlated mechanical-draft performance data .... ,
Portion of psychrometric chart illustrating fog formation. . . . ..
Fog formation assisted by wake formation and hourly
variations in ambient air humidity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
Chart for estimating cooling tower makeup requirements. . . . ..
Chart for estimating cooling tower blowdown. . . . . . . . . . . . ..
Lewis number correlation for the air-water system. . . . . . . . . ..
Typical pl~t comparing relative ground concentration in the
cooling tower stack direction. Ground-level concentrations
are normally averaged over the year . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
Recommended minimum submergence depths versus velocity. ..
Various methods to prevent vortex formation. . . . . . . . . . . . ..
Centrifugal fan configurations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
Typical flowsheet for a cooling tower system . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
Typical cooling tower performance curves for different
water loadings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
Modular constructed plastic cooling towers . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
Illustrates the danger of freezing for normal cooling
tower operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
Diagram showing the proper flow allocations during low heat
load operation, with water flow diverted from the
fill section . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . "
Typical fill water ,distribution pattern in the zoned mode
of operation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
Operating regions for the winter operating modes for
ice prevention. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..

127
129
130
133
136

139
139
140
141
142
144
145
148
149
151

157
164
164
167
170
180
199
208

210
212
213

TABLES
2.1
2.2
4.1
4.2
5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
5.5
6.1
6.2
6.3
7.1
7.2
8.1
8.2
8.3
8.4

Constants for Heat Capacity Equation 2.28 for


Air and Water. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
Enthalpy Values for Air and Water. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
Comparison Between Characteristics of Mechanical- and
Natural-Draft Cooling Towers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ,
Design Considerations and Characteristics of Dry Cooling. . ..
Heat Absorbed by Cooling Water for Various Operations. . ..
Humidification Characteristics of Packing Materials. . . . . . ..
Guide to Packing Height Specification. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
Air-Water Mixtures-Enthalpies and Humidities. . . . . . . . . ..
Computations for Construction of Figure 5.15 . :\ . . . . . . ..
Maximum Temperatures and Maximum Wind Velocities for
Different Cities in the United States. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
Fill Packing Factors at 120F .. ',' . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
Specification List for Cooling Towers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
Economic Considerations of Wet Cooling Systems. . . . . . . ..
Procedure for Estimating Potential Water Cost and Sewer
Taxes Savings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ,
Pretreatment Procedures. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
Chemical Treating Agents for Cooling Water Towers ..... "
High-Impact Polyethylene Properties. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
Plastics Chemicals Resistance Chart. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..

xi

23
24
78
82
105
112
112
115
117
131
137
158
181
182
190
197
200
201

CHAPTER 1
OVERVIEW
INTRODUCTION

In the light of the ecological renaissance of the last two decades, thermal
pollution is now receiving serious attention. It is environmentally unacceptable to directly discharge hot water back to its source after it has been
used to cool chemical process equipment, electrical generating turbines
or refrigeration and air conditioning equipment. Hot process waters must
either be cooled before discharge, or cooled and recyoled. Purchasing and
then discarding large quantities of water into sewage systems is cost prohibitive in many parts of the country, and even if favorable economics were
to exist, environmental concerns would forbid such practices.
In the past, abundant resources made' it possible to use cold water on a
once-through basis. Where topographical considerations were accounted
for, large ponds, lakes or canals were used to contain, cool and recirculate
or discharge process waters. To facilitate cooling and reduce land requirements, spray systems were often employed to aerate the water in the ponds.
In today's economic framework, however, energy conservation matches
the importance of our ecology. Consequently, utilizing cooling water efficiently is a vital engineering consideration. As examples, by using colder
water, a chemical plant can condense more salable condensate, refrigeration/
air conditioning machinery will consume less power, and power plants can
significantly reduce energy generation debits.
Cooling tower technology has progressed slowly until recently. A large
portion of the recent advances is aimed at improving existing cooling towers
to save large capital investments. When sound modern engineering principles
are applied to upgrading existing designs or to "grass-roots" installations,
cooling towers can produce colder water and save input energy, while at
the same time eliminating potential pollution problems.
To meet these objectives, both design and process engineers must have
a thorough understanding of the principles of operation and the limitations

COOLING TOWERS

of the best available technology that presently exists. Equally important


is some insight into how technology needs are likely to change in the near
future. This book is intended as a state-of-the-art review of the design and
application of modern-day cooling tower technology.

HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENTS
The technique of evaporative cooling can be traced back to ancient times
when rivers, seas, lakes, ponds, etc., were utilized as a medium of water
supply. With limited industrial activities of the past ages and plentiful
resources, cold water could be used "once-through," discharged and forgotten. Where topographical corisiderations were taken into account in
plant site selection, large ponds or canals were employed to hold, cool,
recirculate or discharge process waters. This type of an approach required
large land areas. To reduce the amount of real estate needed, spray systems
were installed to aerate the water in holding ponds and to promote faster
cooling by generating more water' surface to the atmosphere in the form of
spray. This early development eliminated the need to rely on top layer
evaporation and sensible heat exchange.
The next logic~ development of cooling tower technology came when
it was discovered that by spraying downwards in a box, instead of upwards,
lower temperatures could be achieved. Shortly after this observation was
made, instead of relying on prevailing winds for air movement in spray ponds
and atmospheric spray towers, aerodynamically designed fans or air movers
were incorporated into designs.
As the mechanics and hydrodynamics of water cooling became better
understood, fill or packing material was included in designs to slow the
vertical fall of water and to provide greater air/water interfacial contact
for more difficult cooling. Today, everyone of these techniques is utilized
in some form or another.
Cooling tower technology appears to have made an entire circle, as
emphasis is once again directed toward atmospheric cooling. However, there
are significant differences in these modern designs compared to early prototypes. Hyperbolic cooling towers are being constructed without the use of
fans or air movers. These structures measure about 980-1700 meters in
diameter at the base a~d 980-1700 meters in height. With structures of
this magnitude, detailed and reliable engineering design practices are essential.
Presently, the United States accounts for 50% of the world cooling tower
market. About 25% of the U.S. market is with the petrochemical industry,
15% involved in personal comfort and 60% with electric power generation [1]. More than twice as many of these towers are mechanical draft,
as opposed to natural draft, units. The former type are employed nationwide,

---~~--

~-

--~--

OVERVIEW

while the latter are concentrated in the Appalachian area because of favorable
climatic conditions. This balance, however, is likely to change in the light
of developing technology.

OPERATING PRINCIPLES
Cooling tower operation is based on evaporative condensation and exchange
of sensible heat. The mixing of two fluid streams at different temperatures
(in this case air and water) releases latent heat of vaporization, causing a
cooling effect to the warmer fluid (water). This cooling effect is accomplished
by transforming a portion of the liqUid into a vapor state, thereby releasing
the latent heat of vaporization.
This effect can be simply demonstrated by wetting the back of your hand
and blowing on it. The airstream releases the latent heat of vaporization,
causing the temperature of the water on the skin to drop. As the water is
transformed to the vapor state, it consumes heat, which it derives from the
remaining water on the skin. The net effect is one of cooling.
In a cooling tower's operation, sensible heat also plays a role. When warm
water contacts cooler air, the air cools the water and its temperature rises
as it gains the sensible heat of the water. Roughly 25% ,gf the sensible heat
transfer takes place within the tower, with the bala~ce of the cooling
phenomenon achieved from the evaporative effect of the latent heat of
vaporization. In simple terms, a cooling tower is a device that transfers
quantities of heat from one mass to another. As we will see in later chapters,
a cooling tower is simply an air-mass heat exchanger.
A more technical description of a cooling tower is that it represents a
heat rejection solution to the chemical process, or correction of the heat
penalty generation of compression equipment [2]. Regardless which definition is preferred, cooling towers simply move heat from point A to point B
and ultimately discharge the heat to the atmosphere. The atmosphere thus
represents the ultimate disposal site for waste thermal energy and is appropriately referred to as a "heat sink."
During operation there is a loss of water. Water vapor passes through the
cooling tower and is discharged into the atmosphere. For normal operation,
water losses amount to approximately 0.2% of the total volume of water
circulated for every 10 of cooling range, 1% for each 12 temperature differential in the area of 1000 Btu/lb of water evaporated. As an example, a
1O,000-gpm unit with a 20 temperature range (Le., water entering at 100F)
and exiting at 80F) will lose an average of 167 gpm of water because of
evaporation. Evaporation losses are due to a number of factors, principal ones
being blowdown, splashing and drift. These will be discussed in detail later.
When the temperature of the heated air is below 140F, cooling towers

~~~-

COOLING TOWERS

generally represent the most economical atmospheric heat rejection system.


Temperature differential is related to the ambient wet-bulb temperature.
It is a function of natural conditions and is independent of tower design.
In normal operations, continuously recirculating water picks up waste
heat from a refrigeration compressor or process heat exchanger, and the hot
water is pumped to the top of the tower and dropped over the cooling tower.
Evaporative action removes the heat from the water and adds it to the air.
The hot, moist air is ejected from the fan stack, and the cooled 'water returns
to the compressor or exchanger to pick up more heat. Figure 1.1 illustrates
the cooling tower operation.
As noted, two principles of heat transfer are involved: evaporation and
convection. The rate of heat transfer by both convection and evaporation
increases with an increase in air-to-water interfacial surface, relative velocity,
contact time and temperature differential. Packing and fill in a tower serve
to increase the interfacial surface area; the tower chimney or fans create
the relative air-to-water velocity; and contact time is a function of tower
size. These three factors all may be influenced by the tower design.
The ability of a tower to function is measured by how close it brings
the cold water temperature to the wet-bulb temperature of the surrounding

FROM ENTERING
TOWER AT
TEMPERATURE TI

TO LEAVING
TOWER AT T2

EXAMPLE:

AT A SPECIFIED WET-BULB

TEMPERATURE
RANGE:::

(Twb )

OF 78F -

~T ::: TI - T

2 ::: 20F

APPROACH ::: T2 - Twb ::: 7 OF


Figure 1.1

Cooling tower operation.

OVERVIEW

air. The lower the wet-bulb temperature (which indicates either cool air,
low humidity or a combination), the colder the tower can make the water.
The water temperature will never go below the temperature of the incoming
air. In practice, the final water temperature will be several degrees above the
wet-bulb temperature.

COOLING TOWER TERMINOLOGY


There are a number of terms with rather rigorous definitions within the
context of cooling tower technology. It is' worthwhile for the newcomer
to this subject to learn these definitions early on in the discussions. In subsequent chapters we will apply the following definitions to establishing
specific design guidelines.
Acceptance Testing-Test procedures to determine the water cooling
capacity of towers. Instrumentation used and measurement procedures
should be those recommended by the Cooling Tower Institute (CT!) in
its "Acceptant Text Procedures."
Air Inlet-That portion of the cooling tower structure in which air is
drawn into the system.
Ambient Dry-Bulb Temperature-External outdoor te'l11perature as indicated by a dry-bulb thermometer and expressed in degrees ,Fahrenheit.
Ambient Wet-Bulb Temperature- The temperature in degrees Fahrenheit
to which air can be cooled, making it adiabatic to saturation by the addition
of water vapor. In practical terms, the wet-bulb temperature is the
temperature indicated by a thermometer, the bulb of which is kept moist
by a wick and over which air is circulated.
Approach or Approach to the Wet-Bulb-The difference in temperature
CF) of the cold water leaving the tower and the wet-bulb temperature of
the ambient air.
Balancing Valve-Hand or mechanically operated valve installed in each
riser pipe of a multicell tower to control water flow.
Basin-The area at the bottom of the tower for collecting cold water.
Crossflow towers have a hot water distribution basin at the top and, in
some cases, 'a water basin between the top and bottom basins.
Blowdown (Purge)-The continuous or intermittent wasting of small
amounts of circulating water. Its purpose is to prevent an increase in the
concentration of solids in the water due to evaporation, normally expressed
as a percentage of the water being circulated.
Capacity-The average amount of water circulating in the cooling system
at any given time, expressed in gallons per minute.
Casing-The vertical enclosing side- or endwall of a tower, exclusive of
the air inlet louvers.

COOLING TOWERS

Cell-A unit consisting of a distribution system, mechanical equipment


and partition walls. A single tower can have several independent cells.
Individual cells can be shut down, or several cells can be run on partial
capacity.
Cellular Film-Asbestos fill packing that converts water droplets into
a thin molecular filter for more efficient cooling. Less static pressure is
encountered than with splash-bar fill, thus permitting the use of higher
air velocities.
Concentration Cycles-Comparison of dissolved solids in makeup water
witli solids concentration in the circulating water.
Cooling Factor-The ratio of the pounds of water circulated per unit of
time to the pounds of dry air cooling the water per unit of time.
Cooling Tower Institute-International organization of cooling tower
engineers, manufacturers and users, dedicated to improving the professional
and technical state of the art.
Counterflow-A system in which air encounters the hot water at a 180
angle. Air enters near the base of the tower and moves upwards through the
fill and falling water.
Crossflow- A system in which air encounters the hot water at a 90 angle.
Air enters through the entire sidewall and moves horizontally through the
fill and falling water.
Delta Temp~rature (Range)-Difference between entering and leaving
water temperatures.
Design Conditions-Thermal parameters for which the cooling tower is
purchased. They consist of a given gpm flow of water entering the tower
at a specific temperature, cooling through a given range, leaving the tower
at the required temperature, and having a designated approach to a stated
wet-bulb temperature.
Diffusion (Redistribution) Deck-A device below the hot water distribution
basin of a crossflow tower to break up the water going through the orifices
before it goes through the fill.
Distribution System-Mechanical method of passing hot water over the
fill uniformly. Low-pressure spray-through piping and nozzles are usually
used in counterflow towers; gravity drop is normally utilized in crossflow
towers.
Drift-Entrained water droplets that escape from the tower with the
exhaust air, expressed as a percentage of water circulated.
Drift Eliminator-Baffling that causes discharging hot air containing entraining water droplets to change direction a number of times. Droplets
hit the eliminator surface and fall back into the tower.
Enthalpy -Total heat content; the sum of the sensible heat of the air and
water vapor and of the latent heat of vaporization.
0

OVERVIEW

Fill Packing-Specially designed baffling used to provide a large surface


area for heat transfer. Two classes of materials are used: splash bars of wood,
metal transite or plastic and film pack (cellular fill). The splash type cools
the water as the droplets bounce down a series of bars in the air stream;
film packing converts droplets into a thin film ..
Fog-A mist formed where the ambient air cannot absorb all the plume's
moisture. The intensity of the fog is a function of the heat rise of air passing
through the tower and the temperature and humidity of the ambient air.
Fog plumes are normally permissible since there are no droplets of water
raining out of the discharge area; however, fog may cause icing of nearby
roads and may restrict visibility.
Forced Draft-Air introduced at the bottom of the tower is forced to the
top by a centrifugal blower.
Heat Load-Amount of heat (in Btu) dissipated in a cooling tower. It is
equal to the weight of water circulated per unit of time multiplied by the
cooling range.
Induced Draft-Air mover, usually an aerial fan, on top of the tower pulls
air up through the fill and out the stack.
Latent Heat of Vaporization-The heat required to change a liquid into a
vapor without a change in the temperature or pressure.
Louvers-Baffles used for changing the direction of air flow into the tower
in a uniform, parallel manner, and for preventing water droplets from
splashing out of the tower as they fall through the structure.
Makeup -This term refers to the water required to replace the circulating
water that is lost by evaporation, drift, bl~wdown and leakage. It is expressed
as a percentage of the water circulated and normally is automatically
controlled by a float valve.
Net Effective Volume-A portion of the total structural volume in which
the circulating water is in intimate contact with the air flowing through the
tower (expressed in cubic feet).
Performance-The measure of the tower's ability to cool water. It is usually
expressed in terms of cooling a quantity of water (gpm) from a specified
hot water temperature to a specified cold water temperature at a stated
wet-bulb temperature.
Performance Curve-A graphic representation of the relationship of water
temperature, approach, wet-bulb temperature, range, static pressure and air
movement.
Plenum-An enclosed chamber in which pressure is higher than atmospheric
pressure.
Plume-Visible manifestation of water vapor condensing as warm, moist
air mixing with the cooler, outside air.
Psychrometer-Instrument used to measure the wet-bulb temperature.

COOLING TOWERS

Pumping Head-The energy required to raise water to the distribution


elevation and overcome friction losses through pipe, valves, fittings and
nozzles. It is expressed in feet of liquid the pump must move and is equal
to the total friction loss, static head and pressure drop through the distribution system.
Range-The numerical difference between the temperature of the hot
water entering the cooling tower at the distribution system and the
'
temperature of the colder water leaving the sump basin.
Recirculation (Recycle)-Hot exhaust air forced downward and back into
the cooling tower raises the wet-bulb temperature of the entering air above
dry-bulb temperature, impairing tower performance. It is usually caused
by design, wind or placement problems.
Sensible Heat-The heat requIred to change the temperature of air or
water.
Static Pressure Drop-The reduction of air movement through the tower
resulting from resistance of internal components such as air-intake louvers,
fill packing, water distribution system, internal supporting beams, drift
eliminators and fan stack configuration.
Sump-Depressed section of the cold water collecting basin, from which
cooled water retlfrns to the heat source.
TDS-Total di~solved solids contained in solution in the cooling water
system.
Water Load-Circulating rate of water over the tower, expressed in gallons
per minute.
Wet-Bulb Temperature-The temperature of saturated air. The lower the
wet-bulb temperature, the more exchange of heat a cooling tower can do.
A tower cannot cool the water to a temperature below the wet-bulb
temperature of the entering air.
Windage-The loss of water through the air-intake louvers as a result of
malfunctioning of the wind check walls in the lower section of the tower.

DESIGN OVERVIEW
One of the earliest cooling tower configurations was developed so that the
water would pass through the distribution of piping or troughs and fall
vertically through the Jill packing area. In this design, air was drawn to the
bottom of the tower and then moved vertically upward through the fill
packing. During the fluid-fluid mixing, both air and water flowed counter
to each other, thus the term counterflow tower.
To meet other requirements, such as increased water throughput, lower
architectural profile demands and greater utilization of electrical energy,
as well as to improve cooling efficiency, crossflow designs were developed.

....

OVERVIEW

In the crossflow design, hot water is brought to the top of the tower and
pumped into basins or pans where it falls through specially designed orifices
on top of the fill area. In crossflow designs, air travels horizontally through
the fill region of the tower and at a 90 angle (Le., across the vertical falling
water). Figure 1.2 illustrates both the counterflow, or countercurrent, tower
and the crossflow tower.
Air movers on many industrial installations usually consist of propeller-type
air foils. These induce air through the tower and discharge the hot moist
air through cylinders that surround the propellers. Such systems generally
consists of electric motors connected by flexible-shaft couplings and gearreducing trains to provide the driving force.
Fan blade technology has advanced such that more efficient systems are
now available in lightweight materials such as plastics. Due to this weight
reduction as well as to the high strength associated with plastics and
reinforced plastics, fan usage has been extended to larger diameter
towers [3].
In the smaller cooling tower installations employed for refrigeration and
air conditioning service, induced-draft propeller-type air movers are used.
A favored design utilizes the rotary centrifugal squirrel cage blower, which
is normally driven by electric motors connected to the rotors by V-belts.
Because of lower fan efficiency, these often use more,,> electric power to
achieve the same results as propeller fans.
To ensure high performance, it is important that the water distribution
system provide a uniform flow pattern through the fill material. Water flow
maldistributions are very common, especially with units that have been
operated for a number of years. This is caused by tower and fill deterioration,
and nozzles undergoing fouling or clogging. When a nozzle becomes clogged,
it naturally leaves a dry spot in the fill. Air, as any moving flUid, will follow
the path of least resistance and thus channel through this dry spot. Consequently, a large amount of energy and 'cooling potential can be lost due to
water maldistribution.
Newer nonclogging, noncorroding ceramic nozzles have been introduced
to the market. These generally help reduce maintenance requirements and
are now replacing steel nozzles on existing installations.
Drift was' defined earlier as entrained water droplets in the air stream,
which pass through the tower and discharge along with the hot air through
the plenum or fan stack. A drift eliminator, which is merely a specially
designed baffling system, can be installed between the water distribution
system and the air discharge to minimize entrainment. Older designs for
drift eliminators consisted of zigzag slats, which abruptly change the air
flow direction prior to discharge. This causes droplets to impinge on the
baffles and fall back into the tower. This type of design is energy intensive
as it requires significant energy to transport the air through the baffling.

(A)

("')

0
0

2
C')
~

~
t!'l

( F)

(F)

,
' ... AIR /

......

(F)

"'-1(- . - - - - - - - - - - - , iiE~=~
A. MECHANICAL
EQUIPMENT
B. WATER DISTRIBUTION
C. FILL PACKING
D. DRIFT ELIMINATORS
E. COLD WATER BASIN
F. AIR INLET
LOUVRES
G. REDISTRIBUTION
AREA

COUNTERFLOW

Figure 1.2

.......~-

CROSSFLOW

Countercurrent and crossflow cooling towers.

OVERVIEW

11

Cellular eliminators (discussed later) can cause the air to change less abruptly
and make multiple direction changes as well. This is a more efficient method
of minimizing entrainment than the conventional wooden slat system.
Cooling towers themselves can be sources of pollution since they do not
destroy heat but merely move it from one plaoe to another, ultimately
discharging it to the atmosphere. There are engineering principles that can
assist in the selection of the method and area of discharge. We will examine
these principles in more detail in the chapters to follow.

REFERENCES
1. Kolfat, T.D. "Cooling Tower Practices," Power Eng. (January 1975).
2. Burger, R. "Cooling Tower Technology," Poll. Eng. (May 1980).
3. Cheremisinoff, N. P., and P. N. Cheremisinoff, Fiberglass-Reinforced
Plastics Deskbook (Ann Arbor, MI: Ann Arbor Science Publishers, Inc.,
1978).

SUGGESTED READING
1. Burger, R. "Know Your Cooling Tower," Power (March 1979).
2. Burger, R. "Cooling Tower Retrofit," Chern. Eng. Prog:"(March 1979).
3. Dickey, 1. B. "Managing Waste Heat With the Water Cobling Tower," Combustion (May 1979).
4. Holzhauer, R. "Industrial Cooling Towers," Plant Eng. (July 1975).
5. Knuesch, T. "Keep Your Cool When Selecting the Right Tower," Process
Eng. (September 1978).
6. Knuesch, T. "Environmental Aspects of Cooling Tower Selection," Process
Eng. (November 1978).
7. Maze, R. W. "Air Cooler or Water Tower-Which for Heat Disposal,"
Chern. Eng. (January 1975).
8. McGraw, M. G. "Before-the-Fact Modeling Solves Tower Problem," Electrical World (October 1979).

CHAPTER 2
PROPERTIES AND DEFINITIONS FOR THE
AIR-WATER SYSTEM

INTRODUCTION

In this chapter we will review some of the principles of thermochemistry,


with particular attention to the air-water vapor system. Basic definitions in
thermodynamics are reviewed along with important physical properties and
definitions for gaseous mixtures. It is important that these definitions be
learned early on. Note, however, that this chapter is only meant as a review.
The references listed at the end of this chapter should be consulted for a detailed treatment of these subjects. Further, example problems are included at
the end of the chapter to stress principles discussed.

VAPOR PRESSURE
A gas existing below its critical temperature is generally referred to as a
vapor because it can condense. If a pure gas is maintained at a constant temperature below its critical temperature and the pressure is increased, eventually the gas begins to condense into a liquid. This procedure can be reversed
by decreasing the applied pressure and the liquid will be transformed back to
its gaseous state. In our discussions, the term vapor will be used to refer to a
gas below its critical point in a process where the phase change is of interest.
The terms gas and noncondensable gas will refer to a gas above the critical
point or to a gas that cannot condense.
If both temperature and pressure are kept constant, then vaporization and
condensation are equilibrium processes. The equilibrium pressure is referred
to as the vapor pressure. There is only one pressure at which the liqUid and
vapor phases of a pure substance can exist in equilibrium at a given temperature. Naturally, either phase may exist over a wide range of conditions.

13

14

COOLING TOWERS

A pressure-temperature diagram best illustrates the processes of vaporization and condensation. Figure 2.1 is such a diagram for pure water. From
this plot, a corresponding pressure can be obtained at which water vapor and
water liquid exist in equilibrium. Boiling water is a good example of an equilibrium condition. Any substance has an infinite number of boiling points.
The "normal" boiling point, however, refers to the temperature at which
boiling occurs at a pressure of 1 atm (760 mm). For water, the normal boiling
point occurs when the vapor pressure of the water equals the pressure of the
surrounding atmosphere.
To illustrate the' vaporization process, let us assume that we begin heating a
pan of water from an initial temperature of 150F (Point A on Figure 2.1). If
the pan is open to the atmosphere, then the water vapor above the liquid surface is at all times in eqUilibrium with the liquid. As the temperature rises
(and the atmospheric pressure remains constant), nothing really occurs until
the water reaches 212F, at which temperature the water begins to boil or
evaporate. Evaporating water molecules push back the atmosphere and completely change from liqUid into vapor (Point B on Figure 2.1). If we now
cover the pan with a lid and continue heating the water vapor from point B

,
D

go

:x::

760

::l

E
E

11.1

500
11.1
(f)
(f)

11.1

a..
a..

ICE (SOLID)

E
TYPICAL
CONSTANT
VOLUME LINE
(CHARLES' LAW)

LIQUID
(SUBCOOLED)

..J

0::

---'I

15

0::
::l

0::
0

.J

dS

VAPOR
(SUPERHEATED)

180

oct

>

150
SOLID a VAPOR
IN EQUILIBRIUM
Figure 2.1

190 212
TEMPERATURE

Vapor pressure curve for water.

(0 F)

PROPERTIES FOR THE AIR-WATER SYSTEM

15

(which is formed at constant pressure), then the gas laws become applicable
in the region B-C and higher temperatures. To reverse this process, we would
cool the liquid to point B where vapor condenses to form a liqUid. The
temperature at point B represents the dew point for the case described.
The process of vaporization/condensation at constant temperature can be
explained by the points D, E and F on Figure 2.1. Water either would condense or vaporize at constant temperature as the pressure approaches point E
on the vapor-pressure curve.
Line G-H shows that when the solid form (ice) passes directly into the
vapor phase without first becoming a liquid, then sublimation is said to occur.
Water sublimes below 32F. As an example, everyone has seen frost disappear
in the winter, even though the thermometer might have read 25F.
The pressure-temperature plot of Figure 2.1 extends all the way to the
critical temperature and pressure, which has not been shown. Above the
critical temperature, water strictly exists as a gas. The term saturated is used
to describe the vapor-liquid portion of the curve. Basically, it implies the
same thing as saying that vapor and liqUid are in equilibrium with each other.
The gas is said to be saturated if it is ready to condense the first drop of
liqUid. Conversely, the liquid is saturated if it is just about to vaporize. For
the gas, this condition is called the dew point; for the liquid, it is the bubble
point.
The term "wet gas" refers to a mixture of liquid and vapor at equilibrium
(Le., both liqUid and vapor are saturated). The region to the right of the
vapor-pressure curve in Figure 2.1 is the superheated region. The region to
the left of the curve is the subcooled regfon. The temperatures in the superheated region, when measured as the difference (line K-L) between the actual
temperature of the superheated vapor and the saturation temperature for the
same pressure, are referred to as the degrees of superheat. Another term we
will use in later discussions is "quality." Quality refers to the weight fraction
of vapor.
As we have already observed, the vapor-pressure-temperature curve is nonlinear. To reduce this curve to a linear form, a plot of log (p*) versus (l/T)
can be made for moderate temperature intervals. The resultant straight line is
described by the following expression, which can be derived from the
Clausius-Clapeyron equation.
log (p*) = m

1
T

+C

(2.1)

Equation 2.1 describes the change of a substance's vapor pressure with temperature. The intercept C depends on the specific substance.
An equation for the change of vapor pressure with total pressure at constant temperature is as follows:

16

COOLING TOWERS

(2.2)

where V is the molal volume of saturated liquid or gas, and Pt is the total
pressure.
Under normal conditions this effect can be neglected.

SATURA TED CONDITION


The molecules of water vapor are free to migrate randomly in all directions.
If in a closed vessel, the molecules will eventually distribute themselves
throughout the entire volume of the container.
When any gas contacts a liquid, the gas acquires vapor from the liquid. If
sufficient contact time is allowed, equilibrium will result. At equilibrium, the
partial pressure of the vapor equals the vapor pressure of the liqUid at the
temperature of the system. At equilibrium, the gas is said to be saturated with
the vapor at the given temperature (Le., the gas is at its dew point).
Both air and water vapor can be described by the ideal gas laws. We can use
this fact to col1tpute the partial pressure of air at saturation conditions. From
the perfect gas l~ws at constant temperature:
(2.3)

and
(2.4 )

when 7) is moles.
This can be rearranged to give
Pair
Pair
PH,O - Pt - Pair

Yair
Vt - Yair

where P t is total pressure.


Equation 2.5 can be generalized for any two components:

Subscripts indicate component 1 and 2.

(2.5)

f"'

PROPERTIES FOR THE AIR-WATER SYSTEM

17

The most useful form of Equation 2.6 is:

(2.7)

If equilibrium has not been reached between a mixture of components, the


condition is referred to as partial saturation. At partial saturation the gas mixture obeys real gas laws. There are several ways to express the concentration
of a vapor in a mixture of gases. Most often, weight or mole fraction is used.
Other definitions are relative saturation (relative humidity), molal saturation
(molal humidity) and absolute saturation (absolute humidity).
Relative humidity is defined by the following relation:
Pvapor
--=oR s
Psatd

where

(2.8)

Rs relative saturation
Pvapor partial pressure of the vapor in the gas mix ture
Psatd = partial pressure of the vapor in the gas mixture if the gas were saturated at the given temperature of the mixture
=0
=0

For the air-water system, %RH = PH,o/PH,o (100)_ A;,\OO% relative humidity, the partial pressure of the vapor is the same as the vapor pressure of
the condensed vapor,
Another way to express vapor concentration is by molal saturation, which
is the ratio of the moles of vapor to the moles of vapor-free gas.
(2.9)

where

Ms
7)v
7)'

=0
=0
=0

molal saturation
moles of vapor
the moles of vapor-free or dry gas

For a two-component
system,
,
(2.10)
(2.1l)

and
7),

P,

VI

7)1

P,

v,

-:::::-:;::-:::::--=--=0---

(2.12)

18

COOLING TOWERS

Multiplying by the ratio of the molecular weights, the weight of vapor per
weight of dry gas can be computed:
7Jy

(MWy) = Wy

7J

(MW')

(2.13 )

W'

Subscript V refers to vapor and superscript prime (') refers to the dry gas.
MW is molecular weight.
Absolute saturation is defined as the ratio of the moles of vapor per mole
of dry gas to the moles of vapor that would be present per mole of dry gas if
the mixture were completely saturated at the existing temperature and total
pressure. We can express this as

(2.14)

Note that PI saturated is really pi and that Pt


ship becomes
'
,
\'.

PI
.
Pt- P,
% SaturatIOn = (100)--*PI
Pt -

=PI + P 2. Then the relation-

PI(pt-p;)
=*
-P
_p 100
PI
t
I

(2.15)

pi

From Equation 2.8 we can write the following:

% Saturation

Pt- P

*)

RH ( Pt _ P:

100

(2.16)

The percent saturation is never greater than the relative saturation except at
saturated conditions or at zero percent saturation (where % saturation =

%RH).

DEFINITIONS IN THERMODYNAMICS
This section reviews some basic definitions and formulas in thermodynamics. These definitions will be used to develop energy balances to
describe cooling tower operations. In our discussions we will use the
following terms: system, property, extensive and intensive properties, and

PROPERTIES FOR THE AIR-WATER SYSTEM

19

state. The term system refers to any specified mass of material or piece of
equipment under consideration. Any system enclosed by a boundary that
prevents the exchange of mass with the surroundings is a nonflow or
closed system. An open or flow system, such as a cooling tower, has exchange of both mass and energy with the surroundings.
The term property refers to a characteristic of a material and can be measured. Examples are pressure, temperature and volume. Properties may also
be computed, such as, for example, internal energy, which cannot be measured directly. An extensive property is one whose value is the sum of each
of the subsystems comprising the entire system. An example is a gas mixture,
in which each constituent (or subsystem) has masses or volumes different
from the original system. Thus, mass or volume is an extensive property.
An intensive property is one whose values are not additive and do not vary
with the quantity of the sample in the system. Examples are temperature,
pressure and density.
The term state refers to material with a specified set of properties at a
given time. It is not a function of the system configuration but only of its
intensive properties.

Heat
Heat can be defined as a portion of the total energy flo~ across a system
boundary and is caused by a temperature difference between the system and
the surroundings. Heat can be exchanged by conduction, convection and/or
radiation. We can evaluate heat transfer by use of the energy balance, which
will be discussed later.

Work
Work can be defined as the energy transferred between the system and
surroundingso It is often expressed as a vector force acting through a vector
displacement on the system boundaries:

W= fFdX

(2.17)

where F is in the direction of dx.


Work can be classified as energy that can be transferred to or from a
mechanical state. This should not be confused with heat, which is the transfer
of energy to atomic or molecular states. The former is macroscopically observable, whereas the latter is not.

20

COOLING TOWERS

Kinetic Energy
Kinetic energy refers to the energy that a system possesses because of its
velocity relative to the surroundings. Mathematically it is defined as follows:
kE

1
2

-mY'

(2.18)

where v is fluid velocity.

Potential Energy
Potential energy refers to the energy a system possesses due to the force
exerted on its mass by a gravitational field with respect to some reference
plane. Mathematically, it is' defined as follows:
PE

= mgh

(2.19)

Internal Energy
Internal energy refers to the macroscopic changes of molecular, atomic and
subatomic energies. All these follow rigorous conservation laws for dynamic
systems. Irlternal energy is an exact differential, which, for a pure substance,
can be e~pressed exclusively in terms of temperature and specific volume,
U = U(T,V), where the bar (-) refers to per unit mass. By taking a total
derivative we can state the following:

dU=(au)_
aT v dT+ (a:Q)
av TdV

(2.20)

The term (aU/aT)" is defined from thermodynamics as the heat capacity at


constant volume (Cv). The second term on the right hand side (RRS) of
Equation 2.20, (au/avh, is much less than Cv and can be neglected. By
taking the integral of our differential expression we obtain a relation for
internal energy:

- =fT, CvdT

t;U

(2.21)

T,

Engineers prefer to estimate internal energy changes from enthalpies.

Enthalpy
Enthalpy is an exact differential, which is expressed as the sum of two
variables:

PROPERTIES FOR THE AIR-WATER SYSTEM

H = U + pV

21

(2.22)

where p is pressure and V is volume. Enthalpy is a function of both temperature and pressure: H = H(T,P)-and can be expressed by the following differential expression:

dH=(aH)
aT PdT+(aH')
ap TdP

(2.23)

(aH/aT)p is the heat capacity at constant pressure (Cp). The second term on
the RHS of Equation 2.23 can be neglected at modest pressures. Therefore,
the integral of this expression gives the following:
(2.24)

Enthalpy changes are most frequently computed with respect to a reference


condition. In the steam tables, this reference condition is liquid water at 32F
and its vapor pressure. Thus, the left-hand side (LHS) of Equation 2.24 is
FINAL STATE OF
SYSTEM ENTHALPY

INITIAL STATE OF
SYSTEM ENTHALPY

~~

t.H

= NET

ENTHALPY CHANGE =
= Hz - H,

(H, - Href)
(2.25)

Heat Capacity
Previously, we defined the heat capacity t~rms as follows:

Cp =(aH')
aT P

(2.26)

(2.27)

A simplified definition of heat capacity is the amount of energy needed to


raise the temperature of a material by 1. Various units for heat capacity include cal/(g-mole )CC), kcal/(kg-mole )(C), Btu/(lb-mole )CF), cal/(g)(C) or
Btu/(lbm)CF). Heat capacity curves for water vapor and air are given in
Figure 2.2.

22

COOLING TOWERS

0. ....
(.)LI..

.....

16

....

>-11.1
1-...1 14
-0
(.):I!!

.
Q.
m
...I
(.) .....
1
-'
;:)

~~

12
10

8
6

o
o
o
N

o
oII)

TEMPERATURE (
Figure 2.2

0
0

o
o

It)

CD

c )

Heat capacity curves for air and water vapor.

Most equations for heat ~apacities of substances are empirical. Heat capacity at constant pressure is generally expressed in terms of temperature
with a power, series type formula:
Cp = a + bT + CT' + dT3 + ...

(2.28)

or sometimes in the following form:


Cp = a + bT + CT-lI' + .. .
C p = a + bT -

cr' + .. .

(2.29a)
(2.29b)

In general, heat capacity equations are valid only over a moderate range of
temperatures. Table 2.1 gives constants to be used with Equation 2.28 for
air and water gases. The units of heat capacity with these constants are
cal/(g-mole )CK or C) or Btu/ (lb -mole)(R or OF).
Another useful term is specific heat, which is the ratio of the heat capacity
of one substance to the heat capacity of a reference material. The heat capacity of water is approximately unity in cgs and American engineering units.
Heat capacity is used to compute enthalpy changes. Note that the definition given by Equation 2.24 is really the area under the heat capacity curve
between temperatures Tl and T2 (Figure 2.3). We can also obtain an exact
integral by substituting an expression for Cp (such as Equation 2.28) into
Equation 2.24 and performing the following integration:

-PROPERTIES FOR THE AIR-WATER SYSTEM

23

Table 2.1 Constants for Heat Capacity Equation 2.28 for Air and Water

State

Air

Gas

Water

Gas

6.917
6.713
6.900
6.713
7.880

oK
of
oR

10 2 b
0.09911
0.04697
0.02884
0.02609
0.3200 -

109 d

lOSc
0.07627
0.1147
0.02429
0.03540
0.04833

0.4696
0.4696
0.08052
0.08052

Applicable
Temperature
Range
CK)
0-1500
273-1800
32-2700
492-3200
0-3500

AREA UNDER
CURVE REPRESENTS

L\R
HEAT
CAPACITY,

Cp

T,

T2

TEMPERATURE, T

Figure 2.3

Graphic representation of enthalpy change.

(2.30)

For estimates, a mean heat capacity is used, which is defined as the enthalpy
change divided by the temperature differential for that change. This can be
stated as follows:
(2.31)

Note also that if the heat capacity expression is a power series (e.g., Cp ==
a + bT + cT2 + ... ), then,

==

PROPERTIES FOR THE AIR-WATER SYSTEM


Ab

l/J = Tb

25

(2.34)

where Ab is the molal heat of vaporization in cal/g-mole and Tb is the normal


boiling point in oK. For water, the constant ljJ has a value of 26.
The Clausius-Clapeyron equation is an exact thermodynamic relationship
between the slope of the vapor pressure curve and the molal heat of vaporization:

where

dP*

dT

T(VG - VI)

(2.35)

p* = vapor pressure
T = absolute temperature
, A =molal heat of vaporization at temperature T
V,G = molal volume of gas
VI = molal volume ofliquid

Equation 2.35 can be rearranged to a simpler form by neglecting VI to give


dlnP*

(2.36)

d(1/T) = -AIR

where R is the ideal

~ga:;.s_l_a_w_c~o_n_s_ta_n_t_.~",!","

On integrating this I?xprl?ssion,

log,op*

WI?

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

obtain

A
+a
2.303 RT

(2.37)

where a is a constant of the integration.

Dry-Bulb Temperature
This is the'temperature of a vapor-gas mixture as ordinarily determined by
immersion of a thermometer in the gas mixture.
Dew Point
Dew Point, as waS defined earlier, is the temperature at which a vapor-gas
mixture becomes saturated when cooled at a constant total pressure out of
contact with a liquid.

24

COOLING TOWERS

ff

TZ

aCT z - T ,) + ~

CpdT

T,

CPm

Tz

_ T,

(T~ - T~) + ~

(T; -

T~)
(2.32)

(T z -T,)

dT

where T 1 in this expression is a reference temperature. For example, if T =


OC or OF, then Equation 2.32 reduces to the following:
b
C
Cp m = a + -2 T 2 + -3 T Zz

(2.33)

With regard to enthalpy changes, the simplest manner for computing is via
tabulated enthalpy data. Data can be found in the literature [1,2]. Typical
enthalpy data for air and water are given in Table 2.2. The Steam Tables are
the most frequently used sources of enthalpy data for water.
Heat of Vaporization
There are several expressions that have developed, but our primary interest
is with wat~i. Trouton's rule states that the ratio of the molal heat of vaporization of a,material at its normal boiling point (Le., at 1 atm) to the absolute
temperature is a constant:

Table 2.2 Enthalpy Values for Air and Water (Btujlb-mole)


Temperature
C

oK

of

oR

0.0
4.4
15.6
25.0
60.0
115.6
171.1

273.
277.4
288.6
298
333
388.6
444.1

32
40
60
77
140
240
340

492
500
520
537
600
700
800

226.7
282.2
393.3
504.4
615.6
726.7
837.8

499.7
555.2
666.3
777.4
888.6
999.7
1110.8

440
540
740
940
1140
1340
1540

900
1000
1200
1400
1600
1800
2000

Air

Water

0.0
55.57
194.6
312.7
751.2
1450.0
2153.0

0.0
64.02
224.2
360.5
867.5
1679.0
2501.0

2861.0
3579.0
5035.0
6540.0
8068.0
9623.0
11224.0

3336.0
4184.0
5925.0
7730.0
9602.0
11540.0
13550.0

26

COOLING TOWERS

Humid Volume
The humid volume of a gas-vapor mixture is the volume, in ft3, of 1 lb of
dry gas and its accompanying vapor at the prevailing temperature and pressure_ From the ideal gas law we can write the following:
1

.JI a )

vH= ( MW +MWA (359)


B

where

TG+460 1
492

( l . J 1 a )TG+460

P =0.730 MWB +MWA


t

'

(2.38)

~H = humid volume, ft3


T G = temperature of the gas, 0 F
Pt = total pressure, atm
MW A B = molecular weight of constituent A, B
ila = absolute humidity

Humid Heat
This is the heat capacity, of an air-water vapo~ mixture expressed on the
basis of a unit weight of bone dry air. For a mixture of absolute humidity,
Jl a ,
(2.39)

If neither vaporization nor condensation occurs, then the heat required to


raise the temperature of WA lb of dry gas and its accompanying vapor AT is
(2.40)

where Q is the heat quantity (Btu).

WET-BULB TEMPERATURE

The wet-buH temperature is the steady-state temperature achieved by a


small quantity of liquid evaporating into a large quantity of unsaturated gasvapor mixture. The wet-bulb temperature is essentially a measure of the
humidity of a gaseous mixture. We can describe the usefulness of this parameter by examining the behavior of a liquid particulate surrounded by a
moving stream of unsaturated gas-vapor mixture. Figure 2.4 illustrates the
system under consideration.

r
PROPERTIES FOR THE AIR-WATER SYSTEM

J:

P.*

27

VAPOR

w P-A-R-T-I-A-L----l~!..--- LATENT H~AT


PRESSURE

PA

/'

LIQUID DROP

/
{

/1
"

...... - - ....... 1

tw

P+--SENSI~LE
I

TEMPERATURE

Figure 2.4

II

HEAT

The principle of wet-bulb temperature.

If the liquid droplet is initially at a higher temperature than the gas dew
point, then the liquid's vapor pressure would be greater at the gas-liquid
interface than the partial pressure of the vapor in the gas. Under these conditions, the liquid will evaporate and water vapor molecules will diffuse into
the gas stream. The latent heat needed for evaporation will first be derived
from the sensible heat of the liquid drop, causing it to cool down. When the
liquid temperature has dropped below the dry-bulb temperature of the gas,
heat begins to flow from the gas to the liquid. The rate at which this heat
transfer occurs increases as the temperature differential becomes greater.
After sufficient time, the heat transfer rate from gas to liquid matches the
rate of heat requirement for the evaporation. Here, the temperature of the
liquid remains at some constant low value known as the wet-bulb temperature.
We can describe this process by a simple mathematical model developed
for steady-state conditions. The total heat release at the interface, q, can be
expressed in terms of the latent heat of vaporization and heat of solution, qs:
(2.41)

where A. is the molar-heat of evolution and NAB is the mass rate of diffusion
or mass flux.
In the example given by Figure 2.4, there is no heat transfer across the
gas-liquid interface (Le., q = 0), and we can assume that air does not diffuse
into the liquid droplet (Le., NB= 0).

28

COOLING TOWERS

By asswning the rate of mass transfer is small and using principles of the
film theory [3], the following expressions can be developed:

qs =

N MW C /1 (TG
1 - e- A
A A lG

- tW) "" hG(TG - tW)

(2.42)

(2.43)

where

CA = heat capacity, Btu/(lb)CF)

hG == heat transfer coefficient of the gas, Btu/(hr)(ft'WF)


TG == temperature of the gas, of
tw = wet-bulb temperature, of
F' = overall mass transfer coefficient, Ib-mol/(hr)(ft2)
kG = gas phase mass transfer coefficient, Ib-mole/(hr)(ft2)(atm)
Pt = total pressure, atm
P 1,B = partial pressure, atm
PAW = vapor pressure of component A at the wet-bulb temperature, atm

Equations 2-42, 2-43 and 2-41 can be combined and, through some algebraic acrobaNcs, the following expression derived:

TG -tw

(2.44 )

The quantity TG - tw is known as the wet-bulb depression. kH is the redefined mass transfer coefficient defined by

(2.45)

where PGM is the average partial pressure of the gas .


.Ha and .HaW are the molal absolute humidity at TG and tw, respectively
(Ib-mole vapor/lb-mole gas). hG/kH is known as the psychrometric ratio.
The wet-bulb temperature is measured with a device called a psychrometer. .
A simple one can be made by attaching a wick or porous cotton cloth to the
mercury bulb of a thermometer and then wetting the wick. As long as the
gas flow past the wick is turbulent, readings are not affected by gas velocity
and the psychrometric ratio is constant. Dropkin [4] showed that for the
air-water system hG/kH "'" 0.227.

r
PROPERTIES FOR THE AIR-WATER SYSTEM

29

HUMIDITY CHARTS
The humidity chart or psychrometric chart is a convenient plot for representing the properties of mixtures of a permanent gas and a condensable
vapor. There are a number of forms in which this chart has been presented.
One form, proposed by Grosvenor [5], is shown in Figure 2.5 for the airwater system at 1 atm.
On the humidity chart of Figure 2.5, temperatures are plotted as abscissas
and humidities as ordinates. Any point on the plot represents a specific mixture of air and water. The curve marked 100% humidity refers to saturated
air and is a function of air temperature. Any point to the left of the saturation curve represents a mixture of saturated air and liquid water (this portion
of the plot is useful in determining fog formation). Any point to the right of
the saturation curve represents undersaturated air. Any point on the temperature axis represents bone-dry air. The curves between the two limits
(saturated line and the temperature axis) represent mixtures of air and water
of definite percentage humidities. Linear interpolation between the saturation curve and the temperature axis locates lines of constant percentage
humidity.
The diagonal lines that run upward and to the left of the saturation curve
in Figure 2.5 are referred to as adiabatic cooling curves. Li'nes for the specific
volume of dry air and the saturated volume are also shown. Coordinates of
points on these lines are computed by use of Equation 2.38. The humid
volume of unsaturated air can be determi!1ed by linear interpolation between
the two lines, based on percentage humidity.
Use of the humidity chart is best illustrated by examples. Let us consider
just a portion of the psychrometric chart (Figure 2.6). Consider an unsaturated stream of air at some temperature, T b and a percentage humidity,
Jl a , represented by point A on Figure 2.6 (this point is the intersection of the
constant temperature line, T1, and - a constant percentage-humidity curve,
Jl a1 ). The humidity of this air is fi1 (point B on Figure 2.6). The dew point
can be determined by tracing the constant-humidity line through point A
to the left to point C on the saturation curve. The dew point temperature is
the abscissa value for point C (point D on the temperature axis). The
adiabatic s;turation temperature is that temperature applying to the adiabatic-cooling curve through point A. The humidity value at adiabatic
saturation is determined by following the adiabatic line through point A to
point E on the saturation curve and reading the value Jl s on the humidity
scale. The adiabatic saturation temperature is the abscissa value of point E,
Le., Ts.
The humid volume of the air stream is determined by locating points F and
G on the saturated and dry-volume curves, respectively, which correspond to

2500

24

130

23

120

150011::

ENTHALPY OF SATURATED
II::

<
>-

1000>100

BOO

SPECIFIC VOLUME OF
DRY AIR
ENTHALPY OF
DRY AIR
PERCENT HUMIDITY
CURVE

II::

c 20

III
..J

<

22
21

("')

2000

(A) H SATURATED AIR

19

I-

....

II::
C

III

600

Z
~

400 ~
300 ;

II.
..J

200
1&1

::IE

150

..J

<

:z:

I-

1&1

>
c

100 I:z:

::E
~

:z:

10

I:z: 0
30

40

50

60

SO

Figure 2.5

100

120
140
TEMPERATURE

160
(OF)

180

200

220

Psychrometric chart for the air-water vapor system at 1 atm [5].

240

0
0
t""

C')
~

~
::c
tor.l

---------

iI

PROPERTIES FOR THE AIR-WATER SYSTEM

31

Ts
T.
TEMPERATURE
Figure 2.6

Humidity chart example.

temperature, T!. We then locate point H by moving along G-F a distance of


(Ra/lOO)FG from point G. This is known as the lever law; and FG is the line
segment between points G and F. The humid volume is read off of the appropriate ordinate, /lH'
With the psychrometric chart of Figure 2.5 we can determine the enthalpy
of the dry air as well. We will apply this portion of the curve to some specific
problems in Chapter 3. The end of this chapter contains example problems
for the reader to attempt. Solutions to these problems can be found in
Appendix A.

NOTATION
A

constant in Equation 2.37.

= constant for heat capacity expressions (see Table 2.1)

= constant (see Table 2.1)

= constant in Equation 2.1

Cp = heat capacity at constant pressure, Btu/(lb )(F)


CPm = mean heat capacity-see Equation 2.32, Btu/(lb) (F)
Cs = humid heat (Equation 2.39), (Btu of a vapor-gas mixture )(lb-dry gas)

(F)

COOLING TOWERS

32

Cv = heat capacity at constant volume, Btu/(lb )CF)


c

constant (see Table 2.1)

force, lbf

Fl = mass transfer coefficient, Ib-mole/(hr)(ft2)


gravitational acceleration, 32.2 ft/sec 2 or (980 cm/se,c 2)

= enthalpy, Btu/lb

.JI

= humidity, lb vapor /lb dry gas

= distance above reference plane, ft

hG = heat transfer coefficient, Btu/(hr)(ft2)CF)


KE = kinetic energy, Btu
= mass transfer coefficient, Ib-mole/(hr)(ft 2)(atm)

MW = molecular weight, lb/lb;mole


Ms = molal saturation, moles vapor/moles dry gas
m

=mass, lb

= molar hux, Ib-mole/(hr)(ft 2 )

= pressure, atm

PE = potential energy, Btu


p

= partial pressure, atm

p * = vapor pressure, atm

= heat quantity, Btu

= heat release, Btu/sec

gas constant, 0.729 (ft 3)( atm )/(lb-mole )CR)

Rs = relative saturation
RH = relative humidity
T

= temperature, ~F

tw

= wet-bulb temperature, of

= volume, fe

= molar volume, ft3/lb-mole

internal energy, Btu/lb

PROPERTIES FOR THE AIR-WATER SYSTEM

33

fluid velocity, fps

W = work done, ft-lb[


w

weight or mass, lb

distance, ft

7)

= number of moles, lb-mole

A.

= latent heat of vaporization, Btu/lb

/J

==

humid volume, ft3

ljJ

ratio of molal heat of vaporization to its normal boiling point.

Subscripts
1,2

= positions 1, 2

= absolute

= substance A, the vapor

== substance B, the gas

== refers to gas

= saturated

= at wet-bulb temperature

PROBLEMS
2.1

A mixture of vapor and liquid is 'in equilibrium. The density of the


mixture is 0.99 lb/ft 3. From the Steam Tables, determine the quality
of steam for the conditions of 305F and 72.2 psia.

2.2

A lS00-cm 3 sample of wet H2 is saturated at 35C and 752 mm Hg.


Determine the volume of dry gas at standard conditions. The vapor
pressure of water at 35C is 42.18 mm Hg.

2.3

The percentage humidity of air at 90F and total pressure of 755 mm


Hg is 29%. Determine the percent relative humidity, the partial pressure of the water vapor in the air, and the dew point.

2.4

Prove that the heat capacity for an ideal gas is given by Cp = Cv + R,


where R is the gas law constant.

2.5

The heat capacity equation for a material is as follows:

This page intentionally left blank

CHAPTER 3
HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER PRINCIPLES

INTRODUCTION
For any system or process, the law of conservation of mass enables a
mathematical expression of the operation by a series of equations derived
from a total or overall material balance and a material balance for
individual components within the system. The energy balance provides an
additional independent overall expression. This often <~presents the additional tool by which systems or unknown parameters can be solved for.
Before developing specific relationships to describe cooling tower operations, it is worthwhile to review some elementary principles in developing
material and energy balances. In addition, we need to review heat and mass
transfer analogies before tackling design problems. The more experienced
reader may wish to proceed to Chapter 4 or try the example problems at
the end of the chapter as a refresher.

THE GENERAL ENERGY BALANCE EQUATION

In this book, both material balances and energy balances are treated
on a macrpscopic basis. The general macroscopic energy balance for any
system is as follows:
.}
{Energy
TranSferred}
{ Energy Transferred out }
ccumulat~o~
of
into the
S s em
{AEnergy wlthm
=
thr
I Sy t
- of the System through
oug
the System
B ld ystem
System Boundary
oun ary

+{

Energy Generation} _ {Energy consumption}


within System
within System

35

(3.1)

36

COOLING TOWERS

There are several types of energy associated with the general balance.
Those energies associated with the transfer of mass either in the system or
across the system boundaries include internal energy (U), kinetic energy (KE)
and potential energy (PE). Energy can also be transferred across system
boundaries by heat (Q) and work (W).
The energy balance and individual components are illustrated in Figure 3.l.
The energy balance shown in the figure is for an open flow system. For a
nonflow (or closed) system, the energy balance would appear as in
Figure 3.2.
By using appropriate symbols and terms defined in Chapter 2, we can
express Equation 3.1 as follows:
Ee+t.e- Ee

[(II ;'+ gl) mt.~l- [(II


+

~-

Accumulation

+ ;' +

gl~mt.el

---

Transport through Defined Boundaries

+ Qt.e -

WM +'

'--v-"' '--v-"'

Heat

Work

~t.e

ER

'--v-"'

(3.2)

'--v-"'

Transport through Generation or Consumption


Other Boundaries

SURROUNDINGS

MASS IN
m
ENERGY IN
( Ut + Kt + Pt )

HEAT

WORK

MASS OUT

m'

ENERGY OUT
( U' + K' + P')
t
t
t

BOUNDARY
Figure 3.1

Energy balance for an open system.

HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER PRINCIPLES

HEAT

37

WORK

SYSTEM BOUNDARY
Figure 3.2

where

Energy balance for a closed system.

E = the total energy of the system (U + KE + PE)

'if =rate of energy transfer accompanying mass transfer


m= rate of mass transfer across system boundaries
Q = rate of heat transfer
E R = rate of energy generation
v = fluid velocity through the system
W = rate of work done by the system
IJ = time

The relation given by Equation 3.2 has units of energy per unit time.
If we divide both sides of this expression by !::J.8 and take the limit as
!::J.8 -+ 0, we obtain the integrated form, where units are those of energy:

(3.3)

The formal integration is

(3.4)

38

COOLING TOWERS

and, finally,
Ee+M - Ee = -t.[(H + KE + PE)mj + Q - W + ER

The quantities designated in Equation 3.5 without the tilde


integrated values. The bar (-) indicates per unit mass.
Note that the enthalpy expression is really
t.H

= t.U + t.pV

0.5)
(~)

are

(3.6)

where Llp V represents the pressure energy, Le., the work required to
transfer a unit mass of material into a system and the work done by the
system on a unit mass leaving the system. As defined in Chapter 2, work is
(3.7)

and if the pressures at the entrance and exit to the system remain constant
for differential displacements of mass,
0.8)

where the subscript 1 now refers to the upstream condition and V is the
volume per unit mass. By the same reasoning, the work recovered is

W =P,V,.
2

For many cases, including cooling towers, not all the terms of the general
energy balance expression need be considered. The most common assumptions applied to the general energy balance are summarized below. Some
of these assumptions we will later apply to developing specific relationships
for cooling towers.
(No Mass Transfer), Le., a closed system
b.E

=Q-

(3.9)

This is known as the first law of thermodynamics.


(No Accumulation, No Mass Transfer, No Reactions)
Q=W

0.10)

(No Accumulation, No Reactions, With Mass Flow)


Q - W = b.[(H + KE + PE)mj

(3.11)

HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER PRINCIPLES

39

(No Accumulation)
(3.12)

Q,W,KE,PE,ER,b.H = 0

(No Accumulation, No Mass Transfer)


(3.13)

W,KE,PE= 0

(3.14)

Additional cases applied to the general energy balance are:


1.
2.

3.
4.

Isothermal. This is a constant-temperature system (i.e., dT = 0).


Adiabatic. This means no heat exchange (i.e., Q = 0). Examples include
insulated systems, small Q in relation to other terms in the energy
equation, and very fast processes where there is insufficient time for heat
transfer to take place.
Isobaric. This is a constant-pressure system (i.e., dP-':= 0).
Isometric. This is a constant-volume system (Le., dV = 0).

PRINCIPLES OF ENERGY AND MATERIAL BALANCES


Engineers like to approach process problems with a "black box" technique.
That is, any system or piece of equipment operating under steady-state
conditions can be represented by a bo~ with input and output streams
consisting of mass flows and/or energy. Figure 3.3 illustrates the concept.

W, WOR~ OUT

+
I
I

INPUT STREA MS

A, LI kg/sec
,
B, G I

E R = ENERGY
RELEASED FROM
SOLUTION, REACTION,
ETC., AT SOME
REFERENCE TEMP.

OUTP UT STREAMS

e,L 2
D, G 2

T
Figure 3.3 Process operations or equipment can be represented by a generalized flow
process known as the black box technique.

40

COOLING TOWERS

For the generalized process in Figure 3.3, an overall material balance


would be as follows:
MASS IN - MASS OUT = ACCUMULATION

(3.1Sa)

MASS IN = MASS OUT, @ STEADY STATE

(3.1Sb)

or

(3.1Sc)

as derived from Figure 3.3.


If we have several components in the streams that we can distinguish as
a, b, c ... , then we can describe each of these by Xji, the weight fraction
of any component, j, for any input or output stream, i. Thus, a material
balance for component "a" would be
(3.16)

For component b, etc., it would be


(3.17)

We can also write an overall energy balance by defining Hi as the


enthalpy of the system with respect to some reference temperature of any
component. If we neglect kinetic and potential energy changes, we obtain
the following:
(3.18)

The solution of steady-state material and energy balances can be quite


tedious, depending on the complexity of the process. Consequently,
computers must be relied on heavily for more complex analysis. The
following example illustrates a slightly more involved system than the
one shown in Figure 3.3. As a refresher, the reader may try some of the
study problems at the end of this chapter. More examples can be found
in the literature [1-3].
Example I-Developing Simultaneous Material and Energy Balances
We can examine the generalized flow process of Figure 3.3 by its
individual equipment or process components. For the purposes of this

HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER PRINCIPLES

41

F
0"

ENVELOPE (I)
FOR BALANCE
ABOUT PROCESS (I)

~.,

" .

... '
.. '.
........ ..........
'. /

... " . "

'.
SUB-PROCESS .
(I)
"

BALANCE

0'

G
"

...... .

. ............ .

SUB-PROCESS: ; SUB-PROCESS
(IT)
.
(m)

ENVELDPE

In~)::

FOR BALANCE
ABOUT
PROCESS (n)
-

ENVELOPE (0)
FOR OVER-ALL

-7 -

Qm

::\ENVELOPE (UD

FOR BALANCE
ABOUT
PROCESS (m)

INDICATES HEAT INPUTS

Figure 3.4

Generalized flow process considered in Example 1.

example, the overall process actually consists of three interrelated subprocesses-I, II and III-as illustrated in Figure 3.4. We can write a series of
material and energy balances for the entire system and for each individual
process. Dotted envelopes have been drawn to illustrate that four possible
sets of equations are possible. Based on an overall balance (Envelope 0),
the following set of equations is written:
Total Mass Balance

F=A+B

(3.19)

Component Mass Balance:


(3.20)

Energy Balance:
(3.21)

42

COOLING TOWERS

For a balance about subprocess I (Envelope I):


Total:
F + Rn + Rill

G+L

(3.22)

Component:
(3.23)

Energy:
(3.24)

For a balance about subprocess II (Envelope II):


Total:
(3.25)

Component:
(3.26)

Energy:
(3.27)

For a balance about subprocess III (Envelope III):


Total:
L = RIll + B

(3.28)

Component:
(3.29)

Energy:
(3.30)

Note that not all of these equations are independent. For example, if
we sum up the mass balances from Envelopes I, II and III, the overall
material balance (Equation 3.19) is obtained. Similarly, the sum of the

HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER PRINCIPLES

43

energy balances from Envelopes I, II and III gives the overall energy balance
(Equation 3.21).

PRINCIPLES OF DIRECT-CO NT ACT TRANSFER


A review of heat exchanger design and configuration is beyond the scope
of this volume. However, the reader who wishes to review some of these
principles can refer to the literature [2-4]. In conventional heat exchangers,
the hot and cold fluids are separated by impervious boundaries or surfaces.
If the equipment is tubular, it is the tube that limits the intimacy of contact
between the two fluids. It also acts as a surface on which resistances tend
to accumulate. These resistances develop in the form of fouling and scale
films. So that a fluid in turbulent motion within the tube receives heat,
particles in the eddying fluid body must be able to contact a warm film at
the tube wall. Here it acquires heat by means of conduction, then mixes
with the eddying fluid body. On the shells ide of the exchanger a similar
process takes place, with the net heat exchange occurring through as many
as seven individual resistances.
Shell and tube heat exchangers evolved because of the need to prevent
contamination of the hot fluid by the cold fluid in ril'any heat transfer
operations. In the case of a water cooling tower, where ~ne of the fluids is
a gas and the other a liqUid, an impervious surface or separation is not
necessary because the gas and liqUid are .readily separable after mixing and
exchanging heat.
Cooling towers fall under the general category of direct-contact equipment.
In direct-contact equipment, fouling resistances are automatically eliminated
because a surface is no longer available on which they can form. This is a
unique feature because it allows direct-con tact equipment to operate
indefinitely without interruption in therm~l performance.
As noted back in Chapter 1, a cooling tower is basically a box-like
structure with internals designed to promote better air-water contact.
Cooling towers are used to contact hot water from process cooling
systems with air for the purpose of cooling this water, thus making it
again useful in the process. Normal cooling tower operation can reduce
fresh cooling water reqUirements by as much as 98%. However, as we will
see later, there is some mutual contamination caused by the saturation of
air with water vapor.
The principles of direct-contact heat transfer, treated in the discussions
to follow, are presently almost exclusively applied to water cooling and
humidification of air. It should be noted, however, that these very same
principles can be applied to the cooling or heating of just about any
insoluble gas or liqUid.
i

44

COOLING TOWERS

HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER ANALOGIES


Suppose we take a sample of bone-dry air at some temperature, Tb and
directly contact it with water until it becomes saturated at the same
temperature. The water vapor that enters into the air contains with it
its latent heat of vaporization. The vapor pressure of water out of the
liquid will be greater than it is in the saturated air, causing yaporization to
occur and subsequently increasing the humidity of the air-water-vapor
mixture. The pr9cess of vaporization ends when the vapor pressure of the
water in the air becomes equal to that of the liqUid. At this condition the
air is saturated. During the air saturation process, isothermal conditions
for the water can be maintaine~ if heat is supplied to replace the heat lost
from it to the gas as latent heat of vaporization. Thus, heat transfer during
the saturation of a gas with a liqUid can be accomplished without a
temperature differential (although this is rarely encountered). This type of
heat transfer phenomenon, better known as diffusional heat transfer, is
different from conduction, convection or radiation.
The transfer of mass from on~ phase to another because of a concentration
difference (or, in this case, because of vapor pressure) is called diffusion.
Diffusion, or mass transfer, although analogous to heat transfer, must be set
apart from the basic concepts of heat transfer.
Analogies have been developed between heat transfer and fluid friction
(Le., energy and momentum analogies) [5-7]. Similarly, analogies have been
developed for systems having a transfer of matter by diffusion accompanied
by heat transfer [8-10]. Our discussion here is limited to flow in a tube.
When handling gases, the heat transfer factor for a fluid flowing inside a
tube [8,9] is best expressed as follows:
(3.31)

Often the heat transfer factor is deduced as jh:

(3.32)

where

D = inside tube diameter, ft


G = mass velocity, lb/(hr)(fe)

And from a simple heat balance,


(3.33)

HEA T AND MASS TRANSFER PRINCIPLES

45

where L is the tube length and h the heat transfer coefficient. Note that
G = 4m/7TD 2 ; by substituting for G and h into Equation 3.32 and multiplying
by 7TD/7TD, we get

ih

=l
CpG

(C P Il)2/3
k

= T2 -

TI (.A)(C PIl)2/3
l>Tref S
k

(3.34)

where A is the cross-sectional area of flow and S is the tube surface area
(7TDL).
Now let us briefly examine the process of condensation. If vapor is
absorbed from an unsaturated gas, vapor molecules may diffuse into the
absorbent while molecules of the absorbent pass into the gas phase. As
the water vapor passes from the gas into a condensate film, which, for our
discussion, is liquid water alone, the transfer of material takes place in one
direction only. The moles of material that diffuse from the gas to the liqUid
phase are expressed by the following expression:

GAPV)
dN = d - ,- = KGl>pdS
( MWPt

(3.35)

In Equation 3.35,
A = flow area of gas and vapor, ft2
KG = mass transfer or diffusion coefficient, mole/(hr)(ft2)(atm)
MW = mean molecular weight of the vapor and noncondensable, lb/mole
N = number of moles diffused, mole/hr
Pv = partial pressure of the vapor, atm
Pt = total pressure, atm
S =diffusion surface, ft'

The pressure differential, Llp, represents the instantaneous driving potential


(atm) and is the difference between Pv and the partial pressure of the vapor
at condensate film.
The analogy between mass transfer and heat transfer is summarized in KG.
The mass transfer coefficient's relation to Llp in mass transfer is analogous
to the role that the overall heat transfer coefficient is to LlT in heat transfer.
In the integrated form, and making a few simplifying assumptions [8-10],
Equation 3.35 becomes

KGPg}m
G/MW'

(PI - P2) (pglm) (.A)


l>p
Pg
S

(3.36)

46

COOLING TOWERS

where Pl,P2 are the partial pressures of the diffusing material at Sl and S2,
respectively. Pglm is the log mean of the pressure of the inert gas in the gas
body, Pg. Colburn et al. have reduced this expression to the following:

(3.37)

where jd and kd are the diffusion or mass transfer factor and the diffusion
coefficient, respectively. Note the similarity between Equations 3.37 and
3.32.
There is a great deal of evidence to show that both jd and jh have the
same functional dependency on the Reynolds number. By equating the
expressions for jd and jh we can develop an expression for the overall mass
transfer coefficient in terms of heat and mass transfer coefficients.
K
G

h(C Jl/k) 21 3
p
CPPglm MW'(Jl/pkd)2/3

(3.38)

Equation 3.38 properly implies that both the rates of diffusion and heat
transfer are not Independent.
There are nu'fnerous empirical correlations that have been developed for
the diffusi vity, kd. One expression developed. by Gilliland [11] is given
below. Others can be found in the literature [12]:

T (1
3 2
/

kd = 0.0166 Pt(vA3 + Vlt)2

1 )1/2

MWA + MWB

(3.39)

where the units ofkd are ft2/hr, and


v A, VB = molecular volumes of diffusing and inert gases
T = absolute temperature, OK

MW A B = molecular weights of the diffusing and inert gases

Pt = total pressure, atm

MASS TRANSFER THEORY


The action of diffusion is illustrated in Figure 3.5 for a system consisting
of air, acetone and water. Let us assume we have a column in which fresh
water continuously flows down the walls in the form of a film or thin layer.
If we introduce a gaseous mixture of acetone and air to the column, the
acetone will diffuse into the water phase. For the purposes of this example,
assume the air to be insoluble in water. In our idealized system a stagnant

HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER PRINCIPLES

LIQUID
FILM

47

MAIN
AIR BODY

~III :.:;;:i ."

..

..

:::<r~~
' -0',

.I

'., ',:1

.'.

-0

:<:'-:-:1 , . ~;-;"-ACETONE

COLUMN
WALL

t.:p~{

MAIl'
LIQUID
BODY

/1.

Figure 3.5

MOLECULES

THIN
AIR
FILM
The action of diffusion.

air film develops over the gas-liquid interface, caused by the loss of
momentum of air molecules hitting the Jiquid surface and being dragged
along by it. The liquid film can be considered to be moving slowly in
comparison to the main body of air.
The system described forms the basis of the two-film theory. Because of
the mutual solubility of acetone in water, the rate at which molecules of
acetone move through the liquid film is large. Consequently, acetone
molecules in the air that approach the liquid film are removed at such a fast
rate that the concentration of acetone in the air film becomes less than it is
in the main body of gas. This concentration gradient between the air film
and main air body supplies the main driving force for the transfer of mass.
We can think of the air and liquid films as being resistances in series. In
this respect; they are similar to thermal resistances. If we designate the
acetone by subscript A (Le., the diffusing species) and the air by subscript B
(Le., the inert or insoluble species), we can write an expression for the
concentration of each species in terms of their individual molar densities:
(3.40)

-d7)A represents the rate at which the concentration of species A decreases


in the gas phase. As shown by Equation 3.40, this rate depends on the

48

COOLING TOWERS

number of moles of species A and B Ci) A,ilB), the relative difference of


movement between the velocities of A and B (VA - VB), and a characteristic
dimension or length of the air film. Cl:AB is a proportionality constant which
for now we will call diffusivity. Note that the dot (-) on 7) signifies moles
per unit volume.
For the insoluble gas species the net diffusion is zero, vB = 0, and if we
define NA as the number of moles per unit time transferred through the film
surface area A,
,
(3.41)

and

(3.42)

Furthermore, we note that -dilA = dilB and, therefore,


N

A d7JB
A dln7]B
-------A - OIAB7]B dl - OIAB dl

For the case of equimolar diffusion of component A into B, NAI A


or

(3.43)

=- NB I A

We can thus rewrite Equation 3.40 as follows:


1

VA7JA

d7]A

=- OIAB(7]A + 7JB) ill

(3.44)

Looking back at Equation (3.15), the continuity equation, we can write


a material balance for the steadystate condition where there is no
accumulation of species A in the gas film:

(3.45)

where

e is time. By substituting expression 3.44 into 3.45, we obtain


(3.46)

,......

HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER PRINCIPLES

49

Defining the diffusion coefficient introduced earlier, kd,


(3.47)

where 7)t = 7) A + 7)B, then

aiJA = 1- (k aiJA)
ae a1 d a1

(3.48)

Looking back to our molar flux expression (Equation 3.43),


(3.49)

From the ideal gas law and noting that 1) = 7)/V,

(3.50)

Performing the above integration over the length of the gas film from the
gas body to the gas-liquid film interface, we arrive ,..\at the following
expression:
(3.51)

In Equation 3.51, the subscript i refers to conditions at the liquid film-gas


film interface. Note also that concentrations have been expressed in terms
of partial pressures.
Equation 3.51 can be rewritten in a more useful form:
(3.52)

where PB1m is the log mean driving pressure of B defined as


(3.53)

For an ideal gas mixture, partial pressure is directly proportional to mole


fraction; thus, we can write the following:
(3.54)

50

COOLING TOWERS

where y, Yi = mole fractions in the main gas body and at the interface,
respectively (refer back to Figure 3.5), and kG is defined as follows:

(3.55)

The driving force (p - Pi or Y - Yi) will vary as a function of the tower


height. We can think of the total transfer then as the sllm of individual
transfers through incremental surfaces (i.e., a differential potential exists
at each increment). Consequently, a differential expression is developed
over the entire height of the diffusion column.

(3.56)

A similar development follows for the liquid film-liquid body interface,


where we arrive at the followin,g expression:
(3.57)

[C] represents the concentration of species A in the liquid and x represents


the mole fraction of the diffusing species in the liquid. Note that we have
introduced k L , the liquid phase mass transfer coefficient. The cap C)
indicates average value.
We can equate Equations 3.56 and 3.57 to give the following:
(3.58a)

or
(3.58b)
where

p" = partial pressure of diffusing vapor that is in eqUilibrium with the


liquid of the concentration of the liquid body (atm)
[CAl" = concentration of diffusing vapor that is in equilibrium with the
partial pressure of the diffusing vapor in the gas body, Ib-mole/ft 3
x",Y" = the mole fractions corresponding to [CAJ" and p", respectively.
KG,K L = the overall mass transfer coefficients for the gas and liquid phases,
respectively

For the gas phase, coefficient units are Ib-mole/(hr)(ft 2) (atm of partial
pressure difference). For KL, units are Ib-mole/(hr)(ft 2) (concentration
difference Ife).

F"

HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER PRINCIPLES

51

TRANSFER UNITS

The overall mass transfer coefficients KG and KL can be related through


Henry's Law, which states that
(3.58)

where p" is the equilibrium partial pressure of species A in the gas phase
(Le., corresponding to a liquid concentration of [CAr). KH is the Henry's
law constant. Henry's law is applicable only to relatively dilute solutions.
With the use of Equation 3.58, the overall mass transfer coefficients can be
expressed as follows:
(3.59)

and
(3.60)

Classical treatment of mass transfer is to consider a unL~ of mass transfer


as a measure of the interphase equilibrium changes needed to produce a
desired degree of diffusion [13]. This concept is best applied to the concept
of a theoretical plate in distillation [4]. Defining Gm as the gas superficial
molar velocity (mole/hr/ft 2 of tower cross' section) and dy as the change of
concentration of the diffusing species, then
(3.61)

The molar flux expression (Equation 3.58) can thus be rewritten as follows:
(3.62)

Let "a" signify the surface area per cubic foot of tower (ft2/ft3). Then the
total area is '
dA = adV

(3.63)

where V is the volume of the tower per unit area of tower cross section.
And we Can define the following relation:

Ntu =

dy
y-y

V
Gm

- - , , = KGa-

(3.64)

52

COOLING TOWERS

Ntu is the number of transfer units. It is basically an index of the size of the
absorption or desorption task that must be achieved. The integral of
dy/(y - yl/) is performed over the entire height of the tower and gives the
number of times the average potential can be divided into the total desired
concentrate change. Note that Ntu X Gm = KGaV, which is the total number
of moles of material diffused. To meet desired diffusion, a single transfer
unit can require different heights for different towers, depending on the
tower construction and the amount of surface per cubic foot of volume
provided for contact. The height of a single transfer unit is defined as
follows:
Htu

= Z/Ntu

(3.65)

where Z is the overall height of the tower.


We will apply these definitions in Chapter 5 to analyzing cooling tower
operations. At this point the reader should examine some of the problems
at the end of this chapter to review some of the concepts discussed thus far.

LEWIS NUMBER RELATIONSHIP


Earlier it,.',was noted that a definite relationship exists between the heat
transfer coefficient and the maSs transfer coefficient. Chilton and
Colburn [10] developed Equation 3.31, which will be restated here:
.
hD/k
( CP Il)'t3
h ( CPIl)'t3
lH = f/2 = (DG/Il)(Cpll/k) k
= CpG k

(3.66)

It is stated slightly differently, with f being the friction factor (recall that
both heat and mass transfer have a Reynolds number dependency). For mass
transfer, they developed the following expression:
(3.67)

The ratio jd:jh must be unity according to our Reynolds number criteria:
. /. Jd Jh -

KC (ll/pkd)'/3
p
- 1
h(C ll/k)2I3 p

(3.68)

or we can rearrange this to

(3.69)

------

HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER PRINCIPLES

53

These are dimensionless groups, and h/KCp is referred to as the Lewis


number.
In this book, Le will denote the Lewis number (Le = h/kC p )' The Lewis
number states that the heat transfer coefficient is to the mass transfer
coefficient as the value of the medium's specific heat serves for both heat
transfer and mass transfer.

NOTATION

[C]

= cross-sectional area, ft2


= concentration in liquid, lb-mole/ft 3

Cp

= heat capacity, Btu/(lb )CF)

D
E

= diameter, ft
= energy, Btu

ER

= force, lbf

= friction factor

Gm

= gas molar superficial velocity, lb-mole/hr/ft 2


= acceleration of gravity, ft/hr2
= enthalpy, Btu/lb

g
H

rate of energy generation, Btu/hr

gas-phase mass rate, lb/hr

Htu = height of transfer unit


h

=heat transfer coefficient, Btu/(hr)(ft 2)CF)

jd

= diffusion factor, dimensionless

jh

=heat transfer factor, dimensionless

KL,G

= mass transfer coefficient, lb-mole/(hr)(ft2)(atm)

KE = kinetic energy, Btu


k

= thermal conductivity, Btu/(hr)(fe)CF /ft)

kd

= diffusivity, ft 2/hr

kG

gas film coefficient, lb-mole/(hr)(ft 2)(atm)

'''''

54

COOLING TOWERS

=liquid-phase mass rate, lb/hr

Le

= Lewis number, dimensionless


= distance or length, ft

MW = molecular weight, lb/lb-mole

Ntu

= mass rate, lb/hr


= molar flux, lb-mole/hr
=number of transfer units

PE

= potential energy, Btu

= pressure, atm

= heat rate, Btu/hr

= ideal gas law constant, 1544 ft-Ib/Btu

=surface area, ft 2
= absolute temperature, oK
= internal energy, Btu/lb

= vol uine, fe

= velocity, fps

= work, ft-Ibf

= weight fraction for liquid phase

= weight fraction for gas phase

= tower height, ft

m
N

Cl:AB = proportionality constant, hr/ft

= rate of energy transfer accompanying mass transfer, Btu/hr

7)

= moles per unit volume

= time, sec

KH

Henry's law constant, (atm)(ft3)/mole

J1

viscosity, cp

/J

= specific volume, fe/Ibm

= density, Ib/ft3

HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER PRINCIPLES

55

Subscripts
A

= diffusing species

= inert gas
= gas-liquid interface

1m

=log mean
= upstream or inlet condition

= downstream or outlet condition

PROBLEMS*
3.1

The diffusion coefficient for a gas can be experimentally measured in


an Arnold diffusion cell. The device is shown in Figure 3.6 consisting
of a narrow tube partially filled with pure liqUid A. The system is
maintained under constant pressure and gas B flows across the open end
of the tube. Component A vaporizes and diffuses into the gas phase,
hence the rate of vaporization can be phYSically measured. Develop a
general steady-state expression to describe the dif~Jision of one gas
through a second stagnant gas. Assume that the gas has negligible
solubility in liqUid A and is also chemically inert in A.

*Solutions to selected problems can be found in Appendix A.

FLOWING
GAS B

'"

LIQUID A

Figure 3.6

The Arnold diffusion cell.

56

COOLING TOWERS

3.2

For problem 3.1, assume an ideal gas and express the steady-state
equation in terms of partial pressures.

3.3

We wish to estimate the time it takes to evaporate a puddle of water.


The depth of the puddle is 0.08 inches and covers a surface area of
2 ft2. Both the surr.ounding air (which is stagnant) and the water are
at a constant temperature of 77F. The absolute humidity is 0.001 lb
water/lb dry air. Assume the evaporation to occur, through stagnant
gas film that is 0.28 inches thick. The gas diffusion coefficient of water
vapor at these conditions is 0.259 cm2/ses:.

3.4

For the system described in problem 3.3 develop a general expression


for computing the water vapor concentration profile through the
stagnant air film.

3.5

A 30-ft-deep water well has a cross-sectional area of 5 ft2. The


temperature of the water and the air in the well is 84F. If there is a
slight breeze of air with humidity of 0.03 Ibm H20/Ib m dry air
blowing across the top of the well, estimate the rate at which the
water evaporates.

3.6

A lO-ft-diameter cylindrical tank contains water at a level of 3 ft


below,;'the top of the vessel. The capacity of the tank is 80 gallons.
If the top of the tank is open, determine the weight of water evaporated
per unit time. Assume dry air at 90F is blowing across the vesse1's top.

3.7

A tapered top water tank (Figure 3.7) is open to the atmosphere.


Determine the weight loss of water per hour if air with an absolute
humidity of 0.02 lb H20/lb dry air blows across the top of the tank.

AIR

FLOW

p-

--1 6ft I--

(. - .______:1

ft

80 f t

Figure 3.7

12 ft

Water tank for problem 3.7.

HEA T AND MASS TRANSFER PRINCIPLES

57

3.8

What role does the Lewis relation (Equation 3.69) play on the
psychrometric chart (Figure 2.S)?

3.9

A gas-liquid contact operation is illustrated in Figure 3.8. Gas is


contacted with a liquid from a spray, resulting in both diffusion and
heat transfer between the gas and liquid. The gas exits the system
at conditions of humidity and temperature quite different from the
entrance conditions. Assume the operation to be adiabatic. Perform a
material and energy balance for the system.

L Ib liquid/(hr)(ft2)
TL = temperature

HL =enthalpy

Ib dry air
(hr )(ft2)

III =absolute

humidity

HI = enthalpy
TG

=dry - bUlb temperature


Figure 3.8

Adiabatic gas-liquid contact system for problem 3.9.

3.1 0 For problem 3.9 derive the relationship for the adiabatic saturation
curve for the system.
3.11 A mixture is made from 20 lb of water at 40F, 10 lb of ice at 32F
and 10 lb of steam at 2S0F and 20 psia. Determine the final
temperature of the mixture and the amount of steam that condenses.
Assume the mixing process to occur adiabatically.
3.12 Derive' the equations for saturated volume, humid heat and the
adiabatic cooling lines for the psychrometric chart.
3.13 A SOO-gallon water tank has a continuous feed and discharge rate of
10 gpm and IS lb of NaCI are added to the tank in a batch method.
The tank has uniform mixing to maintain a uniform salt concentration
at all times. Estimate the amount of salt in the tank after 2 hours.
3.14 A 6-ft-diameter tank, 12 ft tall, is filled to capacity with water.
Determine the time it takes to drain the tank through a 2-inch-diameter
bottom drain.

This page intentionally left blank

CHAPTER 4
COOLING TOWER CLASSIFICATIONS

INTRODUCTION
Cooling towers are classified according to the method by which air is
introduced to the tower. The principal types are atmospheric spray,
natural-draft, mechanical-draft, deck-filled, spray-filled, coil shed and hyperbolic towers. Most industrial cooling tower installations are field-erected
units designed for specific thermal characteristics.
an atmospheric spray tower the air movement, is dependent on
atmospheric conditions and the aspirating effect of the spray nozzles.
Natural-draft cooling tower operation depends on a chimney or stack to
induce air movement. Mechanical-draft cboling towers utiliZe fans to move
ambient air through the tower. Deck-filled towers contain tiers of splash
bars or decks to assist in the breakup of water drops to increase the total
water surface and subsequently the evaporation rate. Spray-filled towers
depend only on spray nozzles for water breakup. Coil shed towers are
comprised of a combination structure of a cooling tower installed on top
of a substructure that contains atmospheric section coils. Hyperbolic
natural-draft cooling towers are typically large-capacity systems.
There is also a separate class of towers based on a dty cooling principle.
Each of these major designs is described below.

In

COOLING TOWER SUBCLASSIFICATIONS AND CONFIGURATIONS


Cooling towers are broadly classified on the basis of the type of draft:
natural draft (natural convection), mechanical draft (forced convection)
and mechanical and natural. Further distinction is made based on (1) the
type of flow-crossflow, counterflow, co current flow; (2) the type of
heat dissipation-wet (evaporative cooling), dry, wet-dry; and (3) the type
59

60

COOLING TOWERS

MECHANICAL
DRAFT
WET

COUNTERFLOW
DRY

MECHANICAL
NATURAL

AAA Jl A
N---R- 11 ~
~

CROSSFLOW

NATURAL
DRAFT

WET-DRY

PARALLEL
FLOW
Figure 4.1

LEGEND
1><1 FANS
WATER MANIFOLD
c=J DRY FILL RACK

Subclassifications of cooling towers.

of application-industrial or power plant. Figure 4.1 summarizes major


subclassifications.
Each of the major types of cooling towers has a distinct configuration.
The reader should learn to recognize these different types early on. The
seven major designs are summarized in Figures 4.2 through 4.8 and a brief
description of each follows. We will examine these designs in more detail
later in this chapter.
Atmospheric Spray Towers
Air movement depends on atmospheric conditions and the aspirating
effects of the spray nozzles (Figure 4.2).
Natural-Draft Cooling Towers
These depend on a chimney or stack to induce air movement through
the tower (Figure 4.3).
Mechanical-Draft Cooling Towers
These designs use a fan to move ambient air through the tower. They can
be subdivided into two different types-indirect or forced air towers,

l
DISTRIBUTION
AIR
SYSTEM
WATER
\ INLET
INLET :--l===========:::::;~

AIR OUTLET

,, , I'
II
II

I
'I'
III I

AIR
OUT

I,' I
1'1

~
~
~

': 'I
I',
II

,,I

',I
I"
1
' ,
'I'

'"
-.b '",

~Ii'l

WATER
OUT

---

"

I:' I'

"

Figure 4.2

' I
I I I
I , I
,
I , I
I'
I I
II
I , I
"
)1 I I
I
I,' I II
I
I,
I'
I
II
II
I I
,'
' II I I I
'I I
I
I, I ," I
,
, ,
I
: I.
'I I
II
II

, ,

I ' 1 'I

,,

,
I I I

I I
I I
I
I
I I
I,
I I

11/

111/

11'/

AIR
OUT

I
I I, 11 ' /
I I
I I
I I

1:/
1,/
11/
1,/

I I

1'/
I I I

COLD WATER
COLLECTION BASIN
Atmospheric spray tower.

AIR
INLET
WATER
OUTLET
Figure 4.3

Hyperbolic natural-draft tower.

~'---

62

--~----

--

COOLING TOWERS

1..-_-..,,/

WATER
IN LET

--~=~~~~~:::~~r:::'~-+-

DRAFT
ELIMINATORS
01 STR I BUT ION
SYSTEM

-'\.

y----

AIR
"
INLET

YAIR
~
INLET

--~

WATER-h=::rl
OUTLET

BASIN
Figure 4.4

Counterflow tower.

depending on whether the air is pulled or forced through the tower. At the
same time they can be grouped in crossflow or counterflow, depending on
the relative movement of air and water. In the cross flow type, air generally
travels horizontally across the falling water, while in counterflow, it travels
vertically upward through the falling water (Figures 4.4 and 4.5).
A new type of crossflow cooling tower is the wet-dry tower, which consists
of a normal crossflow tower over which a few air coils are placed. The hot
water is first cooled by an air-cooled heat exchanger and then drops to the
wet cooling tower where more cooling is obtained by the evaporative mechanism (Figures 4.6 and 4.7).
Deck-Filled Towers
These contain tiers of splash bars or decks to aid in the breakup of water
drops to increase the total water surface and, subsequently, the evaporation
rate.

COOLING TOWER CLASSIFICATIONS

63

FAN
WATER
INLET

AIR
INLET

COLLECTING BASIN
Figure 4.5

Crossflow tower.

Spray-Filled Towers
These depend only on spray nozzles for water breakup,
Coil Shed Towers
These are composed of a combination structure of a cooling tower
installed on 'top of a substructure that contains atmospheric section coils
(Figure 4.8).
Hyperbolic Towers
Natural-draft cooling towers with a hyperbolic configuration are usually
constructed of concrete, have a large dimension and, consequently, large
capacities. They are generally used in power plants. Figure 4.3 also illustrates
this design.

64

COOLING TOWERS

AIR INLET

AIR INLET

HOT,
WATE
AIR INLET

AIR INLET

WET SECTiO

WATER STORAGE BASIN


Figure 4.6

Single structure-type wet/ dry cooling tower.

tt

AIR OUTLET

AIR OUTLET

t t

AIR OUTLET

HOT
WATER 0

HOT
WATER

DRY
SECTION
AIR
INLET

AIR
INLET

WATER STORAGE BASIN

Figure 4.7

Wet/dry cooling tower.

COOLING TOWER CLASSIFICATIONS

65

AIR

Figure 4.8

Coil shed cooling tower.

Natural-Draft Towers
Natural-draft cooling towers evolved from spray ponds. The simplest and
earliest design consisted of a small water spray pond surrounded with
walls having inwardly sloping louvers. Figure 4.9 shows a cross section of
a simple cooling tower formed by enclosing a spray pond with louvered
walls.
In this type of design, the air changes direction in passing through the
louvers as it leaves, and the suspended water droplets impinge on the louver
slats, deposit outward and drain back into the tower basin.
This design is improved by utilizing low-pressure water sprays at the top,
positioning horizontal decks in the tower, and arranging the walls so that
the air enters horizontally and is discharged vertically (Figure 4.4). The
vertical upward movement of air tends to slow the downward velocity of
the water droplets, thus increasing the effective surface area for any given
water loading. The fill material is usually staggered so that water droplets
fall through a distance of only a few feet before striking another surface.

66

COOLING TOWERS

AIR
__

~
~
~
~

':'

~,

1,1'

,i'

-IP'~,II"
~ II"

.'1

'1'1

~'\I/'

LOUVERED
WALLS

~
'",',I ",: ~----

',1,1 1',1'

""I'"

~. 11"/11
"';'1'
I
\
~

~
~
~
"~

11

1'/' II

1/

,~

,'

",//.

SPRAY NOZZLES

~;;f;.J;:.:.;~

. CONCRETE BASIN

Figure 4.9 Cross section of a simple cooling tower formed by enclosing a spray pond
with louvered walls.

Typical grids are made of redwood strips nailed to 1 X 2-inch stringers.


Figure 4.10 shows some typical fill geometries.
The increasing temperature of the upwardly moving air stream induces
circulation by thermal convection. This is a favorable condition if the wind
velocity is very 10,. Towers are generally placed in a side-by-side arrangement
(i.e., in a row) at '~ight angles to the direction of prevailing winds. One such
power plant installation is shown in Figure 4.11.

Hyperbolic Towers
Early designs consisted of a cylindrical configuration. Later designs used
a pair of truncated cones. Today's design consists of a hyperbolic shape.
The advantages of this configuration include:
1.
2.
3.

superior strength
close match to the natural flow of air through the tower shell, and
the need for fewer materials of construction than for earlier shapes (less total
volume is required because the hyperbolic shape of the sheli provides good
strength, so a thinner shell thickness can be used in comparison to older
designs).

The performance of a natural-draft tower is characterized in terms of a


duty coefficient (CD), which defines the overall capabilities of a tower under
all operating conditions:

CD

WL
= -----~"-----~-----90.59 -~Q
T V~Ta
+ 0.3124~Q
~ W

(4.1)

COOLING TOWER CLASSIFICA nONS

67

DECKS caD

DECKS A a B

"'---8"--""'"
VERTICAL SPACING A=9", B =12"

DECK F

DECK E

VERTICAL SPACING
DECK I

where

24"

2-1/4"
VERTICAL SPACING 24"
DECK"

VERTICAL
Figure 4.10
towers.

VERTICAL SPACING C=IS", D =24"

\ t~':~ ~
VERTICAL SPACING

24"

Various geometries employed in constructing redwood fill for cooling

WL = water loading, lb/hr


.:l.Q = total heat of the air passing through the tower, Btu/lb of dry air
.:l. TW = change in temperature of water passing through tower, of
.:l. T a = difference between the dry-bulb temperature and wet-bulb temperature

68

COOLING TOWERS

Figure 4.11 Power plant installation where multiple tower arrangement is utilized
(towers are operated in parallel). Cooling towers are placed in a row at right angles
to the prevailing winds (courtesy of The Marley Company, Mission, KS).

The draft is due to the difference between the density of the air leaving
the tower and that entering the tower, and to the aerodynamic lift of the
wind passing over the top of the tower.
Increases in loading, cooling range and humidity all tend to improve cooling
tower performance. Two basic types of hyperbolic towers are counterflow
and crossflow, as shown in Figure 4.12.
Of the two operations, counterflow (or countercurrent) provides the more
efficient heat transfer mechanism because the coolest water contacts the
coolest air initially. In the crossflow operation, air flow is normal to the
water movement and fill is needed to transfer a given quantity of heat.
These designs have fill in a ring outside the tower. This produces a lower
water pumping head than in the counterflow. Fill inside a counterflow
must be spread over a much larger area. Thus, crossflow units have shallower
depths and vertical water risers have shorter pressure drops through the fill
(much less than in a counterflow tower). Selection of the arrangement
depends on operating requirements ..

VERTICAL
RIBS

VERTICAL
RIBS

VOID
("')

0
0

C"l

~
~

("')

AIR IN

AIR IN

-->
CI:l

'"rI

COLD WATER
COLLECTING BASIN
Figure 4.12

COLD WAT
RETURN

WATER
IN

HOT
WATER
RISERS

Differences between crossflow and counterflow hyperbolic cooling towers.

("')

~
0

CI:l
0\
\0

70

COOLING TOWERS

FILL ARRANGEMENTS
The two major types of fill arrangements are splash packing and film
packing. Both are illustrated in Figure 4.13. The role of any packing
material is to generate as much air-water interfacial contact area as possible
within the limitations of minimum air-pressure losses.
Splash-type fill are generally employed in cross flow designs. Hot water falls
over wave-shaped fill causing droplets to form continuously. This arrangement presents a fresh-water surface to the cooling air throughout the tower.
Film-type fill is most often utilized in countercurrent designs. Here, the
fill consists of multiple vertical surfaces through which hot water flows in
the form of continuous thin films or sheets. The cooling air passes over
these films effecting heat transfer.
In general, film-type fill occupies less volume and requires less shell
height than the splash type; however, the film type is subject to clogging
and fouling. Splash packing are often easier to repair or replace.
<

DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS
The function o the distribution system is to distribute the inlet hot
water evenly over the fill section. Figure 4.14 shows two types of systems
employed, namely, gravity- and spray-type distributions.
The gravity distribution basin located at the top of a crossflow tower is
left open to the atmosphere. Water gravitates through orifices to the tower
packing below, thus providing a splash-type pattern.
In the spray-type distribution system, normally employed for counterflow
towers, a main header carries water to spray trees containing a battery of
nozzles. The nozzles are sized and arranged to provide an even distribution
of water over the fill.

MECHANICAL-DRAFT COOLING TOWERS


Mechanical-draft cooling towers can be either field-constructed or factoryassembled systems. Installations that are constructed onsite are generally
those employed at utility stations. Factory-assembled towers have applications in smaller industrial operations.
The growing size and numbers of central stations, and new codes
governing water qualities as well as dwindling water supplies, have made
once-through cooling increasingly difficult. Today's economics simply favor
mechanical-draft towers over hyperbolics, except in very large stations.
Figure 4.15 illustrates the various mechanical-draft tower types.

DRIFT ELIMINATORS
DDRYAIR

SPLASH -TYPE FILL BREAKS WATER


FLOW INTO DROPLETS. THUS GREATLY
REDUCING AIR RESISTANCE

D D

\ \ \ \ { ( (( I{,',
1/III )))) III
fr WETtJ
fr WET
D
AIR
AIR

SPLASH
AIR IN

---

TWO ROWS

FILM

THREE ROWS

DRIFT ELIMINATORS MINIMIZE


WATER LOSS TO ATMOSPHERE

Figure 4.13

--

.....,.1_

~.,r.~

d2::::::::!~.:7i::S ""c::!:::i

::it? t?;::~

AIR OUT
-

-~~~~~~~---- ~ t7C5' ..r,:~--

ASBESTOS-CEMENT SHEETS 5-mm


THICK PRESENT ROUGH ABSORBENT
SURFACE FOR FILM -TYPE PACKING.
SHEETS ARE STACKED HORIZONTALLY
IN TOWER WITH 19-mm SPACING

Operating principles behind splash-packing and film-packing arrangements.

CONTROL VALVE

BASIN

= : ---=-

--=- -=-, :- --=-, -=-= =--- --

~i~~~V4M'H~
ORIFICES

SPRAY
TREES

HOT
WATER

GRAVITY- DISTRIBUTION BASIN IN TOP OF


CROSSFLOW TOWER
Figure 4.14

SPRAY-TYPE DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM FOR


COUNTERFLOW TOWER

Gravity- and splash-type water distribution systems employed in cooling towers. -

COOLING TOWER CLASSIFICA nONS

CROSSFLOW

Figure 4.15

73

COUNTERFLOW

Large mechanical-draft cooling towers.

Crossflow mechanical draft towers are thermally less efficient. They offer
less resistance to air flow and can operate at higher velocities than counterflow towers, which means less horsepower and smaller cell sizes for
comparable outputs. In practice, however, both crossflO\v;" and counterflow
designs have advantages and limitations, depending on the type of application.
A cross-sectional view of a mechanical-draft tower is illustrated in
Figure 4.16. The primary design elements are numbered in this figure
and are summarized below:
1.
2.

3.
4.
5.

6.
7.
8.

Electric motors. These should be matched to power requirements of the fan.


Fan blades. These are fabricated of lightweight metal or plastics and are
balanced.
Speed reducer. It is usually integrated with other elements, namely, motor,
shaft and fan. Its job is to convert the high-rpm, horizontal rotation of the
drive shaft into the vertical, low-rpm motion of the fan shaft.
Header pipe. This is usually made of redwood staves for very large towers.
Interior supports. These are an intricate cross-lacing of redwood beams
arranged to give maximum support to the fill and fan deck. Glass-reinforced
polyester connectors are positioned where diagonals cross upright. This
permits horizontal members an even distribution of the load and a certain
amount of expansion.
Fill. These are made from a number of materials; usually in a splash-type
arrangement or wave-shaped bars supported in a close-knit grid.
Louvers and casing. These are constructed from asbestos-cement board, about
f -inch thick, in large towers. To eliminate splash out, louvers are sloped at
an angle of about 40 with framework.
Cold water basin. This serves as a receptacle for cooled water and is usually
made of concrete.

74

COOLING TOWERS

Figure 4.16

Design elements of mechanical-draft cooling towers.

FACTORY-ASSEMBLED TOWERS
Recent trends have been towards an increase in factory-assembled over
field-erected jobs because of the rising cost of field labor, which has far
offset the higher transportation costs of shipping complete packages. In
addition, manufacturers are better able to control the quality of fabrication.
Elements of a factory-assembled tower are basically the same as fielderected towers. The main difference is that in factory-assembled units, the
design is modular in concept, with units shipped as modules and arranged
on site. Figure 4.17 shows a typical installation. Manufacturers offer
considerable flexibility to permit best Use of available space for their
equipment.

--p----------------------------------------------------------------------------~

COOLING TOWER CLASSIFICATIONS

75

Figure 4.17 Factory-assembled units are shipped in modular package form and erected
in the field (courtesy of The Marley Company, Mission KS),

Air paths may be crossflow or counterflow. Fan placement can be ahead


of the fIll section (forced draft) or behind'it (induced draft). Manufacturers
use different criteria in sizing units. Figure 4.18 reviews one tower
manufacturer's approach. Specific design details should be obtained from
the tower manufacturer.
As shown in Figure 4.18, ambient air passes through the inlet cone of
the centrifugal fan, and through air vortex' breakers to boost fan efficiency.
During fan discharge, air passes through a diffuser, which equalizes flow and
provides optimum static pressure regain. Air then passes through a series
of serrated directional vanes, which ensure even air distribution below the
fill.

FAN-ASSISTED HYPERBOLIC TOWERS


Recent hyperbolic tower designs have included fans for intermittent
operation. This type tower combines the features of both natural-draft
and mechanical-draft towers. These resemble natural-draft systems in that
they employ a hyperbolic shell; however, they are smaller and have large

~~~~~~~~--

76

--

COOLING TOWERS

ENTER ING AIR WET BULB,

80
76
72
6B
105 hM;\-~*-*-*-",*-..-..,

97
95

FILL SECTION

TER FROM FILL

INLET
CONE

WATER
OUT

93

0
200
400
600
800
1000
1200
1400

NOMINAL
RATING NO.
GPM CELLS
120
I
I
240
360
I
4BO
I
600
I
720
840
960
1200
1440

FAN
CAPACITY
CFM
10,500
21,000
31,500
42,000
52,500
63,000
84,840
64,000
105,000
1~6,OOO

1600
1600
2000

Figure 4.18 Upper right figure shows a forced-draft or blowthrough tower, which has a
fan at the bottom for driving air through the fill above. Tower selection for smaller
units can be made from the accompanying curves and table for a cold water temperature of 85F (this is generally the water basin discharge temperature for small
towers). As an example, enter at 104F hot water temperature to a wet bulb value of
75F, then drop vertically to the water flow selected (580 gpm). This falls between
curves that designate the manufacturer's distinct model size. Select the next larger
size, i.e., the curve immediately below, and follow across to the recommended tower
model).

motor-driven fans located at the periphery of the base. Fans provide greater
control than purely natural-draft systems. Figure 4.19 shows such a system.
An inherent problem with mechanical-draft cooling towers is the potential
for recirculation. Normally, a high air velocity discharge provided by fans
will eliminate this problem.
A rule of thumb for the dimensions of fan-assisted hyperbolic towers is
as follows:

COOLING TOWER CLASSIFICATIONS

77

REINFORCED -CONCRETE
( SHELL

ASBESTOSCEMENT)

Figure 4.19

Fan-assisted hyperbolic tower.

Diameter ="3 D

Height =

(4.2)

(4.3)

where D and h are the base diameter and height of a natural-draft tower
designed for the same performance, respectively. Fan operation can be
intermittent. That is, it may only be necessary at peak load conditions.
It should be clear that major differences exist between mechanical- and
natural-draft systems. Table 4.1 summarizes our discussion by comparing
the two types of towers.

NEW TOWER DESIGNS


A new design that has appeared on the market recently is shown in
Figure 4.20. This design was developed by Baltimore AircoH Co., Maryland.
Large quantities of air are induced into the tower by cooling water as it is
injected through spray nozzles at one end of a venturi plume. No fans are
utilized in this design. Effective mixing of air and water in the plenum

78

COOLING TOWERS

Table 4.1 Comparison Between Characteristics of Mechanical- and


Natural-Draft Cooling Towers
Mechanical Draft

Natural Draft

Location

Must be located in an area at some


distance from the plant proper.
This is necessary for air supply
considerations and because of
problems associated with fogging
and drift from discharging air.
Noise considerations also tend to
dictate site selection.

Can be built adjacent to plant


buildings, on centers 1.5 (d)
where d = base diameter, so
tha t piping CO$ts are reduced.
Their position must be
chosen so as not to interfere
with power plant exhaust
plumes.

Materials of
Construction

May be constructed of wood,


metal or concrete.'The structure
must be designed to withstand
wind or earthquake stress, dead
loads such as weight of tower and
circulating water and vibrations
from mechanical equipment.

Constructed of thin concrete


shells that have good wind
resistance.

Initial
Investment

Can be built with less expensive


materials like wood, asbestoscement board and plastic
,materials. Fan cost is higher.

Built with relatively expensive


materials such as prestressed,
precast and reinforced
concrete and asbestos-cement
for fill.

Operation &
Maintenance
Costs

Pumping head is less, so power


cost for the circulating water
pumps is less. Power cost for fans
is considerable. Cost of maintaining fans and associated drives and
transmissions is also significant.

Total operating cost will


favor na tural-draft towers.

Recirculation,
Fogging

These are major problems. Design


accommodation, restrictions on
tower dimensions, orientation
with prevailing winds, and added
capacity for recirculation can
boost tower cost.

Because of its eleva ted


discharge, the natural-draft
tower rarely has the trouble
with recircula tion and
fogging.

Applica tions

Economics favor mechanical-draft


towers over hyperbolics, except in
very large instalJations.

Considering the climatic and


load conditions, natural draft
has its best application in the
power industry. Selected
when: (a) operating conditions consist of low wet-bulb
temperature and high relative
humidity; (b) a combination
of low wet-bulb and high
inlet and exit water temperature exists; and (c) heavy
winter load is possible.

Considerations

COOLING TOWER CLASSIFICATIONS

79

AIR/WATER MIXTURE

DISCHARGE
COWL
-;-~,..,........,....,.,.-,-lf'..

ELIMINATORS
SUMP

WATER LEVEL ADJUSTMENT


Figure 4.20 Cooling tower design developed by Baltimore Aircoil Co. The system is
designed to operate withou t fill packing.

perl11its evaporative heat transfer to take place without the fill that is
required in conventional towers. Cooling water collected in the sump is
pumped through the cooling water circuit for the return cycle. Capacities
generally range from 30 to 1920 gpm for standard conditions. Since the
tower has no moving parts, maintenance costs are low.

DRY COOLING TOWERS


Under certain conditions, such as high water temperatures, insufficient
water supplies and problems of blowdown disposal, systems that depend on
convection and Use air as the transport medium may be preferable. The
two types of dry cooling towers are the direct and indirect systems.
Figures 4.21 and 4.22 show these systems in operation for nuclear station
cooling. Indirect units use a surface or jet condenser at the turbine to
condense exhaust steam. Water from the condenser is pumped to the dry
tower for cooling and recirculation back to the condenser. In the direct
system, steam' is condensed in cooling coils without interfacing with a
condenser.
In the direct condensing system, a jet condenser is employed. Cool water
from the dry tower is sprayed into the condenser, where it mixes intimately
with exhaust steam from the turbine. The mixture falls to the bottom of
the condenser and is removed by circulating water pumps. The greater part
of this water flows to cooling coils, and an amount equal to the exhaust
steam from the turbine is directed back to the feed water circuit through
condensate polishers for reevaporation in the steam generator. Because of

00

o
EXHAUST STEAM

\(

~
FAN

--EXHAUST---".,.
STEAM
TRUNK

CONDENSATE

""'HEADER
"'"

(STEAM TURBINE

TO
FEEDWATER
CIRCUIT

I'

PUMP

( CONDENSATE
POLISHERS
Figure 4.21

EXHAUST

""~tl( \~
STEAM
~~.J
Ie. 'lJ t:J '"'---.........

---

U ..... -..........

Direct, dry-type cooling tower condensing system utilizing a mechanical-draft tower.

COOLING TOWER CLASSIFICATIONS

STEAM
TURBINE

81

STEAM
SUPPLY

DIRECT-CONTACT
CONDENSER

.........~~~=:::::/

WATER
RECOVERy ............
TURBINE
'"

PUMP MOTOR

'--___'--___......._____-L.-.Q- CONDENSATE TO
CONDENSATE /
POLISHERS

REACTOR FEEDWATER CIRCUIT

Figure 4.22 Indirect, dry-type cooling tower condensing system employing a naturaldraft tower.

the intimate mixing achieved when using a jet condense],:.. circulating water
must be of condensate purity.
.
After passing through a water recovery turbine, circulating water is again
introduced into the condenser and recycled through the system. The
recovery turbine is coupled to the drive shaft of the circulating water pump
to recover some of the pressure head between cooling coils and the
condenser. Circulating water does not come into direct contact with
cooling air; thus, no evaporative loss occurs, as with the wet-type tower.
In direct condensing, turbine exhaust steam is conveyed through a trunk
to the air-cooled coils, where cooling air passing over the finned coil surfaces
condenses the steam. Steam enters the coil section and condenses as it
travels downward, with steam and condensate flowing in the same direction,
minimizing pressure loss and increasing the heat transfer coefficient.
These designs have provisions for the removal of non condensable vapors
and air, for the prevention of freezing during cold weather. Excessive buildup
of non condensable vapors in the main condenser would prevent effective
condensation. Protection against ice formation is usually accomplished by
warm air recirculation and/or fan control. Condensed steam from cooling
coils flows by gravity to condensate receivers and is pumped back to the
feedwater circuit by a condensate pump.
The major difference between the two systems is the large volume of
exhaust steam that must be handled in the direct system, as compared to
the smaller volume of circulating water in the indirect system. Cooling

82

COOLING TOWERS

coils in the dry system operate under high vacuum, which is perhaps a
disadvantage when compared to an indirect system that maintains positive
water pressure in the cooling coils. Because of size requirements for steam
pipes running from the turbine to the condenser, direct systems are limited
to small- and intermediate-sized plants, while indirect systems are expected
to be more economical and technically feasible for large plants.
Operating costs of dry towers are a function of the initial temperature
difference (lTD) between the hot fluid entering the cooling coils and
cooling air entering the tower. If the tower size is increased and the heat
rejection remains the same, lTD is reduced. The temperature of the turbine
exhaust steam is reduced, thus lowering turbine back pressure and boosting
plant efficiency. If the tower size is reduced and the heat load kept
constant, a greater lTD must prevail to dissipate the heat load. This would
increase the turbine heat rate and reduce operating efficiency. Table 4.2
summarizes major design considerations for dry cooling.
The use of dry-closed water loop cooling systems eliminates the need for
large water consumption in power plant cooling. It represents an attractive
solution to many of the environmental problems associated with wet tower
operations. It is, however, inherently costly. The low heat capacity of air
and the low heat transfer coefficients of air-cooled heat exchangers make
it necessary to have large air volumes, large surface areas and, consequently,
large, costly towers. Mechanical-draft systems requiring large air volumes
can result in high fan power requirements, which, in comparison to wet
towers, result in significant replacement energy costs. Note also that since
dry-bulb temperatures are greater than wet-bulb temperatures, dry cooling

Table 4.2 Design Considerations and Characteristics of Dry Cooling


1. Heat removal is by sensible heat transfer only.
2. For a given amount of cooling, the air-cooled unit must move an enormous volume of
air (because air has a specific volume 830 times as great as that of water while its heat
capacity is only about one-quarter).
3. Coolant temperature difference are 20-60F for air, 10-40F for water.
4. Design temperatures for cold water from wet towers are 80-90F; from dry towers
they can be 20-30F higher.
5. Air-cooled heat exchangers usually are selected on the basis of maximum coolant
temperature.
6. Airside fouling is negligible when compared to the water-cooling problems of scale,
corrosion and biological growths.
7. Operating costs for air-cooled equipment are lower with designs that use both lower
fan horsepower and controlied fan operation.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------~
COOLING TOWER CLASSIFICATIONS

83

systems are forced to reject heat to a higher temperature sink. This results
in higher turbine exhaust pressures and higher energy debits in comparison
to wet cooling systems.
Recent developments promise significant cost savings over conventional
dry cooling systems. McHale et al. [1] describe a proposed system that
employs ammonia as the heat rejection fluid rather than water and uses
high performance heat exchangers to further reduce costs. A schematic
of the proposed heat rejection system is given in Figure 4.23. For the
operation to be economical, the steam condenser ammonia exit quality
must be maintained at or below 0.80 to ensure that the ammonia evaporator
tubes are wetted at all times. At the separator, the ammonia vapor and
liqUid exiting the condenser are separated. The vapor is sent to the cooling
tower, where it is condensed, and the liqUid phase is returned to the steam
condenser. Fans are used on the dry tower(s) to control the heat rejected
as the system heat load varies. This control is provided by turning off
cooling tower fans whenever the turbine exhaust pressure falls below the
choke point. The reader is referred to the literature [1-4] for detailed
discussions.

WETjDRY TOWER SYSTEMS


These towers combine features of both dry and wet cooling systems. They
not only conserve water, but also minimize plume formation. Wet/dry
towers are a combination of evaporative and dry cooling. Figure 4.24 shows

STEAM
CONDENSERS

SEPARATOR

-----------~

.....--1---,
'1"

I
I

L
~

__________-r~PUMPS
4---------~------------~

MOTORS
Figure 4.23

Schematic of advanced dry cooling system proposed by McHale et al. [ll.

. I

I
84

COOLING TOWERS
SUB-SATURATED
AIR MIXTURE

AIR-COOLED
HEAT EXCHANGERS

J 11

INTERMEDIATE
WATER

NORMAL
AMBIENT AIR

COLD-WATER BASIN
Figure 4.24

Design features of the wet/dry cooling tower.

the design features. Design arrangements enable ambient air to be drawn


through both the dry and wet portions in parallel paths. Air streams
converge and are mixed within the cooling tower plenum before discharging
to the atmosphere.
Water to be cooled is passed through the dry air-cooled section, rather
than through the wet section of the cooling tower. The heated dry air
stream mixes with and dilutes the wet air stream to provide a less visible
plume above the fan discharge.
The principal design feature that permits economical application of the
wet/dry tower is the summer damper component. This is a door-like air
flow restrict or that is located in the heated dry air stream between the
air-cooled heat exchanger and the fan. Its purpose is to reduce the air
flow through the dry stream, while boosting the air flow in the wet stream,
thereby enhancing the wet section thermal performance during summer
operation.

COOLING TOWER CLASSIFICATIONS

85

REFERENCES
1. McHale, C. E., G. E. Jablonka, J. A. Bartz and D. J. Webster. "New
Developments in Dry Cooling of Power Plants," Combustion 51 (11)
(May 1980).
2. Van Der Walt, N. T., L. A. West, T. J. Sheef and D. Kubal. "The Design
and Operation of a Dry Cooling System for a 200 MW Turbo-Generator
at Grootv1ei Power Station-South Africa," paper presented at the
IX World Energy Conference, Detroit, MI, (1974).
3. Gottzmann, C. F., and P. S. O'Neill. "Field Experience with High
Efficiency Heat Exchangers," paper presented at the AIChE 74th
National Meeting, March 12-15,1973.
4. Oleson, K. A., G. J. Silvestri, V. S. Ivins and S. W. W. Mitchell.
"Dry Cooling Affects More Than Cost," Elect. World (July 1, 1972).

SUGGESTED READING
1. Kolflat, T. D., et al. "Cooling Tower Practices," Power Eng. (January
1974).
2. Lichtenstein, J. "Performance and Selection of Mechanical Draft Cooling
Towers," ASME Trans. (1943).
3. Smith, E. C., and M. W. Larin off. "Alternative Arrangements and Design
of Wet/Dry Cooling Towers," Power (May 1976).

This page intentionally left blank

CHAPTER 5
THEORY AND DESIGN PRINCIPLES

INTRODUCTION
The use of cooling towers has grown tremendously during the last two to
three decades, due to an increasing necessity. Cooling towers, along with air
conditioning spray chambers, spray driers, spray towers and spray ponds, are
the largest users of applied diffusional heat transfer principles. As pointed out
in Chapter 1, many industrial locations do not lend thems~lves to unlimited
use of cold fresh water as a cooling medium. The supply of sufficient surface
and subsurface cooling water has become such a major problem today that
many new plants are attempting to develop continual reuse of limited water
that they may obtain from outside sources:
The cooling water's available temperature is a major consideration, having
direct impact on the economics of the design. This is especially true today for
the chemical and power industries. Chemical plants establish their cooling
water temperatures on the operating pressures on the condensers of distillation and evaporation operations and, consequently, on equipment preceding
them. Power plants base it on turbine- or engine-discharge pressures and the
ultimate heat recovery. To ensure that the proper water temperature is made
available, careful analysis of process requirements, as well as careful review
of cooling tower design principles, must be made. We will now use the
definitions presented in Chapters 2 and 3 to address the theory of cooling
tower operation and to develop specific design criteria.

GAS-LIQUID CONTACTING
The interfacial surface area made available for a gas and liquid to contact
largely establishes the thermal efficiency of the contact device. That is, the
gas-liquid interface is also the heat transfer surface. Consequently, the greater

87

88

COOLING TOWERS

this interfacial contact area, the greater the degree of heat exchange that
takes place. In spray ponds and spray towers this contact area is promoted by
utilizing spray nozzles to generate small liquid droplets.
In addition to interfacial area, the time of contact between the two phases
affects thermal efficiency. This is best illustrated by the example given in
Figure 5.1. Suppose we have a column Z feet tall and we gravity feed water
in the form of droplets at a rate of 1 drop/sec. If there is no initial velocity
imparted to the drops, then each drop descends through the column in
accordance with the free-fall law:
(5.1)

where e is the time it takes to fall through the column. If our column is
32 feet tall, then it takes Y2 sec for a single drop to pass through. At the feed
rate of 1 drop/sec then, there will always be 1.41 drops present in the
column. At the discharge, 1 drop/sec will be removed continuously. Consequently, the interfacial or effective area in the column is that of \l2 droplets.
Now if we alter the column by installing some baffles or plates on which
droplets can impinge or be deflected, we could increase the time it takes for
each droplet to pass through the column. By interrupting the flow then, we
might increase the droplet holdup time to 5 seconds. Then, as shown in
Figure 5.1, although 1 drop/sec is fed to the column and 1 drop/sec discharges, there will always be 5 drops of water at anyone time in the
column for a continuous flow system. We thus have 5/ Y2, or 3.5 times
more effective surface than for the case of free-fall.
In gas absorption equipment, such as packed tower wet scrubbers, the
interfacial gas-liquid contact area and the contact time are established in the
form of a film surface. This film surface is generated by packing material.
The role of packing is to increase the turbulence and the contact surface
between the two phases. It is also designed to provide a tortuous path to
prevent bypassing. In early designs, broken rock or coke was used as a
packing material; however, these have been replaced by specially designed
geometric shapes to provide greater contacting efficiency. Figure 5.2 illustrates some common packing shapes that are commercially available.
Cooling towers have different design restrictions than absorption columns.
Because of large air volume and small allowable pressure drop requirements,
common cooling tower designs employ wooden slats of either triangular or
rectangular cross section at spaced intervals within the structure. This type
of packing arrangement leaves the tower substantially unobstructed.
Cooling tower packing material is commonly referred to as fill. The two
most common configurations used are illustrated in Figure 5.3. The purpose

THEORY AND DESIGN PRINCIPLES

I
I FEED
t
t I DROP/SEC

r
L
h

FEED
I DROP/SEC

Change

to
Interna"

for
Interupted Flow

DISCHARGE
I DROP/SEC
Figure 5.1

89

DISCHARGE
I DROP/SEC

Free and interrupted flow through a column.

of fill is to interrupt the downward flow of water. The free space between
adjacent fill slats is relatively large; however, the horizontal projection of the
fill is designed so that water droplets can'not fall through the tower without
repeatedly striking successively lower slats. As the liquid descends through
the tower it impinges on the top of each successive slat. This splits the flow,
breaking it into turbulent flow as it continues to fall. This action forms new
water droplets with each successive slat impinged on, thus exposing new
water surface area for contact with the' air. Cooling tower fill provides the
interfacial contact by both film surface (as the liquid flows around the sides
of the slats) and droplet surface. As the water strikes the top of the slats,
droplets are created; however, more important, the draining action of falling
water into turbulent flow creates droplets.
Fill greatly increases the holdup time of liquid in the tower. Properly
arranged fill will never allow liquid droplets to reach their free-fall velocity.
Recall our simple example of water droplets falling freely in a column. At the
feed, the water droplets have zero initial velocity, but by the time they arrive
at the end of the column they have reached their terminal-fall velocity. By
interrupting the flow with slats, each time a droplet strikes the fill it is as if it
is released at the top of the column in Figure 5.1 with a zero initial velocity.
Consequently, droplets never reach their terminal free-fall velocity and contact time is tremendously increased.

90

COOLING TOWERS

RASCHIG RING

PALL RING

BERL SADDLE

INTALOX
SADDLE

Figure 5.2

Tower packing configurations.

(
'--

f--

K1
u

r-

'--

I
G

r-

'--

(fV

'--

r-

RECTANGULAR FILL
Figure 5.3

o
&

TR IAN GULAR FILL

Cross-sectional view of commonly used cooling tower fill arrangements.

THEORY AND DESIGN PRINCIPLES

91

It is important that no bypassing of the two phases occurs in the tower. A


uniform liquid distribution across the tower's cross section is essential. This is
accomplished by spraying the water over the top of the tower. Spray nozzles
also help to create droplet surface and increase contact time.

APPLICATION OF THE PSYCHROMETRIC CHART


The reader should be familiar with the use of the air-water psychrometric
chart (Figure 2.5). If not, the reader should take a look at some of the
problems at the end of Chapters 2 and 3. By way of review, the basic chart
consists of a humidity(JI)-temperature (dry-bulb) set of coordinates along
with additional parameters (curves) of constant relative humidity, constant
moist volume (humid volume), adiabatic cooling curves (which are the same
as the wet-bulb or psychrometric lines, for water vapor only) and the 100%
relative humidity curve, also called the saturated-air curve. If any two values
are known, we can determine the air-moisture condition on Figure 2.5 and
evaluate all other required parameters.
The left-hand scale gives the enthalpy per pound of dry air of a saturated
air-water vapor mixture. The enthalpy of the wet air (in Btu/lb dry air) is
actually the following:
AH = AHair + AHH 2 0 UI)
Vapor

(5.2)

There are alternate methods available for computing enthalpy values [1,2].
For our specific system we could expand Equation 5.2 to the following:
AH = 0.240 (T - OaF) + .H[107S +. 0.45 (T - 32F)]

(5.3)

where 0.240 (T - 0) is Cp(ilT) for air (with OaF as the reference temperature,
.H(1075) is the heat of vaporization of water at 32F and 0.45 (T - 32) is
Cp(ilT) for water vapor (with 32F as the reference temperature).
Equation 5:3 can be cleaned up to give the following:
AH= 0.240T + .H(1061 + O.4ST)

(5.4)

where T is in OF.
The use of these relationships in constructing and applying humidity charts
is best illustrated by examining a simplified case, that of adiabatic cooling or
humidification. Figure 5.4 illustrates this process between air and water that
is recycled through the cooling tower. In this operation air is both cooled and

92

COOLING TOWERS
RECIRCULATED WATER

~
HOT
A IR

PACKED
TOWER OR
COOLING
TOWER

Tj

I
MAKE-UP WATER'
Figure 5.4

COOL
AIR
To

Example of adiabatic humidification.

humidified while a portion of the recirculated water undergoes evaporation.


If equilibrium is reached the air becomes saturated and both the air and water
temperatures are the same. If the operation occurs adiabatically, then by
application of~n energy balance (see Chapter 3) we can develop an expression defining the adiabatic cooling line of the humidity chart.

Enthalpy Of) (EnthalPY of H 2 0 vapor) = (EnthalPY Of)


Air in
+ in Air Entering Tower
Exit Air
+(

Enthalpy of H,G vapor)


in Exit Air

And defining Ts as the equilibrium temperature of the water,


0.240(Ti - Ts) + .H(~HHPB- + 0.45 (Tair - Ts) 1
Ts
=

0.240 (Ts - Ts) +.Hsl ~HH,GB- + 0.45 (Ts - Ts) 1


Ts

(5.5)

where the subscript s refers to saturation conditions, which is actually the


wet-bulb temperature (T wb).
Equation 5.5 can be rearranged to give the following:

THEORY AND DESIGN PRINCIPLES

.H)

(.Hs (Twb - Tair)

= __
~_s_

93

(5.6)

AHvap

where Cs is the humid heat (C s = 0.240 + 0.45)1).


The following examples demonstrate the use of these relationships.

Example 1
Develop a simple expression for the humid volume of moist air.
Solution
Humid volume is defined as the volume of 1 lb of dry air plus the volume of
water vapor in the air. Hence,

v=

( ft')
3591b_mole

X(

ft')

(lIb-mOle air) (T + 460) (


291b air
X 32 + 460 + 3591b_mole

lIb-mOle HP) (T + 460)


181bH 2 0
X 32+460 X

v = (0.730T + 336)U9 +

(.H Ibair
Ib H
2

0)

ts)

Example 2
A cooling tower operation is designed without any recycle stream.
Approximately 700,000 lb/hr of hot process water at 140F is to be cooled
and returned to the process operation. Moist air is used as the cooling
medium and is fed at a rate of 5.5 X 10 6 fe/hr. The dry- and wet-bulb
temperatures of the incoming air are 80F and 60F, respectively. The air
leaves the tower with an estimated wet-bulb temperature of 95F and a
dry-bulb telJlperature of lOOF. Estimate the temperature of the water
returned to the process operation.
Solution
The cooling tower operation is illustrated in Figure 5.5. Absolute
humidities for incoming and exiting air streams can be obtained from the
psychrometric chart (Figure 2.5):

94

COOLING TOWERS

. .
Ib H 2 0
Au m: .JI = 0.0069 Ib -d ryaIT
.
.
An out:.JI

Ib H 2 0
0.0357 Ib -dry aIT
.

Specific volumes for air streams can be computed from


1

v= (0.730T + 336)(2 9 +

:s)

Hence,

Air in:

v = (0.730 X 80 F + 336) (l9 + 0.010869)


= 13.75 ft' /Ib-dry air

~ir out: v= (0.730 X 100F + 336)(2~ + 0.~~57)


\'

14.91 ft'/Ib-dry air

WATER
700,000 LB/H R
Tj D 140F

AIR
D

1000F

bD 95F

5.5X106 FT 3/HR
TdbD BOF
TwbD GOF

Figure 5.S

Cooling tower operation for Example 2.

THEORY AND DESIGN PRINCIPLES

95

Enthalpies of the moist air streams can be computed from


~H = 0.240(T - 0) + .H(1075 + 0.45(T - 32
~
'--v-" ~
Cp(~T)

Heat of
Cp(~T) for
vaporization H 2 0 vapor
at 32 F

for

air

and consolidating terms:


~H= 0.240T + .H(1061 + 0.45T)

Air in: ~H= 0.240 X 80F + 0.0069 (1061 + 0.45 X 80F)


= 26.77 Btu/lb-dry air
Air out: ~H= 0.240 X 100 F + 0.0357 (1061 + 0.45 X 100 F)
~H = 63.48 Btu/lb-dry air

Enthalpy of entering water:

~Hi = Cp H2 0 ~T = 1.(140 -

32) = 108 Btu/lb-H~b

Enthalpy of exiting water:


~H= 1.(T o -32)

where 32F is the reference temperature. Amount of dry air to the cooling
tower is
ft'
ft'
5 lb-dry air
hr
5.5 X 10 hr /13.751b_dry air = 4.0 X 10

Amount of process water sent to the tower per unit mass of air is

700,000

lb-H 2 0

11T /4.0

X 10 5

lb-dryair
hr
= 1. 75 lb H 2 0/1b-dry air

The amount of water evaporated is


0.0357 - 0.0069 = 0.0288 lb Hp/lb-dry air

96

COOLING TOWERS

The exiting temperature of the water for this operation can be computed
from a total energy balance about the tower. Reviewing each term in the
energy balance:
Moist air in:

Btu
5 Ib-dry air
7'
26.77 Ib-dry air X 4.0 X10
hr
= 1.07 X 10 Btu/hr

Water stream in:


~
Ib H20 .
5 Ib-dry air _
7 Btu
1081b-H20 X 1.751b_dry air X 4.0 X 10
hr
-7.56 X 10 hr

Moist air out:


Btu
5 Ib-dry air _
7
63.481b_dryair X 4.0 X 10
hr
- 2.54 X 10 Btu/hr

Water stream out:


Btu
Ib-H 20
Ib-dryair
(T -32) Ib-H,G X (1.75 -0.0288) Ib-dry air X 4.0 X 10 5
hr
= 6.89 X 10 5 (To -32) Btu/hr

At steady-state, energy in = energy out:


1.07 X 10 7 + 7.56 X 10 7 = 2.54 X 10 7 + 6.89 X 105(To - 32)

Solving for To,

Additional problems are given at the end of this chapter.

APPLICATION OF THE ENERGY BALANCE


Let us now develop material and energy balances directly applicable
to cooling towers. The idealized cooling tower operation is illustrated in
Figure 5.6. The cooling tower operates with some type of heat source (a con-

THEORY AND DESIGN PRINCIPLES

97

RESERVOIR

RECYCLE

Figure 5.6

Countercurrent cQoling tower operation.

denser for example) in a closed-loop arrangement. As shown, heated water


along with some makeup to compensate for water losses through evaporation
are sprayed over the top cross section of the tower.
As in gas absorption design, a convenient way to develop energy and
material balances is on the basis of unit cross-sectional area of flow. The
air rate (called the air loading) is expressed as a superficial mass rate (i.e., as if
it were flowing alone in the tower) per unit cross-sectional area of flow, thus
has units of G lb/(hr) (ft2). The water loading at the top of the tower is expressed in the same manner as L lb/(hr)(ftl). Similarly, we can express the
makeup supply as L 1lb/(hr)(ft2) of water. If Q is the heat rate (Btu/hr)
through the condenser, then we can define the heat load per hr per square
foot as q = Q/ A, where A is the cross-sectional area of flow of the cooling
tower. An energy balance about our system for air only yields the following:
(5.7)

98

COOLING TOWERS

In writing Equation 5.7 we have used a reference temperature of OaF for air.
Note that HI 2 is the enthalpy per pound of dry air and includes the heat of
the vapor associated with a pound of dry air.
An energy balance for the water component alone gives
q = LCp(T 3 -T,) + L,Cp(T, -T,)

(5.8)

Equating both balances we get


G(H, - H,) = LCp(T3 -T,) + L, CpT,

(5.9)

where
L = L, + L,

The amount of makeup water that is needed to compensate for evaporation


losses is
L,

G(.H, - .H,)

(5.10)

By dividing Equation 5.9 by L J and using Equation 5.l0, we can rearrange


our balance into a more generalized form:

(H, -H')

L, .H,-.H, =LCp(T 3 -T,)+L,CpT,

(5.11)

If we then combine Equations 5.l1 and 5.8, a general expression for makeup water requirements for any fixed set of conditions is obtained:
L

= (H, -

H,)/(.H, - .H,) - CpT,

(5.12)

In cooling towers, cold air is used to cool hot water. As water descends
through the tower, it is possible for the temperature of the water to become
lower than the dry-bulb temperature of the incoming air; however, it will not
fall below the inlet air's wet-bulb temperature. In the upper regions of a
tower, hot water first contacts the discharging air which is still colder than
the water. It should be noted that in this region the partial pressure of the
water out of the liquid exceeds that which is in the exit air stream, while at
the same time the water temperature is greater than the discharging air. Both
these facts can be considered as potentials that tend to lower the water
temperature through the mechanisms or evaporation and sensible transfer to
the air. The net result is an increase in the air enthalpy. Both potentials may

THEORY AND DESIGN PRINCIPLES

99

operate adiabatically and in the same direction while saturating the air. This is
the main principle behind cooling tower operation and is the reason why this
particular direct contacting operation works so effectively in cooling water.
As water travels down through the lower regions of the cooling tower, it
will have a temperature of, or less than, the dry-bulb temperature of the air.
Under these conditions, sensible heat and mass transfer are in opposite
directions. This is analogous to the conditions of a wet-bulb thermometer (see
Chapter 2). In fact, the wet-bulb temperature represents the limit to which
the discharge water temperature can fall to in a cooling tower where adiabatic
equilibrium exists between the water and inlet air.
Merkel [3] has developed the equations describing the performance of a
cooling tower and Kern [4] has outlined the derivation in detail. The discussion below follows Kern's outline.
The total heat transfer in a cooling tower consists of two components: the
transfer of heat by diffusion and by convection from the water to the air:
Total Heat
Transfer
Per Unit
Area

Diffusional

= Heat Transfer +
Rate

Heat Transfer
By
Convection

(5.13)

where q's are in Btu/(hr)(ft2).


The heat transferred by diffusion can 'be expressed in terms of the latent
heat of vaporization of the water:
(5.14)

where "AVG is an average value for al( the water vaporized in the tower.
Combining this expression with Equation 5.8 and rearranging terms we get
the following expression:
qc
LCp(T, -T,) + Ll Cp(T, -T 1 )
qD LIA.

Ll A.

(5.15)

An expression for the makeup water, LJ, is given by Equation 5.10.


Incorporating this and Equation 5.9 into Equation 5.15, the following
compact expression is obtained:

(5.16)

100

COOLING TOWERS

Note that Equation 5.16 gives us the opportunity to see which heat transfer
mechanism is dominant. That is, it provides the ratio of the heat transferred
by convection to that transferred by diffusion.
The sensible heat transfer from the water to the air is given by the following
expression:
(5.17)
where

a = effective surface area of water per unit volume of tower (as both droplet
and film surface)
dV = differential tower volume

The value of "a" cannot be directly determined as it consists of both droplet


and film surface area. Film surfa~e is independent of the thickness of the
water film; however, the droplet surface is a function of both the liquid
loading generating drops and the size distribution of droplets formed. We
can bypass the difficulty in measuring "a" by measuring the product Ka for
the entire tower at specific operating conditions. This is discussed at greater
length later.
'
The heat transfer area is, then,
dAH = adV

(5.18)

And we can also define


dQc = GCpdT air
dqD

= A.dL

(5.19)
(5.20)

dL represents the rate at which one component (water) diffuses. Using the
mass flux relationships developed in Chapter 3, it can be shown that
dL = K(.JI s - .JI)adV

(5.21)

where K is the overall mass transfer coefficient (lb/(hr)(ft 2 )(lb/lb)).


Substituting for dL in Equation 5.20 we obtain the following:
dqD = KA,(,Hs -.JI) adV

(5.22)

The total heat transfer, dq, is given by Equation 5.13, which in the
differential form is restated here:

THEORY AND DESIGN PRINCIPLES


dq = dqc + dqD = h(THzO - Tair)adV + KA.(.H s - .H)adV

101
(5.23)

and we also get


dq

GdH

(5.24)

We can rewrite Equation 5.23 in a more usable form by defining


average values for the humid heat, Cs, and the latent heat, A, and by
neglecting superheat. These are common assumptions applied to cooling
towers:

-Tair){K~s -I}]

dq = KadV [(Hs - H) + Cs(TH,Q

(5.25)

See Kern [4] for the details to the derivation of Equation 5.25.
Note that dq can be expressed in terms of the enthalpy decrease of the total
water quantity (or in terms of the enthalpy increase of the total air mixture).
Both of these quantities are equal so that dq = d(LCpTH z0) = CdH. The
gas loading C is constant through the tower since it is expressed on a dry
basis only. However, water loading is not constant due to y,Yaporation losses.
For normal operations, evaporation losses are generally le:ss than 2% of the
circulating water; therefore, a reasonably good estimate can be made by
assuming a constant, L. This allows us to write the following:
d(LCpT)

LCpdT

(5.26)

and
LCpdT = GdH
dq = d(LCpdT)

GdH

(5.27)
(5.28)

In Equation 5.25 the quantity h/KCs is the Lewis number, which is unity
for the air-water system. Hence, our expression reduces to
LCpdT = GdH = K(H s - H)adV

(5.29)

It should be noted that Lewis number, Le, is only a prediction. In reality,


Le is closer to 0.9. The manner in which Equation 5.29 was derived produces
an error only in the convective heat transfer coefficient. In normal cooling
tower operation, convective heat transfer is generally less than 20% of the
total heat load. For now, Equation 5.29 represents the centerpiece of our

102

COOLING TOWERS

analysis. It represents the major expression describing cooling tower performance and from which we will develop a design basis.

CONSTRUCTION OF EQUILIBRIUM CURVES


We began our analysis with an overall energy balance about the system
given in Figure 5.6, producing Equation 5.9. Referring back to the system
drawing, note that L = LJ + ~, so that Equation 5.9 is also
(5.30)

If we apply the simplifying assllmption that negligible evaporation occurs


in the system, then L z ~ L, and our general balance becomes
G(H 2

HI)

= LCp(T

3 -

T 2)

(5.31)

This enthalpy balance can be graphically represented by plotting the gas


enthalpy II versus the water temperature TH 2 0, as in Figure 5.7. The line J-K
represents Equat~on 5.31 and it passes through the coordinates, which

aJ
0:::

:;:)

I-

EQUILIBRIUM
CURVE

:::Ii
0:::

~
~
I

til

c(
(!)

IL.

..

H2

: (HsVSTHi')
I

CII
CIt

~":!:!

I
I

ID,

H2
I

..J

::I:

His

I-

I
I

1&.1

1::1:

I (TOP OF TOWER)

>0..
c(

(Hi vs Tint)

(TOWER BOTTOM)

HI

T2
T3
WATER TEMPERATURE ,oF
Figure 5.7

General operating diagram for a cooling tower.

mEORY AND DESIGN PRINCIPLES

103

represent the terminal conditions of the two fluids. As long as our assumption
holds that L - L2 is small, then JK is a straight line having a slope of LCp/G.
This is referred to as the operating line. Further, since Cp = 1.0 for water, its
slope is just the ratio of the liquid to air loading. Note that the equilibrium
curve represents conditions of the gas at the gas-liquid interface; that is, it is
the enthalpy of saturated gas at each temperature.
In our general discussion of diffusion theory (Chapter 3) we showed that
the number of transfer units [Equation 3.64 - Ntu = dy/(Y - y")] represented a method of estimating the magnitude of effort needed to achieve
a specified amount of mass transfer through diffusion. And if the height
of a single transfer unit (Htu) is known, then we can compute the total
height of the tower per unit cross section from the product Ntu X Htu
(Equation 3.65). By following the same reasoning behind the development
of Equation 3.64, we can rearrange our major cooling tower equation
(Equation 5.29) to the following:

f-

dB
Hs -H

Ka

(5.32)

Multiplying by GIL and noting that Cp for water is 1.0:

Ntu'

dT jHs-H

Ka

Y
L

'\

(5.33)

The number of transfer units for a cooling tower is distinguished from


the general definition given back in Chapter 3 by the prime ('). Note that
some texts prefer to call this the number of diffusion units (Ndu) and
distinguish Htu by the height of a diffusion unit (Hdu). The definitions of
Ntu and Ntu' are analogous, so it is not necessary to distinguish a box from a
container.
Note that Ntu' is determined from process conditions imposed on the
operation. It is not based on the performance of the tower itself. The water
temperature ,unfortunately is not a simple function of IIvapor, hence
Equation 5.33 must be solved either numerically or via graphic solution.
Note that the value of II at any point on the operating line in Figure 5.7
can be determined by
(5.34)

The area of the plot bound between the equilibrium curve (saturation
curve) and the operating line represents the potential that drives the total

104

COOLING TOWERS

heat transfer. Suppose we change some of the process conditions so that the
operating line JK in Figure 5.7 is shifted downward. Then we would have a
larger area bound between the operating line and the saturation curve. In a
physical sense, this means that fewer transfer units and less height of any type
of tower are needed.

GUIDELINES FOR TOWER SPECIFICATION


Before applying our generalized equations to sizing cooling towers, we need
to review some of the criteria for specifying operating conditions. The
critical conditions that must be established before the design is initiated are
the heat load, wet-bulb temperature, hot and cold water temperature and
water rate.
Heat Load Determination
The determination of the heat to be dissipated by a cooling tower is an
essential factor that not only affects the tower size, but also its effectiveness.
If the heat load ,determination is not accurate, either too high or too low, a
larger or smalle,~ size tower than is needed for a particular job could be
selected.
The imposed heat load on a cooling tower is determined by the process
operation. The degree of cooling is controlled by the normal operating
temperature level of the process fluid. Sometimes a low temperature is
desired to improve the quantity or quality of the final product or to increase
process efficiency. For example, low operating temperatures are required in
oil refineries to condense volatile vapors that otherwise would be lost. In
other cases, high operating temperatures are desirable, one example being
internal combustion engines. It is important to determine the heat load as
accurately as possible to select the proper size cooling tower.
Dependable information has been developed for the heat rejector requirements of different types of power equipment: air compressors, refrigeration
equipment, steam condensers, diesel engines and natural gas engines.
Table 5.1 gives information on the heat absorbed by cooling water for this
type of power equipment.
Wet-Bulb Temperature Determination
The wet-bulb temperature is an important factor in the sizing, selection and
design of water cooling equipment. It is defined as the temperature CF) to
which air can be cooled adiabatically to saturation by the addition of water
vapor and can be expressed as the lowest temperature to which water can be
cooled by the evaporative method.

THEORY AND DESIGN PRINCIPLES

105

Table 5.1 Heat Absorbed by Cooling Water for Various Operations


Btu/min/ton

Btu/lb of steam

Air Compressors
Singlestage
Single-stage with aftercooler
Two-stage with intercooler
Two-stage with intercooler and
aftercooler
Refrigeration
Compression
Absorption
Steam Jet Refrigeration Condenser
100 psi steam supply (dry)
2 inch Hg condenser
Steam turbine condenser

Btu/Bhp/hr
380
2545
1530

250
500

900

2545

1100
1000

Diesel Engine (Jacket Water)


Four-cycle supercharged
Four-cycIe nonsupercharged
Two-cycle, crankcase compressor
Two-cycle, large unit
Two-cycle, high speed

2600
3000
2000
2300
2100

Natural Gas Engines


Four-cycle (250 psi compressor)
Two-cycle (250 psi compressor)

4500
3000

Theoretically, a cooling tower will cool water to the entering wet-bulb


temperature when operating without a heat load; however, a thermal
potential is required in all heat rejection processes, so it is not possible to cool
water to the entering wet-bulb temperature when a heat load is applied. The
wet-bulb temperature has a direct impact on the operating temperature of
the plant and influences operating conditions, plant efficiencies and
operating cost.
The selection of the design wet-bulb temperature is made on the condition
existing at the tower site and measured with a sling psychrometer. The
selected temperature is normally close to the average maximum wet-bulb for
the summer months.
Selection of wet-bulb temperatures that are not exceeded by more than 5%
during a normal summer have given satisfactory performance for most
industrial installations. The hours that wet-bulb temperatures exceed the
average maximum by 5% need not be consecutive hours and may occur in
periods of short duration. Study should be made on daily wet-bulb temperature cycle as well as monthly and even yearly temperature cycles. Figure 5.8
shows typical wet-bulb temperature cycle curves.

106

COOLING TOWERS

. 71

~ 70
0..

i5....
ID

:5
ID

....w

3:

69
68
67

I'\.

66
65

"-

12 MAX.'

./

~"

-..........

/'

""-

L/

12

"

12

DAILY VARIATION OF WET BULB TEMPERATURES


IL.
o

0.:
::liE

70
60

50

:;:)

ID

....

w
3:

t......

/" ""'"

....w

40

I....- ......
30 F-J

I'..

. . .V
F

f'.- -.....
M

SON

r--.....

ANNI,IAL VARIATION OF WET BULB TEMPERATURES


("I

Figure 5.8

Daily and annual variations in ambient air wet-bulb temperatures.

A distinction must be made between the ambient wet-bulb temperature and


the cooling tower's inlet air wet-bulb temperature. The ambient wet-bulb
temperature is the wet-bulb temperature that exists around the outside of a
cooling tower. The inlet wet-bulb temperature is the wet-bulb temperature of
the air entering the tower. The former depends on the specific atmospheric
conditions and the latter can be affected by the discharge of vapors being
recirculated into the tower or heating equipment located nearby. The
ambient wet-bulb temperature is the one that ASME Power Test Code on
Atmospheric Water Cooling Equipment recommends for official tower tests
and normally is used in the Purchasing Specifications.
Wind velocities, wind directions, wet and dry-bulb temperatures are available from data collected by the U.S. Weather Bureau or the U.S. Military
Forces covering a wide range of chronological periods. Sometimes information can be obtained from weather stations located at nearby airports.
Hot and Cold Water Temperature and gpm Flow Determination
Once the heat load is known and the wet-bulb temperature established, the
selection of hot and cold water temperatures and gpm flow help to determine

mEORY AND DESIGN PRINCIPLES

107

the size and, consequently, the cost of the cooling equipment. For a fixed
heat load, the cold and hot water operating temperatures and the gpm are
interrelated; that is, a change in one affects the other two. For example, if
the cold water temperature increases slightly, the hot water temperature will
decrease by a large quantity, providing a lower average cooling water
temperature, all at the expense of increasing the gpm and, consequently,
pumping costs. All three parameters must be properly evaluated to obtain the
most favorable economic equipment.
Range and gpm
The cooling tower range is defined as
Heat load in Btu/min
lb of water/min

Btu/min
gpm X 8.33

(5.35)

The selection of the cooling range depends on process characteristics and


requirements, as well as the type of cooling tower under consideration. In
general, cooling ranges are divided into three categories:
Long range:
Medium range:
Short range:

25-65F
1O-25F
5-10F

Long ranges are often used in oil refineries and steel mill applications.
Medium ranges are employed in power plants, while short ranges are used for
refrigeration and air conditioning uses. The relation given by Equation 5.35
permits the range and/or gpm flow to be computed from knowledge of the
heat load.
If we have a tower with a heat load, wet-bulb temperature and cold water
temperature already selected, the cooling range can be controlled by varying
the quantity of water circulated, and vice versa. The net effect of varying the
range (or the gpm), fixing the load, wet-bulb temperature and cold water
temperature is a change in the tower size. Increasing the' range will decrease
the tower size. Increasing the gpm will increase the tower size. Figures 5.9
and 5.10 illustrate these points through the use of a dimensionless
parameter called the tower size factor.
Approach
By definition, approach is the temperature difference of the cold water
temperature leaving the tower and the wet-bulb temperature of the ambient
air entering the tower. Once the wet-bulb temperature and range have been
computed, the establishment of the approach fixes all the operating temperatures of the tower fluids.

108

COOLING TOWERS

a:: 1.3

~ 1.2

(.)

1.1
1&.1 1.0
!::!
til 0.9
a:: O.B

.,/

1&.1

3: 0.7
~ 0.6

. 60

40

BO

L....--

100

GPM VARIANCE
Figure 5.9

a::

....
(.)
~
1&.1
N

iii
a::
1&.1
3:

0
....

1.3
1.2
1.1
1.0
0.9
O.B
0.7
0.6

120

L----I-

140

160

IBO

C %)

Effect of flowvariance on cooling tower size factor.

.......
.............

i'-......
.,

60

BO

r---100

120

-r-- --140

160

IBO

200

RANGE VARIANCE C%)


Figure 5.10

Effect of range variance on tower size factor.

The approach has a significant effect on the tower size, as shown in


Figure 5.11. For a given heat load, gpm and wet-bulb temperature, the
cooling tower size increases as the approach decreases, and the closer the cold
water temperature approaches the wet-bulb temperature, the greater the
increase in the cooling tower size.

GENERAL DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS AND


PACKING COEFFICIENTS
Approximately 80% of the transfer of heat is by evaporation and the
remaining 20% by temperature gradient. Practically, the cold water temperature approaches the wet-bulb temperature of the air and the magnitude

mEORY AND DESIGN PRINCIPLES

0:::

109

3.0

.... 2.5

c(

I.L
1&.1
N
C/)

0:::
1&.1

2.0

1.5
1.0

3:

0
I-

0.5

"

"-;----

10

I-

20

30

APPROACH (OF)
Figure 5.11

Variation in tower size factor with approach.

of this approach depends on the design of the cooling tower being a function
of contact time between air and water, amount of fill surface, water distribution over the fill, amount and size of water droplets formed. The cooling
process involves both mass and heat transfer; the water surface existing on the
tower packing contacts an air film, which is considered safbrated at the water
temperature. Heat is transferred by diffusion and conve'ction between this
film and the main body of air. The driving force is the difference of enthalpy
between the film and the surrounding air. ,
The number of transfer units or tower characteristics is based on the overall
heat and mass transfer expression given by Equation 5.33.
Let us examine the equilibrium curve in somewhat more detail. The
countercurrent system defined in Figure 5.6 is restated in Figure 5.12 in a
slightly more simplified form to illustrate some important features on the
enthalpy-temperature plot. In this figure', T denotes air temperature and t
water temperature. The following curves are of importance:
Curve A-B has been discussed already. It represents t/le saturation curve.
The points A, B are fixed by the outlet, t 2 , and inlet, t l , water temperatures.
Line A-B gives the enthalpy, lIs, of air if saturated and at various temperatures includ~d in the water cooling range; the points A and B are fixed by the
outlet, t 2 , and inlet, t l , water temperatures, respectively.
Line C-D, the operating line, gives the actual enthalpy, H, of air plotted
against water temperatures. The wet-bulb temperature at any point on C-D is
found by projecting the point horizontally to the water operating line, then
vertically to the abscissa of the diagram.
Line E-F represents actual enthalpy data of the air stream plotted against
actual air temperatures. Should line E-F cross line A-B there is the possibility
of fog formation.
Lines B-C and A-D represent the initial and final driving forces, respectively.

110

COOLING TOWERS
AIR
G2 , HI' T2

HOT WATER

L" , t I
LOSSES
L"-~

AIR

--r 1

G2 ,H 2 , TI

COLD WATER

L', t2

It:

AIR SATURATION
CURVE

ID
I
I

>a..

II

II

...J

AIR OPERATING
LINE
I

II

~ HjiC~L~ ~~I~)

II
CD

L&J

1
1

II

II

3 .... i5

11 ....
al::>1 I
11

It:

~O:IIQ:
3:CiI I

~I
0: 1

wI
....
,

~I

TEMPERATURE
Figure 5.12
tion.

Important design parameters for the COl'ntercurrent cooling tower opera-

Earlier we described the area bound by A-B-C-D and noted it to be proportional to the reciprocal of the value of the integral for Ntu'. This value defines
the characteristics of the tower, and it is clear that the lower the area, the
higher the value KaV/L, i.e., high contact area (a) and high contact volume
(V); therefore, high investment cost. The reduction of the investment cost
and, therefore, the increase of area A-B-C-D, can be achieved by increasing

mEORY AND DESIGN PRINCIPLES

111

the approach or reducing the L:G ratio. By reducing the L:G ratio we obtain
a high area mass velocity, i.e., large power consumption for the fans.
Approach and cooling range are also indicated in the diagram. Note that
the smaller the approach, the smaller the area A-B-C-D and, consequently,
the higher the investment cost.
Cooling tower performance is largely affected by internal arrangements.
A large amount of information exists in the literature on the performance of
different types of packing and fills [5,6]. Modern diffusion calculations find
their roots from well-established absorption practices. Consequently, much of
the literature data are presented in the form of a plot of KGa versus G, where
the gas film is diffusion controlling. Such plots are presented on the basis of
pound-moles of water transferred with a driving potential expressed in
atmospheres. In humidification problems these units are not very useful.
Common practice has been to express pounds of water transferred and
driving potential as humidity units. The relation between Htu' and Ka is
Htu'

~ y.

Ka L

(5.36)

The relationship between K and KG for absorption theory was given in


Chapter 3 as
(5.37)

where the subscript B refers to the air.


Htu' or Ka represents the performance characteristics of a given fill or
packing material. Recall that Ntu' represents the degree of effort needed for
meeting the process conditions. For packed towers the performance of
packings over a wide range of conditions can be expressed by an equation
having the following form:
Ka

=G'Y

(5.38)

Table 5.2 gives some data for Raschig rings and Berl saddles. More data can
be found in the literature [7,8].
The Cooling Tower Institute has also recommended the following equation
for the performance of commercially used cooling tower packings.
KaV/L = (L/Ga)-O.6

(5.39)

Note that Ga is the air mass-velocity in lb dry air/(hr) and is a function of


the type of packing and number of packing deck levels. This, in turn, fixes

112

COOLING TOWERS

Table 5.2 Humidification Characteristics of Packing Materials [8]

Packing

Size
(in.)

Depth
(ft)

L
(Ib)/(hr)(ft')

Raschig Rings

0.79

500
1500
3000
500
1500
3000

250
250
250
250
250
250

0.5

1.29

500
1500
3000

250
250
250
250
250

Berl Saddles

1.5

SOO
3000

Ka
(Ib)(hr)
(ft 3 )(lb lib)

0.5
0.5
0.5
0.47
0.54
0.53

226
468
635
190
301
351

14.3
29.6
40.2
14.3
15.3
18.9

0.61
0.61
0.61
0.52
0.52

320
468
595
200
383

11.1
16.3
20.7
11.4
21.8

G
(lb)/(hr)(ft 2) 'Y

Table 5.3 Guide to,Packing Height Specification


Cooling Range
("F)

Approach
("F)

Packing Height
(ft)

25-35

15-20

15-20

25-35

8-15

25-30

25-35

4-8

35-40

the total height of the packing and, thus, the time of contact between the
two phases. Packing height is selected on the basis of desired approach. As a
rough guide, refer to Table 5.3.
The purpose of a cooling tower is strictly to produce cooling water. Next to
air itself, cooling water represents the cheapest utility. The major operating
cost consists of the fan power for circulating the air through the tower.
Standard practice dictates an allowable pressure drop of under 2 inches of
water. In most services, the water loading on droplet-forming fills ranges
from 1 to 4 gpm/ft 2, i.e., 500 to 2000 Ib/(hr)(fe)[4]. Gas loadings typically
range between 1300 and 1800 Ib/(hr)(ft2) or at gas velocities between 300
and 400 fpm.

CORRECTING FOR LIQUID FILM RESISTANCE


In developing our major design expression (Equation 5.33), it was assumed
that the overall mass transfer coefficient and the gas side coefficient were the

THEORY AND DESIGN PRINCIPLES

113

same. This assumption automatically implies that the liquid film does not
offer any resistance to diffusion (i.e., the gas side controls). This is not
necessarily an accurate description, particularly if the humidifying liquid consists of an aqueous solution.
In writing the energy balance (Equation 5.17) we slipped another "fast
one" by the reader by assuming h to be the same as hG, the heat transfer
coefficient from the liquid film-air film interface to the air. If a significant
resistance is associated with the liquid film, h is better expressed by the
overall heat transfer coefficient (U), which consists of both hG and h L. Note
that hL is the convection coefficient from the liqUid film to the interface [7].
When appreciable liquid film resistance exists, our energy balance should be
written as
(5.40)

LCpdT = hL(T - TUadV

where Ti is the gas-liquid interface temperature. Equation 5.40 correctly


describes the rate of heat transfer from the liqUid body through the liquid
film to the interface. Similarly, we can write an expression for the rate of
sensible heat transfer from the gas-liquid interface through the gas film to
the gas body:
(5.41)

We can also write an expression for the material balance with interfacial
values:
Gd.H = k (.Hi - .H)

(5.42)

By applying the Lewis number prediction (hG/kC s = 1), where k is the


gas side mass transfer coefficient, and using Equation 5.29, we get
LCpdT = GdH = K (Hs - H) adV

(5.43)

where the overall coefficient, K, is defined as h/Cs.

INTEGRATION PROCEDURES FOR TOWER SIZING

The number of diffusion units is computed from the relation


dT/(Rs R). It is determined from process conditions imposed on the tower alone, not
by the tower's performance. Htu' is the only parameter determined
experimentally.

114

COOLING TOWERS

Unfortunately, temperature (TH 0) is not a simple function of Bair and


Bair-H.O' Hence, we must perform 2 the integration of Equation 5.33, either
graphically or numerically. The following example illustrates both approaches
to solving for Ntu'.

Example 3
A cooling tower operates in the countercurrent mode as illustrated by
Figure 5.13. Entering air has a 5% wet-bulb temperature of 65F. Hot process
water enters the tower at IISoF and cold water leaves at a 15 approach to
the wet-bulb (i.e., at SOF). The cross-sectional area of the tower is 676 ft2.
Determine the number of transfer units (Ntu') required to meet the process
requirements. Air is supplied to'the tower by a blower having a capacity
of 250,000 cfm and the water loading is 1500 lb/(hr)(ft2).

Solution
We first need to construct an enthalpy-temperature plot. The enthalpies of
saturated air can be computed from the following relation (see Chapter 3):
.H

:-P_H--=:2=----0_ MWH20
MW air

s Pt - PH 20

For T = 50F, the partial pressure of water can be obtained from the Steam
Tables:
0.17811

18

.Hs = 14.7 -0.17811 29

.
0.00761b-Hp/lb-dry au

The enthalpy of air above OaF can be obtained from the following relation:
Hs =.H s Tair +.Hs A. + 0.24 Tair

Again, making use of the Steam Tables for A we get


Hs

(0.0076)(50F) + (0.0076)(1065.6) + 0.24 (50F)

Hs = 20.5 Btu/lb-air

Following this procedure, enthalpy and humidity data at saturation conditions can be computed for a range of temperatures. Table 5.4 gives the
reqUired data for this example.

THEORY AND DESIGN PRINCIPLES

115

HOT PROCESS WATER

----....f

COLD AIR

LIB 1500 LB/CHR)(FT 2)


TIIB liB OF

COLD WATER

GlIB 250,000 CFM


/(1

L
T2 IB BOF

t I 65 OF
HI

Figure 5.13

Cooling tower operation for Example 3.

Table 5.4 Air-Water Mixtures-Enthalpies and Humidities


Temperature
("F)

V(air)
(ft' jIb)

V(air + H.o)
(ft"/lb)

Vapor
Pressure
(psia)

Enthalpy, lis
(Btu/lb-air)

Humidity, Jls
(lb-H,O/lb-air)

50
60
70
80
90
100
120
140
150

12.84
13.10
13.35
13.60
13.86
14.11
14.62
15.13
15.39

13.00
13.33
13.69
14.09
14.55
15.08
16.52
18.84
20.60

0.1781
0.2563
0.36'31
0.5069
0.6982
0.9492
1.6924
2.8886
3.7180

20.5
26.7
34.5
44.1
56.7
72.7
121.5
208.6
286.0

0.0076
0.0110
0.0160
0.0222
0.0310
0.0430
0.0810
0.1520
0.2160

The equilib'rium (saturation) curve is constructed from the tabulated data


in Table 5 A and is shown in Figure 5.14. Next the operating line should be
plotted.
Air saturated @65F (65F wet-bulb) has an enthalpy of Rls = 30A Btuflb
air at the outlet temperature of 80F (value interpolated from Table SA).
This is the exit conditions of the tower and thus represents one endpoint on
the operating line (point C). The liquid and air loadings determine the slope
of the operating line starting at point C:

116

COOLING TOWERS

130
120 _!l~!_a~!i~!~,!~~L~!.!___ _
110
0:::

;;( 100
)0-

0:::

0
ID
..J

90

SHADED REGION
DENOTES HEAT
TRANSFER
POTENTIAL

...... BO

:;:)

....
ID

70

:::t:

60

H2 ,WARM AIR OUT

I
I

)0-

0..
..J

I
OPERATING
LINE,
I
SLOPE LtG

:::t:

....
z

IJJ

40

I
I

30

I
10:::
IIJJ
I....

20
10
0

....-I~Z
I -

70

50

90

110

130

150

TEMPERATURE,T (OF)
Figure 5.14

Equilibrium curve and operating line for Example 3.

Density of air @65F wet-bulb


G

= l/vH,O = 1/13.51 = 0.0740 lb/ft'

= 250,000 ft'/min X 0.0740 lb/ft' X 67~ ft'

X 60 min/hr

G = 1642 Ib/Chr)(ft2)

Hence, L/G = 1500/1642 = 0.914


From Equation 5.34 (refer also to Figure 5.7),
-

H, =H, + GCT, -T,)

if, = 30.4 + 0.914 (118 - 80)

= 65.1 Btu/lb-air

THEORY AND DESIGN PRINCIPLES

117

Hence we can locate the other endpoint of the operating line, point D (ll8F,
65.1 Btu/lb-air).
The area bound between the saturation line and the operating line is
proportional to the potential for heat transfer. We now have two choices
on how to obtain the final solution (Ntu'): a graphical or numerical solution.
Each is outlined below:
Graphical Solution

Our expression for Ntu' is Equation 5.33 or

Ntu'

J-

dT -

. Hs-H

=Ka V/L.

To evaluate the integral graphically, it is best to replot our data as l/(Rs - R)


versus T. Table 5.5 summarizes these data, and Figure 5.15 shows the plot.
We can now evaluate the area under the curve between the inlet and exit
water temperatures by counting squares in the shaded region. From this the
solution is

Ntu'

T 2 dT
T

=---= = 1. 7

Hs-H

Numerical Solution
By numerical integration we can use Simpson's rule to evaluate the data in
columns land 5 of Table 5.5.

Table 5.5 Computations for Construction of Figure 5.15


TeF)

lIs

II

lIs-II

_1_
(Us - U)

80
85
90
95
100
105
110
115
120

44.1
50.0
56.7
64.2
72.7
82.5
93.8
106.7
121.5

30.4
34.9
39.5
44.1
48.7
53.3
57.8
62.4
67.0

l3.7
15.1
17.2
20.1
24.0
29.2
36.0
44.3
54.5

0.073
0.066
0.058
0.050
0.042
0.034
0.028
0.023
0.018

118

COOLING TOWERS

AREA-

_dT .. NTU'
H.-H

1.70

0:::
c(

III

..J

......

0.05

:;:)

....
III

0.04
0.03

_1 I::t:'7,.

0.02
0.01

70

75

80

85

90 95

100 105 110 115 120

125

TEMPERATURE, of
Figure 5.15

Evaluation of Ntu' for Example 3.

Simpson's rule is generally stated as follows: .

r Tn f(T)dT::-: 3""
AT
[f(To) + 4f(T

)1

To

1)

+ 2f(T,) + ... + 4f(T n -,) + 2f(T n_,)

n must be a positive integer.


Hence,

,= 1

480F

Ntu

dT
=--=
80 0 F Hs-H

= 1. 73

From the two solutions, we require a tower capable of performing approximately 1.7 transfer units.
Additional problems are given at the end of the chapter. The reader should
attempt them before studying the solutions given in Appendix C.

THEORY AND DESIGN PRINCIPLES

119

NOTATION
A

= cross-sectional area, fe

= effective surface of water per unit volume of tower, fe/ft 3

Cp

= specific heat, Btu/(lb )CF)

CS

= humid heat, Btu/(lb )CF)

= gas-mass rate loading, lb/(hr)(ft 2)

= acceleration of gravity, ft/hr 2

= enthalpy, Btu/lb

Hdu = height of a diffusion unit, ft


Htu' = height of a transfer unit, ft

.N

= humidity, lb water-vapor/lb-dry air

= heat transfer coefficient in which one film controls,

= overall mass transfer coefficient, lb/(hr)(ftl)(lb/lb)

kG

= gas film coefficient, lb/(hr)(ft 2 )(lb/lb)

=liquid mass rate, loading, lb/(hr)(ft2)

MW = molecular weight, lb/lb-mole


Ndu = number of diffusion units
Ntu' = number of transfer units
p

= pressure, psia

= heat load, Btu/hr

= heat transfer per unit area, Btu/(hr)(ft 2)

= temperature, OF

U
V

= overall heat transfer coefficient, Btu/(hr)(ft2)CF)


= tower volume, ft3

= height, ft

= exponent in Equation 5.38

= time, sec

(hr)~g~)CF)

120

COOLING TOWERS

=latent heat of vaporization, Btu/lb


= specific volume, fe lIb
= packing factor in Equation 5.38

Subscripts
A

= diffusing component

A VG = average

= the inert gas

C
D

= convection
= diffusion

= gas
= interfacial value

1m

= log mean value


= saturation conditions
= total

PROBLEMS
5.1

Determine the percent relative humidity and the wet-bulb temperature


before and after for each of the following conditions:
New Dry-Bulb
Temperature

Dry-Bulb
Temperature
('F)

70
130

160
55

5.2

("F)

Percent Humidity

40
10
60

105

95

170

90
100

The following data have been obtained for a forced-draft cooling tower:

TCF) =
Saturated jJ =

77
0.0202

87
0.0254

A = 1055 Btu/lb for all temperatures,


CPair = 0.24 and CPwater vapor = 0.45

90
0.032

102
0.0457

THEORY AND DESIGN PRINCIPLES

121

Air enters the tower with a dry-bulb temperature of 87F and has a wetbulb temperature (inlet condition) of nOF. The air leaves the tower
at 90F and is saturated. Water enters the tower at a temperature of
102F and exits at 85F. Determine (1) the humidity of the entering air
stream, (2) the mass of dry air to the tower lib of water feed, and
(3) the fraction of water vaporized in the tower.
5.3

A small warehouse is to be provided with air conditioning service via


cooling and dehumidifying fresh air with cold water in a spray
chamber. The dimensions of the building are 150 feet long, 85 feet wide
and 25 feet tall. The average population in the building during normal
hours is 130 persons per hour. It is estimated that each individual emits
about 900 Btu/hr. The comfort range selected is 70F and 55% humidity. The basis for this condition is that sufficient total circulation be
provided to maintain the temperature rise of the air to 3F. Determine
(1) the volume of recirculated air at the inlet conditions, (2) the
volume of the humidifier spray chamber (assume the air approaches
within 3F of the water temperature, and (3) the tons of refrigeration
needed, where 1 ton refrigeration = 12,000 Btu/hr.
Note: Radiation from the building can be neglected.

5.4

For problem 5.3, estimate the volume of fresh air required for worst
case environmental conditions (lOIF and 95% humidity).

5.5

A once-through cooling tower ope.ration (i.e., no recycle) is schematically shown in Figure 5.16. Moist air is supplied to the cooling
tower by a blower having a capacity of 9.0 X 10 6 ft 3/hr. The dry- and
wet-bulb temperatures of the incoming air are 75F and 60F, respectively. The air exits the tower at a dry-bulb temperature of 90 and a
wet-bulb temperature of 85F. The hot process water enters the tower
at 130F. The return water to the process operation must be at a
temperature of 90F. Determine how much water (gal/hr) can be cooled
with this operation.

5.6

An air stream is cooled and humidified in a water spray chamber. The


air enters the chamber at a dry-bulb temperature of 110F and has a
wet-bulb temperature of 80F. The air exits at 95F. Determine the
amount of moisture added per pound of air.

5.7

Resolve Example 3 via a log-mean enthalpy difference. Comment on the


accuracy of this method.

5.8

Determine the height of fill required for a tower operating with a liquid
loading of 1700 lb-HzO/(hr)(ftz) and an air loading of 1950 lb-airl
(hr)(ftz). Note that Ka is 132Ib/(hr)(ft3)(lb/lb) and Ntu' = 1.85.

122

COOLING TOWERS

HOT PROCESS
WATER IN

AIR OUT

1 + - - - - AIR IN,
9.0 X 106

ft'hr

Tdb'" 90F
Twb'"S5'!F

Tdb'" 75F
TWb'" GOF

I
COLD WATER
RETURN TO
PROCESS

To'" 90F
Figure 5.16

S.9

Cooling tower operation for problem 5.5.

For problem S.8 determine the Htu' if Ka is 12S (lb)/(hr)(ft 3 )(lb/lb).

S.lO A cooling tower 20 X 20 feet cross section was sized to cool 2300 gpm
of water from lIS to 82F, when the S% wet-bulb temperature is 6SoF.
The maximum air rate that can be delivered is 400,000 cfm. Determine
the number of transfer units needed to meet process conditions.
S.ll For problem S.lO determine Ntu' if the S% wet-bulb temperature is
SSoF.
S.12 A cooling tower has a cross-sectional area of 8000 ft2. The unit is
designed to handle lS00 gpm of water from 112 to 92F when the
S% wet-bulb temperature is 8SoF. The air rate is 310,000 cfm. At full
loadings, a test was run where it was observed that at a wet-bulb
temperature of 70F the water range was from 72 to 83F. Determine
whether the tower was fulfilling the conditions of the guarantee.
S.13 A tower operates during the summer months at a wet-bulb temperature
of 93F with incoming water at 140F and discharge at lOSoF. The L:G
ratio is fixed throughout the year at 0.72 (the load is also fixed).
Determine the tower's discharge temperature during the winter months,
when the wet-bulb temperature averages around SSOF.

THEORY AND DESIGN PRINCIPLES

123

REFERENCES
1. Bird, R. B., W. E. Stewart and E. N. Lightfoot. Transport Phenomena
(New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1960).
2. Cheremisinoff, P. N., and R. A. Young. Pollution Engineering Practice
Handbook (Ann Arbor, MI: Ann Arbor Science Publishers, Inc., 1975).
3. Merkel, F. Forschungsarb. 275: 1-48 (1925).
4. Kern, D. Q. Process Heat Transfer (New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co.
1950).
5. Simpson, W. M., and T. K. Sherwood. Refrig. Eng. 535 (1946).
6. Colburn, A. P. Trans. AIChE 29: 174 (1939).
7. McAdams, W. H. Heat Transmission, 2nd ed. (New York: McGraw-Hill
Book Co., Inc., 1942), p. 290.
8. Parekh, M. Report, Chern. Eng. (1941).

This page intentionally left blank

CHAPTER 6
OPERATION AND DESIGN PRACTICES

INTRODUCTION
Plant operations personnel generally purchase cooling towers rather than
construct them themselves. The philosophy behind this policy is that it makes
available to operators a wealth of practical knowledge directly applicable in
the field. The operator must specify the amount of water and the tempera
ture range required to handle a specific set of process conditions. It is the
fabricator's responsibility to propose a system that will meet the operatorfurnished conditions for the 5% wet-bulb in the plant locality. This also
means that the fan power with which the operation will be accomplished
will be guaranteed.
.
Although the operator does not construct the actual tower or even prepare
the details of the final tower design, his role in the designing stage is not passive. A thorough understanding of process system requirements and the
purpose for certain design details are essential on the part of the operator.
This defines the operational limitations of a particular cooling tower design
and provides better insight into field operations. In this chapter we will apply
the design principles of Chapter 5 in outlining specific criteria for process
conditions selection and identify problems in cooling tower operations.

TOWER COEFFICIENTS
The Ntu' corresponding to a set of hypothetical conditions is called the
required coefficient. When operational tests have been performed, the Ntu'
represents the available coefficient and is an evaluation of the equipment
involved.
The minimum required coefficient for a given temperature occurs at an
L:G ratio of zero. This situation corresponds to an infinite air rate. There is

125

126

COOLING TOWERS

no increase in enthalpy. Therefore, the maximum driving force exists with


least resistance to heat transfer.
If we decrease the air rate (i.e., increase L:G), then in effect the driving
force is decreased and a greater degree of difficulty is reflected in the form
of a larger value for Ntu'. This is illustrated by the enthalpy-temperature
diagram of Figure 6.1. The plot reflects a counterflow cooling tower at
constant conditions but variable L:G ratios.
The maximum L:G ratio corresponds to the case of minimum' air rate. For
a given temperature this occurs when the tower's operating line (line CA in
Figure 6.1) intersects the saturation curve. For this case the driving force is
zero and Ntu' becomes infinite. The point of zero driving force may occur
at the outlet point. Figure 6.2 shows the effect of varying L: G for a cross flow
tower.
At zero L:G ratio the operating area becomes a single horizontal line identical to the counterflow case, and both coefficients become equal. Increases in
L:G result in an increase in the height of the operating area. This continues
as the area extends to point A in Figure 6.2 as the limit.
Thus, both cross- and counterflow towers have the same minimum coefficient at an L:G ratio of zero and both increase to infinity at (L:G)max. A

0:::
c(

>0:::
0
III

.J

.....
:;:)

I-

80

>-

0..
..J

c(

::t:

60
40

I-

Z
1&.1

20
O~~--~--~--~------~--~

60

Figure 6.1
ratios.

10

80 90 100 110 120


TEMPERATURE, OF

I!O

Countercurrent cooling diagram for constant conditions, variable L:G

OPERATION AND DESIGN PRACTICE

127

130
A
0:::

110

c(

>-

0:::
0

90

III

...J

.....
:;:)

I-

10

III

>50

::t:

10

0..
..J

c(

40
80

90

100

TEMPERATURE
Figure 6.2

110
t

30
120

I-

1&.1

of

Crossflow tower cooling diagram.

cooling tower can be designed to operate at any point within the two limits;
however, practical considerations limit the design to much narrower limits,
which are determined by the air velocity.
A low air rate requires a large tower, while a high air rate in a smaller tower
requires greater fan power. Limitations in air velocities are typically 300-500
fpm in counterflow towers, and 350--{)50 fpm in crossflow towers.
Higher velocities are obtainable in crossflow towers because of larger air
inlet and greater eliminator area. Also, the discharging air does not pass
through the water distribution system.
Cooling towers are capable of operating over a wide range of water rates,
air rates and heat loads. Variations are reflected in the approach of the cold
water to the' wet-bulb temperature. The available tower coefficient is not a
constant but varies with operating conditions.

TOWER CHARACTERISTICS AND PERFORMANCE


Cooling tower characteristics can only be deduced from actual field tests.
Tower characteristics are generally presented in the form of an empirical
correlation. This correlation defines the relationship between the available

128

COOLING TOWERS

coefficient and the operating conditions. Variations in the available coefficient occur because the calculations consider temperature change per unit
driving force without regard to tower height or water rate. Since the
coefficients of mass and energy transfer increase with air velocity, this is
reflected in the available coefficient.
Cooling tower data are most often plotted in the form of KaV: L versus
L:G for various air wet-bulb temperatures and cooling ranges. This approach
allows us to avoid solving the Ntu' integral (Equation 5.33). These graphs
have been published by the Cooling Tower Institute (CTI) and are similar to
the one shown in Figure 6.3. Note that the validity of these graphs is good up
to 300 foot elevation above sea level.
Common practice is to neglect the effect of air velocity and develop the
tower correlation in the form of a power law relation:

(6,1)

where the exponent n can vary between -0.35 and -l.1. Average values of n
are between -0.55 and -0.65. A family of curves can also be generated with
the following formula format:

(6,2)

where m typically varies between 0.6 and 1.1.


Tower performance is specified in terms of the cooling tower's range,
approach, wet-bulb temperature and water rate. The rating of a tower is
established by developing a series of charts that relates these variables.
Rating factors correspond to tower units per gpm, which represents some
functions of tower area in ftljgpm. Hence,
Rating factor (RF) X gpm

tower units/area

(6,3)

Rating charts are reported by McDowell [1] for different temperature


ranges. Figure 6.4 gives an example of a rating chart for one temperature
range. The use of this chart is illustrated in the following example.
Example 1
A cooling tower has been designed to handle 7650 gpm of hot water at a
15F range and a lOoF approach to 70F wet-bulb temperature. Determine
the tower units of rated area.

OPERATION AND DESIGN PRACTICE

129

12WET BULB

50 0 RANGE

I I II
II
II

t;
0:::
1&.1

....

oc(
0:::
c(

:::t:

0:::
1&.1

3:

....

II

II II I / I

1/

II I II II/ /

1,7
I / / / / / J
J
1/
1/3 ~ V5 5 VB liIo 1r2 /r4/JS/rB 120,
j / { I J J V 1/ V V I/APPRn~HEs
3
I II V\ II I II / J / / j
) J )
V I V II V
V V V 1)( II / 1// / J
/ 1/ J ) V I V V V
/
/ / )<
'/ J /
2 /
V 25,cV / / 7; I r:t PLOT OF
./
V / / / / / // V EQN. (5.1) /' /'
/
J

..J

i--'
.- /

>a

./

......

....".

'/ ~ /

./V ~ /

.......
. /~
V
V
;::::::.
V
t:::
~

/'

-- -

I--

, / i"'"

~~

.....

--

--,;:;

./

"..,.. ~O

2
LtG. WATER TO AIR RATIO
Figure 6.3

Generalized tower characteristic curves.

Solution
From the chart (Figure 6.4), the rating factor (RF) = 1.42. Hence,
RF X gpm = 1.42 X 7650 = 10,900 tower units of rated area

Performance curves are based on a constant air rate. The following equation
can be applied to such performance curves as the one given in Figure 6.4 by

130

COOLING TOWERS

1.5
1!4

1.2
0:::

0
I0

1.1

c(

IL.
(!>

1.0

Z
Ic(

0.9

0:::

O.B

60

55

50

WET - BULB TEMPERATURE, of


Figure 6.4 Countercurrent cooling tower rating chart for 15 range. McDowell [1]
provides a family of charts for different ranges.

computing an equivalent water loading corresponding to a variation in air


velocity:

(6.4 )

PROCESS CONDITIONS
The lowest possible temperature that water can be cooled to in a cooling
tower is the wet-bulb temperature of the air. However, this should not be
viewed as a practical temperature limit as the vapor pressure out of the water
and in the air is the same when the water reaches the wet-bulb temperature, a

OPERATION AND DESIGN PRACTICE

131

condition that results in a zero diffusion potential for which an infinitely tall
tower would be needed. The approach in a cooling tower is the difference
between the water-exit temperature and the wet-bulb temperature. We can
think of the approach as an index or gauge of how difficult it will be to
perform a cooling operation.
Table 6.1 gives some climatological data for different parts of the country
in terms of maximum temperatures and wind velocities. In the northeastern
region of the U.S., the 5% wet-bulb temperature averages about 75F. It is
common practice in this region to cool the water in a cooling tower to a 10
approach, i.e., 85F. The 5% wet-bulb temperature is about 80F on the Gulf
Coast, where typically a 5 approach is used (but again to 85F). Note that
when a cooling tower is designed for a definite approach to the 5% wet-bulb,
there will be some time periods where the water discharged from the cooling

Table 6.1

Maximum Temperatures and Maximum Wind Velocities for Different


Cities in the United States

Dry Bulb

Wet Bulb

De\~Point
,

Max. Wind
Velocity
(mph)

Colorado

Mobile
Phoenix
Fresno
San Diego
Denver

95
113
110
88
99

82
78
75
74
68

80
74
66
72
64

87
40
41
43
53

Connecticut
Florida
Georgia
Illinois
Indiana

Hartford
Miami
Atlanta
Chicago
Evansville

92
101
104
102

82
81
82
80
82

79
79
77
79

58
87
51
65
60

Massachusetts
Minnesota
Montana
Nevada
New Jersey

Boston
St. Paul
Helena
Reno
Newark

90
103
97
102
99

78
79
70
66
81

76
75
60
56
77

60
78
54
46

New Mexico
New York

Albuquerque
Albany
New York
Cincinnati
Portland

98
97
100
106
99

68
78
81
81
70

66
75
78
78
68

63
59
73
54
43

Pittsburgh
Memphis
Houston
San Antonio
Spokane

98
103
100
102
106

79
83
81
83
68

74
80
79
82
58

56
58
63
56
41

Max. Temperature CF)


State
Alabama
Arizona
California

Ohio
Oregon
Pennsylvania
Tennessee
Texas
Washington

City

132

COOLING TOWERS

tower will be warmer than originally specified in the process conditions.


Cooling towers are normally designed to withstand wind speed of up to
100 mph (or about 30 lbrlftz).
A common fallacy arises that cooling towers cannot function when the
inlet air is at its wet-bulb temperature. To the contrary, when air at the
wet-bulb temperature enters the tower it acquires sensible heat from the hot
water, thereby raising its temperature so that it is no longer saturated. Consequently, water evaporates continuously into the air phase as it ascends
through the tower and cooling takes place.
There are various process changes that can have a dramatic effect on the
height, cross section of the tower and/or the cost of its operation. Some of
these we have already discussed (the L:G ratio, for one); however, their
effects are best illustrated by studying how the enthalpy-temperature plot is
affected (specifically how the area between the saturation and operating
lines changes as this is a measure of the total potential). Recall that the
smaller this bound area the taller the tower needed to meet process conditions. Chief process changes affecting designs are the L:G ratio, the degree
of unsaturation of the inlet air, close approach, staging and elevation.
There are many situations in which the tower's ground area may be too
limited, an example being when a cooling tower is erected atop a building. In
such a case, it ~,ay be necessary to utilize a high liquid loading without
increasing the air rate. The maximum economical air velocity is roughly
about 400 fpm. Looking back at Figure 6.1, we see that this will decrease
the tower cross section but increase the slope of the operating line. The net
result is a decreased potential and a taller tower. This is the simplest observation made by an operator that the smaller the amount of air sent to the
tower per pound of water, the smaller the extent of cooling.
In most of the situations described thus far it has been assumed that the
incoming air is adiabatically saturated. This causes the operating line to
drop from H.-H2 to H~-H~ in Figure 6.S(A). The shaded region on this plot
represents the increase in potential. By not correcting for the enthalpy of the
dry-bulb, we achieve results that are slightly conservative. For this reason it is
common practice to specify only the wet-bulb in preparing designs.
By using a close approach, we arrive at the situation shown in Figure 6.S(B).
Both operating lines have the same L:G ratios (i.e., the same slopes and the
same ranges for the removal of the same process load). The operating line
H'.-H~ attempts to perform the same cooling as HI -H 2 and with the same inlet
air but between two different temperatures (T;, T~). The area between the
saturation curve and the operating line is greatly reduced by H'I-H~; hence,
we obtain a lower potential.
Staging is a technique used for overcoming small L:G ratios. Staging in
effect involves the use of two or more towers in series. Water introduced to
the top of the first tower is hot and first contacts air of enthalpy, H 2 , along

OPERATION AND DESIGN PRACTICE

133

H2

H2
:t: _ - 8 -- - -

8 I
I

- - I

>0..

>0..

..J

..J

:t:

::t:

c(

c(

....

....

WATER TEMPERATURE,T
w
(A) UNSATURATION OF INLET AIR

rP//

H"8~1
H

'8

H'I
'I I H

IH2

I
I

I
I

'I

T' T
T' T
"
2 2
WATER TEMPERATURE, Tw
(B) CLOSER APPROACH

AT
HIGHER
ELEVATION

/1
:t:

IH2

H3~/.

;t

H2

::t:

5 H,

: H,
T3

WATER TEMPERATURE,Tw
(C) STAGING COOLING TOWERS

WATER TEMPERATURE , Tw
(D) EFFECT OF ELEVATION

Figure 6.5 The effects of varying process conditions on a cooling tower's enthalpy
temperature diagram.

the operating line, HrH z (Figure 6.S(C)). The water exits from the bottom
at temperature, T3 , and is sent to the top of a second tower. The second
tower will operate between HI and H3 ethalpies. Both operating lines may
have large slopes and not intersect the equilibrium curve. Water produced
by a two-stage arrangement is generally regarded as chilled water. It is,
however, a considerably expensive approach to cooling water. Both water
costs and range are comparable to those of refrigerated water.
Elevation can also play a role, for at reduced atmospheric pressure the
saturation curve will be higher. This causes an increase in the potential and

134

COOLING TOWERS

reduces the required size of a tower if operating conditions are kept constant. The reasons for this are that {he humidity of saturated air at higher
elevations is greater and although the partial pressure of the water is fixed,
by going to higher elevations the total pressure is reduced.
Since the atmosphere serves as the tower's cooling medium, operating
performance is also affected by variations in atmospheric conditions. When
we operate the tower at the design wet-bulb, water should be produced at
the range and temperature specified in the guarantee. If, however, the wetbulb temperature drops, in effect the potential in the tower increases. If L, G
and the heat load do not change, the water will still undergo the same number of degrees of cooling in; however, the inlet and outlet temperatures will
be lower than guaranteed. A tower can only continue removing the same
heat load by automatically reducing the potential difference (Le., the water
temperatures reduce accordingly with the wet-bulb).
If either the water or air loadings to a specific tower are changed, then the
number of diffusion units the system is capable of providing also changes. In
general, the loadings on a single unit do not change significantly. It is not uncommon for designs to anticipate a 25% deviation from the mean of the
design water loading (this is about the maximum variation that can be
handled). The ma~imum discharge capacity will be roughly 120-125% of the
design. When lesst.han 80% of the design water rate is used, the dispersion of
droplets is reduced along with the total quantity of water. Cooling tower
fabricators can specify the temperature range assumed by the cooling water
at 80% and 120% of its design loading when the operating wet-bulb is below
the design wet-bulb. Under this condition, it is desirable to use the increased
potential to generate more cooling water at the original design temperature
range. Problem 6.1 at the end of this chapter illustrates how much cold
water can be produced for a particular design by varying loading conditions.

CONSIDERATIONS IN COOLING TOWER SELECTION


The size of a cooling tower is primarily established by the water loading, L.
The air loading must be chosen on the basis of other considerations and
before the tower size is fixed. There are two extreme design cases. First, a
tower can be selected for a close approach to the wet-bulb temperature and
with a large range. The other extreme is a tower selected for a large approach
and small range.
In the first design, a small L:G ratio must be used. Since G cannot be
increased beyond certain limitations (because of economics), L should be
small. Experiments on cooling towers have indicated that their characteristics
break sharply when L approaches a critical point varying with design. The

OPERATION AND DESIGN PRACTICE

135

critical L value is about 500 Ib/(ft2)(hr). The reason for this is that the
water is unable to spread sufficiently and evenly cover the entire available
fill surface. Designs using close approaches and large ranges typically require
tall towers, which have high pumping heads.
If the second design case is chosen (large approach and small range) the
L:G ratio must be large. Here the tower characteristic breaks because of
flooding, which occurs at a critical L. The critical L or flooding loading
condition is about 3000 Ib/(ft2)(hr). It is not advantageous from an economic standpoint to reduce G greatly as a smaller L:G can remove this
break. These type of towers are generally small and have low pumping heads.
Average design requirements fall somewhere between these two extreme
cases. Theory establishes the L:G ratio for a fixed design. Even if a fixed
design is selected, there is still an infinite number of sizes possible, depending
on G. A small G means a small L with a large tower ground area, high first
cost, but low fan power requirements. The opposite is true when G is large.
Hence, the operator should select G so that the sum of the fan power costs,
pumping power costs and capital charges is at a minimum. As we will learn in
a later chapter, in the final analysis it is the economics that determine the
ultimate tower size.
What constitutes the ideal tower? To some, it is one that heats the air to
the inlet-water temperature, whereas to others, it is a Wwer that cools the
water to the wet-bulb temperature. The term effective'ness coefficient or
efficiency of the tower gives an indication of how close we are to the ideal
case. In cooling tower practice, such a coefficient can be meaningless as the
general attitude throughout industry is t'hat the most efficient tower is the
one that is simply the most economical.
The fixed conditions for the selection of a cooling tower, such as wet-bulb,
approach, range and capacity, should be determined from economic considerations, which, in turn, are related to the application of the tower to a
particular problem. If range and wet-bulb are fixed, the engineer has to determine how the tower size is affected by different approaches to wet-bulb.
This is a difficult problem to address since the relationship between tower
size and approach depends on the value of the wet-bulb temperature itself.
In some cases we may have fixed the wet-bulb and the approach and wish to
evaluate size as a function of range. Performance curves help us to define
these functions. Figure 6.6 gives a set of performance curves for a typical example (75F wet-bulb, 25F range, 10 approach).
In this plot, the size corresponding to the selected condition for a typical
tower design is called the 100% design. The curve shows percentage variation
of the tower size if any two of the conditions are kept constant and the
others varied.
In general, it is desirable to choose operating conditions requiring minimum
energy potential of the air utilized. However, in practice it is not possible to

136

COOLING TOWERS

RANGE CURVEWET BULB ?f,o


APPROAC H 10

....
z

APPROACH CURVE-

200

WET BULB 75
RANGE 25

(.)

WET BULB CURVE-

0::

RANGE 25
APPROACH 10

0..
0::

....
(.)
c(

IL.

W
N
til

50

o
15

5
20

65

70

10
25
75

15
30

20

APPROACH

35

COOLING RANGE

80

85

WET BULB
TEMP. (OF)

Figure 6.6 The effect of variations in performance requirements on tower ground area
for a fixed tower design with constant G.

attain such a condition. There are a number of reasons why a minimum air
rate should be targeted for in a design. The principal ones are:
1.
2.
3.

Large volumes of excess air necessitate that large fan capability be utilized.
In natural-draft towers, excessive air flow means lower exhaust air temperatures resulting in larger stacks
The total volume of air required has a direct bearing on the required area of
drift eliminators. Thus, it is indirectly related to the tower size itself-

The required air rate will depend on the degree of effectiveness of the airwater contact within the tower. Splash-type fill generally offers the best
contact as it relies on droplet formation.

EMPIRICAL APPROACH TO TOWER SIZING


There are several approaches to sizing cooling towers outlined in the literature. Most are empirical or semiempirical in nature. The following outlines

OPERATION AND DESIGN PRACTICE

137

one procedure for obtaining a preliminary estimate of tower size for forced
draft systems. It is based on the principles outlined in Chapter 5:
1.
2.
3.
4.

5.
6.
7.
8.

Specify operating conditions, i.e., water inlet and outlet temperatures and
the inlet air wet-bulb temperature.
Prepare an enthalpy-temperature diagram. Select the exit air enthalpy so
that the slope of the line for the air enthalpy is equal to the slope of the
curve for the enthalpy of saturated air at the water outlet temperature.
Prepare a plot of [1/(H s - Hair)] versus water temperature. (Refer to Example 2 in Chapter 5 for illustration.)
Using Simpson's rule or some other appropriate numerical integration
technique, determine the area under the curve obtained from step (3). From
the area, the required value for the tower characteristic (KaV/L) can be
determined.
Select a fill matrix geometry and obtain the data for its principal characteristics. Figure 4.10 can be used as a guide for selecting the fill matrix geometry.
Table 6.2 gives data for fill at 120F water temperature.
Estimate the effect on the tower characteristic KaV/L on the deviation of the
water inlet temperature from the 120 F for which the data of Table 6.2 were
prepared.
Using the air enthalpy curve of step 2, determine the L:G ratio from a heat
balance.
The following equation can be used to estimate the number of decks of fill
required and the height of the packed portion of the tower:
KaV/L

0.07 + N(L/G)-11

(6.5)

where N is the number of decks, and and 1) are fill packing factors. Values
to be used in this expression should be corrected for temperature deviations
from the empirical constants in Table 6.2 (step 6).
9. For the L:G of step 6, determine the ai~ flowrate for a water flow of 2500
Ib/(hr)(ft 2). If the resulting air flow exceeds 1600 Ib/(hr)(ft 2), determine the
water flow that corresponds to an air flow of 1600 Ib/(hr)(ft2).
10. Determine the cross-sectional area of the tower using the water flowrate per
unit area given by step 8 and the total water flowrate established in step 1.

Table 6.2 Fill Packing Factors at 120F


Deck

cP

1)

A
B

0.060
0.070
0.092
0.119
0.110
0.100
0.104
0.127
0.135
0.103

0.62
0.62
0.60
0.58
0.46
0.51
0.57
0.4 7
0.57
0.54

C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J

138

COOLING TOWERS

11. Select the horizontal dimensions of the tower to give the area defined by
step 9, keeping the dimension in the direction of the prevailing wind to no
less than the packed height and no more than 40 feet, The overall height
should be packed height plus about one and one-half times the depth in the
direction of the prevailing wind.

PROBLEMS RELATED TO OUTSIDE INSTALLATION


With the exception of very small units, cooling towers are located outdoors,
and their placemenf has a significant bearing on the overall cost of the initial
installation and the effectiveness of the operation.
The location of the tower can create problems if it is not situated properly.
Its orientation must be considered with respect to the prevailing wind direction and to the plot plan of the plant. Although cooling towers usually are
installed with air inlets facing the direction of the prevailing wind, this may
be a disadvantage in sandy, high wind areas. Sand can enter into the circuit
creating problems connected with the suspension of solids in the water. Sand
and other materials (for example leaves) can also be a problem if open water
distribution basins are provided on top of the towers. Attention must be
given to the proximity of the unit to any heat source that could decrease the
tower's efficiency" Drift and fogging may be objectionable if the tower is
located too close to parking lots or streets.
Locating the tower away from possible noise complainants can often result
in a satisfactory installation that otherwise would have been a problem.
Towers should not be located upwind of any electrical equipment, and easy
access for working space should be provided on all sides around the tower to
perform maintenance operations (Figure 6.7). In chemical plants where acid
vapors occur, corrosion can be expected if these acid vapors contact the
humid air discharging from the cooling tower stack. Corrosive vapors also
may enter into solution in the circulating water, causing corrosion throughout
the entire system.
Interference is defined as an adulteration of the atmosphere entering the
tower by a portion of the atmosphere leaving another nearby cooling tower.
Recirculation is an adulteration of the atmosphere entering the tower by a
portion of the atmosphere leaving the tower. Both are illustrated in Figure 6.8.
This adulteration by the exhaust air raises the wet-bulb temperature of the
entering air above that of the ambient air, reducing the tower's overall performance.
These problems are typical in mechanical-draft cooling towers and virtually
nonexistent in hyperbolic towers because of the height of vapor discharge.
The magnitudes of interference and recirculation depend primarily on wind

OPERATION AND DESIGN PRACTICE

139

Figure 6.7 Catwalks are an essential part of the cooling tower pacl<;age. Shown here is a
small cooling tower with a walkway around the entire unit for,inspection and maintenance purposes (courtesy of the Marley Cooling Tower Company, Mission, KS).

WIND DIRECTION

INTER FERENCE
Figure 6.8

....

WARM MOIST AIR

I' ~ i ~ F:F"s"
RECIRCULATION

Interference and recirculation problems.

direction and velocity, tower length and atmospheric conditions. Other factors are fan cylinder height and spacing, exit air velocity, tower height and
the density difference between exit air and ambient air.
Interference from industrial installations or multiple tower arrangements
can result from poor planning of plant additions. Careful planning will provide the most effective cooling results. In general, interference can be

140

COOLING TOWERS

3/4 ToWER LENGTH

c:::::J c:::::J

/
p"LuNG

\/

SUMME~WIND DIRECTION~

Figure 6.9 Proper tower orientation can avoid interference from multiple tower
arrangements.

avoided by studying multiple tower orientation, taking into account the prevailing high wet-bulb temperatures at summer wind directions (Figure 6.9).
Recirculation generally becomes 'greater as tower length increases. A longitudinal wind tends to carry discharge vapors along the tower, and the first
few cells will not be seriously affected. However, from the initial downwind
point of entry into the louver faces, the effect of recirculation becomes
increasingly severe'along the length of the tower. Therefore, as tower length
increases, the more damaging a longitudinal wind can become. From a
mathematical standpoint, recirculation can be expressed as the percentage of
the exhaust air that reenters the tower at the air inlet. Considering then a
heat balance on the air around the tower shown in Figure 6.10, we obtain the
following:

(6.6)

Solving for the recirculation rate, Rc:

(6.7)

where

HI = enthalpy of the discharging air


H2 = enthalpy of the inlet air stream
Ha = enthalpy of the ambient air
G = circulating air quantity

To measure the three enthalpies is a tedious job since atmospheric conditions change from hour to hour. For testing of recirculation, the cn

OPERATION AND DESIGN PRACTICE

141

Gx( 1- Rc"OO)
(at Ha)
Figure 6.10

Heat balance about a cooling tower.

developed a formula that gives the maximum recirculati,on as a function of


the tower length for mechanical-draft cooling towers:
"i
0.073 X tower length

Rc =---------------1 + 0.004 X tower length

(6.8)

where Rc is expressed as a percentage.


Equation 6.8 was obtained from mechanical-draft tower testing. The equation is shown to correlate the data in Figure 6.1l.
One of the more serious problems associated with outside installation is
winter operation.

WINTER OPERATION
As the ambient wet-bulb temperature falls during the winter months, the
operation of mechanical-draft cooling towers must take this effect into consideration to avoid serious degradation of tower performance. If the heat load
is maintained constant throughout the year, it is clear that during winter the
cold water temperature leaving the tower will decrease significantly and,
therefore, the water flow through the tower should be decreased to maintain
the same heat load.
In large multi cell towers it is common practice to reduce or stop the water

142

COOLING TOWERS

~
z
o

....

15~--~----r----r----r----r----r---~--~

el

..J

:;:)

o
0::
o

1&.1
0::

:;:

:;:)

:;:

:;:

50

100

150

TOWER LENGTH

200

250

300

350

400

( FT)

Figure 6.11 Equation 6.8 correlates mechanical-draft performance data. (Data obtained from Cooling Tower Institute Bulletin PFM-ll 0.)

flow to one or more cells to achieve the desired outlet water temperature.
Inspection and maintenance work can be performed on cells during this
downtime. Once ~ne cell has been inspected and cleaned, it can be placed
back into operation and the next one shut down following the same cycle.
Saving energy and cleaning the tower at the same time is a good practice to
avoid unpleasant surprises when the weather becomes warmer.
For one- or two-cell cooling towers the water flow is normally maintained,
and to limit the fall in water temperature the air flowrate is controlled
through the tower. The simplest method is an on/off control of the air fan
by means of a thermostat with a sensing element in the water leaving the
tower. Another relatively simple method of control is to use a two-speed
motor together with a two-step thermostat to have high-speed or low-speed
fan rpm, depending on the water temperature.
Towers that operate in freezing weather reqUired special consideration to
provide dependable service and to prevent damage from freezing and ice
accumulation. The most prevalent winter operating problem of water cooling
towers is the formation of ice on the louvers to the extent of seriously, or
even totally, restricting the air flow.
There are various precautions that minimize the danger of icing. Firstly,
and obviously, the fan should not be run if there is no cooling load. Secondly, if there is no cooling load, it is better to shut off the water flow
completely or, if that is not possible or desirable, keep the water flowrate at
maximum. The danger of icing is increased if very small water flowrates are
maintained. In fact, if this occurs while the fan is running, severe icing is

OPERATION AND DESIGN PRACTICE

143

virtually certain, even at air temperatures only slightly below the freezing
point.
In packaged towers, an immersion heater, usually electric, is almost always
fitted in the base tank, close to the water outlet to prevent icing-up. Electric
immersion heaters are fitted with a thermostat, which switches on the heater
just above the freezing point. With induced-draft towers there is a possibility
of icicles forming from the top of the air inlets. In some large towers, piping
arrangement have been fitted to bypass the tower packing and thus distribute
warm water over the inside face of the air inlets.
A fan operating in a forced-draft tower is subject to the risk of freezing.
Icing is a particular danger as this can form not only on the fan blades, but
also the inlet guard. Ice particles can be thrown off outside the casing, and,
under extreme conditions, cause severe damage to environment or personnel
outside the plant. The fan casing should be designed so that any water entering it (either from the tower or external sources) can drain away. If water is
allowed to collect in the fan casing, the fan could be frozen into place. This
could result in damage to the drive system if starting were attempted.
If, under the most severe conditions, ice does accumulate on the louvers to
a detrimental degree, operation of the fans in reverse will force warm air out
through the louvers, melting the accumulated ice. Reverse operation of fans
is used only to eliminate ice, not prevent it. Unfortunai~ly, most fan drive
units are not designed for continuous reverse operation. (See Chapter 9 for a
discussion of ice prevention systems for cooling towers.)

PROBLEMS WITH FOG FORMATION


The major environmental effects of atmospheric emissions from evaporative
heat dissipative systems are associated with the potential of visible plumes,
ground level fog and icing. The tower exhaust (a saturated air-water vapor
mixture) is warmer than outside ambient air and heat transfers from the
plumes to the atmosphere. At relatively high humidities, the surrounding air
is too moisture laden to absorb the cooling tower vapor and the plume becomes super,saturated. Part of the water vapor condenses into small droplets
to form ground fog, which limits visibility and, in extremely cold weather,
causes icing on nearby highways. If the ambient temperature is high and the
relative humidity is low, water vapor is absorbed rapidly by the surrounding
air and the plume extends only a very short distance from the tower outlet or
does not form at all.
The interaction between the plume and atmospheric air is represented on
the psychrometric chart in Figure 6.12. The saturation line (100% relative
humidity) is the focus for saturation of air at various temperatures. At points
above this line, the air is supersaturated and a plume is visible.

144

COOLING TOWERS

SATURATION
LINE

0.035

0:::

el

>0:::

RELATIVE
HUMIDITY,

0.030

0
III
..J

PERCENT \

0.025

.....
0:::
1&.1

....

el

0.020

3:

lID
..J

0.015

>-

0.010

::Ii:

....
:;:)

::t:

0.005

(.)
IL.
(.)

20

30

40

50

60

10

90

80

DRY BULB TEMPERATURE

100

~
til

of

Figure 6.12 .. Portion of psychrometric chart illustrating fog formation.

Point A in Figure 6.12 represents the saturated cooling tower exhaust air.
Point B represents a corresponding ambient atmospheric condition. The
mixture of cooling tower effluent and atmospheric air follows the line from
point A to point B if the mixing process is thorough.
The line from point A toward point B represents increased dilution of
exhaust air. Fog will exist as long as the mixture of exhaust and ambient air
is supersaturated (the region along line AC). In the unsaturated region (from
point C to point B), the water droplets have evaporated and the plume is no
longer visible. The formation of ground fog from a supersaturated plume
depends on the cooling tower configuration and orientation, exhaust-air flow
and temperature, and prevailing meteorological conditions (i.e., wind speed
and direction, atmospheric temperature, humidity and air stability).
Air approaching the tower is displaced, resulting in flow separation and
wake formation. A strong negative pressure and secondary flow patterns in
the wake are created, the naturally buoyant exhaust plume is drawn down
and ground fog forms. This is illustrated in Figure 6.13(A).
Relative humidity tends to be much higher at night than during the day.
Consequently, the critical period for the formation of cooling tower-induced

OPERATION AND DESIGN PRACTICE

BACKGROUND
FLOW

145

~--=---

TOWER

BOUNDARY

CA)

....>o

::Ii:
::>
::t:

>
....

..J

__

L-~~~~~

__

__-L__- L__

10

NOON

__

~~~

__

TIME
(B)

Figure 6.13 Fog formation is assisted by wake formation and hourly variations in the
ambient air humidity.

ground fog is between 3 and 7 AM, especially during the fall and winter when
ambient temperatures are lower. Typical hourly variations in humidity are
illustrated in Figure 6.13(B).
For multicell mechanical-draft towers, the longitudinal axis must be oriented in the' direction of the winter prevailing winds. This reduces the air
pressure and individual stack exhausts combined together to form a large
plume. The positive buoyant force of the individual plumes is combined and
magnified, improving the plume rise and therefore diminishing the possibility
of ground fog formation.
In places in which ground fog is undesirable, the dry-wet mechanical-draft
cooling tower is the best solution. It will have its wet peaking tower out of
service during the cooler months of the year, thereby substantially eliminating
the fog problem and totally eliminating the icing problems of wet towers.

146

COOLING TOWERS

BLOWDOWN
Blowdown is defined as the amount of water discharged from the system
to control the concentration of salts or other impurities in the circulating
water. Solids from dissolved chemicals and minerals in the source water
accumulate in the circulating water, making blowdown a necessity. Blowdown depends on the allowable concentration of water constituents to meet
water quality restrictions or for nonscaling requirements in the circulating
water system. Blowdown can be treated prior to discharging into a receiving
water body. Varying the "bleed-off' controls the degree of concentration in
the tower. This is measured in terms of cycles of concentration, 7r c:
Dissolved solids in the cooling tower water
1Tc

Dissolved solids in the cooling tower makeup supply

(6.9)

For example, a cooling tower with water containing four times as much
total dissolved solids as its makeup, supply would be operating at four cycles
of concentration. The cycles of concentration are determined by the cooling
tower design, water characteristics, operating conditions and the type of
treatment system employed (cooling tower water treatment is discussed in
detail in Chapter 8).
We can develop some simple material balances to define blowdown quantitatively. Blowdown can be expressed as a percentage of the circulation rate:
M=E+W+B

where

(6.10)

M = makeup water rate as a percentage of the circulation rate


E = evaporative water losses as a percentage of the circulation rate
W = windage and drift water losses as a percentage of the circulation rate
B = blowdown as a percentage of the circulation rate

Evaporation losses, E, are fairly well predicted. The evaporation of 1 lb of


water requires approximately 1000 Btu. This heat will cool 200 lb of water
by 10F. Therefore, the evaporation losses are approximately 1% of the circulation water rates for each 10F of cooling range:

Cooling Duty (Btu/lb)

= Evaporation Losses = - - - - - - - 1000

(6.11)

Windage losses or drift vary with the type of tower and local conditions.
Average estimates for normal tower operations are 0.3-1 % of circulation for
natural-draft towers and 0.1-0.3% of circulation for mechanical-draft towers.

OPERATION AND DESIGN PRACTICE

147

Cycles of concentration compare the concentration of the dissolved salts in


the circulating water with that of the makeup water. Usually, the circulating
water salt content is limited to 3-7 times the makeup salt content (this is
referred to the number of concentrations of 3-7).
The number of concentration is conveniently expressed as the ratio of the
chlorides in the circulating water to chlorides in the makeup water. Chloride
salts are soluble and will remain in solution; consequently, their concentration increases during the evaporative cooling process.
The basic items normally considered in a material balance of a cooling
tower are the range, T, circulating water rate, C (in U.S. gpm), the ppm
(parts per million of any soluble salts in C (Xc), and M, B, E and W. Xc is
normally expressed in terms of equivalent chlorides.
It must be noted that concentration of soluble salts in blowdown and
windage losses equals that in circulating water. Thus, Xm = ppm of any
soluble salts in M and

7Tc

Xc
=x
= cycle of concentration
m

The overall balance is given by Equation 6.10 and the

s,.~luble

salts balance

is
MX m = BXc + WXc

(6.12)

or we can rewrite this as


MX m = Xc(B + W)

or
B + W = M/7Tc

(6.13)

Substituting Equation 6.13 into 6.10 we obtain


M=E+M
7Tc

but M(n c - 1)

= ncE, but E = 0.1 AT. Hence,

(6.14 )

148

COOLING TOWERS

O.I.1..T7Tc

M=---

(6.15)

B = O.I.1..T -0.3
<7Tc -1

(6.16)

7Tc -1

and from Equation 6.13,

and for W ==' 0.3%,

Equations 6.15 and 6.16 are plotted in Figures 6.14 and 6.15. These plots
can be used to obtain estimates of required water makeup and blowdown as
functions of the number of concentration, 7r c, respectively.
One parameter not considered thus far is retention time. Retention time, r,
is defined as the theoretical length of time for a single water droplet to
remain in the system:

II
10
I-

z 9

lLI
U

0::

lLI
0..

8
7

0..
:::> 6
I

lLI
~

c(

::Ii: 4

CYCLES OF CONCENTRATJON
Figure 6.14

Chart for estimating cooling tower makeup requirements.

OPERATION AND DESIGN PRACTICE

149

V
W+B

r=--

where V is the total volume of the cooling tower.


Retention time is important as it affects the time a slug treatment will
remain in the system. Lower bleed-off causes longer retention times.
The chemical composition of the cooling water makeup supply used in the
plant determines the choice of the cycles of concentration. Some of the
important constituents that must be controlled in the tower are calcium,
magnesium, silica, carbonate, bicarbonate and sulfate ions. Alkalinity levels
are regulated by the addition of acid or alkali to achieve the desired pH.
When adding H 2S0 4 (sulfuric acid) for pH control, it should be assured that
calcium sulfate solubility limits are not exceeded (see Chapter 8).

WATER CONSUMPTION AND RECIRCULATION RATES


The water consumption of a cooling tower depends not only on the heat
load but also on the ratio of the amounts of heat carried off by increasing the
temperature of the air through evaporation of the water. The amount of

"

6T=35

6T=30

6T='25

6T=20

10
IZ

I.LI
U

0::
I.LI
0.

3:

1
6

~
0

..J
lID

4
3
2
I

2
3
4
5
6
CYCLES OF CON CENTRATION
Figure 6.15

Chart for estimating cooling tower blowdown.

150

COOLING TOWERS

water lost in the form of suspended droplets in the exit air stream is usually
less than 1% of the water consumption. Thus, the water consumption, L, of a
cooling tower can be related to the air flowrate and the air inlet and outlet
water vapor contents, Xl and x 2 , as follows:
L

Wa(x, -

XI)

(6.18)

If the air entering the tower is saturated, as much as one-third of the heat
removed from the water may go into heating the air, while the balance will go
into evaporating the water. Thus the water consumption will be only about
two-thirds of what would be required if the entire heat load went into evaporation of the water. On the other hand, under unusual conditions at light
loads, with a low temperature range and very dry air, evaporation of the
water may actually reduce the air dry-bulb temperature so that heat is
removed from, rather than added to, the air, and the amount of heat going
to evaporate the water actually exceeds the heat load on the tower.
Under some wind conditions, a portion of the warm moist air leaving the
tower may recirculate back through the tower inlet and thus degrade performance. Forced-draft towers have recirculation rates that are about double
those of induced-draft towers. Both water loading and tower height play the
dominant role in', ,recirculation. Correlations exist in the literature for defining the effects of these parameters, and corrections can be applied to the
wet-bulb temperature [2,3]. Cooling tower fabricators can supply data to
estimate the severity of the problem.

GAS COOLING OPERATIONS


Our discussion up to now has concerned the cooling of hot process waters
exclusively. However, we insisted back in Chapter 1 that a cooling tower is
nothing more than a device that transfers heat from one mass to another.
Therefore, gas coolers are governed by the same theory of operation and
design principles as are water cooling towers.
, In developing our generalized expression for the number of transfer units
(Ntu') in Chapter 5 we assumed that the Lewis number prediction (Le = 1)
for the air-water diffusion system was strictly true. However, there is experimental evidence that Le is less than unity, in which case the basic design
theory developed could have built-in errors (although for most cooling tower
operations the error is small). Figure 6.16 shows the Lewis number relationship for air-water. Correcting our generalized design expression (Equation
5.33):

--~~-~~--------------------------------

OPERATION AND DESIGN PRACTICE

Ntu'

=Ka YL =11(H s - H) + Cp(THdT0 - Tair)(Le - I)

151

(6.19)

This correction becomes important in gas cooling operations. Unfortunately, we cannot evaluate Equation 6_19 in a straightforward manner.
For the gas cooling case in which Le =1= 1, we must redefine our basic equations for humidification and dehumidification developed back in Chapter 5_
dqc'" hdV(T - t) '" CpGdT (CONVECTION EQUATION)

(6.20)

dqD '" KadV(.H - .H s) = AdL (DIFFUSION EQUATION)

(6.21)

Ldt'" GdH (OVERALL HEAT BALANCE)

(6.22)

In the above equations we have redefined our temperatures so that T refers to


the hot gas and t to the cold water.
To evaluate Ntu', we must simultaneously integrate all three equations.
This means a trial-and-error approach to the solution.
Consider a countercurrent operation in which cold water contacts hot air.
There are two unknowns: the outlet air humidity and the water loading to
the tower, Even though the outlet-air temperature may be ~nown, we cannot
determine its enthalpy unless its humidity is known. Also,\'vithout the outlet
humidity, the total heat load, qt, cannot be determined as well as the water,

1.4

1.2
0:

CD

::Ii:
:;:)

1.0

(/)

3: 0:8
w

La

....J
Q)

....J

K)(C'"

[ _ _.;..:.k_ _ ] 2/8

pkd c

0.6
0

1200
TEMPERATURE, of

Figure 6.16

Lewis number correlation for the air-water system [4].

152

COOLING TOWERS

L, from Equation 6.22. Hence, for a gas-cooling problem the evaluation of


process conditions depends entirely on the value of the outlet air humidity.
If, however, we assume a humidity for the exit air for a specified discharge
temperature, we can complete the heat balance and determine a value for the
L:G ratio.
The tower's required height is related to the needed Ntu'. By assuming
exit gas humidity, L is evaluated, and the amount of water d~ffused in the
tower and the quantity of heat transferred can be determined through the
definitions KaV/L or haV/L. Both these definitions are related through the
Lewis number. K~rn [5] outlines the trial-and-error solution in detail. By
starting at the bottom of the tower (the gas inlet) an increment of Kab.V/L
is assumed and the amounts of heat and mass transfer over the increment are
computed (L is known and Kab. V represents the actual number of pounds of
mass transfer over the increment). A height should be reached in the tower in
which all the heat transferred matches Equation 6.22. If the initial value of
the enthalpy of the outlet gas and inlet water temperature does not occur at
the same height, then a new outl~t enthalpy is chosen and the procedure repeated until agreement is reached. Problem 6.3 illustrates the method and
Kern [5] gives other examples, Sherwood and Reed [6] also give the solution
of the three differential equations (Equations 6.20,6.21 and 6.22). This is
not a trial-and-ertor solution; however, it is a rather tedious calculation method.
There is a special case sometimes encountered with gas coolers, which leads
to a simplified calculation procedure. This is the case in which hot gas contacts a nonvolatile cooling liquid. In such a situation the mass transfer can be
negligible, and for some systems the latent heat of vaporization may be so
small that the diffusion heat load can be neglected. It is possible then to
neglect mass transfer altogether in this type of gas cooling operation.
Convection alone can be estimated from mass transfer data in packed
towers through the relationship developed in Chapter 5.
haV/L

= (Le)Cp(KaV/L)

(6.23 )

If there is no mass transfer occurring, then the enthalpy of the gas is directly
proportional to the difference in temperatures between the gas and cooling
medium. We know that

haV/L = jdt/AT

(6.24 )

where b. T = T - t. And, since only sensible heat changes occur, we can write

OPERATION AND DESIGN PRACTICE

haY

=f~

",,-TIm

153

(6.25)

where ATlm is the log-mean temperature difference.


This equation can be rearranged to give the number of transfer units (see
Kern [5] for details):

Ntu I =Le -dt""-TIm

(6.26a)

or
I
haY
Ntu = L(Le)C

(6.27b)
p

FIRE HAZARD AND SAFETY PRECAUTIONS WITH


COOLING TOWERS
Tower interiors, except those having special nozzles, cahsist of "fill" material designed to break up the falling water and permit upward air flow. This
"fill" material may be of wood or plastic slats or treated paper honeycomb.
Most of these materials are combustible and, when dry, create an unusually
hazardous arrangement difficult to extingliish promptly and effectively with
hose streams.
Induced- or forced-draft towers usually have a shell of wood or cement
asbestos, a framework of wood and wooden slat filL Some towers are entirely noncombustible, with a shell of galvanized sheet steel or cement
asbestos, a framework of steel and with either spray nozzles or fill materials
proven by appropriate fire tests to be nonhazardous.
A natural-draft tower has no fans but usually has completely louvered sides
and ends to allow wind to pass horizontally through the dripping water.
These towers usually have wooden framing, wooden louvered sides and
wooden fill or spray nozzles to break up the flow of water. Their framing
and louvers may be of noncombustible material.
Cooling towers of combustible construction pose a fire hazard to nearby
structures. Conversely, combustible cooling towers exposed to incinerators or
process or cupola stacks that produce sparks are equally dangerous. The following safety gUidelines should be applied to locating and operating cooling
towers.
1. If towers must be located within 40 feet of each other, within 40 feet of

154

COOLING TOWERS

a building or on the roof of a building of combustible construction, use


noncombustible construction for forced- and natural-draft towers.
2. If possible, locate combustible cooling towers at a safe distance from
ignition sources such as incinerators or stacks. Towers that must be near
such hazards should be constructed entirely of noncombustible material, or
at least the shell should be made from noncombustible materials. Fan openings should be protected with ~-in corrosion-proof wire mesh.
3. Locate any unsprinklered combustible building at least 40 feet from a
combustible tower. Where unsprinklered cooling towers expose adjacent
buildings, protection is needed because of the exposure. Such protection
may be by sprinklers for the tower or protection for the exposed building.
4. Provide automatic sprinkler protection for induced-draft water-cooling
towers where property damage and business interruption could result. In
estimating the extent of possible damage, it should be remembered that the
exterior and certain interior portions of the towers are normally dry and
that whole towers as well as single cells of multi cell towers may be taken
out of service for repairs.
5. Post "No Smoking" rules at the tower and strictly enforce them.
6. Interlock all tower fans with the sprinkler system so that the fans will
be shut off if sprinklers operate.
7. Do not loca# electric light or power circuits above cooling towers.
<

COOLING TOWER PLUMES


Studies have shown that the atmospheric turbulence in the vicinity of
natural-draft cooling towers can increase significantly due to the influence of
plumes. Stack flue gases entering this turbulent region are more rapidly
diluted. Unfortunately, this can lead to appreciable changes in the ground
concentration of precipitated pollutants. As such, impairment is generally
greater in the immediate vicinity of the plant and significantly lower at
greater distances from the source. Perrinjaquet et al. [7] have studied the
extent to which cooling tower plumes increase vertical diffusion to better
estimate the environmental impacts of stack discharges.
In recent years, acute air pollution problems have been associated with
large power plants. Stack discharges depend on the type of power plant. In
oil-fired power plants, the emissions are mainly S02 and NO x ' In coal-fired
operations, emissions include S02, NO x and a variety of radioactive nuclides derived from coal. In nuclear power plants, emissions are limited to
small amounts of radioactive fission products.
Ground-level concentrations of pollutants in the vicinity of discharge
sources can be estimated from diffusion models, which attempt to quantita-

OPERATION AND DESIGN PRACTICE

155

tively describe the turbulent characteristics of the atmosphere [8]. If operable


cooling towers are located in the immediate vicinity of stacks, the large heat
discharge from them can greatly intensify the turbulence within a fairly
large volume. Under certain environmental conditions, this can result in
dramatic increases in pollutant ground-level concentrations.
The study by Perrinjaquet et al. and others [7,9] showed that cooling tower
plumes do not disperse in accordance with the prediction of common diffusion equations. Plumes were observed to consist of a thoroughly well-mixed
core, which was screened from the undisturbed surrounding atmosphere by a
band of relatively calm air. The mean square fluctuations of the vertical
speed of the air inside and outside the plume centers have been estimated for
different distances from the cooling towers and for different altitudes. Vogt
and Geiss [9] have developed an empirical expression for determining the
vertical turbulence intensity, iu, which is applicable to the region between
200 and 500 meters above ground.
. = -T
IU
U g(

where

dT17.3
- )
dZ + 3.0

(6.28)

iu = square root of the mean square tluctutation (turbulen1:e intensity)


U = mean wind speed, m/sec
'

:~ =vertical temperature gradient, DC/I 00 meters


Vogt et al. [9] developed Equation 6.28 from diffusion experiments using
radioactive tracers between 20 and 120 meters above ground. Also the following relation holds:
2.2

.2

IS = Itotal- lu

(6.29)

where iiotal is the square of the fluctuations of the vertical speed of air at the
center of the plume. Note that i~ represents the inherent turbulence of
the plume. It is found to decrease with increasing distance from the cooling
tower. The fnherent turbulence has a strong dependence on the thermal
emission and the type of cooling tower. Equations 6.28 and 6.29 best represent natural-draft, wet cooling towers with a thermal output in the range of
1500 to 2000 MW [7].
The increase in vertical turbulence intensity caused by cooling tower plumes
can be estimated for each temperature gradient and increment of distance
from the tower. This can be represented by well-known turbulence parameters developed for Gaussian plume models:

156

COOLING TOWERS

Itotal

.2

'2

.2

= IU + IS = IU

(1

.2) =i3lu

IS

+~

.2

(6.30)

In this expression, (3 represents the increase factor of vertical diffusion due


to the plume. Gaussian plume or dispersion models are based on standard
deviations of the plume dimensions (u x , u y , u z ). These represent a measure
of the diffusive capacity of the atmosphere. They are dependent on the
turbulence conditions of the atmosphere, the vertical temperature gradient
(which helps to establish atmospheric turbulence in the vertical direction) and
the transporting distance.
Classical theory of turbulent diffusion assumes some sort of constant mixing length, whereby
(6.31)

And the effective vertical dispersion coefficient in the plume is defined as


(6.32)

where uz, in meters, is the vertical dispersion coefficient and is dependent on


climatic conditions. If stable weather conditions exist with a temperature
gradient of +2C/100 meters and wind speeds are mild (at or below 1
meter/sec), then (3 has a value between 30 (for l-km distance from the
tower) and 20 (for 6-km distance). This correction factor is much smaller if
unstable weather conditions and high wind speeds exist. An advantage to
using (3 is that it can be related to different meteorological classifications (or
stability classes) once values for the vertical temperature gradients are known.
A stability class comprises atmospheric conditions that possess approximately
equal diluting characteristics.
When a stack is situated near the cooling tower, stack gases are very likely
to enter the turbulent plume zone. Average yearly concentrations, which are
normally computed from the frequency of various atmospheric stability
classes at ground level, will not provide good estimates. The reason for these
poor estimates is that for average situations stability class estimates assume
conditions that are too stable and too low in turbulence. By employing the
increase factor, (3, in Gaussian dispersion models, it is possible to correctly
estimate the extent to which ground level concentrations averaged over the
year can change due to the influence of cooling tower discharges. Groundlevel concentration predictions are best illustrated by a plot similar to
Figure 6.17.

OPERATION AND DESIGN PRACTICE

157

E
Q"
Q"

z
o
....

0:

....

ALLOWANCE MADE FOR


COOLING TOWER PLUME

PREDICTIONS
WITHOUT
CORRECTING FOR
PLUME
EFFECTS

(.)

o(.)
o

z
o

:;:)

0:

(!)

>

....

..J

0:

DISTANCE FROM STACK

Figure 6.17 Typical plot comparing relative ground concentrati,o,n in the cooling tower
stack direction. Ground-level concentrations are normally aver,aged over the year.

Worst-case environmental conditions occur when an inversion exists and


there is no wind. An inversion is defined as an atmospheric stratification in
which a warmer air layer overlies a colder air mass. This situation typically
occurs in the center of a zone of high pressure after a clear night in a bowlshaped valley. The layer of air immediately above the ground is essentially
stagnant under these conditions so that smoke ascends vertically from the
stacks and tends to spread out in all directions at a certain altitude. In an
extremely bad case, a cooling tower below the inversion would likely establish
a small circulatory system. Because of the inherent turbulence of the plume,
this would,probably lead to greater turbulence in this region. The air in our
enclosed bowl of the valley would warm up by several degrees in a matter of
a few hours until the inversion is broken down from below sufficiently for
the cooling tower plume to break through. The cooling tower plume would
maintain an exchange between the valley bowl air surroundings from this
point onwards.
Similar effects would be exerted by a tower during the existence of fog in a
town. That is, the plume would help to ventilate the town. Note, however,
that this positive effect is likely to be minimal under most conditions.

158

COOLING TOWERS

COOLING TOWER SPECIFICATION GUIDE


With the exception of small compact units, cooling towers are purchased on
competitive bids. The purchaser is responsible for providing all the specifications pertaining to the working conditions of the future installation. As a
general rule, large units require more detailed specifications.
Purchasing specifications include not only performance data, materials,
structural details, plot plan considerations, guarantees, etc., but 'also methods
of bid evaluation, applicable unit costs, energy costs and amortization period.
A good group of specifications will permit a true cost comparison of competitive towers on an installed, as well as on an operating, basis. Table 6.3
summarizes the normal specifications that should be considered.

Table 6.3 Specification List for Cooling Towers


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Service
Heat load, Btu/In
Flow to be cooled, gpm
Hot water temperature, OF
Cold water temperature, OF

6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

Ambient wet-bulb tempera ture, OF


Pumping head, ft
Prevailing wind direction and average velocity
Type of tower
Winter operation provisions

11.
12.
13.
14.
15.

Plot plan
Water analysis
Sound intensity
Design wind and earthquake loads
Materials of construction (structure, casing, fill)

16.
17.
18.
19.
20.

Wood treatment
Basin type and capacity
Piping and valves
Fan type and materials
Drive shaft and reducing gear

21.
22.
23.
24.
25.

Stack heigh t
Motor characteristics (single speed or two-speed)
Mechanical associated equipment
Safety proviSions
Amortization period

26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.

Evaluation costs
Performance test
Work and facilities supplied by purchaser
Installation date
Terms and conditions of sale
Any other applicable documents (shipping, tagging, etc.)

OPERATION AND DESIGN PRACTICE

159

NOTATION
a

= effective surface of water per unit volume of tower, ft 2/ft 3

= blowdown,

Cs

= humid heat, Btu/(lb )('F)

= circulating water rate, lbjhr

= evaporation losses, 0/0

= gas mass rate or loading, lbj(hr)(ft2)

0/0

gpm = gallons per minute


H

= enthalpy, Btu/lb

h
.JI

= heat transfer coefficient in which one film controls, Btuj(hr)(ft2)(F)


= humidity, lb water vaporjlb dry air

iu

= square root of mean square fluctuation, turbulence intensity

K
L

= overall mass transfer coefficient, lbj(hr )(ft2)(lb/lb)


= liquid mass rate, loading, lb/(hr)(ft2)

Le

= Lewis number

= makeup water rate,

= exponent in Equation

= number of decks, see Equation 6.5

0/0

6.2

Ntu' = number of transfer units


n

= exponent in Equation 6.1

= heat transferred

Rc

RF
T

= rating factor defined by Equation 6.3


= temperature, of
= cold water temperature, of

= average wind speed, meter/sec

= tower volume, ft3

= windage or drift losses, 0/0

= concentration, ppm

per unit area, Btu/(hr ) (ft2)

recirculation rate, 0/0

160

COOLING TOWERS

(3

= increase factor of vertical dispersion, see Equation

77

= fill packing parameters in Equation

= latent heat of vaporization, Btuflb

1T c

= cycles of concentration, see Equation 6.9

= dispersion coefficient, meters


= residence time, hr

= fill packing parameter in Equation

6.30

6.S

6.S

Subscripts
a

= ambient air

= convection

= diffusion

eff

= effective

1m

= log mean value


= saturation conditions

= total
x,y,z = axes

PROBLEMS
6.1 A cooling tower has a cross-sectional area of 2S X 2S ft. The total heat
load to the unit is 27 ,SOO ,000 Btufhr. The locality has a S% wet-bulb
temperature of 7 SOF. Water exits the tower with a 12 approach to the
wetbulb temperature (Le., 87F). The hot process water enters the tower
at a temperature of 12SoF, and the water equivalent to this range is
1800 gpm. The systems fan capacity is lS0,000 cfm: (a) Determine the
number of diffusion units that the tower must be capable of performing
to meet process requirements; (b) the tower manufacturer provided the
following data for overload and underload conditions for the tower:
Liquid Loading

Temperature Range

(%)

CF)

122
102
80

123.1-87.2
120.1-85.0
117.6-83.9

OPERATION AND DESIGN PRACTICE

161

Determine how much water the tower can provide from 115F to 85F
when the wet bulb is only 70F. (Hint: a trial-and -error solution must be
used to match conditions on a plot of KaV:L versus L:G).
6.2 A 4.0-ft-diameter (inside diameter) tower has a packed section 15 ft tall.
The packing material is 3-inch Berl saddles. Water (50 gpm feed to the
tower) is to be cooled from 128F to 87F. Approximately 4000 cfm of
air is used to cool the water. The air has a dry bulb of 83F and a wet
bulb of 77F.
In a field test at a gas loading of 1500 Ib/(hr)(ft 2 ), a diffusion coefficient of 380 lb/(hr) (ft2) (lb/lb ) was obtained. Determine the temperature
to which the same tower could cool 7500 cfm to gas if the packing
height were increased to 20 f1. Repeat the problem for 30 ft of packing
height.
6.3 A direct-contact gas cooler system operates as follows: Approximately
35,000 lb /hr of bone-dry air is passed over hot trays. The air is heated
from 150F to 325F as it passes over the trays. It exits from the unit
with a due point of 105F. The hot air is sent to a direct-contact cooler,
where its temperature is reduced back to 150F. During the cooling stage,
the air is dehumidified with water that is heated from 75F to 105F.
The unit is rated at 3.5 inches of water pressure drop : (a) Determine the
number of diffusion units needed for this operation; and (b) Establish
the required dimensions for the direct-contact cooling tower (Hint: Use
standard low-pressure-drop data from the literature. Some of the older
literature give pressure drop data for simple fill. See Sherwood, T. K. and
C. E. Reed [6].

6.4 For problem 6.3, determine how many diffusion units are needed to
cool the gas from 700F to 150F. Assume same operating conditions.

REFERENCES
,
1. McDowell, D. W., II. "The Corrosion Engineer Looks at the Cooling Tow-

er," Cooling Tower Institute, Houston, TX (June 1964).


2. Lichtenstein, J. "Performance and Selection of Mechanical Draft Cooling
Towers," Trans. ASME 779 (1943).
3. Strauss, S. "Guide to Evaluate Cooling Tower Performance," Power (Octtober 1975).
4. Hilpert, R. Forschungsheft 3:355 (1932).
5. Kern, D. Q. Process Heat Transfer (New York:McGraw-Hill Book Co.,
1950).
6. Sherwood, T. K., and C. E. Reed. Applied Mathematics in Chemical Engineering (New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1939).

162

COOLING TOWERS

7. Perrinjaquet, M., A. Baden, F. Gassmann and D. Haschke. "Increase in the


Turbulent Diffusion of Pollutants by Cooling Towers," Combustion 51
(11) (May 1980).
8. Cheremisinoff, P. N., and R. A. Young. Air Pollution Control and Design
Handbook (New York: Marcel Dekker Inc., 1977).
9. Vogt, K. J., and H. Geiss. "Tracer Experiments on the Dispersion of
Plumes over Terrain of Major Surface Roughness," KFA-lulich Jul113l-ST(October 1974).

SUGGESTED READING
l. Bauer, R. O. "Industrial Cooling Tower Systems," Plant Eng. (June 14,
1979 ).
2. Cabral, B. F. A. "Winter Operation of Mechanical Draft Cooling Towers,"
Heat Transfer Survey (1974).
3. Dolar, N. E. "Understanding Cooling Tower Fog," Plant Eng. (Dec. 8,
1977).
4. Troscinski, E. S., and R. G. Watson, "Controlling Deposits in Cooling
Water Systems," Chemical Eng. (March 9,1970).

CHAPTER 7
MECHANICAL COMPONENTS OF COOLING TOWERS

INTRODUCTION

There is a variety of mechanical equipment crucial to cooling tower


operation. They consist of pumps, fans, geared fan drive units, control
valves and drive shafts or V-belts. These components undergo severe service,
which is normally continuous and in a corrosive, hurn;,d environment. It
is critical that careful consideration be given to equipment selection and
specifications for service in such damaging environments. Proper equipment
specification and material selection can greatly minimize maintenance and
replacement costs, as well as costly downtimes. This chapter presents a
detailed account of factors to consider in requisitioning cooling towers,
along with some basics on cost analysis.

CIRCULATING PUMPS

Pumps can be either the horizontal or the vertical type. The selection of
pump type depends on the water basin, which can be underground or
aboveground. An economic evaluation should be made to ascertain which
is the more ,convenient solution-aboveground basins with horizontal pumps
or underground basins with vertical pumps.
Pump installation is an important point to be carefully considered. In
the case of vertical pumps, pump submergence should comply with the
vendor's specifications. In the case of horizontal pumps, the designer should
control the following points:
1. It is good practice to provide separate suction lines for each pump.
In fact, when using a common manifold, the operation of one pump can
interfere with the operation of the other. If a common manifold is used,

163

164

COOLING TOWERS

it must be carefully designed with respect to velocity and geometrical


arrangement.
2. The submergence of suction line water intakes in the basin should be
such as to avoid vortex formation and, consequently, air entrainments.
Figure 7.1 provides recommended minimum submergence depths for different fluid velocities. In some cases it may be impractical to adhere to
these velocity limitations, and higher suction velocities must be accepted.
In such cases, a vortex breaker can be employed (Figure 7.2).

~ 16
I-

~ 12
LIJ
(,)

z 10

LIJ
C!I

II::
LIJ
;:'I;

til

~
;:'I;

4
2

::::>

I/)

I:rr1
;~CTION
~PE

~ 14

...V
2

/'

10

12

14

16

VELOCITY (FT/SEC)

Figure 7.1

SUCTION
PIPE

Recommended minimum submergence depths versus velocity.

(Si~~r

SUCTION

/LIP_E-====I

SlOE VIEW

TOP VIEW

~PCONEPIPE

Figure 7.2

Various methods to prevent vortex formation.

MECHANICAL COMPONENTS OF COOLING TOWERS

165

3. Normal water level in the basin must be at least 6 inches above the
top of the pump casing.
4. Water velocity in the pump suction line should not exceed 8.5 ft/sec.
In the discharge line, the water velocity should not be greater than 12 ft/sec
to avoid excessive erosion of piping (especially where water containing grit
is used).
5. Each pump should be isolated with suction and discharge valves.
6. Pumps should be provided with strainers at their suction inlet,
normally with 3/8-inch screen openings to avoid leaves, pieces of wood
and other foreign material from getting into the pump impeller.
7. The design capacity of the pumps should be 110-115% of normal
capacity. Pumps should have suitable spares, depending on the number of
pumps provided; for example, two 100% capacity or three 50% capacity
pumps. For a large installation, where more than two pumps are required
to operate simultaneously, one spare machine every two pumps should be
provided.
8. The circulating pumps should be specified on the basis of the bubble
point liquid at the net positive suction head (NPSH).

FANS
Cooling tower fans move large volumes of air; therefore, they must be
designed to do it economically. In addition, fan operation must be smooth.
Vibration and air pulsation can be detrimental to mechanical equipment
and tower structures. The materials of construction not only must be
compatible with their design, but also capable of withstanding the corrosive
effects of their environmental.
Both propeller- and centrifugal-type fans are in general use on cooling
towers, with propeller-type fan installations dominating the industry.
Propeller fans have the ability to deliver large volumes of air at low
static heads and are used almost exclusively on towers for outdoor
installations. They are relatively inexpensive, can be used on any size
tower and are particularly suited to cooling tower usage where low draft
losses prevail. In properly designed fan cylinders, propeller fans operate at
efficiencies as high as 80%. They are currently produced in volume in sizes
up to 30 inches in diameter. Centrifugal fans operate effectively against
high static heads and are used for most indoor installations; sizes generally
range up to 36 inches in diameter.
An important characteristic of propeller fans is that their operating
smoothness is directly proportional to the number of blades loading and
unloading as they pass over the mechanical equipment supports and tower

166

COOLING TOWERS

framework, but also to the basic blade load. As a design requirement, for
the same air flow and blade tip speed, a fan with a few blades requires
wider blades than a fan with a larger number of blades. The resulting
higher blade with the wide blade fan produces much greater pulsation of
air flow with proportionate increases in fan cylinder and tower vibration.
This can definitely reduce the effective service life of the tower.
Four blades are ordinarily considered a desirable minimum for mediumsized fans, with eight blades a minimum for large diameters. Twelve blades
are a practical maximum. Fan diameters are basically determined by the
volume of air to ,be handled. Air velocities through the fan range from
1200 to 2500 fpm. An economic design value is about 1800 fpm. Acceptable
fan blade tip speeds, with low noise as the criterion, vary with the type
tower, the type of fan cylinder and the blade tip clearance.
On industrial installations where noise is not a major consideration,
tip speeds as high as 15,000 fpm are acceptable on fans 10 feet in diameter
and larger. However, tip speeds seldom exceed 12,000 fpm. Designs for
office building installations provide for tip speeds on the order of 800012,000 fpm, with fan diameters varying from 3 to 8 feet. Small packaged
towers for residential air conditioning duty usually employ sheet metal fan
blades 10-24 inches in diameter, with tip speeds seldom exceeding 5000 fpm.
In the larger diameters, a properly designed propeller fan will be
proportioned so that a uniform air velocity will be produced from hub to
blade tip. Aluminum alloys provide excellent materials for production of
this type of fan blade. Aluminum blades produced as castings are relatively
inexpensive, have desirable internal vibration damping properties and are
highly corrosion resistant in most cooling tower applications. Another
material that has great potential for cooling tower fan blades is reinforced
plastic resin. (The reader is referred to the literature [1] for a discussion
of fiberglass fans and fan reconditioning.)
Blade castings can also be produced from brass and stainless steel, but
their Use is generally limited because of their relatively high cost and weight.
If the blade shanks and hub are of dissimilar metals, they should be
insulated from each other to prevent galvanic corrosion from occurring.
Centrifugal fans of the double inlet type are used predominantly on
cooling towers for indoor installations. Their inherent characteristics of high
static capability and qUiet operation make them particularly suitable for
this type of tower installation. Centrifugal fans are available in three types:
(1) forward curve blade fans, (2) radial blade fans, and (3) backward curve
blade fans (Figure 7.3). The characteristics of the forward curve blade fan
make it the most appropriate type for cooling tower applications. Centrifugal
fans are usually of sheet metal construction. The most popular protective
coating is hot dipped galvanizing.

MECHANICAL COMPONENTS OF COOLING TOWERS

FOWARD CURVED
(INCLINED) BLADE

RADIAL BLADE
(PADDLE WHEEL)

167

BACKWARD INCLINED
BLADE

Figure 7.3 Centrifugal fan configurations: (a) forward curve blade; (b) radial blade fan;
(c) backward curve blade.

SPEED REDUCERS
The primary design requirements for cooling tower gear reducers (speed
reducers) are long life and minimum maintenance. To attain this, they must
be ruggedly constructed so they can withstand the continuous service and
severe environment in which they operate. The gear components may be
of different types. Helical, spiral bevel and worm gear are the most
common. Depending on the reduction ratio, they may,,~be single-stage or
two-stage reducer~.
The required service factor is an important specification. The service
factor is defined as the ratio of calculated basic horsepower to the applied
horsepower. The service factor can be as high as 2 for spiral-bevel reducers,
but with continuous service this factor could be as low as 1.25 to have a
good reducer life.
Gear reducer life is also dependent on bearing life. Bearings are normally
selected for a calculated life compatible with the type of service. Bearings
for industrial cooling tower gear reducers, considered for continuous duty,
are selected by quality manufacturers on the basis of a 100,000 hour
B-lO life. B-lO life is defined as the life expectancy in hours during which
90% or more of a given group of bearings under a specific loading condition
will still be in service.
Lubrication is highly important to assure long trouble-free service life.
The lubrication system should be capable of providing lubrication for short
periods of time and for reverse rotation operation.

DRIVE SHAFTS
The function of the drive shaft is to transmit power from the prime
mover to the gear reducer. It operates in the humid air stream so it must

168

COOLING TOWERS

be durable. It is a high speed unit so its design must include balancing


facilities. Since tower structures are not completely rigid, the drive shaft
must be able to operate with a limited degree of misalignment.
Drive shafts are described as floating shafts equipped with flexible couplings
at both ends. They must be constructed from corrosion-resistant materials
because of the humid environment in which they operate. The floating
shaft is usually fabricated from carbon steel tubing furnished with a
protective coating (hot dipped galvanized being preferred). Stainless steel
tubing is used quite frequently because it is more durable although it is
more expensive.
It is important that drive shafts be properly balanced. Imbalance not only
causes tower vibration but also induces higher loads and excessive wear on
the mechanical equipment coupled to the shaft. With drive shafts approaching
speeds of 1800 rpm in most cooling tower applications, it is necessary
that the shafts be dynamically balanced to reduce vibrational forces to a
minimum.

INSTRUMENTATION, VALVES AND FLOWSHEETS


The instrument~ usually provided for cooling towers and circulating
pumps include:
..
..
..

..

LlC (Level Indicator Control) with low-level alarm on the cooling tower
basin and an actuating valve on the water makeup line;
PIC (Pressure Indicator Control) with low-pressure alarm on the cooling
water supply header and an automatic cut-in device to start spare pumps
when supply pressure falls below a certain level;
a vibration cut-out switch with alarm to stop the electric motors of fans in
the event of high vibration. This switch must be provided with a reset
device to set its action at the desired level of vibration above the normal. A
vibration switch is used to trip the motor at the startup of fans; and
a pH analyzer with high and low pH alarms to actuate a sulfuric acid pump
motor.

Valves are used to control the water flow through the water lines of the
cooling tower distribution system. Valves used for this type application
include stop valves, flow control valves and float control valves. The types
of valves, quantity required and complexity of design are dictated by the
type and size of tower.
Stop valves are used on both counterflow and crossflow towers to
regulate the water flow, particularly between cells on multicell towers, and
to shut off the water for maintenance or other purposes. In regions
in which freezing temperatures are not encountered, conventional stop
valves may be replaced on crossflow towers with flow control valves that

MECHANICAL COMPONENTS OF COOLING TOWERS

169

are adaptable for this purpose. On multicell towers, this can represent considerable cost savings.
Flow control valves are used on cross flow towers to equalize water
flow between tower cells and cell basins. Flow control valves, if properly
designed, may also be used as stop valves under certain climatic conditions.
Float valves are required on all cooling tower systems. Their purpose is to
supply makeup water to replace that lost by evaporation, blowdown, drift
and system leakage. They are usually installed in the cold water basin and
function to maintain a preestablished water level. A typical flowsheet
showing the recommended arrangements for instrumentation and valves
is given in Figure 7.4.
The specifier must have a good understanding of instrumentation and
support machinery. Any process instrumentation book will acquaint the
newcomer to this area with the criteria for proper instrumentation selection.
To illustrate the process involved in specifying the entire cooling tower
system package, the following example has been prepared.

EXAMPLE OF COOLING TOWER REQUISITION


I. INTENT AND SCOPE OF WORK

A. Intent
Design, supply all materials for delivery to site and supervise erection
on prepared foundations, testing and commissioning one mechanicalinduced draft cooling tower in accordance with the requirements of
this requisition.
Manufacturer also should supply the following:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

tower outline dimensions, including stairways, ladders and location


of water connections,
water basin outline and loads on foundations and for all other
concrete works,
fill rack and drift eliminator details,
tower sheeting arrangement, and
detailed instructions and drawings to permit field assembly by others.

B. Work by Others
The following shall be provided by others:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

construction of all concrete work,


field assembly,
tower circulating pumps and chemical treatment equipment,
all piping, valves and fittings to the cooling tower inlet connections,
all lighting,
all electric wiring and controls (or steam piping and controls), and
free use of station facilities, such as power, water and sanitary
facilities.

VIBRATION

..-

CUT -OFF

-.l

VALVES FOR EACH


CELL TO BE
OPERABLE
FROM GRADE
COOLING WATER RETURN

SLIDE
GATE

PROVIDE SEPARATE
BASIN FOR EACH
CELL

DRAIN
OVERFLOW
AND
BLOWDOWN

WATER
MAKE-UP
CHLORINE
BOTTLES

~T-----------~----------COOLING
WATER
SUPPLY

ACID
MAKE-UP

88
I
r
I

66Be Hil 0 4

CORROSION INHIBITOR

L _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ .L ____ ..J'

I __________________________________
INJECTION SYSTEM
L
JI

INJECTION SYSTEM

Figure 7.4

Typical flowsheet for a cooling tower system.

MECHANICAL COMPONENTS OF COOLING TOWERS

171

C. Quality of Materials
All materials shall be of first-class quality and free from all defects
that would cause unworkmanlike appearance. All materials used shall
be suitable for the service under which they will operate.

D. Performance Tests
The cooling tower manufacturer shall conduct the acceptance
performance test and shall supply the necessary instruments to
conduct the test in accordance with the requirements of the
cn Test Procedure ATP-10S, latest revision.
The manufacturer's proposal shall include performance curves of
the tower, based on design fan horsepower, showing cold water
temperature versus air wet-bulb temperature for 90%, 100% and
110% of design water flow. The curves shall cover cooling ranges of
lSoF, 20F, 2SoF, 30F and design range.
II. REQUIREMENTS-SIZE, CAPACITY AND OPERATION
The cooling tower shall meet the following requirements:

A. Design Conditions

water flow over cooling water, U.S. GPM


Inlet water temperature, of
Outlet water temperature. of
Wet-bulb temperature, of
Relative humidity, %
Altitude above sea level, ft
Pumping head limitations, ft
Maximum drift losses

B. Physical Data

Maximum width, ft
Maximum length, ft
Maximum height, ft
Location of nearby heat sources, ft
Direction and intensity of prevailing winds
Orientation of longitudinal axis of tower
2
Live wind load, Ib/ft
Earthquake load, g
Available power-V/phase/cycles
Motors up to
Motors above
Preferred arrangement (number of cells)
Preferred volume of tower basin (standard, 2-ft, 6-inch water
level), fe

172

COOLING TOWERS

III. COOLING TOWER DETAILS-MATERIALS AND DESIGN


A. Framework
The supporting structure will be an independent structure in reinforced concrete and so calculated to be able to carry the static loads
as well as the mechanical equipment. The construction will be
properly reinforced and braced to transfer directly to the foundations
all loads and tresses.
The anchor bolts will be included in the supply.
The structural frame of the tower also shall be designed to withstand
the wind pressure in any horizontal direction or earthquake loading,
as specified in the section of the requisition entitled RequirementsSize, Capacity and Operation.

B. Sheeting
The external wall shall be single-wall construction (watertight design) using i-inch flat or corrugated cement asbestos board according
to CTI Std. 127 (Philip Carey Industrial AC Board, Johns-Manville
Transite or equal) or glass-reinforced polyester, fire-retardant opaque
type. Utility boards or similar grades of cement asbestos board are
NOT acceptable. Vertical joints shall have an adequately sealed
overlap or ;be covered with a batten. Horizontal joints shall have an
adequate overlap. Fasteners shall be of stainless steel to prevent
staining. Nails shall not be used for attachments.

C. Filling
Individual fill assemblies shall be designed to be removable. Fill shall
be properly supported and fastened to prevent warping or buckling
under all expected operating or icing conditions.
Tower fill material is to be of impregnated fir, polypropylene or
polyethylene and other approved plastic materials.
Manufacturer shall quote wood filling as an alternative to plastic
filling.
Fill racks used in the counterflow design shall be capable of
supporting a man or 25 Ib/ft 2 10ading.
To prevent biological attack, one of the following preservatives may
be selected to impregnate lumber for tower fill and other wood parts:
1.

2.

Erdalith Preservative shall be used to treat redwood lumber by the


pressure treating process. The waterborne salts are, by weight, 33%
copper sulfate, 56% potassium dichromate and 11% arsenic pentoxide. Lumber treatment shall be to an average retention at
shipment of 0.75 lb/ft'.
Creosote Preservative shall be used to treat redwood lumber by the
pressure treating process. Lumber treatment shall be to an average
retention at shipment of 10 lb/ft'.

MECHANICAL COMPONENTS OF COOLING TOWERS

173

Treatment of the lumber by either of the above preservatives shall


be in accordance with the American-Wood Preservers' Association
Standards CI and C2 for Pacific Coast Douglas Fir, except that the
lumber shall not be incised. The empty- and full-cell process shall
be used for the Creosote and waterborne preservative treatments,
respectively. Treatment shall be guaranteed to the extent that the
average chemical retention will be as stated above.
D. Distribution System
The distribution system shall be designed to permit flexible operation of the tower and permit each cell to be taken out of the service
individually.
The nozzle shall be a self-draining, nonclogging-type nonferrous
material. All internal piping or header for multicells, if employed,
shall be galvanized steel or cast iron.
Impregnated wood, glass-reinforced polyester or precast concrete are
acceptable materials for water basin.
E. Drift Eliminators
Eliminators shall be fabricated in easily removable panel sections
and so designed to limit the drift loss to less than 0.2% of the
water flow:
1,.\,
1.

2.

In the counterflow design, where eliminators are subject to live loads,


the racks shall be capable of supporting the weight of a man or
25 lb/ft'. The minimum thickness of wood slats shall be t inch.
In the crossflow design, where eliminators are not subject to live
loads, the minimum dimension of each board shall be t inch.

F. Louvers
Air inlet louver boards shall be easily removed to permit access to
the tower and designed for an even air distribution into the tower.
Minimum thickness of louver board shall be I-inch nominal for wood
and i-inch nominal for corrugated asbestos cement. Glass-reinforced
polyester louvers may be employed.
G. Partitions
Partition and air baffle walls shall be constructed of ~-inch net
wood or other approved material.
In multicell towers, the transverse internal partition walls shall
extend to the full height of the tower. The longitudinal partition
wall in "back-to-back" cell arrangements shall extend from the fan
deck to the elevation of the distribution system and, in addition, an
air baffle shall be provided to at least the height of the air inlet

174

COOLING TOWERS

louvers to prevent air from blowing through the louvered portion of


the tower. The longitudinal partition wall in "in-line" cell arrangement
shall consist only of an air baffle to the height of the air inlet.
H. Decks and Stacks
Fan and water distribution decks are to be of precast concrete and
designed for a live load of 60 Ib/ft2 plus any conc~ntrated or
distributed dead loads, such as fans, motors and maintenance
equipment.
Stacks shall extend to a height of at least four feet above the fan
deck, not only to provide protection for operating personnel, but
to properly direct the discharge air upward and away from the
cooling tower.

I. Hardware
Bolts, nuts, washers and timber connectors shall be (galvanized steel)
(yellow brass) (Silicon bronze) (stainless steel). Anchor castings shall
be cast iron unless nonferrous fasteners are specified, then anchor
castings shall be red brass. Nails shall be copper or bronze.
1. Mechanical 4:quipment
l. Fans shall be of a design that has operated satisfactorily in
cooling tower service for at least five years. The fans shall have
a minimum of four blades of aluminum alloy, stainless steel,
monel or equivalent. Plastic blades are not acceptable. Blades shall
be adjustable for degree of pitch and shall be individually
fastened to a hub of welded steel or cast iron (stainless steel
optional at extra cost).
The fans shall be designed with a tip speed less than 12,000 ft/
min.
The noise level of the fans when measured on ground level 50 feet
from the cooling tower shall not exceed 75 decibels on the
International B Scale.
2. Gear Reducers shall be of the spiral bevel type or its equivalent.
The speed reducers shall be especially designed for cooling tower
service and rated in accordance with the standard practices of the
American Gear Manufacturers' Association. A service factor of at
least 2.0 shall be applied to the basic AGMA rating to correspond
to continuous moderate-shock operation. Gears must conform to
cooling tower Institute Standard STD-III, latest revision.
3. Motors shall be sqUirrel cage induction type with (totally enclosed,
fan-cooled) (encapsulated) (splashproof) enclosure and roller-type
bearings with NEMA Class A insulation. Motors shall be (single

MECHANICAL COMPONENTS OF COOLING TOWERS

4.

5.

6.

7.

175

speed) (two speed, one winding, variable torque) designed to


operate on 400-V, 3-phase, 60-cycle current and designed for
across-the-line starting.
Turbines shall be sllitable and guaranteed for continuous duty at
the conditions of service specified by the purchaser. Turbines shall
also be suitable and guaranteed for outdoor installation in cooling
tower service. Materials of constructions shall be manufacturer's
standard for the service conditions specified. Turbine accessories
shall include a mechanical flyweight constant-speed governor,
emergency-overspeed governor operating separate trip valve, a
hand-speed changer, a corrosion-resistant steam strainer and a
sentinel casing warning valve. All turbine pressure parts shall be
hydro tested to 11- times the manufacturer's design pressure.
Turbine rotor shall be statistically and dynamically balanced.
Flexible Coupled Shaft shall be provided to connect each motor
and speed reducer assembly. The coupling flanges shall be (zincplated steel) (stainless steel) of the nonlubricated type with
stainless-steel flexing disc rings. The shaft shall be hollow tube
(stainless steel) (zinc-plated steel) of a sufficient size to adequately
transmit the full rated motor horsepower. The shaft and coupling
assembly shall be dynamically balanced.
Vibration cut-out switches shall be supplied and installed outside
the fan ring for wiring by the purchaser to the motor energizing
circuit.
Mechanical equipment supports 'of galvanized structural steel shall
be supplied to properly mount the fan, gear and motor assemblies.
Each framework shall form an integral unit and be laterally
supported by galvanized steel members bolted to the tower posts.

K. Access
A sufficient number of access doors, ladders and walkways shall
be provided for safe and easy accessibility to internals and mechanical
equipment of the tower for inspection and maintenance. Access doors
shall be tight, resistant and easy to operate. Access ladders from the
ground should be located in such a position to permit future cell
addition.
IV. GUARANTEE
A. Performance
The cooling tower must be guaranteed to perform as specified
herein when tested in accordance with the Cooling Tower Institute
Acceptance Test Procedure ATP-l 05, latest revision. Should the

176

COOLING TOWERS
apparatus fail to meet the specified conditions after fair test run
immediately following a thorough cleaning, and made in the presence
of the manufacturer's representatives, the manufacturer must make
such alterations or fUrnish such additional equipment as may be
necessary to meet these specifications free of cost to the user. The
scope of services and equipment supplied as guarantee remedy are
limited in kind to the services and equipment supplie~ under the
contract.
The equipment shall be considered as accepted if tests show that
the guarantees have been fulfilled (or if no test is performed)
within one year after completion of erection.

B. Materials
The manufacturer shall repair or replace without charge, f.o.b. point
of shipment, any material which, within one year from date of
delivery, is proven defective in materials or workmanship, provided
that the purchaser shall have given the manufacturer written notice
of such defect and that such defects are exclusive of corrosion,
erosion or normal wear, and provided that the equipment has been
operated in accordance with generally approved practice.

V. DATA REQUIRE,]] WITH BIDS


A. Cooling Tower

1. Number of cells
2. Cell dimensions, ft, in.
3. Tower length, ft, in.
4. Tower width, ft, in.
5. Tower height, ft, in.
6. Casing, material and dimensions
7. Structure, material and
dimensions
8. Fill decks, material and
dimensions
9. Partitions and baffles,
materials and dimensions
10. Drift eliminators, material
and dimensions
11. Fan stacks, material and
dimensions
12. Fan deck, material and
dimensions

MECHANICAL COMPONENTS OF COOLING TOWERS

13. Louvers, material and


dimensions
14. Board feet of fill
IS. Board feet total tower
16. Height of fan stacks, ft, in.
17. Post extension below curb,
ft, in.
18. Total shipping weight, Ib
19. Total operating weight, lb

B. Fans
1.
2.
3.
4.
S.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.

Number of units
Type and manufacturer
Diameter, ft, in.
Number of blades per fan
Blade material
Hub material
rpm
Tip speed, fpm
Mechanical efficiency, 0/0
Static efficiency, 0/0
Weight, lb

C. Motors
1. Number of units
2. Size, hp
3. Type and manufacturer
4. Full load speed, rpm
S. Frame size
6. Full load current, amps
7. Locked rotor current amps
8. Weight, lb

D. Turbines
1. Number of units
2. Size, hp
3. Type and manufacturer
4. Full load speed, rpm
S. Steam rate, bhp/hr
6. Maximum horsepower renozzled
7. Weight, Ibs

177

178

COOLING TOWERS
E. Gear Reducers
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Number of units
Type and manufacturer
Rating, hpa
Shafts, material
Coupling flanges, material
Flexing elements, material

F. Drive Shafts and Couplings


1. Number of units
2. Type and manufacturer
3. Rating, hpa
4. Shafts, material
5. Coupling flanges, material
6. Flexing elements, material
G. Miscellaneous Equipment
1. Mechanical equipment
supports, material
2. Vibration cut-out switches,
included'
3. Derrick [Sr handling mechanical
equipment, included
H. Distribution System
1. Number and size of inlet flanges
2. Height of water inlet above curb,
ft, in.
3. Header material
4. Lateral material
5. Nozzle, or dowl)spout material

1. Design Performance
1. Pumping head from top of
basin curb, ft
2. Spray loss, max. %
3. Evaporation loss, max. %
4. Fill wetted surface, ft2
5. Total wetted surface, ft 2
6. Effective splash surface, ft2
7. Effective cooling volume, ft3
(from eliminators to water
level)

MECHANICAL COMPONENTS OF COOLING TOWERS

179

8. Air volume per fan, cfm


9. Static pressure, inches of water
10. Output horsepower/motor/
(turbine)
11. Tower loading, gpm/ft2
K. Drawings and Performance Curves
1. Tower outline elevation
2. Foundation outline
3. Fill rack details
4. Drift eliminator details
5. Tower sheeting arrangement
6. A series of guaranteed performance curves within limits of
CTI Test Procedure ATP-lOS, latest revision

COOLING TOWER TESTING


There is only one method of determining whether the performance of a
cooling tower is in conformance with the guarantee, thCl,t is by thermally
testing the unit. The accuracy of testing is influenced
many variables,
some controllable, some not. Because of this, variables are seldom possible
to test at the design conditions. Tower testing is conducted following the
recommendations of The Cooling Tower Institute.
Cooling tower performance must be guaranteed as specified under
process data; drift losses also must be guaranteed. Since the performance
test is run under conditions that will be different from those specified, the
manufacturer must supply sets of performance curves based on design
fan horsepower, showing cold water temperature versus air wet-bulb
temperature for 90%, 100% and 110% of design water circulating flow and
covering cooling ranges of 20F, 25F and 30F. Examples of these curves
are given in Figure 7.5.

by

BIDS EVALUATION
The total cost is the economic factor that normally decides the final
cooling tower design; however, the optimum selection must include not
only the capital investment, but also all operating costs based on the
period of amortization. Other factors to be considered are general design,
manufacturer, replacement parts, flexibility of operation, etc. Costs include
capital investment and operating costs.

00

95

"LLJ

IX:

::>

V_

./. ~

a..

::E 85
LLJ

./

IX:
LLJ

80
<t

;;:
0

...J

75

IX:

---

60

90

<t
IX:

/.~

LLJ

a..

::E

l-::::: ~

l--::: ~ ~

V VL---- ~ V

LLJ

85

IX:
LLJ

l't.T = 30F
t.T=25Ft.T=20F

"

65
70
75
80
AIR WET - BULB TEMPERATURE (OF)

Figure 7.S

<t

;;:

80

...J

r::::: ~
V
t;:: V ""\
./
./

V
t.T= 30F
t.T=25F
t.T=20F -

1-10% WATER FLOW

LLJ

LLJ

::>

95

IX:

90

LLJ

"-

100% WATER FLOW

"-

90% WATER FLOW

<t
IX:

95
~ j-

90

J..-

LLJ

a..

:::;:
LLJ

85

IX:

V V V V
80
1--....

LLJ
~

<t

;;:
0

---

V t:/ V
V
V ~~
~t.T=30F
~ I"t.T=25F_
t. T=20F

...J

0
U

75

75
60

::>

<t
IX:

65
70
75
80
AIR WET-BULB TEMPERATURE (OF)

60

65

70

75

80

AIR WET-BULB TEMPERATURE (OF)

Typical cooling tower performance curves for different water loadings.

MECHANICAL COMPONENTS OF COOLING TOWERS

181

Capital investment must include:


II
II
II
II
II

total erected cost of the cooling tower,


cost of cold water basin, including sump,
installed cost of pumps, motors, drives, speed reducers,
installed cost of controls, wiring, starters, etc., and
installed cost of all piping, including overflow, drain, inlet and return
and makeup lines, as well as shutoff and control valves.

Operating costs to be evaluated include:


II
II
II

maintenance costs,
energy cost for pump and fans, and
investment amortization costs.

Table 7.1 Economic Considerations of Wet Cooling Systems


Cooling System Costs

Cooling System Performance

Capital Cost
Costs of basic system, condenser,
circulating water piping, makeup
pumps and blowdown facilities,
and intake and discharge systems.

Cooling Capacity
System sizing, air-to-water
surface contact, dry- and
wet-bulb temperatures for
rela tive huml'dity, wind
speed and direction, range
and approach.

Annual Fixed Charges


Interest, amortization of the
system capital costs, interim
replacement, insurance and taxes.

Overall Performance
Accounting for condenser
and turbine characteristics.

Annual Operation and Maintenance


Amount of generation, fuel
consumption, payroll, labor,
overhaul and parts replacement.

Reliability
Performance of cooling
systems under various
operations and climatic
conditions.

Capability Penalties
The amount paid for each
kilowatt of additional capacity
when 'the unit is unable to
produce its required capability
(measured at the maximum
summer wet-bulb temperature
and peak demand periods).
Energy Penalties
The amount paid for each kilowatthour of additional energy when the
unit is unable to produce its required
capability.

Miscellaneous Factors
Fire, risks, wind, loads,
seismic risks.

182

COOLING TOWERS

Table 7.2 Procedure for Estimating Potential Water Cost and Sewer Taxes Savings
(courtesy of Delta Cooling Towers, Carborundum Corp., Fairfield, NJ)
Data Required
I. Flowrate of city water used _ _ _ _ gpm
2. Hours of heat load operation _ _ _ _ hr/day X _____ day/wk X
_ _ _ _ wks/yr =
hr/yr
3. City water cost $
/1000 gal
/1000 gal
4. City sewer cost $
5. Electrical cost $
/kWh
Calculation of City Water/Sewer Tax Costs
I. Current volume of city water used _ _ _ _ gpm X 60 min/hr X _ _ _ _ hr/yr
_ _ _ _ gal/yr
2. Cost of city water used Fresh: _ _ _ gal/yrX $ _ _ _ _
cost/IOOO gal = $ _ _ _ _ /yr
Sewer:
gal/yr X $ _ _ __
cost/IOOO gal = $ _ _ _ _ /yr
Total city water/sewer tax cost = $ ____ /yr
Capital Cost of Cooling Tower Installation
1. Cooling tower system material cost
2. Cooling tower system installation cost
3. Total installed ~osta

Example
(75)
(24 X 5 X 50
= 6000)
($0.50)
($0.5(l)
($0.045)

(75 X 60 X 6000
= 27,000,000)
(27,000,000
X $0.50
= $13,500)
($27,000)

$ _ _ _ __
$ _ _ _ __
$ _ _ _ __

Operating Cost of Co\~ling Tower System


1. Power consumption b
Blower motor hp - - - Pump motor hp
Total
hp
Total _____ hp X 0.746 kWh/hp X $ _ _ __
Cost/kWh X
hr/yr = $
cost/yr
2. Water makeup
Volume of city water used
gal/yr X 0.03
X$
Total cost/IOOO gal = $
/yr
3. Maintenance cost $
/y r
4. Total operating costs (1 + 2 + 3) $ _____ /yr
Evaluation of Operating Costs
I. Total city water/sewer tax cost (II)
$ ____
Total cooling tower operation cost (IV) $
Savings (II-IV) $
or $
2. Considering savings of $
/montl1 and the
initial capital cost of the cooling tower
installation (Ill) of$
, the return
on investment will be
months.

/yr
/yr
/yr
/month

($ 5,000)
($ 5,000)
($10,000)

(15)
(10)

(25)
(25 X 0.746 X 0.045
X 6000 = $5,040)
(27,000 X 0.03
X $1 = $810)
($450)
($6300)
($ 27,000)
($6300)
($20,700)
($1720)
($1720)
($10,000)
(5.8)

aRulc of thumb for evaluation purposes: installation cost will not ordinarily exceed
materials cost, so total installed cost may be calculated at approximately two times the
materials cost.
bPower consumption is computed on total hours of heat load operation. Total cost may
be less, considering actual BHP used and cold weather operation during which the
cooling tower will function with blower motor off.

MECHANICAL COMPONENTS OF COOLING TOWERS

183

COOLING TOWER ECONOMICS


The cost of cooling tower systems can be divided into five general
categories, namely, capital cost, annual fixed charges, annual operation
and maintenance, capability penalties, and replacement energy costs. Selection of the optimum tower is based on a proper balance among capital
investment, operating costs, performance, and potential environmental and
social impacts. Table 7.1 summarizes the major economic considerations
for evaluating wet cooling systems.
An important factor that should be considered in the economic analysis
is the potential savings of water costs and sewer taxes that could be
realized by choosing one system over another. Table 7.2 outlines a good
procedure for estimating potential water cost savings.

REFERENCES
l. Cheremisinoff, N. P., and P. N. Cheremisinoff. Fiberglass-Reinforced
Plastics Deskbook (Ann Arbor, MI: Ann Arbor Science Publishers, Inc.,
1978).

SUGGESTED READING
I. Cheremisinoff, N. P. Applied Fluid FlolV Measurement-Fundamentals and
Technology (New York: Marcel Dekker; Inc., 1979).
2. Cheremisinoff, P. N., and R. A. Young. Pollution Engineering Practice
Handbook (Ann Arbor, MI: Ann Arbor Science Publishers, Inc., 1975).
3. Monroe, R. C. "Fans-Key to Optimum Cooling Tower Design," Oil
Gas J., (May 27,1974).
4. Strauss, S. "Guide to Evaluate Cooling Tower Performance," Power

(October 1975).

This page intentionally left blank

CHAPTER 8
COOLING TOWER WATER TREATMENT

INTRODUCTION
Water has experienced extensive use in cooling operations, both because
it is an excellent cooling medium and because it is relatively inexpensive.
All natural waters do, however, contain dissolved solids, gases and a variety
of suspended matter in different amounts. These contaminants can be the
source of varying operating problems. Bicarbonates and sulfates of calcium,
sodium and iron are the most common dissolved solids. The amount of each
will depend on their abundance in the earth at the source of the water.
Carbon dioxide is the most common of the dissolved gases found in water
and the highest concentrations exist in waters from shallow wells and lakes
due to decay processes. Suspended solids may consist of silt and a variety
of organic constituents. All water systems are capable of developing algae and
slimes in varying degrees if environmental conditions are proper.
The presence of suspended and dissolved matter can lead to precipitation
under the proper conditions causing severe scaling or fouling problems in
process equipment and distribution systems. High concentrations of suspended matter can result in erosion. Both problems can be translated into
lost dollars because of costly maintenance and downtimes for equipment
replacement. In the case of organic constituents, the ideal environment for
microorganisms to grow can exist, posing serious health hazards in certain
applications.
Because of the inherent problems of scale formation and potential health
hazards in some applications, cooling tower water treatment must be carefully considered in the overall cooling system design.

185

186

COOLING TOWERS

PROBLEMS INHERENT TO WATER CONTAMINANTS


In addition to the common minerals absorbed from the soil, natural waters
can also be affected by industrial drainage, often resulting in acidic conditions. Faulty processing equipment may introduce a variety of contaminants
such as oils, fats, acids, alkalies and hydrocarbons directly into the cooling
system. Undesirable airborne contaminants, such as hydrogen sulfide and
acid vapors released by processing equipment and fly ash from' coal-burning
furnaces, may be drawn into the tower and dissolved in the circulating water.
Without proper co'ntrol, the presence of any of these materials may cause
corrosion of metal parts, wood deterioration or loss in thermal performance
throughout the entire cooling system.
There are five types of cooling water problems encountered in cooling
tower systems. These are: scale formation, corrosion, organic (algae and
bacteria slime) growths, suspended (sand, mud, silt, etc.) matter and oil
leakage. With the exception of oil leakage, these problems can be controlled
to a certain extent by standard water treatment techniques. Different types
of treatment have been employed with various degrees of success. Treatments
employed include using a circulating system with a small quantity of treated
makeup water, with or without the addition of chemical inhibitors to the
method of controlling contaminations and scale
circulating water..:Another
.'
formation is the use of alloy tubes. Unfortunately, this is an expensive
solution and often one that is difficult to justify economically.
In addition to the first four problems, which are of water origin, oil leakage
into the water also causes problems. Oil will interfere with other treatments
employed. It is therefore desirable to eliminate oil leakage as much as possible
by repairing leaks as soon as they develop.
Due to evaporation, salts contained in the water tend to concentrate and
could precipitate, causing scale in the system. The scaling tendency of the
circulating water can be controlled by an appropriate blowdown to lower the
salt content, and by the addition of treating chemicals. These chemicals are
inhibitors that prevent precipitation from occurring. The corrosion problems
encountered in evaporative cooling water systems concern the cooling circuit
(i.e., exchangers, piping, etc.) and the cooling tower itself.
Oxygen, carbon dioxide and various chemicals used to reduce scaling can
cause corrosion. Corrosion control is provided largely by the use of inhibitors
such as chromates, polyphosphates, silicates and alkalies.
Corrosion within the tower itself is due mainly to the particular conditions
existing therein (air, humidity and temperature) and also to the chemical
treatment of the water. All construction materials exposed to these conditions must be selected carefully. Hardware and piping for distribution headers
have been successfully made with hot-dipped galvanized steel, cadmiumcoated steel, stainless steel and silicon bronze.

COOLING TOWER WATER TREATMENT

187

Scaling and corrosion are related phenomena. The properties of water


influencing both are the calcium hardness, alkalinity, total dissolved solids,
pH and temperature. Theoretically, the above conditions can be controlled
so that the water is in equilibrium and neither corrosion nor scaling results.
In practice, however, this equilibrium is difficult to achieve since it is a border
condition, and a delicate balance must be maintained.
Water corrosion of iron and steel is simply oxidation of the metal forming
iron oxide by galvanic action. The rate of oxidation is faster at higher oxygen
concentrations. This is why corrosion is more of a problem in recirculating
cooling water systems than in once-through systems. Likewise, the rate
of attack is higher for waters of higher acidity because a low-pH water is a
better electrolyte. Therefore, increasing the pH up to the equilibrium point
decreases corrosion. However, increasing the pH further causes scale formation.
The principal scale-forming material in cooling systems is calcium carbonate, which has a solubility of about 15 ppm and is formed by the
decom position of calcium bicarbonate.
Scaling results when the solubility limit of calcium carbonate is reached,
at which point precipitation onto tube surfaces occurs. The extent of calcium
carbonate precipitation is a function of the composition of the water and
the temperature. The alkalinity, dissolved solids and pH determine the
scaling characteristics. Decreasing the pH by the direct audition of acid or
by carbonization will decrease the scaling tendencies of the water within
limits. If a water is on the scaling side of equilibrium, increasing the temperature will increase the scale deposition ..
Calcium carbonate scale is objectionable because of the resistance offered
to heat transfer in heat exchanger equipment. It is of interest to point out
that increasing the temperature will increase the rates of scaling and corrosion. Scaling and corrosion are not likely to ocCUr simultaneously, although
it is possible owing to temperature differences in the system. The water
could be on the corrosive side at the inlet and on the scaling side at the
outlet. If water is close to this equilibrium condition, the rates of corrosion
and scaling would exist, but are likely to be very small.
Corrosion is less of a problem in once-through cooling water systems,
where the oxygen content is relatively low. Likewise, scaling is less of a
problem in once-through systems than in recirculating systems because the
water has not been concentrated, as in the recirculating case. In recirculating
systems, the water is reaerated in cooling towers, which makes it more
aggressive from the standpoint of corrosion. The purpose in using circulating
cooling systems is to conserve makeup water; however, this is difficult to
achieve because of the dissolved solids concentrate buildup from evaporation
losses.
.

188

COOLING TOWERS

Summarizing the above discussion, the dissolved mineral matter in most


natural waters consists mainly of calcium in the form of bicarbonate or
temporary hardness and chlorides and sulfates as permanent hardness. The
tendency of the water to deposit scale when made alkaline by heating or
to attack metals corrosively depends on the balance of these various constituents.
The scale formed under moderate temperatures is usually due to temporary
(bicarbonate) hardness being converted into calcium carbonate, which occurs
on heating or increase in alkalinity sufficient to result in calcium carbonate
saturation. The soI'ubility of calcium carbonate also affects corrosion since
the alkalinity of dissolved carbon dioxide in the water is greatly reduced as
the saturation equilibrium is approached. Ideally, at equilibrium the various
forms of carbon dioxide (free CO 2 , bicarbonate and carbonate) are so balanced that they cause neither scale nor corrosion.

PRETREATMENT OF COOLING WATER SYSTEMS


The prevention of scale formation and corrosion is common to all heat
transfer equipmen,t, not just cooling towers. The need for protecting metal
surfaces against cqrrosion in cooling water systems is essential to achieving
maximum system efficiency and equipment life. Corrosion that is inadequately controlled can lead to irreversible equipment damage and costly
unscheduled unit outages for cleaning operations or equipment replacement.
Unscheduled shutdowns can seriously undermine plant efficiency and productivity.
Effective corrosion control programs are essential in reducing unit downtimes. To be effective, the program must address not only specific corrosion
problems, but anticipate and prevent them as well. Consequently, effective
pretreatment in addition to other corrosion control measures is important.
Corrosion control of metal surfaces depends on the formation and maintenance of a protective corrosion inhibitor film on the exposed metal surface.
This protective film may be established during normal application of a
corrosion inhibitor program; however, there will be some lag time before the
film is completely built up. Metal surfaces that are exposed to the cooling
water before the film is completed may become candidates for accelerated
corrosion during the initial system operation. Normally, localized corrosion
or pitting is common during these early stages of operation.
Allowing a unit to undergo no treatment for periods of time before being
placed into operation can result in severe damage to exposed metal surfaces.
In addition to the loss of the metal and shortened equipment life, voluminous
and porous corrosion by-products may form and actually act as a barrier to
the formation of the protective inhibitor film.

COOLING TOWER WATER TREATMENT

189

In dealing with metal water cooling systems, today's trend is toward the
use of nonchromate-based treatment chemicals. Nonchromate applications
rely on less tenacious films for corrosion protection, rather than conventional
chromate systems. As such, it is extremely important that the corrosion
protection film be established very early in the operation.
We can define pretreatment as the initial conditioning period whereby a
corrosion inhibitor is applied to the metal surfaces of the cooling system.
Pretreatment conditions must be conducive to the rapid formation of the
protective barrier. The conditioning procedure should involve (1) the cleaning
and preparation of metal surfaces, and (2) the actual application of higher
than normal inhibitor concentrations.
The cleaning and passivation can be done separately or in a combined step.
There are several procedures that can be employed to clean metal surfaces.
Common techniques include hydroblasting, treatment with a mild inhibited
acid cleaner and/or alkaline cleaner, and the use of special surfactants during
cleansing. The system must be flushed thoroughly after the cleaning stage
to minimize undue metal attack by residual concentrations of cleaning
chemicals.
Chemical passivation should be started as soon as possible after the cleaning
of metal surfaces. Accumulation of new corrosion products can occur if it
is not initiated soon after cleaning. It may be achieved by 'treating equipment
either on- or offline.
Online passivation involves elevating the corrosion inhibitor concentration
as high as three times normal maintenance levels. At higher concentrations,
the rate at which the protective film forms is accelerated. This, in turn,
reduces the degree of initial corrosion on clean but unprotected metal surfaces. The rate at which corrosion protection takes place depends on the
temperature, pH and inhibitor used.
Offline passivation involves treatment of equipment currently out of
service. Treatment levels are typically higher; consequently, passivation is
completed more quickly. Passivation of nonchromate treatment generally
uses either a polyphosphate, zinc, molybdate or other nonchromate-based
inhibitor in combination with various surface-active cleaning agents. The
passivation solution should be disposed of after the pretreatment stage,
rather than' dumped back into the cooling system where the potential for
fouling can exist due to the precipitation of pretreatment compounds such as
zinc or phosphate. Table 8.1 outlines both online and offline pretreatment
procedures.
The first methods of cooling tower corrosion control involved adding
several hundred parts per million of sodium chromate, as chromate is capable
of excellent anodic corrosion control at these dosages. However, these early
programs were both inefficient and expensive. The advent of synergized zinc
chromate-polyphosphate treatments not only made corrosion control more

190

COOLING TOWERS
Table 8.1 Pretreatment Procedures
Online Pretreatment Procedures

I. Increase inhibitor concentration to 2-3 times its normal level.

2. Circulate the high inhibitor concentration slurry for 4-12 hours. Maintain pH between
6 and 7 and temperatures between 49 and 60C. If ambient temperatures must be
used, increase the pretreatment period to 24-48 hours.

3. After passivation, the system should be deconcentrated. Reduce the inhibitor concentration to normal maintenance levels.
4. Initiate normal treatment program.
Offline Passiva tion Procedures

1. Thoroughly clean system of all dirt,

oil, scale, organics and corrosion by-products.

2. After system cleaning, refill with fresh water. Add the pretreatment formulation to
the required concentration level.
3. Circulate the solution throughout the unit, maintaining pH levels between 6 and 7.
Circulation should continue for 2-12 hours at temperatures between 49 and 60C.
4. After passivation, remove the pretreatment solution and replace it with normally
treated cooling water.
5. Place unit back online and resume normal service.

effective, but also lowered its cost. Excellent corrosion control requires only
30-60 ppm of inhibitor, instead of a concentration one to two orders of
magnitude higher.
Polyphosphates are also used in cooling systems to attain sufficient
corrosion control. Cooling towers are operated in a pH range of 6.0 to 7.5 to
provide optimum stability for the polyphosphate. The feasibility of cooling
tower operation at higher pH levels, in which the potential for corrosion is
decreased, has increased the popularity oflow-chromate programs.

CORROSION DETECTION
Corrosion detection plays an important role in any corrosion control
program. Most of the methods employ nondestructive test methods and
include: hydrogen evaluation, radiography, dynamic pressure, corrosion
probes, strain gauges and eddy current measurements. Of these, the methods
employed in cooling tower practice are hydrogen evaluation and corrosion
probes.
Hydrogen evaluation is used to detect corrosion in closed systems at low
or slightly elevated temperatures in aqueous environments. Sensitive detectors

-----------------

COOLING TOWER WATER TREATMENT

191

are available to detect the presence of hydrogen, which is a by-product of


most aqueous corrosion processes. This method cannot locate the corrosion
but can predict the approximate total corrosion rate.
Corrosion probes detect and measure the amount of corrosion occurring
at a given point in a system and can be used to estimate the total amount of
corrosion and the type of corrosion anticipated. Probes are available for use
in a wide variety of temperature and pressure conditions.

METHODS OF EVALUATING COOLING WATER INHIBITORS


There are three methods available for evaluating cooling water inhibitors.
These are laboratory methods, service exposure and sample exposure.
Laboratory Methods
In general, these methods are unreliable and often give misleading results.
Actual Service Exposure
The most reliable evaluation can be obtained by this m,ethod; however, it
can be very expensive and usually only few materials can be evaluated.
Exposing Sample Materials
This method involves the assembly of several specimens in the form of a
corrosion test spool. Test specimens are weighed before and after exposure in
the actual service where data are urgently needed.
Unfortunately, there are no commonly accepted standard procedures for
securing reliable corrosion data. Any data collected from any test methods
will have value only if they can be interpreted properly. Many corrosion
environments can vary widely from day to day and even from hour to hour.
Even slight variations in operating procedures can drastically affect the
corrosion characteristics of the cooling tower. Therefore, it is important to
establish methods on how the corrosion data are to be accumulated, evaluated and put to use.

LANGELIER AND RYZNAR EQUATIONS: SATURATION


AND STABILITY INDEX
A convenient method of interpreting water analysis for the purpose of
determining the calcium carbonate solubility equilibrium conditions is
embodied in the Langelier equation. The Langelier equation can be used to

192

COOLING TOWERS

detennine the carbonate stability or corrosive properties of a cooling water


for a specific temperature when the contents of dissolved solids, total calcium, total alkalinity and pH values are known.
The Saturation Index is the difference between the actual measured pH and
the calculated pH's at saturation with calcium carbonate:
Saturation Index I = pH (actual) - pH's (Langelier equation)

(8.1)

where
pH
where

A=
B=
C=
D=

(9.3 + A + B) - (C + D)

(8.2)

total solids, ppm


temperature, 0 F
calcium hardness, expressed as ppm CaCO,
alkalinity, expressed as ppm CaCO,

If the Saturation Index is 0, water is said to be in chemical balance. If the


Saturation Index is positive, scale-forming tendencies are indicated. Finally,
if the Saturation Index is negative, corrosive tendencies are indicated.
The Ryznar equ(ition was developed to provide a closer correlation between
the calculated prediction and the quantitative results obtained in the field.
Stability Index = 2 pH's - pH (actual) (Ryznor equation)

(8.3)

For Equation 8.3:


I.
2.
3.

If the Stability Index is 6.5, the water is scale formi11g.


If the Stability Index ranges from 6.5 to 7.0, the water is in a good range.
If the Stability Index is 7.0, the water is corrosive.

The optimum value for the Stability Index is 6.6.


However, these convenient indexes must serve strictly as guides rather than
as absolute control methods, the reason being that uneven temperatures exist
throughout a cooling system. Because of this, some exchangers will scale,
some will be protected, while still others will corrode.
Note that the pH (actual) is the Log of the hydrogen ion concentration.

ORGANIC GROWTHS
Organic matter also aggravates scaling and fouling conditions in cooling
systems by combining with silt and/or calcium carbonate to plug up or scale

COOLING TOWER WATER TREATMENT

193

up equipment, thus reducing the effectiveness of the heat transfer surface.


Microbiological growths on heat exchangers retard cooling, cut plant efficiency and increase maintenance cost. Iron- and sulfur-reducing bacteria are
often a direct cause of corrosion. Algae growths can occur in all types of
heat exchangers. Chlorine and chlorinated organic compounds are the most
commonly used chemicals to prevent attack from bacteria and algae. Fungus
and other forms of microorganisms can biologically attack the wood inside
the cooling tower. This problem can be minimized by the use of impregnated
cooling tower lumber.
Undissolved solids or suspended matter plug up cooling and condensing
equipment, as well as fill up the cooling tower with silt and mud, which can
lead to pumping problems. In addition, suspended matter aggravates scaling
conditions in cooling water because silt and mud combine physically with the
calcium carbonate to produce a thicker and softer scale than would be
formed by calcium carbonate alone. This interferes with heat transfer and
water flow. Normally, these are eliminated by continuous filtration.

LEGIONNAIRES' DISEASE
Following the American Legion Convention at a Philadelphia hotel in July
1976, the public first became aware of a new type of disease (Legionnaires'
Disease). Of the 221 cases of Legionnaires' Disease, 34 resulted in death.
Since that date, the Center for Disease Control in Atlanta, Georgia has
isolated and confirmed that a bacteriuni microorganism had produced the
illness in Philadelphia and at least eleven other locations.
The Legionnaires' Disease organism was discovered breeding in cooling
water at several locations where the disease broke out. The conditions for
this bacteria to turn lethal were created when the energy crisis of 1973
imposed conservation measures on water usage.
More and more water is now being recycled. Reducing cooling tower
blowdown increases the volume of suspended solids, mineral and salts, and
as the cycles of concentration become higher, the pH and nutrient levels for
biological growth increases. The temperature of hot water return to the
tower, normally around 120-130F, creates an ideal condition for the breeding and rapid reproduction of different organisms.
Legionnaires' Disease organism may exist in the ground water and even
in the air. The bacterium is in a dormant state until ideal life conditions
appear. Once the bacterium enters the environment of the cooling tower,
it can reproduce very rapidly by binary fission, creating a potential disease
outbreak. It can be carried away by blowdown or windage droplets, and
unless the water treatment expert develops a comprehensive program to
minimize the possibility of the bacterium breeding in the cooling system,

194

COOLING TOWERS

another outbreak is inevitable. Biocides are required and must be monitored


continually to ensure that the proper rate is maintained in the cooling water.

WATER ANALYSIS AND TREATMENT


For control of scaling, corrosion, and algae and bacterial growth, the
cooling tower water supply must be analyzed and properly treated. Water
analysis covers three areas: water hardness, alkalinity and detection of inerts.
Hardness can be distinguished in the following:
"
"
"
"

"

Carbonate Hardness. This is the presence of calcium (Ca) and magnesium


(Mg) carbonate and bicarbonate.
Noncarbonate Hardness. This is the presence of other salts of C'a and Mg.
Total Hardness. This is the sum of the carbonate and noncarbonate hardness.
Temporary Hardness. This is the presence of C'a and Mg bicarbonate and can
be eliminated by boiling the water to transform bicarbonate into insoluble
carbonate. Temporary hardness is slightly different from carbonate hardness
because it does not take into account the presence of carbonate, which is
only slightly soluble.
Permanent Hardness. This is Ca and Mg residue in the water after boiling
and differs from noncarbonate hardness because it also measures the carbonate remaining in solution.

The normal units,:used to measure water hardness are:


"
"
"

French degrees = g CaCO,/100 I water


German degrees = g CaO/100 I water
English degrees = g CaCO,/l imp. gal water

The value of the different degrees are:


"
"
"

1 French = 10 ppm CaCO,


1 German = 1.78 French = 17.8 ppm CaCO,
1 English = 1.43 French 14.3 ppm CaCO,

With respect to total hardness, makeup water can be classified as follows:


Total Hardness
(ppm CaCO,)
Very Soft
Soft
Medium Hard
Hard
Very Hard

15
15-50
50-100
100-200
200

Alkalinity is a measure of the concentration of all electrolytes that give


basic reaction when hydrolyzed in water, i.e., salts of strong bases and weak
acids (hydrates, carbonates, bicarbonates, phosphates, silicates, borates,
sulfites, etc.). Chlorides and sulfates do not contribute to alkalinity. The

COOLING TOWER WATER TREATMENT

195

evaluation of alkalinity is made by titration, and the results are reported in


ppm of CaC0 3 .
Sometimes the alkalinity is reported as cc of the acid (HCl or H 2S0 4)
used for the titration of 100 cc of water. To convert to ppm of CaC0 3 , use
the following relationship:
cc of 0.1 N acid X 50

ppm of CaCO,

(8.4)

cc ofO.02N acid X 10

ppm ofCaC0 3

(8.5)

The number of cc's of 0.1 N acid used for titration of 100 cc of water is
frequently referred to as millivalents.
Other analysis data needed for the makeup water are pH, suspended
solids (ppm), chlorides (ppm Cl), sulfates (ppm S04) and silica (ppm Si0 2).
It is interesting to note that when the total alkalinity is less than the total
hardness, then calcium and magnesium are present in compounds other
than carbonates, bicarbonates and hydrates. In this case, the amount of
hardness equivalent to total alkalinity is the carbonate hardness; the remainder is the noncarbonate hardness.
The solubilities of the more common salts at approximately 120F are:

Sodium (Na)
Magnesium (Mg)
Calcium (Ca)

Chloride
(ppm)

Carbonate
(ppm)

Sulfate
(ppm)

270,000
270,000
520,000

290,000
125
17

310,000
330,000
2,200

When the number of concentrations of the circulating water is in the order


of 3-7, some of the salts dissolved can exceed their solubility limits and
precipitate, causing scale formation in pipes and coolers. The purpose of the
treatment of the cooling water is to avoid scale formation. This is achieved
by the injection of sulfuric acid to convert Ca and Mg carbonates (carbonate
hardness) into more soluble sulfates. The amount of acid used must be
limited to maintain some residual alkalinity in the system. If the system pH
is reduced to far below 7.0, it would result in an accelerated corrosion within
the system. As stated earlier, scale formation and/or corrosion tendency
is defined by the Saturation Index (Langelier Index) and Stability Index
(Ryznar equation).
If the Saturation Index is positive (which implies that the Stability Index
is less than 6.5), then the water has scale tendency and the addition of
sulfuric acid in appropriate quantities would be required to prevent scaling
formation. The following example illustrates the estimation of the required
amount of acid.

196

COOLING TOWERS

Example 1
A cooling tower is operating with the following makeup water composition:
Ca Hardness, ppm
Mg Hardness, ppm
Total Hardness, ppm
Total Alkalinity, ppm
Sulfates, ppm
Chlorides, ppm
Sili~a, ppm

CaCO"
CaCO"
CaCO"
CaC0 3 ,
S04'
Cl,
SiO"

85
33
118
90
20
19
2

It is clear that the total hardness is greater than the total alkalinity. Assume,

for instance, that the number of concentration in the circulating water to


reduce blowdown is maintained at 5. Also, assume that the temperature of
the hot water entering the tower is 120F.
Sulfates in circulating water are

5 X 20 = 100 ppm S04

,
136
or 100 X %
CaS0 4 solubility limit

142 ppm CaSO,

2200 ppm CaS0 4

Additional sulfates formation permissible 2200 - 142


or 2058 X

96
136
=

2058 ppm CaS0 4


142 ppm as S04

The alkalinity in the circulation water, if not converted into sulfates, is


5 X 90 = 450 ppm CaC0 3 .
Assume that 10% of the alkalinity is left unconverted to avoid corrosion,
then 450 X 0.9 = 450 ppm CaC0 3 -+ CaS04
96
Sulfate formed 405 100

where

388 ppm as S04

136 = molecular weight ofCaSO.


96 = molecular weight of SO.
100 = molecular weight of H,S04

Thus, the sulfuric acid concentration required is 405

:~ = 397 ppm.

The composition of blow down water in this case will be:


Hardness, ppm
Alkalinity, ppm
Sulfates, ppm
Chlorides, ppm
Silica, ppm

CaCO"
5 X 118 =
CaCO" 0.1 X 5 X 90 =
S04' 5 X 20 + 388 =
Cl,
5 X 19 =
SiO"
5 X2 =

590
45
488
95
10

COOLING TOWER WATER TREATMENT

197

In this example, the cycles could have been carried much higher because we
have 488 ppm of S04 versus 1450 allowed.
F or sulfuric acid injection, a storage drum and a proportioning pump must
be provided. Carbon steel is a suitable material for the concentrated sulfuric
acid drum, providing that moisture does not enter the drum. For safety
purposes, it is suggested to avoid glass level gauges. It is best to install a
floating-type level gauge.
The injection point of the sulfuric acid is in the pump bay, or as near as
possible to water intake. The sulfuric acid pump is normally a motor-driven
proportioning pump, and an electric motor is connected to a pH analyzer
installed on the cooling water supply header so that the pump starts and
stops, depending on the pH in the circulating water. Table 8.2 summarizes
various chemical treating agents for cooling water towers.
An example for estimating the required amount of different chemicals
follows:
Example 2
Calculate the chlorine and phosphates requirements for a tower operation:
1. Chlorine. As stated in Table 8.2, for algae and bacteriatcontrol the normal
quantity of chlorine needed is 1 ppm every 4 hours daily, which represents

Table 8.2 Chemical Treating Agents for Cooling Water Towers


Chemical and
Common Name

Water Treatment Use

Inorganic Chromate SaIts

Corrosion control

Inorganic and Organic


Phosphates and
Polyphosphates

Scale and corrosion control

Chromate and Phosphate


Combination Treatment

Corrosion control

Lignin and Tannin Organic

Scale and corrosion control

Quantity
(ppm in circulating water)
300 + 500 ppm orCr0 4
2 + 10 ppm of PO.

Cr0 4 10 + 40 P0 4 20 + 50
20 + 50 ppm
5 + 20 ppm

Organic Chromates
Chlorine and Chlorinated
Phenols

Algae and bacterial slime

Quaternary Ammonium
Copper Complexes

Algae and bacterial control

Sulfuric Acid

Solubility control

1 ppm 4 In/day
200 ppm intermittent
As necessary to maintain
same residual alkalinity

198

COOLING TOWERS
4 hr/day
] ppm X 24 hr/day ~ 0.2 ppm

continuously.
Suppose a tower operates with 100,000 gpm of circulating flow:
.
100,000 gal/min X 1440 min/day
Chlonne (lb/day) ~
7.48 gal/ft 3 X ft3/62.4 Ib
0.21b CI 2
X 1,000,000]b H 0 ~ 240 Ib/day
2

2. Phosphate. From the table, the requirements of phosphate are 2-10 ppm
of P0 4 . The loss of phosphates will be due only to slowdown and windage.
To calculate the phosphate requirements:
10 Ib PO, X (W + B) gal/min X 1440 min/day
Phosphate (lb/ day)

where

1,000,000]b H 2 0 X 7.48 gal/ft' X ft3/62.4lb

W ~ windag~ losses
B ~ blowduwn losses

All other chemicals can be calculated in the same way.

PLASTIC COOLING TOWERS


Corrosion problems and costly water treatment can be minimized in
many applications through the use of plastics. Since about 1970 the use of
industrial-grade plastics has become widely accepted in prepackaged, factoryassembled cooling tower units. There are numerous advantages to component
construction, including polyethylene shell, ABS wet decking and drift eliminator system, and PVC distribution assembly, which have proven superior
to steel and wood construction in many applications. There are several
advantages of plastics construction over wood or steel. Plastics are noncorrosive, have a seamless, leakproof one-piece shell, are nonbrittle, nonporous/one-piece when wet and are lighter. Further, they require less
maintenance and give longer service.
Figure 8.1 shows one manufacturer's unit constructed from plastic. Each
tower consists of a seamless tubular shell, which houses a specially designed
wet decking. The decking, of angled baffle construction, and wound in a

COOLING TOWER WATER TREATMENT

199

Figure 8.1 Modular constructed plastic cooling towers (courtesy of Delta Cooling
Towers, Carborundum Corp., Fairfield, NJ).

continuous spiral, provides good air/water contact. These are counterflow


operating towers. The wet decking and shells are constructed of noncorrosive
plastics, which are impervious to industrial smoke, chemical fumes, salt,
heavy dust, and alkaline, chlorinated or acid water. In addition, these
materials resist algae growth, which greatly reduces water treatment chemical
costs and maintenance.
The shells of the cooling towers shown in Figure 8.1 are constructed of
polyethylene. Table 8.3 summarizes some of the properties of high-impact
polyethylene. This plastic is also employed in constructing fill packing.
Table 8.4 also gives chemical resistance information on various plastic resins.

SUGGESTED READING
l. Lee, J. W. "Pretreatment of Cooling Water Systems," Chem. Eng. Prog.,
76(7) (1980).
2. Puckorius, P. R. "Pretreatment-The Key to Effective Protection of
Cooling Water Systems," paper presented at the 21st Annual Water Conference, Pittsburgh, PA, Oct. 1960.
3. Pludek, V. R. Design and Corrosion Control (New York: John Wiley &
Sons, Inc., 1977).

200

COOLING TOWERS

Table 8.3 High-Impact Polyethylene Properties


(courtesy of Delta Cooling Towers, Carborundum Corp., Fairfield, NJ)
Test Method
A. Permanence Tests
1. Ou tdoor wea thering
2. Accelerated wea thering
3. Normal exposure to sunlight
4. Accelerated exposure to sunlight
5. Resistance to heat continuous
6. Vicat softening point
7. Deflection temperature at 66 psi

B. Mechanical Properties
1. Tensile strength
2. Flexural modulus
3. Stiffness modulus
4. lzod impact notched
5. Tensile impact

ASTM D-1435-65T
ASTM E-42

Properties

ASTM D-1525
ASTM D-648

Complete protection
Very resistant
Complete protection
Complete protection
250F
255F
172F

ASTM
ASTM
ASTM
ASTM
ASTM

3100-5500 psi
2.35 X 10' psi
1.4 X 10' psi
1.0 ft lb./in.
110 ft Ib./in. 2

Fadeometer

D-638
D-790
D-747
D-256
D-1822

C. Chemical Properties

I. Weak acids
2. Strong acids

ASTM D-543
ASTM D-543

3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

ASTM
ASTM
ASTM
ASTM
ASTM

Weak alkali
Strong alkali
Organic solvent{;,
Salts
Sea water

D-543
D-543
0-543
D-543
D-543

Very resistant
Attacked slowly by
oxidizing agents
Very resistant
Very resistant
Resistant
Resistant
Resistant

ABS
A. Permanence Tests
1. Ou tdoor weathering
2. Accelerated weathering
3. Normal exposure to sunlight
4. Accelerated exposure to sunlight
5. Resistance to heat continuous
6. Deflection temperature at 66 psi

ASTM D-648

Excellent
Very resistan t
Complete protection
Complete protection
180F
210-220F

B. Mechanical Properties
1. Tensile strength
2. Flexural modulus
3. lzod impact notched
4. Izod impact at -20F

ASTM
ASTM
ASTM
ASTM

D-638
D-790
D-256
0-256

5100 psi
4.2 X 10' psi
2.4 ft lb./in.
0.9 ft lb./in.

C. Chemical Properties
1. Weak acids
2. Strong acids
3. Weak alkali
4. Strong alkali
5. Organic solvents

ASTM
ASTM
ASTM
ASTM
ASTM

D-543
D-543
D-543
D-543
D-543

No effect
Slight effect
No effect
No effect
Soluble in ketones, esters
and some chlorinated
hydrocarbons
No effect
No effect

6. Salts
7. Sea water

ASTM D-1435-65T
ASTM E-42
Fadeometer

ASTM D-543
ASTM 0-543

COOLING TOWER WATER TREATMENT

201

Table 8.3, continued


Properties

Test Method
PVC
A. Permanence Tests
1. Ou tdoor wea thering
2. Accelerated weathering
3. Normal exposure to sunlight
4. Accelerated exposure to sunlight
5. Resistance to heat continuous
6. Deflection temperature at 66 psi

ASTM D-1435-65T
ASTM E-42

ASTM D-648

Good
Good
Good
Good
160F
169F

B. Mechanical Properties
1. Tensile strength
2. Flexural modulus
3. lzod impact notched
4. lzod impact at -20F

ASTM
ASTM
ASTM
ASTM

0-638
0-790
0-256
0-256

6200 psi
5.6 X 10' psi
2.5 ft lb./in.
0.7 ft lb./in. notch

C. Chem ical Properties


1. Weak acids
2. Strong acids
3. Weak alkali
4. Strong alkali
5. Organic solvents

ASTM
ASTM
ASTM
ASTM
ASTM

0-543
0-543
0-543
0-543
0-543

No effect
None to slight
No effect
No effect
Swells in aromatic hydrocarbons, soluble
""in ketones and esters
No effect
No effect

Fadeometer

6. Salts
7. Sea water

ASTM 0-543
ASTM 0-543

Table 8.4 Plastics Chemical Resistance Chart


(courtesy of Oelta Cooling Towers, Carborundum Corp., Fairfield, NJ)
1st letter: at 20C

--+

EG <--"2nd letter: at 50C


Resins

CPE

LPE

PP

PMP

FEP/
ETFE

PC

PVC

Acetaldehyde
Acetamide, Sat.
Acetic Acid, 5%
Acetic Acid, 50%
Acetone

GN
EE
EE
EE
EE

GF
EE
EE
EE
EE

GN
EE
EE
EE
EE

GN
EE
EE
EE
EE

EE
EE
EE
EE
EE

FN
NN
EG
EG
NN

GN
NN
EE
EG
FN

Adipic Acid
Alanine
Allyl Alcohol
Aluminum Hydroxide
Aluminum 'Salts

EG
EE
EE
EG
EE

EE
EE
EE
EE
EE

EE
EE
EE
EG
EE

EE
EE
EG
EG
EE

EE
EE
EE
EE
EE

EE
NN
EG
FN
EG

EG
NN
GF
EG
EE

Chemical

202

COOLING TOWERS
Table 8.4, continued
Resins
Chemical

CPE

LPE

PP

PMP

FEP/
ETFE

PC

PVC

Amino Acids
Ammonia
Ammonium Acetate, Sat.
Ammonium Glycolate
Ammonium Hydroxide" 5%

EE
EE
EE
EG
EE

EE
EE
EE
EE
EE

EE
EE
EE
EG
EE

EE
EE
EE
EG
EE

EE
EE
EE
EE
EE

EE
NN
'EE
GF
FN

EE
EG
EE
EE
EE

Ammonium Hydroxide
Ammonium Oxalate
Ammonium Salts
n-Amyl Acetate
Amyl Chloride

EG
EG
EE
GF
NN

EE
EE
EE
EG
FN

EG
EG
EE
GF
NN

EG
EG
EE
GF
NN

EE
EE
EE
EE
EE

NN
EE
EG
NN
NN

EG
EE
EG
FN
NN

Aniline
Antimony Salts
Arsenic Salts
Barium Salts
Benzaldehyde

EG
EE
EE
EE
EG

EG
EE
EE
EE
EE

GF
EE
EE
EE
EG

GF
EE
EE
EE
EG

EE
EE
EE
EE
EE

FN
EE
EE
EE
1'N

NN
EE
EE
EG
NN

Benzene
Benzoic Acid, Sat.
Benzyl Acetate
Benzyl Alcohol
Bismuth Salts

FN
EE
EG
NN
EE

GG
EE
EE
FN
EE

G1'
EG
EG
NN
EE

GF
EG
EG
NN
EE

EE
EE
EE
EE
EE

NN
EG
FN
GF
EE

NN
EG
FN
GF
EE

Boric Acid
Boron Salts
Brine
Bromine
Bromobenzene

EE
EE
EE
NN
NN

EE
EE
EE
FN
FN

EE
EE
EE
NN
NN

EE
EE
EE
NN
NN

EE
EE
EE
EE
EE

EE
EE
EE
FN
NN

EE
EE
EE
GN
NN

Bromoform
Butadiene
n-Butyl Acetate
n-Butyl Alcohol
sec-Butyl Alcohol

NN
NN
GF
EE
EG

NN
FN
EG
EE
EE

NN
NN
GF
EE
EG

NN
NN
GF
EG
EG

EE
EE
EE
EE
EE

NN
NN
NN
GF
GF

NN
FN
NN
GF
GG

tert-Butyl Alcohol
Butyric Acid
Cadmium Salts
Calcium Hydroxide, Conc.
Calcium Hypochlorite, Sat.
Carbazole
Carbon Disulfide
Carbon Tetrachloride
Castor Oil
Cedarwood Oil
Cellosolve Acetate
Cesium Salts
Chlorine, 10% in Air
Chlorine, 10% (Moist)
Chloroacetic Acid

EG
NN
EE
EE
EE
EE
NN
FN
EE
NN
EG
EE
GN
GN
EE

EE
FN
EE
EE
EE

EG
NN
EE
EE
EE
EE
EG
GF
EE
NN
EG
EE
GN
GN
EG

EG
NN
EE
EE
EG
EE
FN
NN
EE
NN
EG
EE
GN
GN
EG

EE
EE
EE
EE
EE
EE
EE
EE
EE
EE
EE
EE
EE
EE
EE

GF
FN
EE
NN
FN
NN
NN
NN
EE
GF
FN
EE
EG
G1'
FN

EG
GN
EE
EE
GF
NN
NN
GF
EE
FN
FN
EE
EE
EG
FN

EE
NN
GF
FE
FN
EE
EE
E1'
GF
EE

COOLING TOWER WATER TREATMENT

203

Table 8.4, continued


Resins

CPE

LPE

PP

PMP

FEPI
ETFE

PC

PVC

p-Chloroacetophenone
Chloroform
Chromic Acid, 10%
Chromic Acid, 50%
Cinnamon Oil

EE
FN
EE
EE
NN

EE
GF
EE
EE
FN

EE
GF
EE
EG
NN

EE
FN
EE
EG
NN

EE
EE
EE
EE
EE

NN
NN
EG
EG
GF

NN
NN
EG
EF
NN

Citric Acid, 10%


Citric Acid, Crystals
Coconut Oil
Cresol
Cydohexane

EE
EE
EE
NN
GF

EE
EE
EE
FN
EG

EE
EE
EE
EG
GF

EE
EE
EG
NN
NN

EE
EE
EE
EE
EE

EG
EE
EE
NN
EG

GG
EG
GF
NN
GF

Decalin
o-Dichlorobenzene
p-Dichlorobcnzene
Diethyl Benzene
Diethyl Ether

GF
FN
FN
NN
NN

EG
FF
GF
FN
FN

GF
FN
EF
NN
NN

FN
FN
GF
NN
NN

EE
EE
EE
EE
EE

NN
NN
NN
FN
NN

EG
GN
NN
NN
FN

Diethyl Ketone
Diethyl Malonate
Diethylene Glycol
Diethylene Glycol Ethyl Ether
Dimethyl Formamide

GF
EE
EE
EE
EE

GG
EE
EE
EE
EE

GG
EE
EE
EE
EE

GF
EG
EE
EE
EE

EE
EE
EE
EE
EE

NN
FN
GF
FN
NN

NN
GN
FN
FN
FN

Dimethylsulfoxide
1 A-Dioxane
Dipropylene Glycol
Ether
Ethyl Acetate

EE
GF
EE
NN
EE

EE
GG
EE
FN
EE

EE
GF
EE
NN
EE

EE
GF
EE
NN
EG

EE
EE
EE
EE
EE

NN
GF
GF
NN
NN

NN
FN
GF
FN
FN

Ethyl Alcohol
Ethyl Alcohol, 40%
Ethyl Benzene
Ethyl Benzoate
Ethyl Butyrate

EG
EG
FN
FF
GN

EE
EE
GF
GG
GF

EG
EG
FN
GF
GN

EG
EG
FN
GF
FN

EE
EE
EE
EE
EE

EG
EG
NN
NN
NN

EG
EE
NN
NN
NN

Ethyl Chloride, Liquid


Ethyl Cyanoacetate
Ethyl Lactate
Ethylene Chloride
Ethylene Glycol

FN
EE
EE
GN
EE

FF
EE
EE
GF
EE

FN
EE
EE
FN
EE

FN
EE
EE
NN
EE

EE
EE
EE
EE
EE

NN
FN
FN
NN
GF

NN
FN
FN
NN
EE

Ethylene Glycol Methyl Ether


Ethylene Oxide
Fluorides
Fluorine
Formaldehyde, 10%

EE
FF
EE
FN
EE

EE
GF
EE
GN
EE

EE
FF
EE
FN
EE

EE
FN
EE
FN
EG

EE
EE
EE
EG
EE

FN
FN
EE
GF
EG

FN
FN
EE
EG
GF

Formaldehyde, 40%
Formic Acid, 3%
Pormic Acid, 50%
Formic Acid, 98-100%
Fuel Oil

EG
EG
EG
EG
FN

EE
EE
EE
EE
GF

EG
EG
EG
EG
EG

EG
EG
EG
EF
GF

EE
EE
EE
EE
EE

EG
EG
EG
EF
EG

GF
GF
GP
FN
EE

Chemical

204

COOLING TOWERS

Table 8.4, continued


Resins
Chemical

CPE

LPE

PP

PMP

FEPI
ETFE

PC

PVC

Gasoline
Glacial Acetic Acid
Glycerine
n-Heptane
Hexane

FN
EG
EE
FN
NN

GG
EE
EE
GF
GF

GF
EG
EE
EF

GF
EG
EE
FF
FN

EE
EE
EE
EE
EE

FF
GF
EE
EG
FN

GN
EG
EE
FN
GN

Hydrochloric Acid, 1-5%


Hydrochloric Acid, 20%
Hydrochloric Acid, 35%
Hydrofluoric Acid, 4%
Hydrofluoric Acid, 48%

EE
EE
EE
EG
EE

EE
EE
EE
EE
EE

EE
EE
EG
EG
EE

EG
EG
EG
EG
EE

EE
EE
EE
EE
EE

EE
EG
GF
GF
NN

EE
EG
GF
GF
GF

Hydrogen
Hydrogen Peroxide, 3%
Hydrogen Peroxide, 30%
Hydrogen Peroxide, 90%
Isobutyl Alcohol

EE
EE
EG
EG
EE

EE
EE
EE
EE
EE

EE
EE
EG
EG
EE

EE
EE
EG
EG
EG

EE
EE
EE
EE
EE

EE
EE
EE
EE
EG

EE
EE
EE
EG
EG

Isopropyl Acetate
Isopropyl Alcohol
Isopropyl Benzene
Kerosene
Lactic Acid, 3%

GF
EE
FN
FN
EG

EG
EE
GF
GG
EE

GF
EE
FN
GF
EG

GF
EE
NN
GF
EG

EE
EE
EE
EE
EE

NN
EE
NN
GF
EG

NN
EG
NN
EE
GF

Lactic Acid, 85%


Lead Salts
Lithium Salts
Magnesium Salts
Mercuric Salts

EE
EE
EE
EE
EE

EE
EE
EE
EE
EE

EG
EE
EE
EE
EE

EG
EE
EE
EE
EE

EE
EE
EE
EE
EE

EG
EE
GF
EG
EE

GF
EE
EE
EE
EE

Mercurous Salts
MethoxyethylOieate
Methyl Alcohol
Methyl Ethyl Ketone
Methyl Isobutyl Ketone

EE
EG
EE
EG
GP

EE
EE
EE
EE
EG

EE
EG
EE
EG
GF

EE
EG
EE
EF
FF

EE
EE
EE
EE
EE

EE
FN
FN
NN
NN

EE
NN
EF
NN
NN

Methyl Propyl Ketone


Methylene Chloride
Mineral Oil
Nickel Salts
Nitric Acid, 1-10%

GF
FN
GN
EE
EE

EG
GF
EE
EE
EE

GF
FN
EE
EE
EE

FlO
FN
EG
EE
EE

EE
EE
EE
EE
EE

NN
NN
EG
EE
EG

NN
NN
EG
EE
EG

Nitric Acid, 50%


Nitric Acid, 70%
Nitrobenzene
n-Octane
Orange Oil

EG
EN
NN
EE
FN

GN
GN
FN
EE
GF

GN
GN
NN
EE
GF

GN
GN
NN
EE
FF

EE
EE
EE
EE
EE

GF
FN
NN
GF
FF

GF
FN
NN
FN
FN

Ozone
Perchloric Acid
Perchloroethylene
Phenol, Crystals
Phosphoric Acid, 1-5%

EG
GN
NN
GN
EE

EE
GN
NN
GF
EE

EG
GN
NN
GN
EE

EE
GN
NN
FG
EE

EE
GF
EE
EE
EE

EG
NN
NN
EN
EE

EG
GN
NN
FN
EE

\'./

FF

COOLING TOWER WATER TREATMENT

205

Table 8.4, continued


Resins
CPE

LPE

PP

PMP

FEP/
ETFE

PC

PVC

Phosphoric Acid, 85%


Phosphorous Salts
Pine Oil
Potassium Hydroxide, 1%
Potassium Hydroxide, Conc.

EE
EE
GN
EE
EE

EE
EE
EG
EE
EE

EG
EE
EG
EE
EE

EG
EE
GF
EE
EE

EE
EE
EE
EE
EE

EG
EE
GF
FN
NN

EG
EE
FN
EE
EG

Propane Gas
Propylene Glycol
Propylene Oxide
Resorcinol, Sat.
Resorcinol, 5%

NN
EE
EG
EE
EE

FN
EE
EE
EE
EE

NN
EE
EG
EE
EE

NN
EE
EG
EE
EE

EE
EE
EE
EE
EE

FN
GF
GF
GF
GF

EG
FN
FN
FN
GN

Salicylaldehyde
Salicylic Acid, Powder
Salicylic Acid, Sat.
Salt Solu tions
Silver Acetate

EG
EE
EE
EE
EE

EE
EE
EE
EE
EE

EG
EE
EE
EE
EE

EG
EG
EE
EE
EE

EE
EE
EE
EE
EE

GF
EG
EG
EE
EG

FN
GF
GF
EE
GG

Silver Salts
Sodium Acetate, Sat.
Sodium Benzoate, Sat.
Sodium Hydroxide, 1%
Sodium Hydroxide, 50% to Sat.

EG
EE
EE
EE
EE

EE
EE
EE
EE
EE

EG
EE
EE
EE
EE

EE
EE
EE
EE
EE

EE
EE
EE
",EE
' EE

EE
EG
EE
FN
NN

EG
GF
EE
EE
EG

Sodium Hypochlorite, 15%


Stearic Acid, Crystals
Sulfuric Acid, 1-6%
Sulfuric Acid, 20%
Sulfuric Acid, 60%

EE
EE
EE
EE
EG

EE
EE
EE
EE
EE

EE
EE
EE
EG
EG

EE
EE
EE
EG
EG

EE
EE
EE
EE
EE

GF
EG
EE
EG
GF

EE
EG
EG
EG
EG

Sulfuric Acid, 98%


Sulfur Dioxide, Liq., 46 psi
Sulfur Dioxide, Wet or Dry
Sulfur Salts
Tartaric Acid

EG
NN
EE
FN
EE

EE
FN
EE
GF
EE

EE
NN
EE
FN
EE

EE
NN
EE
FN
EE

EE
EE
EE
EE
EE

NN
GN
EG
FN
EG

NN
FN
EG
NN
EG

Tetrahydrofuran
Thionyl Chloride
Titanium Salts
Toluene
Tributyl Citra\e

FN
NN
EE
FN
GF

GF
NN
EE
GG
EG

GF
NN
EE
GF
GF

FF
NN
EE
FF
GF

EE
EE
EE
EE
EE

NN
NN
EE
FN
NN

NN
NN
EE
FN
FN

Trichloroethane
Trichloroethylene
Triethylene Glycol
Tripropylene Glycol
Turkey Red Oil

NN
NN
EE
EE
EE

FN
FN
EE
EE
EE

NN
NN
EE
EE
EE

NN
NN
EE
EE
EE

EE
EE
EE
EE
EE

NN
NN
EG
EG
EG

NN
NN
GF
GF
EG

Turpentine
Undecyl Alcohol
Urea
Vinylidene Chloride
Xylene

FN
EF
EE
NN
GN

GG
EG
EE
FN
GF

GF
EG
EE
NN
FN

FF
EG
EG
NN
FN

EE
EE
EE
EE
EE

FN
GF
NN
NN
NN

GF
EF
GN
NN
NN

Chemical

206

COOLING TOWERS

Table 8.4, continued


Resins

Chemical
Zinc Salts
Zinc Stearate

CPE

LPE

PP

PMP

FEP/
ETFE

PC

PVC

EE
EE

EE
EE

EE
EE

EE
EE

EE
EE

EE
EE

EE
EG

Key to Classification Code


E - 30 days of constant exposure cause no damage. Plastic may even tolerate exposure
for years.
.
G- Little or no damage after 30 days of constant e."posure to the reagent.
F -Some signs of attack after 7 days of constant exposure to the reagent.
N-Not recommended; noticeable signs of attack occur within minutes to hours after
exposure. (However, actual failure might take years.)
Resins (Code)
CPE: Conventional (Low Density) Polyethylene
LPE: Linear (High Density) Polyethylene
PP: Polypropylene
PMP: Polymethylpentene
FEP: Tet10nt FEP (t1uorinated ethylene' propylene)
ETFE: "Tefzel"t ethylene-tetrat1uorethylene copolymer (For chemical resistance, see
FEP ratings)
PC: Polycarbonate
PYC: Rigid Polyvinyl Chloride
','I

t Du Pont registered trademark.

CHAPTER 9
GUIDELINES FOR WINTER OPERATION

INTRODUCTION
In an earlier chapter we briefly examined some of the problems encountered during the winter operation of cooling towers. Although advanced
designs for ice prevention systems have been developed, ice-related structural
damage continues to plague cooling tower systems, particularly hyperbolic
natural-draft towers. Ice damage is often a severe problem, with the potential
for structural damage. Because of the grave operating 'problems and their
frequency of occurrence, a separate chapter is devoted to this subject.
Today's trend is moving away from constructing natural-draft towers in
geographical regions where winter climates are severe. Counterflow naturaldraft towers are generally less susceptible to ice damage. In these systems, the
fill is sheltered within the tower shell and the air inlet design usually does not
include louvers. Advanced designs and new guidelines have resulted in a
significant reduction in the frequency and extent of ice damage in counterflow natural-draft cooling towers.

OVERALL ICE PREVENTION SYSTEM DESIGN


There are basically three phases or subsystems currently used for ice
prevention in natural-draft cooling towers:
I.
2.
3.

Pill bypass systems, which are capable of diverting the entire hot water flow
directly into the tower basin, comprise the first.
The second comprises designs that include an ice prevention ring that
distributes a portion of the total hot water flow across the cooling tower air
inlet as a veil of falling water.
A fill zoning subsystem designed to divert the water flow away from the
center of the tower fill is the third system. This creates an annular flow
operating configuration with a zone of high-density water loading about the
outer region of tower fill.

207

208

COOLING TOWERS

Each of these subsystems can be controlled by adjusting the water flow.


This action can limit ice formation over a wide range of heat loads and
ambient environmental conditions. Each subsystem is independently controlled and altogether they represent the best technology presently available
for ice prevention. Cooper and Vodicka [1] developed an empirical model for
describing these subsystems, specifically their thermal characteristics. We will
use some of the qualitative predictions of their model to d~scribe each
process in detail. Before beginning, there are three new terms we must
introduce to our cooling tower vocabulary, namely, ring water temperature,
fill water temperature and basin water temperature.
Ring water temperature is defined as the average temperature of the water
discharged from the ice prevention ring after cooling by the inlet air. Fill
water temperature is the average temperature of the cold water exiting the
tower fIll system. Finally, the basin water temperature is the average
temperature of the water discharging from the tower's collection basin. In
normal tower operation there is no water flow through the ice prevention ring
and fill bypass, in which case the basin water temperature and fill water
temperature are the same.
'
For counterflow natural-draft towers under normal operating heat loads
and water loading~, minimal ice formation can be expected in moderately
cold environments.", Figure 9.1 illustrates the variation in basin water temperature with inlet air wet-bulb temperature at different heat loads and water

70

w
0::

i=<I:

60

100% HEAT LOAD;


100%FLOW

0::

a. 50
~

I0::

40

OANGER
OF FREEZING

I<I:
~

;z
fI)

20"--........---'-----''-----'-----''---20 -10
0
10
20
30
INLET WET BULB TEMPERATURE(OF)

Figure 9.1 Illustrates the danger of freezing for normal cooling tOlVer operation (based
on data of Cooper and Vodicka [lj).

GUIDELINES FOR WINTER OPERATION

209

loadings. The plot illustrates that at conditions of full water flow and heat
load, the potential for freezing does not occur until very low wet-bulb
temperatures are reached. (Note that since water temperature gradients
exist between the central and peripheral regions of large cooling towers, a
basin or fill water temperature of 40F or less constitutes a condition of
high freezing potential in a cooling tower [1].) A more subtle observation
that can be made from Figure 9.1 is that a reduction in water loading significantly increases the tower's susceptibility to localized freezing. By reducing
the water loading to the fill, the tower impedence of air flow is reduced.
This results in an increase in the air mass flowrate through the tower. High
water loading over the fill is most often recommended for winter operation.

MECHANICS OF THE FILL BYPASS AND


ICE PREVENTION RING SECTIONS
In the normal operating mode, the entire water loading is distributed over
the heat exchange surface (fill material). In the fill bypass operating mode,
a portion of the hot water loading is diverted directly to the cooling tower
basin. This results in an increase in the overall average water basin temperature. Fill bypass operation is an essential step when placing cooling towers
onstream during cold weather.
In the northeastern region of the U.S., a great many natural-draft cooling
towers are operated in a fill bypass mode and, in many cases, this represents
the only means of controlling tower water temperatures in cold weather.
Cooper and Vodicka [1] examined the thermal performance capabilities and
limitations of fill bypass systems and presented their observations in the form
of a plot of the fill water temperature as a function of basin water temperature for ambient wet-bulb temperatures and bypass flows. They found
for a typical operation that at 0% bypass flow and -9.0F (-22. 7C)
ambient wet-bulb temperature, the basin water temperature and fill water
temperature approached an operating minimum of 40F .. At a given wet-bulb
temperature, as more water was made to bypass the fill, the basin water
temperature was observed to increase, while the fill water temperature decreased. TIle decrease in fill water temperature can be attributed to the
decrease in the fill water loading and, thus, the subsequent reduction in
total thermal energy available to the fill. Under steady-state conditions, the
bypass operating arrangement can maintain elevated basin water temperatures
in moderately cold weather.
There is, however, a danger for ice formation in the fill if too much water
is bypassed. In the majority of cooling tower operations, standard practice
is to open and close the bypass valves in a cyclic fashion to maintain a desired average basin water temperature while minimizing fill ice formation.

210

COOLING TOWERS

The main disadvantage with bypass cycling is that continual operator


attention is generally required.
The portion of the tower most susceptible to icing is at the air inlet, which
includes the diagonal structural supports and peripheral fill sections. This
is especially true with counterflow natural-draft towers. In recent years,
the so-called "ice prevention ring" has been incorporated into cooling
tower designs operating in colder climates. The basis for its design is that
for any given wet-bulb temperature, as the ring water flow is i~creased, the
fill water, ring water and basin water temperatures increase. Modern ice
prevention rings operate typically with ring flows of 20-40% of the total
water loading to the tower.
In general, the thermal effects ,of the ice prevention ring water on the
average fill water temperature is small. The role of the ice prevention ring is
to preheat the air entering the fill and thus prevent the formation of ice in
the peripheral fill sections of the tower. The falling veil of water is densest
at the upper regions of the air inlet. This characteristic causes a constriction
at the air inlet and causes the air stream to change its direction toward the
lower portion of the air inlet. The' peripheral sections of the fill thus become
effectively shielded from direct exposure to the incoming cold air. When the
ice prevention ring and bypass system are operated simultaneously, a wide
range of ice-free :.operations can be achieved by proportioning the proper
water flows to each subsystem. Also, by increasing the bypass flowrate,
increases in the ring water and basin water temperatures are achieved, accompanied by a decrease in the fill water temperature.
Another operating mode for the fill bypass and ice prevention ring is
illustrated in Figure 9.2. In this case, the hot water loading over the fill is

WATER
DISTRIBUTION PIPE
FILL SYSTEM
AIR FLOW

FILL
BYPASS
Figure 9.2 Diagram showing the proper flow allocations during low heat load operation, with water flow diverted from the fill section.

GUIDELINES FOR WINTER OPERA nON

211

totally diverted to the ice prevention ring and fill bypass subsystems. In
normal operation this is accomplished by opening the bypass valves to the
point that the water level in the distribution flumes falls below the inverts
of the fill water distribution piping (see Chapter 4 for a discussion on the
distribution pipes). At this lower flume water depth, no water reaches the
fill section, causing a substantial head to exist over the open valves connecting the flumes to the ice prevention ring subsystem. This is a preferred
operating mode in extremely cold weather as it provides steady-state, lowheat loading operation. This mode essentially short circuits the fill section,
causing all heat rejection to take place in the descending water in the ice
prevention ring.
There is one final ice prevention configuration worth noting, only because
it is still utilized in older installations. In tins design, a circumferential hot
water distribution pipe is positioned above, and adjacent to, the inside face
of the tower air inlet. Tins subsystem is referred to as a deicing ring and
consists of multiple-pipe sections that are perforated or stalled on the underside. The design includes valve-controlled flow connections to the main fill
hot water distribution system. Typical diameters for the deicing ring pipe
section are between 6 and 12 inches, with maximum design flow about 10%
of the total water loading.
The deicing ring was designed to distribute a small amount of hot water
over the air inlet opening, thus causing ice accumulatioris on the air inlet
structures to melt. In general, industry has complained that the deicing ring
does not effectively mininlize peripheral ice accumulations. In fact, numerous
installations have been reported to freeze and rupture, and motor-operated
deicing flow control valves have been proven to be unreliable because of
freezing and corrosion. This approach is no longer applied to new naturaldraft towers but can be found on installations that have been in service more
than 10 years.

SUPPLEMENTAL ICE CONTROL: FILL ZONING


The fill zoning subsystem is another supplemental approach for ice formation control. In this operating mode, the hot water loading over the center
region of the tower fill is diverted to the peripheral fill sections. This increase
in the peripheral fill region water loading causes a dramatic reduction of
the effective interfacial contact area between the air and water. Figure 9.3
illustrates a typical fill water distribution pattern in the zoned mode of operation. The annular airflow formed results in an increase in the air flow
impedance of the tower, thus reducing its air loading through the fill section.
Fill zoning alone unfortunately is not enough to protect the peripheral fill

212

COOLING TOWERS

DRY FILL
REGION
Figure 9.3

Typical fill water distribution pattern in the zoned mode of operation.

sections from ice damage. The best available technology recommends operating counterflow systems with the zoning subsystem in conjunction with the
ice prevention ring.

GUIDELINES FOR INTEGRATED SYSTEM OPERA nON


There are many applications in which it is important to maintain an average
basin water temperature at an optimum value. One example is a utility
cooling tower application in which an optimum average basin water temperature is required to ensure efficient turbine operation. In this example,
the optimum temperature falls between 60 and 75F. Ice prevention systems
should be designed to provide sufficient flexibility to control the basin water
temperature between specified limits without significant ice formation for a
wide range of heat load and ambient environmental conditions.
This flexibility can be achieved through the use of three operating nobs,
that is, by proper adjustment of water flow allocations to the three ice prevention subsystems. We can summarize everything in this chapter into four
operating modes.
1.

2.

Mode I Operation is the normal cooling tower operating fashion in which hot
water is distributed evenly over the entire fill plan area. In this operation,
all the valves to the ice prevention ring are in the closed position. The fill
bypass can be operated if needed to maintain an optimum basin water
temperature.
Mode II Operation comprises full operation of the ice prevention ring to
prevent icing on the peripheral fill sections. The fill bypass subsystem can
be operated to provide a specified temperature range for the basin water.

GUIDELINES FOR WINTER OPERATION

213

W
0::
;:)

I-

<I:

60

MODE I

0::
W

a..

:::e~

WI.!..

1-0
In
...J

20

;:)

In

IW
~

-20
0

20

40

60

80

100

PERCENT HEAT LOAD


Figure 9.4

3.
4.

Operating regions for the win ter operating modes for ice prevention [1].

Mode III Operation is the one in which the tower is ZOlWd and the ice prevention ring fully activated. Again, the fill bypass can ,be operated within
specified limits.
Mode IV Operation functions with the hot water flow to the tower entirely
diverted to the fill bypass and ice prevention ring. Figure 9.4 summarizes
the thermal performances of the four ioe prevention operating modes.

CONCLUSIONS
Principles of cooling tower design and operation have been presented. Our
discussions will enable a starting basis for designs and the selection of tower
specifics. However, the detailed design basis requires more in-depth coverage
than we have allowed for. To meet the objective of detailed designs to
include materials selection, site location, environmental impacts, etc., Appendix D-Source Listing and Abstracts of the Cooling Tower Literature-has
been prepared. This is a compilation of nearly 400 references of the most recent research papers and articles in the field of cooling tower technology.
More than half these references are accompanied by a short abstract, outlining major conclusions and work presented by the various authors. We urge
the reader to use this index liberally as many of these papers contain detailed calculation procedures and examples directly applicable to design
problems.

214

COOLING TOWERS

REFERENCE
1. Cooper, J. W., and V. Vodicka. "Cooling Tower Ice Prevention Systems:
State-of-the-Art-Designs," Combustion 51 (11) (1980).

SUGGESTED READING
1. Roffman, A., et al. "The State of the Art of Saltwater Cooling Towers for
Steam Electric Generating Plants," WASH 1244, Appendix C (1973).

APPENDIX A
STEAM TABLES
(Ste am Properties courte sy of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers)

215

Table 1. Saturated Steam: Pressure Table

0'1

Specific Volume
Abs. Press
Lb/Sq. In.
p

Temp
Fahr

Sat.
Liquid
v
f

Enthalpy

Evap
v
fg

Sat.
Vapor
v
g

Sat.
Liquid
h
f

0.08865
0.25
0.50
1.0
5.0
10.0
14.696
15.0

32.018
59.323
79.586
101.74
162.24
193.21
212.00
213.03

0.016022
0.016032
0.016071
0.016136
0.016407
0.016592
0.016719
0.016726

3302.4
1235.5
641.5
333.59
73.515
38.404
26.782
26.274

3302.4
1235.5
641.5
333.60
73.532
38.420
26.799
26.290

0.0003
27.382
47.623
69.73
130.20
161.26
180.17
18l.21

20.0
30.0
40.0
50.0
60.0
70.0
80.0
90.0

227.96
250.34
267.25
28l.02
292.71
302.93
312.04
320.28

0.016834
0.017009
0.017151
0.017274
0.017383
0.017482
0.017573
0.017659

20.070
13.7266
10.4794
8.4967
7.1562
6.1875
5.4536
4.8779

20.087
13.7436
10.4965
8.5140
7.1736
6.2050
5.4711
4.8953

100.0
120.0
140.0
160.0
180.0
200.0
220.0
240.0

327.82
341.27
353.04
363.55
373.08
381.80
389.88
397.39

0.017740
0.01789
0.01803
0.01815
0.01827
0.01839
0.01850
0.01860

4.4133
3.7097
3.2010
2.8155
2.5129
2.2689
2.06779
1.89909

4.4310
3.7275
3.2190
2.8336
2.5312
2.2873
2.08629
1.91769

Evap
h
fg
~

Entropy
Sat.
Vapor
h
g

Sat.
Liquid
sf

Evap
Sfg

Sat.
Vapor
s
g

Abs. Press
Lb/Sq In.
P

1075.5
1060.1
1048.6
1036.1
1000.9
982.1
970.3
969.7 .

1075.5
1087.4
1096.3
1105.8
1131.1
1143.3
1150.5
1150.9

0.0000
0.0542
0.0925
0.1326
0.2349
0.2836
0.3121
0.3137

2.1872
2.0'425
1.9446
1.8455
1.6094
1.5043
1.4447
1.4415

2.1872
2.0967
2.0370
1.9781
1.8443
1.7879
1.7568
1.7552

0.08865
0.25
0.50
l.0
5.0
10.0
14.696
15.0

196.27
218.9
236.1
250.2
262.2
272.7
282.1
290.7

960.1
945.2
933.6
923.9
915.4
907.8
900.9
894.6

1156.3
1164.1
1169.8
1174.1
1177.6
1180.6
1183.1
1185.3

0.3358
0.3682
0.3921
0.4112
0.4273
0.4411
0.4534
0.4643

1.3962
1.3313
1.2844
1.2474
1.2167
1.1905
1.1675
1.1470

1.7320
1.6995
1.6765
1.6586
l.6440
l.6316
l.6208
1.6113

20.0
30.0
40.0
50.0
60.0
70.0
80.0
90.0

298.5
312.6
325.0
336.1
346.2
355.5
364.2
372.3

888.6
877.8
868.0
859.0
850.7
842.8
835.4
828.4

1187.2
1190.4
1193.0
1195.1
1196.9
1198.3
1199.6
1200.6

0.4743
0.4919
0.5071
0.5206
0.5328
0.5438
0.5540
0.5634

1.1284
1.0960
1.0681
1.0435
1.0215
1.0016
0.9834
0.9665

l.6027
1.5879
"1.5752
1.5641
1.5543
1.5454
1.5374
l.5299

100.0
120.0
140.0
160.0
180.0
200.0
220.0
240.0

("'J

0
0

t""'

C'l
--l

:;:

i:"l

::c
CIl

260.0
280.0
300.0
350.0
400.0
450.0
500.0
550.0
600.0
650.0
700.0
800.0
900.0

404.44
411.07
417.35
431.73
444.60
456.28
467.01
476.94
486.20
494.89
503.08
518.21
531.95

0.01870
0.01880
0.01889
0.01912
,0.01934
0.01954
0.01975
0.01994
0.02013
0.02032
0.02050
0.02087
0.02123

1.75548
1.63169
1.52384
1.30642
1.14162
1.01224
0.90787
0.82183
0.74962
0.68811
0.63505
0.54809
0.47968

1.77418
1.65049
1.54274
1.32554
1.16095
1.03179
0.92762
0.84177
0.76975
0.70843
0.65556
0.56896
0.50091

379.9
387.1
394.0
409.8
424.2
437.3
449.5
460.9
471.7
481.9
491.6
509.8
526.7

821.6
815.1
808.9
794.2
780.4
767.5
755.1
743.3
732.0
720.9
710.2
689.6
669.7

1201.5
1202.3
1202.9
1204.0
1204.6
1204.8
1204.7
1204.3
1203.7
1202.8
1201.8
1199.4
1196.4

0.5722
0.5805
0.5882
0.6059
0.6217
0.6360
0.6490
0.6611
0.6723
0.6828
0.6928
0.7111
0.7279

0.9508
0.9361
0.9223
0.8909
0.8630
0.8378
0.8148
0.7936
0.7738
0.7552
0.7377
0.7051
0.6753

1.5230
1.5166
1.5105
1.4968
1.4847
1.4738
1.4639
1.4547
1.4461
1.4381
1.4304
1.4163
1.4032

260.0
280.0
300.0
350.0
400.0
450.0
500.0
550.0
600.0
650.0
700.0
800.0
900.0

1000.0
1200.0
1400.0
1600.0
1800.0
2000.0
2200.0
2400.0
2600.0
2800.0
3000.0
3200.0
3208.2 *

544.58
567.19
587.07
604.87
621.02
635.80
649.45
662.11
673.91
684.96
695.33
705.08
705.47

0.02159
0.02232
0.02307
0.02387
0.02472
0.02565
0.02669
0.02790
0.02938
0.03l34
0.03428
0.04472
0.05078

0.42436
0.340l3
0.27871
0.23159
0.19390
0.16266
0.l3603
0.11287
0.09172
0.07171
0.05073
0.01191
0.00000

0.44596
0.36245
0.30178
0.25545
0.21861
0.18831
0.16272
0.14076
0.12110
0.10305
0.08500
0.05663
0.05078

542.6
571.9
598.8
624.2
648.5
672.1
695.5
719.0
744.5
770.7
80 1.8 ~
875.5
906.0

650.4
6l3.0
576.5
540.3
503.8
466.2
426.7
384.8
337.6
285.1
218.4
56.1
0.0

1192.9
1184.8
1175.3
1164.5
1152.3
1138.3
1122.2
1103.7
1082.0
1055.8
1020.3
931.6
906.0

0.7434
0.7714
0.7966
0.8199
0.8417
0.8625
0.8828
0.9031
0.9247
0.9468
0.9728
1.0351
1.0612

0.6476
0.5969
0.5507
0.5076
0.4662
0.4256
0.3848
0.3430
0.2977
0.2491
0.1891
0.0482
0.0000

1.3910
1.3683
1.3474
1.3274
1.3079
1.2881
1.2676
1.2460
1.2225
1.1958
1.1619
1.0832
1.0612

1000.0
1200.0
1400.0
1600.0
1800.0
2000.0
2200.0
2400.0
2600.0
2800.0
3000.0
3200.0
3208.2*

*Critical pressure.

CIl

--l

i:"l

>
:::::
--l

>
t:e

t""'
i:"l

CIl

- ..l

.....
00

Table 2. Saturated Steam: Temperature Table


Temp
Pahr
t

Abs. Press
Lb per
Sq In.
P

Sat.
Liquid
vf

32.0
36.0
40.0
44.0
48.0
50.0
54.0
58.0
60.0
64.0
68.0
70.0
74.0
78.0
80.0
84.0
88.0
90.0
94.0
98.0
100.0
104.0
108.0
110.0
114.0

0.08859
0.10395
1.12163
0.14192
0.16514
0.17796
0.20625
0.23843
025611
0.29497
0.33889
0.36292
0.41550
0.47461
0.50683
0.57702
0.65551
0.69813
0.79062
0.89356
0.94924
1.06965
1.2030
1.2750
1.4299

0.016022
0.016020
0.016019
0.016019
0.016021
0.016023
0.016026
0.016031
0.016033
0.016039
0.016046
0.016050
0.016058
0.016067
0.016072
0.016082
0.016093
0.016099
0.016111
0.016123
0.016130
0.016144
0.016158
0.016165
0.016180

Enthalpy

Specific Volume
Evap
vfg
3304.7
2839.0
2445.8
2112.8
1830.0
1704.8
1482.4
1292.2
1207.6
1056.5
926.5
868.3
764.1
673.8
633.3
560.3
496.8
468.1
416.3
370.9
350.4
313.1
280.28
265.37
238.21

Entropy

Sat.
Vapor

Sat.
Liquid

Evap

Sat.
Vapor

Sat.
Liquid

Evap

Sat.
Vapor

Vg

hf

hfg

hg

Sf

Sfg

Sg

2.1873
2.1651
2.1432
2.1217
2.1006
2.0901
2.0695
2.0491
2.0391
2.0192
1.9996
1.9900
1.9708
1.9520
1.9426
1.9242
1.9060
1.8970
1.8792
1.8617
1.8530
1.8358
1.8188
1.8105
1.7938

2.1873
2.1732
2.1594
2.1459
2.1327
2.1262
2.1134
2.1008
2.0946
2.0824
2.0704
2.0645
2.0529
2.0415
2.0959
2.0248
2.0139
2.0086
1.9980
1.9876
1.9825
1.9725
1.9626
1.9577
1.9480

3304.7
2839.0
2445.8
2112.8
1830.0
1704.8
1482.4
1292.2
1207.8
1056.5
926.5
868.4
764.1
673.9
633.3
560.3
496.8
468.1
416.3
370.9
350.4
313.1
280.30
265.39
238.22

0.0179
4.008
8.027
12.041
16.051
18.054
22.058
26.060
28.060
32.058
36.054
38.052
42.046
46.040
48.037
52.029
56.022
58.018
62.010
66.003
67.999
71.992
75.98
77.98
81.97

1075.5
1073.2
1071.0
1068.7
1066.4
1065.3
1063.1
1060.8
1059.7
1057.4
1055.2
1054.0
1051.8
1049.5
1048.4
1046.1
1043.9
1042.7
1040.5
1038.2
1037.1
1034.8
1032.5
1031.4
1029.1

1075.5
1077.2
1079.0
1080.7
1082.5
1083.4
1085.1
1086.9
1087.7
1089.5
1091.2
1092.1
1093.8
1095.6
1096.4
1098.2
1099.9
1100.8
1102.5
1104.2
1105.1
1106.8
1108.5
1109.3
1111.0

0.0000
0.0081
0.0162
0.0242
0.0321
0.0361
0.0439
0.0516
0.0555
0.0632
0.0708
0.0745
0.0821
0.0895
0.0932
0.1006
0.1079
0.1115
0.1188
0.1260
0.1295
0.1366
0.1437
0.1472
0.1542

Temp
Pahr

("J

32.0
36.0
40.0
44.0
48.0
50.0
54.0
58.0
60.0
64.0
68.0
70.0
74.0
78.0
80.0
84.0
88.0
90.0
94.0
98.0
100.0
104.0
108.0
110.0
114.0

C"l

0
0

>-3

i:"l

118.0
120.0
124.0
128.0
130.0
134.0
138.0
140.0
144.0
148.0
150.0
154.0
158.0
160.0
164.0
168.0
170.0
174.0
178.0
180.0
190,O
200.0
220.0
240.0
260.0
280.0
300.0
320.0
340.0
360.0
380.0

1.6009
1.6927
1.8901
2.1068
2.2230
2.4717
2.7438
2.8892
3.1997
3.5381
3.7184
4.0125
4.5197
4.7414
5.2124
5.7223
5.9926
6.5656
7.1840
7.5110
9.340
11.526
17.186
24.968
35.427
49.200
67.005
89.643
117.992
153.010
195.729

0.016196
0.016204
0.016221
0.016238
Q.016247
0.016265
0.016284
0.016293
0.016312
0.016332
0.016343
0.016363
0.016384
0.016395
0.016417
0.016440
0.016451
0.016474
0.016498
0.016510
0.016572
0.016637
0.016775
0.016926
0.017089
0.017264
0.01745
0.01766
0.D1787
0.01811
0.01836

214.20
203.25
183.23
165.45
157.32
142.40
129.09
122.98
111.74
101.68
97.05
88.50
80.82
77.27
70.70
64.78
62.04
56.95
52.35
50.21
40.941
33.622
23.131
16.304
11.745
8.627
6.4483
4.8961
3.7699
2.9392
2.3170

214.21
203.26
183.24
165.4 7
157.33
142.41
129.11
123.00
111.76
101.70
97.07
88.52
80.83
77.29
70.72
64.80
62.06
56.97
52.36
50.22
40.957
33.639
23.148
16.321
11.762
8.644
6.4658
4.9138
3.7878
2.9573
2.3353

85.97
87.97
91.96
95.96
97.96
101.95
105.95
107.95
111.95
115.95
117.95
121.95
125.96
127.96
131.96
135.97
137.97
141.98
145.99
148.00
158.04
168.09
188.23
208.45
228.76
249.17
269.7
290.4
311.3
332.3
353.6

1026.8
1025.6
1023.3
1021.0
1019.8
1017.5
1015.2
1014.0
1011.7
1009.3
1008.2
1005.8
1003.4
1002.2
999.8
997.4
996.2
993.8
991.4
990.2
984.1
977.9
965.2
952.1
938.6
924.6
910.0
894.8
878.8
862.1
844.5

1112.7
1113.6
1115.3
1117.0
1117.8
1119.5
1121.1
1122.0
1123.6
1125.3
1126.1
1127.7
1129.4
1130.2
1131.8
1133.4
1134.2
1135.8
1137.4
1138.2
1142.1
1146.0
1153.4
1160.6
1167.4
1173.8
1179.7
1185.2
1190.1
1194.4
1198.0

0.1611
0.1646
0.1715
0.1783
0.1817
0.1884
0.1951
0.1985
0.2051
0.2117
0.2150
0.2216
0.2281
0.2313
0.2377
0.2441
0.2473
0.2537
0.2600
0.2631
0.2787
0.2940
0.3241
0.3533
0.3819
0.4098
0.4372
- 0.4640
0.4902
0.5161
0.5416

1.7774
1.7693
1.7533
1.7374
1.7295
1.7140
1.6986
1.6910
1.6759
1.6610
1.6536
1.6390
1.6245
1.6174
1.6032
1.5892
1.5822
1.5684
1.5548
1.5480
1.5148
1.4824
1.4201
1.3609
1.3043
1.2501
1.1979
1.1477
1.0990
1.0517
1.0057

1.9386
1.9339
1.9247
1.9157
1.9112
1.9024
1.8937
1.8895
1.8810
1.8727
1.8686
1.8606
1.8526
1.8487
1.8409
1.8333
1.8295
1.8221
1.8147
1.8111
1.7934
1.7764
1.7442
1.7142
1.6862
1.6599
1.6351
1.6116
1.5892
1.5678
1.5473

118.0
120.0
124.0
128.0
130.0
134.0
138.0
140.0
144.0
148.0
150.0
154.0
158.0
160.0
164.0
168.0
170.0
174.0
178.0
180.0
190.0
200.0
220.0
240.0
260.0
280.0
300.0
320.0
340.0
360.0
380.0

CIl

--l

i:'1

>

:::::
--l

>
t:e

r;;
CIl

\0

N
N

Table 2 (continued)
Temp
Fahr

400.0
420.0
440.0
460.0
480.0
500.0
520.0
540.0
560.0
580.0
600.0
620.0
640.0
660.0
680.0
700.0
702.0
704.0
705.0
705.47*

Abs. Press
Lb per
Sq In.
p
247.259
308.780
381.54
466.87
566.15
680.86
812.53
962.79
1133.38
1326.17
1543.2
1786.9
2059.9
2365.7
2708.6
3094.3
3135.5
3177.2
3198.3
3208.2

*Critica\ temperature.

Specific Volume
Sat.
Liquid
v
f
0.01864
0.01894
0.01926
0.01961
0.02000
0.02043
0.02091
0.02146
0.02207
0.02279
0.02364
0.02466
0.02595
0.02768
0.03037
0.03662
0.03824
0.04108
0.04427
0.05078

Enthalpy

Evap
vfg

Sat.
Vapor
Vg

Sat.
Liquid
h
f

1.8444
1.4808
1.19761
0.97463
0.79716
0.65448
0.53864
0.44367
0.36507
0.29937
0.24384
0.19615
0.15427
0.11663
0.08080
0.03857
0.03173
0.02192
0.01304
0.00000

1.8630
1.4997
1.21687
0.99424
0.81717
0.67492
0.55956
0.46513
0.38714
0.32216
0.26747
0.22081
0.18021
0.14431
0.11117
0.07519
0.06997
0.06300
0.05730
0.05078

375.1
39d
419.0
441.5
464.5
487.9
512.0
536.8
562.4
589.1
617.1
646.9
679.1
714.9
758.5
822.4
835.0
854.2
873.0
906.0

Entropy

Evap
h
fg

Sat.
Vapor
h
g

825.9
806.2
785.4
763.2
739.6
714.3
687.0
657.5
625.3
589.9
550.6
506.3
454.6
392.1
310.1
172.7
144.7
102.0
61.4
0.0

1201.0
1203.1
1204.4
1204.8
1204.1
1202.2
1199.0
1194.3
1187.7
1179.0
1167.7
1153.2
113 3.7
1107.0
1068.5
995.2
979.7
956.2
934.4
906.0

Sat.
Liquid
sf
0.5667
0.5915
0.6161
0.6405
0.6648
0.6890
0.7133
0.7378
0.7625
0.7876
0.8134
0.8403
0.8686
0.8995
0.9365
0.9901
1.0006
1.0169
1.0329
1.0612

Sfg

Sat.
Vapor
s
g

Temp
Fahr
t

0.9607
'0.9165
0.8729
0.8299
0.7871
0.7443
0.7013
0.6577
0.6132
0.5673
0.5196
0.4689
0.4134
0.3502
0.2720
0.1490
0.1246
0.0876
0.0527
0.0000.

1.5274
1.5080
1.4890
1.4704
1.4518
1.4333
1.4146
1.3954
1.3757
1.3550
1.3330
1.3092
1.2821
1.2498
1.2086
1.1390
1.1252
1.1046
1.0856
1.0612

400.0
420.0
440.0
460.0
480.0
500.0
520.0
540.0
560.0
580.0
600.0
620.0
640.0
660.0
680.0
700.0
702.0
704.0
705.0
705.47*

Evap

("J

0
0

t'"'

C'l
--l

~
i:'1

::tI

CIl

Table 3. Superheated Stearn


Abs. Press
LbjSqIn.
(Sat. Temp)
1
(101.74)

5
(162.24)

10
(193.21)

14.696*
(212.00)

15
(213.03)

20
(227.96)

Sat.
Water

Sat.
Stearn

Sh
v 0.01614 333.6
h
69.73 1105.8
0.1326 1.9781
Sh
v 0.01641 73.53
h 130.20 1131.1
0.2349 1.8443
Sh
v 0.01659 38.42
h 161.26 1143.3
0.2836 1.7879
Sh
v 0.0167 26.828
h 180.07 1150.4
0.3120 1.7566
Sh
v 0.01673 26.290
h 181.21 1150.9
0.3137 1.7552
Sh
v 0.01683 20.087
h 196.27 1156.3
0.3358 1.7320

Temperature-Degrees Fahrenheit
200
300
350
250
400
98.26
392.5
1150.2
2.0509
37.76
78.14
1148.6
1.8716
6.79
38.84
1146.6
1.7928

148.26 198.26 248.26 298.26


422.4 452.3 482.1 511.9
1172.9 1195.7 1218.7 1241.8
2.0841 2.1152 2.1445 2.1722
87.76 137.76 187.76 237.76
84.21 90.24 96.25 102.24
1171.7 1194.8 1218.0 1241.3
1.9054 1.9369 1.9664 1.9943
56.79 106.79 156.79 206.79
41.93 44.98 48.02 51.03
1170.2 1193.7 1217.1 1240.6
1.8273 1.8593 1.8892 1.9l73
38.00 88.00 138.00 188.00
28.44 30.52 32.61 34.65
1169.2 1192.0 1215.4 1238.9
1.7838 1.8148 1.8446 1.8727
36.97 86.97 136.97 186.97
27.837 29.899 31.939 33.963
1168.7 1192.5 1216.2 1239.9
1.7809 1.8134 1.8437 1.8720
22.04 72.04 122.04 172.04
20.788 22.356 23.900 25.428
1167.1 1191.4 1215.4 1239.2
1.7475 1.7805 1.8111 1.8397

450

500

600

700

348.26
541.7
1265.1
2.1985
287.76
108.23
1264.7
2.0208
256.79
54.04
1264.1
1.9439
238.00
36.73
1262.1
1.;8989

398.26
571.5
1288.6
2.2237
337.76
114.21
1288.2
20460
306.79
57.04
1287.8
1.9692
288.00
38.75
1285.4
1.9238
286.97
37.985
1287.3
1.9242
272.04
28.457
1286.9
1.8921

498.26
631.1
1336.1
2.2708
437.76
126.15
1335.9
2.0932
406.79
63.03
1335.5
2.0166
388.00
42.83
1333.0
1.9709
386.97
41.986
1335.2
1.9717
372.04
31.466
1334.9
1.9397

598.26
690.7
1284.5
2.3144
537.76
138.08
1384.3
2.1369
506.79
69.00
1384.0
2.0603
448.00
46.91
1381.4
2.0145
486.97
45.978
1383.8
2.0155
472.04
34.465
1383.5
1.9836

236.97
35.977
1263.6
1.8988
222.04
26.946
1263.0
1.8666

800

900

1000

698.26 798.26 898.26


750.2 809.8 869.4
1431.0 1480.8 1531.4
2.3512 2.3892 2.4251
637.76 737.76 837.76
150.01 161.94 173.86
1433.6 1483.7 1534.7
2.1776 2.2159 2.2521
606.79 706.79 806.79
74.98 80.94 86.91
1433.3 1483.5 1534.6
2.1011 2.1394 2.1757
588.00 688.00 788.00
50.97 55.03 59.09
1430.5 1480.4 1531.1
2.0551 2.0932 2.1292
586.97 686.97 786.97
49.964 53.946 57.926
1433.2 1483.4 1534.5
2.0563 2.0946 2.1309
572.04 672.04 772.04
37.458 40.447 43.435
1432.9 1483.2 1534.3
2.0244 2.0628 2.0991

1100

1200

998.26 1098.26
929.1
988.7
1583.0 1635.4
2.4592 2.4918
937.76 1037.76
185.78 197.70
1586.7 1639.6
2.2866 2.3194
906.79 1006.79
98.84
92.87
1586.6 1639.5
2.2101 2.2430
888.00 988.00
67.25
63.19
1582.7 1635.1
2.1634 2.1960
886.97 986.97
61.905 65.882
1586.5 1639.4
2.1653 2.1982
872.04 972.04
46.420 49.405
1586.3 1639.3
2.1336 2.1665

CIl

--l

i:'1

>
:::::
--l

>
t:e
t'"'
i:'1

CIl

N
N

N
N
N

Table 3 (continued)
Abs. Press
Lb/Sq In.
(Sat. Temp)

Sat.
Stearn

Sh
v 0.01693 16.30.1
h 208.52 1160.6
0.3535 1.7141
Sh
v 0.01701 13.744
h 218.93 1164.1
0.3682 1.6995
Sh
v 0.01708 11.896
h 228.03 1167.1
03809 1.6872
Sh
v 0.01715 10.497

25
(240.07)

30
(250.34)

35
(259.29)

40

(l{lJn1i'

Sat.
Water

~ d?6 14

'if,@ Q

0.3921 1.6765
""tJ

.-

(281.02)

60
(292.71)

70
(302.93)

--
h

b.l12,"'",

~O-:J~q.

250.21 1174.1
0.4112 1.6586

Sh
v 0.1738
h 262.21
0.4273
Sh
v 0.01748
h 272.74
0.4411

7.174
1177.6
1.6440
6.205
1180.6
1.6316

("')

Temperature-Degrees Fahrenheit
200
250
300
350
400
9.93 59.93 109.93 159.93
16.558 17.829 19.076 20.307
1165.6 1190.2 1214.5 1238.5
1.7212 1.7547 1.7856 1.8145
49.66 99.66 149.66
14.810 15.859 16.892
1189.0 1213.6 1237.8
1.7334 1.7647 1.7937
40.71 90.71 140.71
12.654 13.562 14.453
1187.8 1212.7 1237.1
1.7152 1.7468 1.7761
32.75 82.75 l32.75
11.036 11.838 12.624
1

i'fL\lWiiF 1??E

1.6992 1.7312 1.7608


"-'--(j.iO~ ~."t2'"

1184.1
1.6720
7.29
7.257
1181.6
1.6492

1209.9
1.7048
57.29
7.815
1208.0
1.6934
47,07
6.664
1206.0
1.6640

450

500

600

700

800

900

1000

1100

209.93
21.527
l;262.5
1.8415
199.66
17.914
1261.9
1.8210
190.71
15.334
1261.3
1.8035
182.75
13.398

259.93
22.740
1286.4
1.8672
249.66
18.929
1286.0
1.8467
240.71
16.207
1285.5
1.8294
232.75
14.165

359.93
25.153
1334.6
1.9149
349.66
20.945
1334.2
1.8946
340.71
17.939
1333.9
1.8774
332.75
15.685

459.93
27.557
1383.3
1.9588
449.66
22.951
1383.0
1.9386
440.71
19.662
1382.8
1.9214
432.75
17.195

559.93
29.954
1432.7
1.9997
549.66
24.952
1432.5
1.9795
540.71
21.379
1432.3
1.9624
532.75
18.699

659.93
32.348
1483.0
2.0381
649.66
26.949
1482.8
2.0179
640.71
23.092
1482.7
2.0009
632.75
20.199

759.93
34.740
1534.2
2.0744
749.66
28.943
1534.0
2.0543
740.71
24.803
1533.9
2.0372
732.75
21.697

859.93
37.130
1586.2
2.1089
849.66
30.936
1586.1
2.0888
840.71
26.512
1586.0
2.0717
832.75
23.194

tU'lC

1'lQ1..

lt1?'l.:1

14..21

Z"C

mg

1~::I:2"'L--....l.c::Q~Q

1.7883 1.8143 1.8624 1.9065 1.9476 1.9860 2.0224

1O.v02O

1O.UOO

,L.1 .:JUQ

J.,I;; .J,I;;;7

1.":}.I"t.1

.1"t~~r"'.i'b:.1-.JU

1234.9
1.7349
107.29
8.354
1233.5
1.7134
97.07
7.l33
1232.0
1.6951

1259.6
1.7628
157.29
8.881
1258.5
1.7417
147.07
7.590
1257.3
1.7237

1284.1
1.7890
207.29
9.400
1283.2
1.7681
197.07
8.039
1282.2
1.7504

1332.9
1.8374
307.29
10.425
l332.3
1.8168
297.07
8.922
l331.6
1.7993

l382.0
1.8816
407.29
11.438
l381.5
1.8612
397.07
9.793
l381.0
1.8439

1431.7
1.9227
507.29
12.446
1431.3
1.9024
497.07
10.659
1430.9
1.8852

1482.2
1.9613
607.29
l3.450
1481.8
1.9410
597.07
11.522
1481.5
1.9238

2.0569

.1/ .:J.JU

J.t..3~

1533.4
1.9977
707.29
14.452
lS33.2
1.9774
697.07
12.382
1532.9
1.9603

1585.6
2.0322
807.29
15.452
1585.3
2.0120
797.07
l3.240
1585.1
l.9949

0
0

1200
959.93
39.518
1639.2
2.1418
949.66
32.927
1639.0
2.1217
940.71
28.220
1638.9
2.1046
932.75
24.689
1.-'20

2.0899

1638.6
2.0652
907.29
16.450
1638.4
2.0450
897.07
14.097
1638.2
2.0279

r
~
C'l
--l

~
~

Table 3 (continued)
Abs. Press
LbjSq In.
(Sat. Temp)
80
(312.04)

90
(320.28)

100
(327.82)

110
(334.79)

120
(341.27)

140
(353.04)

Sat.
Water

Sat.
Stearn

Sh
v 0.01757 5.471
h 282.15 1183.1
0.4534 1.6208
Sh
v 0.01766 4.895
h 290.69 1185.3
0.4643 1.6113
Sh
v 0.01774 4.431
h 298.54 llB7.2
0.4743 1.6027
Sh
v 0.01782 4.048
h 305.80 1188.9
s 0.4834 l.5950
Sh
v 0.01789 3.7275
h 312.58 1190.4
0.4919 1.5879
Sh
v 0.01803 3.2190
h 324.96 1193.0
0.5071 1.5752

Temperature-Degrees Fahrenheit
550
350
400
450
500
37.96
5.801
1204.0
1.6473
29.72
5.128
1202.0
1.6323
22.18
4.590
1199.9
1.6187
15.21
4.149
1197.7
1.6061
8.73
3.7815
1195.6
1.5943

87.96
6.218
1230.5
1.6790
79.72
5.505
1228.9
1.6646
72.18
4.935
1227.4
1.6516
65.21
4.468
1225.8
1.6396
58.73
4.0786
1224.1
1.6286
49.96
3.4661
1220.8
1.6085

137.96
6.622
1256.1
1.7080
129.72
5.869
1254.9
1.0940
122.18
5.266
1253.7
1.6814
115.21
4.772
1252.5
1.6698
108.73
4.3610
1251.2
1.6592
96.96
3.7143
1248.7
1.6400

187.96 237.96
7.018 7.408
1281.3 1306.2
1.7349 1.1602
179.72 229.72
6.223 6.572
1280.3 l305.4
1.7212 1.7467
172.18 222.18
5.588 5.904
1279.3 1304.6
1.7088 1.7344
165.21 215.21
5.068 5.357
1278.3 1303.8
1.6975 1.7233
158.73 208.73
4.6341 4.9009
1277.4 1302.9
1.6872 1.7132
146.96 196.96
3.9526 4.1844
1275.3 1301.3
1.6686 1.6949

600

700

BOO

900

1000

1100

1200

1300

1400

287.96
7.794
1330.9
1.1842
279.72
6.917
1330.2
1.7707
272.18
6.216
1329.6
1.7586
265.21
5.642
1328.9
1.7476
258.73
5.1637
1328.2
1.7376
i
246.96
4.4119
1326.8
1.7196

387.96
8.560
1380.5
1.8289
379.72
7.600
1380.0
1.8156
372.18
6.833
1379.5
1.8036
365.21
6.205
1379.0
1.7928
358.73
5.6813
1378.4
1.7829
346.96
4.8588
1377.4
1.7652

487.96
9.319
1430.5
1.8702
479.72
8.277
1430.1
1.8570
472.18
7.443
1429.7
1.8451
465.21
6.761
1429.2
l.8344
458.73
6.1928
1428.8
1.8246
446.96
5.2995
1428.0
1.8071

587.96
10.075
1481.1
1.9089
579.72
8.950
1480.8
1.8957
572.18
8.050
1480.4
l.8839
565.21
7.314
1480.1
1.8732
558.73
6.7006
1479.8
1.8635
546.96
5.7364
1479.1
l.8461

687.96
10.829
1532.6
1.9454
679.72
9.621
1532.3
1.9323
672.18
8.655
1532.0
1.9205
665.21
7.865
1531.7
1.9099
658.73
7.2060
1531.4
1.9001
646.96
6.1709
1530.8
l.8828

787.96
11.581
1584.9
1.9800
779.72
10.290
1584.6
1.9669
772.18
9.258
1584.4
l.9552
765.21
8.413
1584.1
1.9446
758.73
7.7096
1583.9
1.9349
746.96
6.6036
1583.4
1.9176

887.96
12.331
1638.0
2.0131
879.72
10.958
1637.8
2.0000
872.18
9.860
1637.6
1.9883
865.21
8.961
1637.4
1.9777
858.73
8.2119
1637.1
19680
846.96
7.0349
1636.7
1.9508

987.96
13.081
1692.0
2.0446
979.72
11.625
1691.8
2.0316
972.18
10.460
1691.6
2.0199
965.21
9.507
1691.4
2.0093
958.73
8.7130
1691.3
1.9996
946.96
7.4652
1690.9
1.9825

1087.96
13.829
1746.8
2.0750
1079.72
12.290
1746.7
2.0619
1072.18
11.060
1746.5
2.0502
1065.21
10.053
1746.4
2.0397
1058.73
9.2134
1746.2
2.0300
1046.96
7.8946
1745.9
2.0129

CIl

--l

i:"l

>

:::::

--l

>
!:Xi

r;;

CIl

N
N

IN

N
N

Table 3 (continued)
Abs. Press
Lb/Sq In.
(Sat. Temp)
160
(363.55)

180
(373.08)

200
(381.80)

Sat.
Water
Sh
v 0.01815
h 336.07
0.5206
Sh
v 0.01827
h 346.19
0.5328
Sh
v 0.01839
h 355.51
0.5438

.j::..

Sat.
Steam
2.8336
1195.1
1.5641
1.5312
1196.9
1.5543
2.2873
1198.3
1.5454

Temperature-Degrees Fahrenheit
350
400
200
250
300
36.45
3.0060
1217.4
1.5906
26.92
2.6474
1213.8
1.5743
18.20
2.3598
1210.1
1.5593

86.45
3.2288
1246.0
1.6231
76.92
2.8508
1243.4
1.6078
68.20
2.5480
1240.6
1.5938

136.45
3.4413
1273.3
1.6522
126.92
3.0433
1271.2
1.6376
118.20
2.7247
1269.0
1.6242

186.45
3.6469
1299.6
1.6790
176.92
3.2286
1297.9
1.6647
168.20
2.8939
1296.2
1.6518

("'J

450
236.45
3.. 8480
1325.4
1.7039
226.92
3.4093
1324.0
1.6900
218.20
3.0583
1322.6
1.6773

500

600

336.45
4.2420
1376.4
1.7499
326.92
3.7621
1375.3
1.7362
318.20
3.3783
1374.3
1.7239

436.45
4.6295
1427.2
1.7919
426.92
4.1084
1426.3
1.7784
418.20
3.6915
1425.5
1.7663

Sh = superheat, F; v = specific volume, cu ft per lb; h = enthalpy, Btu per lb; s = entropy. Btu per F per lb.

700
536.45
5.0132
1478.4
1.8310
526.92
4.4508
1477.7
1.8176
518.20
4.0008
1477.0
1.8057

800
636.45
5.3945
1530.3
1.8678
626.92
4.7907
1529.7
1.8545
618.20
4.3077
1529.1
1.8426

900
736.45
5.7741
1582.9
1.9027
726.92
5.1289
1582.4
1.8894
718.20
4.6128
1581.9
1.8776

1000

1100

1200

836.45
6.1522
1636.3
1.9359
826.92
5.4657
1635.9
1.9227
818.20
4.9165
1635.4
1.9109

936.45 1036.45
6.5293 6.9055
1690.5 1745.6
1.9676 1.9980
926.92 1026.92
5.8014 6.1363
1690.2 1745.3
1.9545 1.9849
918.20 1018.20
5.2191 5.5209
1689.8 1745.0
1.9427 1.9732

0
0

t""'

C'l
--l

i:"l

::tI

CIl

APPENDIXB
CONVERSION FACTORS

By

Multiply
Acres
Acres
Acres
Acres
Acre-feet
Acre-feet
Angstrom units
Atmospheres
Atmospheres
Atmospheres
Atmospheres
Atmospheres
Atmospheres
Barrels (British, dry)
Barrels (British, dry)
Barrels (British, dry)
Barrels, cement
Barrels, cement
Barrels, oil'
Barrels, (U.S., liquid)
Barrels, (US., liquid)
Barrels (U.S., liquid)
Bars
Bars
Bars
Bars
Bars

43.560
4,047
1.562 x 10- 3
4840
43.560
3.259 x 10 5
3.937 x 10- 9
76.0
29.92
33.90
10,333
14.70
1.058
5.780
0.1637
36
170.6
376
42
4.211

0.1192
31.5
0.9869
1 x 10 6
1.020 x 10 4
2.089 x 10 3
14.50

225

To Obtain
Square feet
Square meters
Square miles
Square yards
Cubic-feet
Gallons
Inches
Centimeters of mercury
Inches of mercury
Feet of water
Kilograms/square meter
Pounds/square inch
Tons/square foot
Cubic feet
Cubic meters
Gallons (British)
Kilograms
Pounds of cement
Gallons (U.S.)
Cubic feet
Cubic meters
Gallons (U.S.)
Atmospheres
Dynes/square centimeter
Kilograms/square meter
Pounds/square foot
Pounds/square inch

226

COOLING TOWERS

Multiply
Board-feet
British thermal units
British thermal units
British thermal units
British thermal units
British thermal units
British thermal units
Btu (mean)
Btu (mean)
Btu (mean)
Btu/minute
Btu/minute
Btu/minute
Btu/minute
Btu/square foot/
minute
Btu (mean)/hour
(ft2tF
Btu (mean)/hour
(ft2 tF
Btu (mean)/hour
(ft2tF
Btu (mean)/hour
(ft2tF
Btu (mean)/hour
(ft 2 tF
Btu (mean)/pound/
of
Bushels
Bushels
Bushels
Bushels
Bushels
Bushels
Calories, gram (mean)
Calories, gram (mean)
Calories, gram (mean)
Calories, gram (mean)
Calories, (thermochemical)

By
144 square inches
x 1 inch
0.2520
777.5
3.927 x 10-4
1054
107.5
2.928 x 10-4
251.98
0.55556
6.876 x 10- 5
12.96
0.02356
0.01757
17.57
0.1220
4.882

To Obtain
Cubic inches
Kilogram-calories
Foot-pounds
Horsepower-hours
Joules
Kilogram-meters
Kilowatt-hours
Calories, gram (mean)
Centigrade heat units
Pounds of carbon to CO 2
Foot-pounds/second
Horsepower
Kilowatts
Watts
Watts/square inch

3.94 x 10-4

Kilogram-calorie /
(m 2 tC
Gram-calorie/second
(cm 2tC
0
Horsepower / ( ft 2 ) F

5.682 x 10-4

Watts/( cm 2tc

2.035 x 10- 3

Watts/(in. 2tc

Calories, gram/gramtC

1.244
2150
0.03524
4
64
32
3.9685 x 10- 3
0.001469
3.0874
0.0011628
0.999346

Cubic feet
Cubic inches
Cubic meters
Pecks
Pints (dry)
Quarts (dry)
Btu (mean)
Cubic feet-atmospheres
Foot-pounds
Watt-hours
Calories (int. steam
tables)

1.3562 x 10-4

CONVERSION FACTORS

Multiply
Calories, gram (mean)/gram
Centigrams
Centiliters
Centimeters
Centimeters
Centimeters
Centimeters
Centimeters
Centimeter-dynes
Centimeter-dynes
Centimeter-dynes
Centimeter-grams
Centimeter-grams
Centimeter-grams
Centimeters of
mercury
Centimeters of
mercury
Centimeters of
mercury
Centimeters of
mercury
Centimeters of
mercury
Centimeters/second
Centimeters/second
Centimeters/second
Centimeters/second
Centimeters/second
Centimeters/ second
Centimeters/ second/
second
Centimetels/ second/
second
Centimeters/ second/
second
Circular mils
Circular mils
Circular mils
Cord-feet

227

By

To Obtain

1.8
0.01
0.01
0.0328083
0.3937
0.01
393.7
10
1.020 x 10- 3
1.020 x 10- 8
7.376 x 10- 8
980.7
10-5
7.233 x 10-5
0.01316

Btu (mean)/pound
Grams
liters
Feet (U.S.)
Inches
Meters
Mils
Millimeters
Centimeter-grams
Meter-kilograms
Pound-feet
Centimeter-dynes
Meter-kilograms
Pound-feet
Atmospheres

0.4461

Feet of water

136.0

Kilograms/square meter

27.85

Pounds/square foot

0.1934

Pounds/square inch

1.969
0.03281
0.036
0.6
0.02237
3.728 x 10-4
0.03281

Feet/minute
Feet/second
Kilometers/hour
Meters/minute
Miles/hour
Miles/minute
Feet/second/second

0.036

Kilometers/hour/second

0.02237

Miles/hour/second

5.067 x 10- 6
7.854 x 10- 7
0.7854
4 feet x 4 feet x
1 foot

Square centimeters
Square inches
Square mils
Cubic feet

228

COOLING TOWERS

Multiply
Cords
Cubic centimeters
Cubic centimeters
Cubic centimeters
Cubic centimeters
Cubic centimeters
Cubic centimeters
Cubic centimeters
Cubic centimeters
Cubic centimeters
Cubic feet
Cubic feet
Cubic feet
Cubic feet
Cubic feet
Cubic feet
Cubic feet
Cubic feet
Cubic feet of water{60F)
Cubic feet/minute
Cubic feet/minute
Cubic feet/minute
Cubic feet/minute
Cubic feet/second
Cubic feet/second
Cubic feet/second
Cubic feet-atmospheres
Cubic foot-atmospheres
Cubic foot-atmospheres
Cubic foot-atmospheres
Cubic foot-atmospheres
Cubic inches
Cubic inches
Cubic inches
Cubic inches
Cubic inches
Cubic inches
Cubic inches
Cubic inches
Cubic inches (U.S.)

By
8 feet x 4 feet x
4 feet
3.531 x 10- 5
6.102 x 10- 2
10- 6
1.308 x 10- 6
2.642 x 10-4
10- 3
2.113 x 10- 3
1.057 x 10- 3
0.033814
2.832 x 10 4
1728
0.02832
0.03704
7.481
28.32
59.84
29.92
62.37
472.0
0.1247
0.4720
62.4
1.9834
448.83
0.64632
2.7203
680.74
2116.3
292.6
7.968 x 10-4
16.39
5.787 x 10-4
1.639 x 10- 5
2.143 x 10- 5
4.329 x 10- 3
1.639 x 10- 2
0.03463
0.01732
0.55411

To Obtain
Cubic feet
Cubic feet
Cubic inches
Cubic meters
Cubic yards
Gallons
Liters
Pints (liqUid)
Quarts (Jiq uid)
Ounces (U.S. fluid)
Cubic centimeters
Cubic inches
Cubic meters
Cubic yards
Gallons
Liters
Pints (liquid)
Quarts (liquid)
Pounds
Cubic centimeters/second
Gallons/second
Liters/second
Pounds of water/minute
Acre-feet/day
Gallons/minute
Million gallons/day
Btu (mean)
Calories, gram (mean)
Foot-pounds
Kilogram-meters
Kilowatt-hours
Cubic centimeters
Cubic feet
Cubic meters
Cubic yards
Gallons
Liters
Pints (liquid)
Quarts (liquid)
Ounces (U.S. fluid)

CONVERSION FACTORS

Multiply
Cubic meters
Cubic meters
Cubic meters
Cubic meters
Cubic meters
Cubic meters
Cubic meters
Cubic meters
Cubic meters
Cubic meters
Cubic yards (British)
Cubic yards
Cubic yards
Cubic yards
Cubic yards
Cubic yards
Cubic yards
Cubic yards
Cubic yards
Cubic yards/minute
Cubic yards/minute
Cubic yards/minute
Days
Days
Decigrams
Deciliters
Decimeters
Degrees (angle)
Degrees (angle)
Degrees (angle)
Degrees/second
Degrees/second
Degrees/secord
Dekagrams
Dekaliters
Dekameters
Drams
Drams
Dynes
Dynes
Dynes

By
6

10
35.31
61,023
1.308
264.2
10 3
2113
1057
8.1074 x 10-4
8.387
0.9999916
7.646 x 105
27
46.656
0.7646
202.0
764.6
1616
807.9
0.45
3.367
12.74
1440
86,400
0.1
0.1
0.1
60
0.01745
3600
0.01745
0.1667
0.002778
10
10
10
1.772
0.0625
1.020 x 10- 3
7.233 x 10- 5
2.248 x 10- 6

229

To Obtain
Cubic centimeters
Cubic feet
Cubic inches
Cubic yards
Gallons
Liters
Pints (liquid)
Quarts (liquid)
Acre-feet
Barrels (U.S., liquid)
Cubic yards (U.S.)
Cubic centimeters
Cubic feet
Cubic inches
Cubic meters
Gallons
Liters
Pints (liquid)
Quarts (liquid)
Cubi~\ feet/ second
Gallons/second
Liters/second
Minutes
Seconds
Grams
Liters
Meters
Minutes
Radians
Seconds
Radians/second
Revolutions/minute
Revolutions/second
Grams
Liters
Meters
Grams
Ounces
Grams
Poundals
Pounds

230

COOLING TOWERS

Multiply
Dynes per square centimeter
Ergs
Ergs
Ergs
Ergs
Ergs
Ergs
Ergs
Ergs/second
Ergs/second
Ergs/second
Ergs/second
Ergs/second
Ergs/second
Fathoms
Feet
Feet
Feet
Feet
Feet (U.S.)
Feet of air (1 atmosphere 60F)
Feet of water
Feet of water
Feet of water
Feet of water
Feet of water
Feet/minute
Feet/minute
Feet/minute
Feet/minute
Feet/minute
Feet/second
Feet/second
Feet/second
Feet/second
Feet/second
Feet/second

By

To Obtain
Bars

9.486 x
1
7.376 x
1.020 x
10- 3
2.390 x
1.020 x
5.692 x

10- 1 I

4.426 x 10-6
7.376 x 10- 8
1.341 x 10- 10
1.434 x 10-9
10- 10
6
30.48
12
0.3048
1/3
1.893939 x 10-4
5.30 x 10-4

British thermal units


Dyne-centimeters
Foot-pounds
Gram-centimeters
Joules
Kilogram-calories
Kilogram-meters
British thermal units/
minute
Foot-pounds/minute
Foot-pounds/second
Horsepower
Kilogram-calories/minute
Kilowatts
Feet
Centimeters
Inches
Meters
Yards
Miles (statute)
Pounds/square inch

0.02950
0.8826
304.8
62.43
0.4335
0.5080
0.01667
0.01829
0.3048
0.01136
30.48
1.097
0.5921
18.29
0.6818
0.Q1136

Atmospheres
Inches of mercury
Kilograms/square meter
Pounds/square foot
Pounds/square inch
Centimeters/second
Feet/second
Kilometers/hour
Meters/minute
Miles/hour
Centimeters/second
Kilometers/hour
Knots/hour
Meters/minute
Miles/hour
Miles/minute

10- 8
1(f3
10- 1 I
10- 8
10- 9

CONVERSION FACTORS

Multiply

By

Feet/100 feet
Feet/second/second

1
30.48

Feet/second/second
Feet/second/second
Feet/second/second
Foot-poundals
Foot-poundals
Foot-pounds
Foot-pounds
Foot-pounds
Foot-pounds
Foot-pounds
Foot-pounds
Foot-pounds
Foot-pounds
Foot-pounds
Foot-pounds/minute

1.097
0.304'8
0.6818
3.9951 x 10- 5
0.0421420
0.013381
3.7662 x 10-4
1.286 x 10- 3
1.356 x 10 7
5.050 x 10- 7
1.356
3.241 x 10-4
0.1383
3.766 x 10- 7
1.286 x 10- 3

Foot-pounds/minute
Foot-pounds/minute
Foot -pounds/minute
Foot-pounds/minute
Foot-pounds/second

0.01667
3.030 x 10- 5
3.241 x 10-4
2.260 x 10-5 ,
7.717 x 10- 2

Foot-pounds/second
Foot-pounds/second
Foot-pounds/second
Foot-pounds/second
Foot-pounds/second
Gallons (British)
Gallons (British)
Gallons (British)

1.818xlO- 3
1.945 x 10- 2
1.356 x 10- 3
4.6275
1.35582
4516.086
1.20094
10

Gallons (U.S.)
Gallons
Gallons
Gallons
Gallons
Gallons
Gallons

128
3785
0.1337
231
3.785 x 10-3
4.951 x 10-3
3.785

231

To Obtain
Percent Grade
Centimeters/second/
second
Kilometers/hour/second
Meters/second/second
Miles/hour/second
Btu (mean)
Joules (abs)
Liter-atmospheres
Watt-hours (abs)
British thermal units
Ergs
Horsepower-hours
Joules
Kilogram-calories
Kilogram-meters
Kilowatt-hours
British thermal units/
minute
Foot-pounds/second
Horsepower
Kilogram-calories/minute
Kilowatts
British thermal units/
minute
Horsepower
Kilogram-calories/minute
Kilowatts
Btu (mean)/hour
Watts (abs)
Cubic centimeters
Gailons (U.S.)
Pounds (avordupois) of
of water at 62F
Ounces (U.S. fluid)
Cubic centimeters
Cubic feet
Cubic inches
Cubic meters
Cubic yards
Liters

232

COOLING TOWERS

Multiply
Gallons
Gallons
Gallons/minute
Gallons/minute
Grains (troy)
Grains (troy)
Grains (troy)
Grains (troy)
Grains/U.S. gallons
Grains/U.S. gallons
Grains/Imperial gallons
Grams
Grams
Grams
Grams
Grams
Grams
Grams
Grams
Gram-calories
Gram-centimeters
Gram -cen time te rs
Gram-centimeters
Gram-centimeters
Gram-centimeters
Gram-centimeters
Gram-centimeters
Gram-centimeters/
second
Grams-centimeters 2
(moment of inertia)
Grams-centimeters 2
Grams/cubic meters
Grams/centimeter
Grams/cubic centimeter
Grams/cubic centimeter
Grams/cubic centimeter
Grams/ cubic centimeter
Grams/liter
Grams/liter
Grams/liter

By

To Obtain

8
4
2.228 x 10-3
0.06308
1
0.06480
0.04167
2.0833 x 10- 3
17.118
142.86
14.286
980.7
15.43
10- 3
10 3
0.03527
0.03215
0.07093
2.205 x 10- 3
3.968 x 10-3
9.302 x 10-8
980.7
7.233 x 10- 5
9.807 x 10- 5
2.344 x 10- 8
10- 5
2.7241 x 10-8
9.80665 x 10- 5

Pints (liquid)
Quarts (liquid)
Cubic feet/second
Liters/second
Grains (average)
Grams
Pennyweights (troy)
Ounces (troy)
Parts/million
Pounds/million gallons
Parts/million
Dynes
Grains (troy)
Kilograms
Milligrams
Ounces
Ounces (troy)
Poundals
Pounds
British thermal units
British thermal units
Ergs
Foot-pounds
Joules
Kilogram-calories
Kilogram-meters
Watt-hours
Watts (abs)

3.4172 x 10-4

Pounds-inch 2

2.37305 x 10- 6
0.43700
5.600 x 10- 3
62.43
0.03613
3.405 x 10- 7
8.34
58.417
9.99973 x 10-4
1000

Pounds-feet 2
Grains/cubic foot
Pounds/inch
Pounds/cubic foot
Pounds/cubic inch
Pounds/mil foot
Pounds/ gallon
Grains/gallon (U.S.)
Grams/cubic centimeter
Parts/million (ppm)

CONVERSION FACTORS

By

Multiply

233

To Obtain

0.06243
0.0142234

Pounds/cubic foot
Pounds/square inch

100
100
100
100
0.5

Grams
Liters
Meters
Watts
Sphere

Spherical right angles

6.283

Steradians

42.44

British thermal units/


minute
Foot-pounds/minute
Foot-pounds/second
Horsepower (metric)
Kilogram calories/minute
Kilowatts
Watts
British thermal unifs/hour
Kilowatts
Horsepower
Horsepower
British thermal units
Foot-pounds
Joules
Kilogram-calories
Kilo gram-meters
Kilowatt-hours
Minutes
Seconds
Centimeters
Mils
Atmospheres
Feet of water
Kilograms/square centimeters
Kilograms/square meter
Millimeters of mercury

Grams/liter
Grams/square centimeter
Hectograms
Hectoliters
Hectometers
Hectowatts
Hemispheres (sol.
angle)
Hemispheres (sol.
angle)
Hemispheres (sol.
angle)
Horsepower
Horsepower
Horsepower
Horsepower
Horsepower
Horsepower
Horsepower
Horsepower (boiler)
Horsepower (boiler)
Horsepower, electrical
Horsepower (me tric)
Horsepower-hours
Horsepower-hours
Horsepower-hours
Horsepower -hours
Horsepower-hours
Horsepower-hours
Hours
Hours
Inches
Inches
Inches of mercury
Inches of mercury
Inches of mercury

33,000
550
1.014
10.70
0.7457
745.7
33,520
9.804
1.0004
0.98632
2547
1.98 x 10 6
1.684 x 10 6
641.7
2.737 x 10 5
0.7457
60
3600
2.540
10 3
0.03342
1.133
0.0345

Inches of mercury
Inches of mercury

345.3
25.40

~.

234

COOLING TOWERS

Multiply

By

Inches of mercury
Inches of mercury
Inches of water
Inches of water
Inches of water
Inches of water
Inches of water
Inches of water
Kilograms
Kilograms
Kilograms
Kilograms
Kilograms
Kilogram-calories
Kilogram-calories
Kilogram-calories
Kilogram-calories
Kilogram-calories
Kilogram-calories/ .
minute
Kilogram-calories/
minute
Kilogram-calories/
minute
Kilo gram -cen timeters 2
Kilogram-centimeters 2
Kilogram-meters
Kilogram-meters
Kilogram-meters
Kilogram-meters
Kilogram-meters
Kilogram-meters
Kilogram-meters
Kilogram-meters
Kilograms/cubic meter
Kilograms,tubic meter
Kilograms/cubic meter
Kilograms/cubic meter
Kilograms/meter

9.807
2.344 x 10-3
2.724 x 10- 6
10-3
0.06243
3.613 x 10- 5
3.405 x 10- 10
0.6720

To Obtain

70.73
0.4912
0.002458
0.07355
25.40
0.5781
5.204
0.03613
980,665
10 3
70.93
2.2046
1.102 x 10-3
3.968
3086
1.558 x 10- 3
426.6
1.162 x 10-3
51.43

Pounds/square foot
Pounds/square inch
Atmospheres
Inches of mercury
Kilograms/square meter
Ounces/square inch
Pounds/square foot
Pounds/square inch
Dynes
Grams
Poundals
Pounds
Tons (short)
British thermal units
Foot-pounds
Horsepower -hours
Kilogram-meters
Kilowatt-hours
Foot-pounds/second

0.09351

Horsepower

0.06972

Kilowatts

2.373 x 10- 3
0.3417
9.302 x 10- 3
9.807 x 10 7
7.233
3.6529 x 10- 6
9.579 x 10- 6

Pounds-feet 2
Pounds-inches 2
British thermal units
Ergs
Foot-pounds
Horsepower-hours
Pounds water evaporated
at 212F
Joules
Kilogram-calories
Kilowa tt-hours
Grams/cubic meter
Pounds/cubic foot
Pounds/cubic inch
Pounds/mil foot
Pounds/foot

CONVERSION FACTORS

Multiply

By

235

To Obtain

Kilograms/square centimeter
Kilograms/square centimeter
Kilograms/square centimeter
Kilograms/square meter
Kilograms/square meter
Kilograms/square meter
Kilograms/square meter

28.96

Inches of mercury

735.56

Millimeters of mercury

14.22

Pounds/square inch

9.678 x 10-5
3.281 x 10-3
2.896 x 10-3
0.07356

Kilograms/square meter
Kilograms/square meter
Kilograms/ square millimeter
Kiloliters
Kilometers
Kilometers
Kilometers
Kilometers
Kilometers
Kilometers/hour
Kilometers/hour
Kilometers/hour
Kilometers/hour
Kilometers/hour
Kilometers/hour
Kilometers/hour /
second
Kilometers/hour/
second
Kilometers/hour/
second
Kilometers/hour/
second
Kilometers/minute
Kilowatts

0.2048
1.422 x 10-3
10 6
10 3
10 5
3281
10 3
0.6214
1093.6
27.78
54.68
0.9113
0.5396
16.67
0.6214
27.78
0.9113

Atmospheres
Feet of water
Inches of mercury
Millimeters of mercury
at OC
Pounds/square foot
Pounds/square inch
Kilograms/square meter
Liters
Centimeters
Feet
Meters
Miles
Yarlfs
Centimeters/second
Feet/minute
Feet/second
Knots/hour
Meters/minute
Miles/hour
Centimeters/second/
second
Feet/second/second

0.2778

Meters/second/second

0.6214

Miles/hour/second

60
56.92

Kilometers/hour
British thermal units/
minute
Foot-pounds/minute
Foot-pounds/second
Horsepower

Kilowatts
Kilowatts
Kilowatts

4.425 x 104
737.6
1.342

236

COOLING TOWERS

By

Multiply
Kilowatts

14.34

Kilowatts
Kilowa tt -hours
Kilowatt-hours
Kilowatt-hours
Liters
Liters
Liters
Liters
Liters
Liters
Liters
Liters
Liters/minute
Liters/minute
Log, oN
Log N or Ln N
Meters
Meters
Meters
Meters
Meters
Meters
Meters
Meters
Meter-kilograms
Meter-kilograms
Meter-kilograms
Meters/minute
Meters/minute
Meters/minute
Meters/minute
Meters/minute
Meters/ second
Meters/second
Meters/second
Meters/second
Meters/ second
Meters/second
Meters/second/second

10 3
3415
2.655 x 10 6
1.341
10 3
0.03531
61.02
10- 3
1.308. x 10- 3
0.2642
2.113
1.057
5.885 x 10-4
4.403, x 10- 3
2.303
0.4343
100
3.2808
39.37
10- 3

10 3
1.0936
10'0
6.2137 x 104
9.807 x 10 7
10 5
7.233
1.667
3.281
0.05468
0.06
0.03728
196.8
3.281
3.6
0.06
2.237
0.03728
3.281

To Obtain
Kilogram-calories/
minute
Watts
British thermal units
Foot-pounds
Horsepower, hours
Cubic centimeters
Cubic feet
Cubic inches
Cubic meters
Cubic yards
Gallons
Pints (liquid)
Quarts (liquid)
Cubic feet/second
Gallons/second
LogEN or Ln N
Log, oN
Centimeters
Feet
Inches
Kilometers
Millimeters
Yards
Angstrom units
Miles
Centimeter-dynes
Centimeter-grams
Pound-feet
Centimeters/second
Feet/minute
Feet/second
Kilometers/hour
Miles/hour
Feet/minute
Feet/second
Kilometers/hour
Kilometers/min ute
Miles/hour
Miles/minute
Feet/second/second

CONVERSION FACTORS

Multiply

By

Meters/second/second
Meters/second/second
Micrograms
Microliters
Microns
Miles
Miles
Miles
Miles
Miles (int. Nautical)
Miles/hour
Miles/hour
Miles/hour
Miles/hour
Miles/hour
Miles/hour/second

3.6
2.237
10- 6
10- 6
10- 6
1.609 x lOs
5280
1.6093
1760
1.852
44.70
88
1.467
1.6093
26.82
44.70

Miles/hour /second
Miles/hour /second
Miles/hour /second
Miles/minute
Miles/minute
Miles/minute
Miles/minute
Milliers
Milligrams
Millili te rs
Millimeters
Millimeters
Millimeters
Millimeters of mercury
Millimeters of mercury

1.467
1.6093
0.4470
2682
88
1.6093
60
103
10-3
10-3

Millimeters of mercury
Mils
Mils
Mils
Minutes (angle)
Minutes (angle)
Months
Months

0.01934
0.002540
10-3

0.1
0.03937
39.37
0.0394
1.3595 X 10- 3

25.40
2.909 x 10-4
60
30.42
730

237

To Obtain
Kilometers/hour/second
Miles/hour/second
Grams
Liters
Meters
Centimeters
Feet
Kilometers
Yards
Kilometers
Centimeters/second
Feet/minute
Feet/second
Kilometers/hour
Meters/minute
Centimeters/second/
second
Feet/second/second
KiloIl)eters/hour /second

Met~rs/second/second

Centimeters/second
Feet/second
Kilometers/minute
Miles/hour
Kilograms
Grams
Liters
Centimeters
Inches
Mils
Inches of mercury
Kilograms/square centimeter
Pounds/square inch
Centimeters
Inches
Microns
Radians
Seconds (angle)
Days
Hours

238

COOLING TOWERS

Multiply
Months
Months
Myriagrams
Myriameters
Myriawatts
Ounces
Ounces
Ounces
Ounces
Ounces (fluid)
Ounces (fluid)
Ounces (U.S. fluid)
Ounces (U.S. fluid)
Ounces (troy)
Ounces (troy)
Ounces (troy)
Ounces (troy)
Ounces/square inch
Parts/million
Parts/million
Parts/million
Pennyweights (troy)
Pennyweights (troy)
Pennyweights (troy)
Pints (dry)
Pints (liquid)
Pints (U.S. liquid)
Pints (U.S. liquid)
Poundals
Poundals
Poundals
Pounds
Pounds
Pounds
Pounds
Pounds
Pound (troy)
Pounds (troy)
Pounds of carbon to
CO 2
Pound-feet (torque)

By

43,800
2.628 x 10 6
10
10
10
16
437.5
28.35
0.0625
1.805
0.02957
29.5737
1/128
480
31.10
20
0.08333
0.0625
0.0584
0.7016
8.345
24
1.555
0.05
33.60
28.87
473.179
16
13,826
14.10
0.03108
444,823
7000
453.6
16
32.17
0.8229
373.2418
14,544
1.3558 x 10 7

To Obtain
Minutes
Seconds
Kilograms
Kilometers
Kilowatts
Drams
Grains
Grams
Pounds
Cubic inches
liters
Cubic centimeters
Gallons (U.S.)
Grains (troy)
Grams
Pennyweights (troy)
Pounds (troy)
Pounds/square inch
Grains/U.S. gallon
Grains/Imperial gallon
Pounds/million gallons
Grains (troy)
Grams
Ounces (troy)
Cubic inches
Cubic centimeters
Cubic centimeters
Ounces (U.S. flUid)
Dynes
Grams
Pounds
Dynes
Grains
Grams
Ounces
Poundals
Pounds (av.)
Grams
Britith thermal units
(mean)
Dyne-centimeters

CONVERSION FACTORS

Multiply

239

To Obtain

By
7

Pound-feet
Pound-feet
Pound-feet
Pounds-feet 2
Pounds-feee
Pounds-inches 2
Pounds-inches 2
Pounds of water
Pounds of water
Pounds of water
Pounds of water evaporated at 212F
Pounds of water /
minute
Pounds/cubic foot
Pounds/cubic foot
Pounds/cubic foot
Pounds/cubic foot
Pounds/cubic inch
Pounds/cubic inch
Pounds/cubic inch
Pounds/cubic inch
Pounds/foot
Pounds/inch
Pounds/square foot
Pounds/square foot
Pounds/square foot
Pounds/square inch
Pounds/square inch
Pounds/square inch
Pounds/square inch

1.356 x 10
13,825
0.1383
421.3
144
2,926
6.945 x 10-3
0.01602
27.68
0.1198
970.3

Centimeters-dynes
Centimeter-grams
Meter-kilograms
Kilogram-centimeters 2
Pounds-inches 2
Kilogram-centimeters 2
Pounds-feet 2
Cubic feet
Cubic inches
Gallons
British thermal units

2.699 x 10-4

Cubic feet/second

0.01602
16.02
5.787 x 10-4
5,456 x 10-9
27.68
2.768 x 10 4
1728
9.425 x 10- 6
1.488
178.6
0.01602
4.882
6.944 x 10- 3
0.06804
2.307
2.036
0.0703

Pounds/square inch
Pounds/square inch
Pounds/square inch
Pounds/square inch

703.1
144
70.307
51.715

Quadrants (angle)
Quadrants (angle)
Quadrants (angle)
Quarts (dry)

90
5400
1.571
67.20

Grams/cubic centimeter
Kilograms/cubic meter
Pounds/cubic inch
Pounds/mil foot
Grams/cubic centimeter
Kilogl:ams/cubic meter
Pounds/cubic foot
Pounds/mil foot
Kilograms/meter
Grams/centimeter
Feet of water
Kilograms/square meter
Pounds/square inch
Atmospheres
Feet of water
Inches of mercury
Kilograms/square centimeter
Kilograms/square meter
Pounds/square foot
Grams/square centimeter
Millimeters of mercury
at OC
Degrees
Minutes
Radians
Cubic inches

240

COOLING TOWERS

By

Multiply
Quarts (liquid)
QUarts (US. liquid)
Quarts (US. liquid)
Quarts (US. liquid)
Radians
Radians
Radians
Radians/second
Radians/second
Radians/second
Radians/second/second

57.75
0.033420
32
0.832674
57.30
3438
0.637
57.30
0.1592
9.549
573.0

Radians/second/second

9.549

Radians/second/second

0.1592

Revolutions
Revolu tions
Revolutions
Revolutions/minufe
Revolutions/minute
Revolutions/minute
Revolutions/minute/
minute
Revolutions/minute/
minute
Revolutions/minute/
minute
Revolutions/second
Revolutions/second
Revol utions/ second
Revolutions/second/
second
Revolutions/second/
second
Revolutions/second/
second
Seconds (angle)
Spheres (solid angle)
Spherical right angles
Spherical right angles

360
4
6.283
6
0.1047
0.01667
1.745 x 10- 3
0.01667
2.778 x 10-4
360
6.283
60
6.283
3600
60
4.848 x 10- 6
12.57
0.25
0.125

To Obtain
Cubic inches
Cubic feet
Ounces (US. fluid)
Quarts (British)
Degrees
Minutes
Quadrants
Degrees/second
Revolutions/second
Revolutions/minute
Revolutions/minute/
minute
Revolutions/minute/
second
Revolutions/second/
second
Degrees
Quadrants
Radians
Degrees/second
Radians/second
Revolutions/second
Radians/second/second
Revolutions/minute/
second
Revolutions/second/
second
Degrees/second
Radians/second
Revolutions/minute
Radians/second/second
Revolutions/minute/
minute
Revolutions/minute/
minute
Radians
Steradians
Hemispheres
Spheres

CONVERSION FACTORS

Multiply

To Obtain

By

Spherical right angles


Square centimeters
Square centimeters
Square centimeters
Square centimeters
Square centimeters
Square centimeterscentimeters squared
Square feet
Square feet
Square feet
Square feet
Square feet
Square feet
Square feet-feet squared

1.571
1.973 x 105
1.076 x 10- 3
0.1 550
10- 6
100
0.02420

Square inches
Sq uare inches
Square inches
Square inches
Square inches
Square inches (U.S.)
Square inches-inches
squared
Square kilometers
Square kilometers
Square kilometers
Square kilometers
Square kilometers
Square meters
Square meters
Square meters
Square meter,s
Square miles
Square miles
Square miles
Square miles
Square millimeters
Square millimeters
Square millimeters
Square mils

1.273 x 10 6
6.452
6.944 x 10- 3
10 6
645.2
7.71605 x 10-4
41.62

2.296 x 10- 5
929.0
144
0.09290
3.587 x 10- 8
1/9
2.074 x 104

247.1
10.76 x
10 6
0.3861
1.196 x
2.471 x
10.764
3.861 x
1.196
640
27.88 x
2.590
3.098 x
1.973 x
0.01
1.550 x
1.273

241

10 6

10 6
10-4
10- 7

10 6

10 6
10 3
10- 3

Steradians
Circular mils
Square feet
Square inches
Square meters
Square millimeters
Square inches-inches
squared
Acres
Square centimeters
Square inches
Square meters
Square miles
Square yards
Square inches-inches
squared
Circular mils
Square centimeters
Square feet
Squar'emils
Square millimeters
Sq uare yards
Square centimeterscentimeters squared
Acres
Square feet
Square meters
Square miles
Square yards
Acres
Square feet
Square miles
Square yards
Acres
Square feet
Square kilometers
Square yards
Circular mils
Square centimeters
Square inches
Circular mils

242

COOLING TOWERS

Multiply
Square mils
Square mils
Square yards
Square yards
Square yards
Square yards
Temperature CC)
+273
Temperature CC)
+ 17.8
Temperature ("F)
+460
Temperature CF)
- 32
Tons (long)
Tons (long)
Tons (metric)
Tons (metric)
Tons (short)
Tons (short)
Tons (short)/square
Tons (short)/square
Tons (short)/square
Tons (short)/square
Watts
Watts
Watts
Watts
Watts
Watts
Watts
Watt-hours
Watt-hours
Watt-hours
Watt-hours
Watt-hours
Watt-hours
Weeks
Weeks
Weeks

By

To Obtain
6

6.452 x 1010-6
2.066 x 10-4
9
0.8361
3.228 x 10- 7
1

feet
feet
inch
inch

1.8

Square centimeters
Square inches
Acres
Square feet
Square meters
Square milys
Absolute temperature
("C)
Temperature ("F)

5/9

Absolute temperature
("F)
Temperature ("C)

1016
224.0
10 3
2205
907.2
2000
9765
13.89
1.406 x 10 6
2000
0.05692
10 7
44.26
0.7376
1.341 xlO- 3
0.01434
10-3
3.415
2655
1.341 x 10-3
0.8605
367.1
10-3
168
10,080
604,800

Kilograms
Pounds
Kilograms
Pounds
Kilograms
Pounds
Kilograms/square meter
Pounds/square inch
Kilograms/square meter
Pounds/square inch
British thermal units/
minute
Ergs/second
Foot-pounds/minute
Foot-pounds/second
Horsepower
Kilogram-calories/minute
Kilowatts
British thermal units
Foot-pounds
Horsepower-hours
Kilogram-calories
Kilogram-meters
Kilowatt-hours
Hours
Minutes
Seconds

CONVERSION FACTORS

Multiply
Yards
Yards
Yards
Yards
Years (common)
Years (common)

By

91.44
3
36
0.9144
365
8760

To Obtain
Centimeters
Feet
Inches
Meters
Days
Hours

243

This page intentionally left blank

APPENDIX C
SOLUTIONS TO SELECTED CHAPTER PROBLEMS

SOLUTIONS TO PROBLEMS IN CHAPTER 2


2.1

The specific volume of the wet steam mixture is ft3/0.99 lb = 1.01


ft3/lb. From the Steam Tables, the specific volumes of saturated vapor
and liquid are vG = 6.032 fe/lb and VI = 0.0175 ft3/lb, respectively.
Let x = weight fraction of vapor. Then, from a mate'rial balance, solve
for x:
'
00175 ft'
(ft' )
ft'
ib liquid (1 - x) Ib liquid + \6.03 21b vapor (x lb vapor) = 1.01 Th

where we have assumed a basis of I lb vapor-gas mixture.


0.0175 - 0.0175 x<+ 6.032 x = 1.01
x

= 0.17

152 mm Hg = 42.18 + PH 2 or PH 2 = 709.8 mm

Apply ideal gas law to compute volume of dry H2 :


(1 500 em

'd

ryH 2

)( 273 K\(709<8mm\_1 2
'd
273+35) 760mmJ- 24 em ryH 2
@

245

standard conditions

246
2.3

COOLING TOWERS
From steam tables, Piho @ 90F
pressure of H 20 vapor in air.

= 36.1

mm Hg. Determine partial

PHzO
PHzO
Pt-P H 0
755 -PH 0
%.).1 = 29% = p* z (100) =
36.1 z (100)

Hz~

Pt - P

755 - 36.1

HzO

PH 0
1.456 = 755 _ zPH 0 (100)
z

10.99 - 1.456 X lO-zPHzO = PHzO


PHzO = 11.16 mm Hg
% RH

= (PHzO/PHz0)100 = (11.16/36.1)(100)
% RH = 30.9%

The dew point is the temperature at which the water vapor in the air
begins to condense. This would occur at the vapor pressure of 11.16
mm Hg, or about 55F.

For any gas,

cP (ali)
aT P=[au +aTa(Pv)] P [au aT+ PdV] P
=

For an ideal gas,

SOLUTIONS TO SELECTED PROBLEMS


and from

247

PV = RT;

(av) =P
R

aT P

Hence,
Cp = Cv + R

2.5

T = 273 + 950C = 1223K

CPm

1223

f.t223

,73

~27~3

= 1223 =

Cpm =

(8.89 + 0.0029T - 28,400/T')dT

CpdT
273

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

950

(-dB - ~)

8.89 [1223 - 273] 0.0029 [(1223)2 - (273)2] 28,400


950
+
2(950)
+
950
8,445.5 + 2060.7 + 127.3
950

Cpm = 11.19 cal/(g-mole)("K)

2.6

(a) The point of coordinates, T = 130F,.J.I = 0.045, is located on the


psychrometric chart (Figure 2.5). The point lies on the 40% humidity
curve. From the chart, the saturation humidity at 130F is.J.I s = 0.113.
Thus, the % humidity is (0.045/0.113)100 = 39.8%
(b) The molal absolute humidity is
J.I,(MWair/MWH20)

= 0.045 (28.97/18.02)
= 0.072 moles H20/mole dry air

(c) It can be shown that the partial pressure of water vapor in the
sample ,is
J.I Pt 0.072(1 atm)
PH 20 = 1 + J.I +
1.072
= 0.067 atm

2.7

(a) The vapor pressure of water at 130F is


PH,O

= 2.21

psia

= 0.151 atm

248

COOLING TOWERS

Hence,
% RH = PH 2 O(100)/PB 2 0
= (0.067 atm)(100)/0.151 = 44.4%

(b) Dew point. From psychrometric chart, tw = 101F


(c) Humid Volume. From Figure 2.5, the specific voluI,lle of dry air
3
@ 130F is 14.8 ft /1b dry air. The humid volume of saturated air is
17.5 ft3/lb dry air. Interpolating for 40% humidity,
VH = 14.8 + (17.5 - 15.0) (0.40)

15.8 ft' wet air/lb dry air

(d) Humid Heat. From Equation 2.39,

Cs = Cair + J.lCH 20

0.24 + (0.045)(0.45)

Btu for wet air

=0.260 (lb dry air)(OF)

(e) Enthalpy. From the chart @ 130F, enthalpy of dry air is


23.5 Btu/lb dry air; enthalpy for saturated air is 150 Btu/lb dry air.
Interpolating for 40% humidity,
H =23.5 + (150 - 23.5) (0.40)

= 74.1 Btu/lb dry air


2.8

Locate the point T = 135F, .J.I = 0.029, on the psychrometric chart


(Figure 2.5). As in problem 2.7, the humid volume must be determined
by interpolating for 22.9% humidity:
VH = 15.0 + (18.15 - 15.0)(0.229) = 15.72 ft' wet air/lb dry air
The mass of dry air

= Wair = 400/VH = 25.4 lb. From Equation 2.40,

Q = WairCsAT = 25.4 (0.254) (180 -135)

2.9

= 291 Btu

From the psychrometric chart (Figure 2.5), follow the adiabatic saturation curve for tw = 95F down to the dry-bulb temperature 165F,
where
J.I = 0.02

SOLUTIONS TO SELECTED PROBLEMS

249

2.10
Tl = 273 + 26C = 299K
To = 273 + 6loC = 334K

By logarithmic interpolation, solve for T 3:


1

m--r,
1
1
299-334
T3

log 100 -log 200


log 100 - log 400

3lSoK = 42C

Note that the correct value (measured) is 42.3C for this vapor pressure.
Linear interpolation would have given an incorrect value of 37 .7C.

SOLUTIONS TO SELECTED PROBLEMS IN CHAPTER 3

3.1

The general differential equation for mass transfer is'

Flux in all 3 directions

o@
steady
state

chemical
reaction

Hence,
d
d
dz NAz = 0 or dz NBz = 0

Component B is a stagnant gas in the column, hence NBz is 0 throughout the column.
From an overall balance, the molar flux of A is

250

COOLING TOWERS
or
N

[C] O<AB dy A
----Az-l-YA dz

where O!AB, the proportionality constant, is the diffusivity.

or
'[C]O<AB
(z 2 - z I )

NA = - - - I n

(I-YA 2 )
(1 - YA I )

Defining a log-mean concentration for B in terms of A,


YA I - YA 2
YB lm = In[(l- YA )/(l-YA)]
2

since YB

3.2

= r~ YA. Hence,

For an ideal gas,

where n is number moles. Hence,

Then,
O<ABP t (PAl - P A)
NAz = =-R=T--'-(z=----'-z""7)
PB
2

where PBlm is the log-mean pressure.

1m

SOLUTIONS TO SELECTED PROBLEMS


3.3

251

Volume of water = (2 ft2)(0.08 in./12 in./ft) = 1.33 X 10- 2 ft3


Weight of water = 62.4 1b/ft3 X 1.33 X 10- 2 ft3 = 0.832 Ibm
Moles of water

= (0.832Ibm>/(18Ibm/lb-mole) =0.046Ib-mo1e

The moles of water evaporated per unit area per unit time can be
expressed by the following (see problem 3.1):

From the ideal gas law, the total molar concentration in the gas is
n p
[Cj = - = v
RT
1 atm
Ib-mole
[Cj = (0.73 atm-ft3/Ib-mole-O R)(537F) = 0.00255----rt'

From Figure 2.5 (psychrometric chart), at 77F the ~aturated humidity


is 0.019 1b H 20/1b dry air or
'"

0)(

Ibm H2 )(lb-mole H 2
( 0.019 Ibm dry air
181bm '

29lbm )
lb-mole air

= 0.0304

Hence, mole fraction is


0.0304
yA, = 1.0304 = 0.0295

The air's humidity is

I.\0.001 Ibm
Ibm H 0 ) (29)
Ib-mole H 0
dry air 18 = 0.0016 lb-mole air
2

Hence,
YA 2

=0.0016/1.0016 =0.00161

lb-mole H 2
Ib-mole air

252

COOLING TOWERS
Thus,
YA, - YA2 = 0.0295 - 0.0016 = 0.0279
(1 - YA 2) - (1- YA,)
YA, - YA2
YB 1m = In[(I- YA )/(1- YA)] = In[(I-YA )/(I-YA)]
2

0.0279
YBl m = In[ (1- 0.0016)/0 - 0.0295)] = 0.984 ,

The molar flux is

NAz

(0.00255 Ib-mole/ft 3)(0.259 X 3.87 fe/hr) 0.0279


(0.28 in./12 in./ft)
0.984
NAz = 0.00311b-mole/ft 2-hr

We have 0.046 lb-mole H20/2


evaporated. Hence,

fI =

3.8

ft2

= 0.023 lb-mole H 20 per ft 2 to be

0.023 Ib-mole/ft 2
0.00311b-mole/(ft2)(hr) = 7.42 hr

For the air-water system at ordinary conditions, the Lewis relation


states the following:
C s =h/MW ky

When this relation holds, the psychrometric curve for a system can be
approximated by the adiabatic saturation line.
3.9

Mass balance for component A:

Enthalpy balance:

Hence,

zr

AM4WiiWi_

SOLUTIONS TO SELECTED PROBLEMS

253

This can be expanded from the definition of H to give

where

To = reference temp .
.J.I = absolute humidity
Ao = latent heat of vaporization at To
C =heat capacity
Cs =humid heat

(See definitions and symbols used in Chapter 2.)


3.1 0 For the case in which the exiting gas-vapor mixture is saturated, we
have the term Tas, .JI. as , Has. The liquid enters at T as and the gas is
humidified by evaporation of liquid and cooled. By expansion of the
humid heat terms in the equation derived for problem 3.9,
CB(TG j

To) + .Nt CA (T G t - To) + .J.It Ao + (.N as - .Nt)C AL(T as - To)

= CB(Tas-T o)

where

+ .NasCA(Tas - To) + .NasAo

.Nas = saturated absolute humidity at adiabatic saturation temperature


Tas = adiabatic-saturation temperature (see chapteJ 2)

Subtracting .JIIC A Tas from both sides and rearranging,


(CB + .NtCA)(TG t - Tas)

= CSt (TG t -

Tas)

= (.Nas - .Nt)[CA(T as - To)

+ Ao - CAL(Tas - To)]

or we get

This is the equation of the adiabatic saturation curve, which passes


through the points (.JIas , Tas) on the 100% saturation curve and
(.Jib T GI)' Note that

SOLUTIONS TO SELECTED PROBLEMS IN CHAPTER 5


5.5 Absolute humidities for incoming and exiting air streams can be obtained
from the psychrometric chart (Figure 2.5):

254

COOLING TOWERS

Air in:

).I

Ib H2 0
gr
gr H 2 0
= 0.007 Ib-dry air X 7000 TIJ = 49 Ib-dry air

.
Au out:

).I

gr
gr H2 0
Ib H2 0
= 0.0255 Ib-dry air X 7000 TIJ'" 178.5 Ib-dry air

Specific volumes for air streams can be computed from the following
relation:

v = (0.730T +336) (;9 +"ts)


(See discussion in Chapter 5.) Hence,

Air in:

v = (0.730 X 75p + 336) (9 + 010807) = 13.63 Ib-d:~ air

ft'
.
- 1442
Au out: v = . Ib-dryair

Enthalpies of the moist air streams can be computed from the following relation:
AH=0.240(T-0) +

).1(1075
.'--v-'"

+ 0.45 (T-32))

Heat of vaporization
at 32P

Cp(AT) for
H20 vapor

Cp(AT) for air

or
AlI '" 0.240T +).1(1061 + 0.45T)
Air in: AlI = 0.240 X 75T + 0.007 (1061 + 0.45 X 75P) = 25.66 Btu/lb-dry air
Air out: AH =49.69 Btu/lb-dry air

Enthalpy of entering water:


AlIi = CpH OAT'" 1 (130 - 32) = 98 Btu/lb H2 0
2

Enthalpy of exiting water:


AHo

= 1 (90 -

32) = 58 Btu/lb H 2 0

SOLUTIONS TO SELECTED PROBLEMS

255

where 32p has been chosen as the reference temperature. Amount of


dry air fed to the cooling tower:

9 X 10 ft3/hr/13.63 ft3/1b-dry air = 6.60 X 105

Ib-dryair
hr

The amount of H20 cooled can be determined from an overall energy


(enthalpy) balance:
Amount H 2 0 evaporated into air = 0.0255 - 0.007

= 0.0185 Ib H 20/1b-dry air


Let w = mass rate of water entering the tower in the water stream per
unit mass of incoming air. Then mass rate of water leaving the tower in
the water stream per unit mass of incoming air is (w - 0.0185). Reviewing each term in the energy balance,
Moist air in:
Btu
5 Ib-dry air _
. 7
25.66 Ib-dry air X 6.60 X 10
hr
- 1.694 X 10 Btu/hr

Water stream in:


Btu
Ib-H 2 0
Ib-dry air
98 Ib-H 0 X w Ib-dry air X 6.6 X 105
hr
2

6.468 X 10 Btu/hr

Moist air out:

Btu
sib-dry air _
7
49.69 Ib-dry air X 6.6 X 10
hr
- 3.280 X 10 Btu/hr

Water stream out:


Btu
Ib H,o
Ib-dry air
58 Ib-H,O X (w - 0.0185) Ib-dry air X 6.6 X 105
hr
= 3.828 X 10 7 (w ~ 0.0185) Btu/hr

COOLING TOWERS

256

At steady state, energy in

= energy out. Hence,

1.694 X 10 7 + 6.468 X 10 7 w = 3.28 X 10 7 + 3.828 X 10 7 (w - 0.0185)

Solving for w,
Ib HzO

= 0.574 Ib-dry air

or
lb-dry air
gal
lb HzO
5
hr
X 8.33 lb = 4.55 X 10 4 gal/hr
0.574Ib_dry air X 6.6 X 10

5.6 From Figure 2.5 (humidity

ch~rt),

J.I of incoming air stream = 0.0155 lb HzO-vapor/lb-air

.J.I. of discharge air found by following the adiabatic cooling curve for
80F to a dry-bulb temperature of 95F; .J.I = O.019lb H 20-vapor/lb-air.
lb HzO
0.019 - 0.0155 = 0.0035 lb-dry air added

5.7 Refer to Figure 5.14, applying the log mean enthalpy difference: At the
top of the tower (air exits),

Hzs - Hz = 116.2 - 65.1 = 51.1 Btu/lb

At the bottom of the tower (air inlet),

H,s - H, = 44.1 - 30.4 = 13.7 Btu/lb


51.1-13.7
AHl m = 2.303 log,o(51.1/13.7) = 28.4 Btu/lb

SOLUTIONS TO SELECTED PROBLEMS

257

Hence,
Ntu' = KaV
L
Ntu' =

dT_
Hs-H

= _

1l~8~480 = 1.34

The answer obtained from numerical integration was 1.73, or a 23%


difference in the solutions. The error introduced by using a log-mean
value increases with larger ranges. Log-mean calculations should be used
only when the range is small.
5.8 Assume a basis of 1 ft 2 cross-sectional area of tower. Then,
, Ka(Z X 1)
Ntu =
L
Ntu' 0.85)(1700)
Z = Ka =
13 2

= 23.8 ft

5.9 The height of a transfer unit is simply Z/Ntu'. Hence,';


Ntu'L

Z=~=

(1.85)(1700)
125
= 25.2ft

and

Htu' =

i:8~ = 13.6 ft

This page intentionally left blank

APPENDIX D
SOURCE LISTING AND ABSTRACTS OF
THE COOLING TOWER LITERATURE
The following citations and abstracts cover all phases of the cooling tower spectrum.

1) Influence of Atmospheric Precipitation on the Operation of a Natural


Draught Indirect-Contact Cooling Tower
Herberholz, Peter; Schulz, Siesfried, L.,
& C. Steinmueller, Gummersbach, Ger.
Ger. Chern. Eng., V. 2, N. 6, Dec. 1979, pp. 352-360
This paper discusses the natural draught indirect-contact cooling
tower which is part of a recirculation cooling system developed mainly
for power generating plants. Warm. process fluids exchange their energy
in a tubular heat exchanger with colder ambient air, which derives its
flow energy from thermal buoyancy. In addition, too many other atmospheric manifestations, precipitation has not yet been quantified
and it is a phenomenon constituting a factor which can impair the
operation of the air heat exchanger with respect to ideal meteorological
conditions. A procedure for the calculation of the deterioration in the
efficiency of an indirect-contact cooling tower as a result of precipitation
is presented in this paper. The model is based on input data of the
meteorological situation and parameters of the tower. This work aims
at adding to the knowledge of design and systematic study of parameters. 15 refs. cited.
2) Hybrid Cooling System Thermodynamics and Economics
Giaquinta, Arthur R.; Croley, Thomas E., II; Hsu, Tai-Dan
Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City
J. Energy Div. Proc. ASCE, V. 106, N. 1, April 1980, pp. 89-107
Wet cooling towers can be used for once-through cooling at riverside
power-plant sites where the permissible river heat assimilation capacity
is inadequate to absorb all of the waste heat. A comprehensive compu ter model is presented giving a thermodynamic analysis, economic assessment, and optimum design of once-through/wet tower hybrid cooling systems. Several different configurations are investigated, and results

259

260

COOLING TOWERS
are presented for an 1,150 MW nuclear power plant located on the Missouri River at Sioux City, Iowa. One hybrid cooling system described is
arranged in a series water path with a partially closed-cycle loop. The
model shows this arrangement to be the most economical configuration
for the site conditions studied when zero water costs are used. Comparison of hybrid systems with once-through cooling and closed-cycle wet
tower systems indicate that hybrid cooling systems are economically
superior. A trade-off function between total cost and water evaporation
is presented to indicate the best hybrid arrangement fOT sites where
water availability is limited. 16 refs. cited.

3) Wind Effects'on Cooling-Tower Shells


Niemann, Hans-Jursen
Ruhr-Univ Bochum, Ger.
ASCE J. Struct Div., V. 106,N. 3, March 1980, pp.' 643-66 1
This paper discusses the impact of wind action on natural-draft cooling towers. The structure of the wind load may be divided into a static,
a qUasistatic, and a resonant part. The effect of surface roughness of the
shell and of wind profile on the static load is discussed. The quasistatic
load may be described by the variance of the pressure fluctuations and
their circumferential and meridional correlations. The high-frequency
end of the pressure spectra ~nd of the coherence functions are used for
the analysis of the resonant response. It is shown that the resonant
response is small even for very high towers, however, it increases linearly with wind velocity. Equivalent static loads may be defined using appropriate gu'st-response factors. These loads produce an approximation
of the behavior of the structure and in general are accurate. 11 refs. cited.
4) Method of Using Agricultural Wastewater For Power-Plant Cooling
Septhon, Hugo, H.; Klein, Gerhard; Jarvis, Thomas J.; Vermeulen,
Theodore.
Water Resour. Cent. Desalin. Rep. Univ. Calif., N. 68, June 1979, 180 p.
This report discusses the technical and economic feasibility for using
saline wastewaters collected from irrigated fields by underground tile
drainage systems for power plant cooling purposes. A novel process sequence was employed comprising of ion-exchange resin softening whereby nearly all the calcium was removed from drainage water. A pilot
plant facility of 2,000 GPD capacity was designed, constructed and
tested, including a softening and regeneration facility, a cooling tower
operating under realistic process conditions and a complete verticaltube foam evaporation facility. 14 refs. cited.
5) Construction and Design of Large Cooling Towers
Zerna, Wolfgang; Mungan, Ihsan
Ruhr-Univ. Bochum, Ger.
ASCE J. Struct Div., V. 106, N. 2, February 1980, pp. 531-544
Large natural-draft cooling towers are used for dry-type cooling of
power plants with high capacity. Through the choice of an appropriate
offset distance between the axis of the hyperbola and axis of rotation
the stress distribution as well as buckling and vibration behavior can be
influenced greatly. To maintain the required buckling safety and lowest

COOLING TOWER LITERATURE

261

natural frequency as the dimensions of the cooling tower shell are increased stiffening of the shell becomes indispensable. Numerical studies
show that the efficiency of the stiffeners is different, rings being more
effective than meridional ribs. Stiffening rings can be built easily after
slight modification of the existing climbing form work. Reinforced concrete shells stiffened by rings can compete with cable network structures,
even beyond a height of 200 m (656 ft). 13 refs. cited.
6) Zero Discharge of Cooling Water by Sidestream Softening
Matson, Jack V.; Harris, Teaue G. III
Univ. of Houston, Tex.
J. Water Pollut. Control Fed., V. 51, N. 11, Nov. 1979, pp. 2602-2614
A preliminary design methodology is presented for the sidestream
softeners in zero-discharge cooling water systems. The methodology
consists of semiempirical chemical equations which were calibrated by
experiments and which are linked to the mass balances of the important
chemical species. The only inputs required are the makeup water quality and certain cooling water system parameters. 20 refs. cited.
7) Zero Blowdown: Is It Feasible?
Brooke, J. M.
Hydrocarbon Process, V. 58, N. 7, July 1979, pp. 211-214.
For every million BTU's of heat dissipated in a cooling tower, an
average of 35 ~allons of circulating cooling water is wasted to blowdown. This represents monies to obtain the water., to pretreat it, for
scale and fouling prevention, for corrosion protection, for pumping it
from place to place, and to treat it before it can be released as waste.
Cooling tower operation economy can be achieved by decreasing the
blowdown. The ultimate economy comes when the blowdown is reduced
to zero. This paper presents some' suggestions related to water pretreatment which will help achieve this goal. Several examples of calculation for zero blowdown are given. 4 refs. cited.
8) Noise Prediction/Control In Design of Power Plant Cooling Towers
Mirsky, Gary R.; Lemmens, Pierre
Hamon Cooling Tower Div., Somerville, NJ
Nat'l. Eng., V. 83, N. 7, July 1979, pp. 11-14
The paper discusses noise sources, types, production and control
from the earliest design state of a cooling tower project.
9) Protecting Cooling Towers From Overpressure
Veazey, J. A.
Monsanto Agric. Prod. Co., Luling, LA
Chern. Eng. Prog., V. 75, N. 7, July 1979, pp. 73-77.
Monsanto Corp. operates three amonia plants in Luling, LA; a dualreform train unit built by Chemicao (1954), a 600 ton/day (544 metric
tid) facility erected by Kellogg (1965), and a 1,040 metric tid complex
put up by Kellogg (1975-1976). This last facility suffered damage to its
cooling tower in October, 1977, while it was onstream when a heat exchanger failed. Preventive measures are discussed which constitute a
vent installed on top of the riser. It was found to be sufficient to relieve

262

COOLING TOWERS
a large surge condition caused by failure of an exchanger when a second
accident occurred three months later without damaging the tower. Details of the system and its operations are given.

10) Scaling Characteristics of Cooling Tower Water


Lee, S. H.; Knudsen, 1. G.
Oreg. State Univ., Corvallis
ASHRAE Trans., V. 85, pt. 1, 1979, Tech and Symp paper presented at
the ASHRAE Semiannual Meeting, Philadelphis, PA, Jan. 28-Feb 1,
1979, pp. 281-302.
The paper discusses a study and presents the deposition models for
systematic evaluation of condenser water fouling as applied to the airconditioning and refrigeration industry. The equipment used in the
study was designed to simulate the operating conditions of a cooling
tower. Before the cooling water entered the test sections, it was heated
to 35C in two shell and tube heat exchangers by warm water circulated
from a domestic water heater. 18 refs. cited.
11) Influence of Fish Protection Considerations on the Design of Cooling

Water Intakes
Mussalli, Uysuf G.; Hofmann, Peter; Taft, Edward P.
Stone & Webster Eng. Corp., Boston, MA
Proc. Jt. Symp. on Des. and Oper. of Fluid Mach., Colo. State Univ.,
Fort Collins, June 12-14, 1978. Sponsored by IAHR, Delft, Neth.,
ASME, New York, NY, and ASCE, New York, NY. Pub!. by Colo. State
Univ., Fort Collins, 1978, V. 1, pp. 413-424.
Stringent regulatory requirements in the United States often require
the incorporation of fish protection facilities at power plant intakes.
There are three different concepts that can be used: fish collection and
removal, fish diversion, and fish deterrance. The incorporation of fish
protection systems at specific sites can necessitate modifications to
conventional intake designs. Such modifications can influence screenwell layouts and selection of screens and pumps, and in certain cases require model studies to develop design criteria which will ensure that
fish protection facilities will be biologically effective and not adversely
affect plant operations. 9 refs. cited.
12) Drift From the Chalk Point Natural Drift Brackish Water Cooling
Tower: Source Definition, Downwind Measurements, Transport
Modeling
Webb, Ronald 0.; Schrecker, Gunther 0.; Guild, Dennis A.
Environ. Syst. Corp., Knoxville, Tenn.
Waste Heat Manage and Util., Proc. of a Conf., Miami Beach, FL,
May 9-11, 1977, Pub!. by Hemisphere Pub!. Corp., New York, NY and
London, Engl., 1979, V. 3, pp. 1761-1797.
Drift data are presented. The data was acquired in and around
PEPCO's Chalk Point Unit #3 natural draft cooling water tower. Source
data in the form of droplet size spectra and salt mass emission were
acquired via an equal area traverse near the exit plane of the 400 foot
tower and in the 712 foot stack. Results show that the drift fraction of

COOLING TOWER LITERATURE

263

the tower is within the manufacturer's guarantee when the tower circulating water flow rate is assumed to be the design value (260,000 GPM).
The droplet spectra showed an average droplet mass median diameter of
79 microns for the measurement series. Results also showed that the
stack which uses a brackish water scrubber may caUse problems to cooling tower drift modeling studies. Downwind measurements at ground
level of airborne salt concentration and droplet number per unit volume
of air were compared with predicted results from drift transport models
using the source data as input. Comparison of predicted and measured
downwind values show good agreement. 5 refs. cited.
13) Computerized Engineering Model for Evaporative Water Cooling
Towers
Park, J. E.; Vance, J. M.; Cross, K. E.; Van Wie, N. H.
Union Carbide Corp., Oak Ridge, TN
Waste Heat Manage. and Util., Proc. of a Conj., Miami Beach, FL,
May 9-11,1977, Publ. by Hemisphere Pub!. Corp., New York, NY and
London, Engl., 1979, V. 2, pp. 1007-1024.
This paper represents a physical model for crossflow and counterflow cooling towers which imposes rigoroUS heat and mass balances on
each increment of the tower under study. Individual towers are characterized by specification of a mass evaporation rate equation. The solution
algorithm allows reduction of test data, interpolation of the reduced
data, and comparison of test results to design data. These capabilities
can be used to evaluate acceptance tests for new "towers, to monitor
changes in tower performance as an aid in planning maintenance, and to
predict tower performance under changed operating conditions. 3 refs.
cited.
14) Improving Cooling Tower Fan Syste~ Efficiencies
Monroe, Robert Co.
Hudson Prod. Corp.
Combustion, V. SO, N. 11, May 1979, pp. 20-26.
The authors briefly discuss some of the problems for air cooled heat
exchangers and cooling towers using axial fans. The balance of the paper
discusses ways to improve system efficiencies in three areas: before the
fan system design is finalized, improvements in the physical equipment
as installed, and recognition of performance problems caused by adjacent equipment. Results of a full-scale test illustrating fan efficiency
contributions of various components are given. 1 ref. cited.
15) Close Study of Cooling-Tower Pump Intakes Adds to Reliability Over
Performance Range
Dicmas, John L.; Fornesi, Robert
Johnston Pump Co.
Power, V. 123,N. I,Jan. 1979,pp. 94-96
The paper discusses suction-intake design, suction-bell submergence,
air-entrainment potential, and net positive suction head of cooling
towers. Guidelines on possible problems and ways to assure reliable
operation of cooling towers are given.

264

COOLING TOWERS

16) Cooling Tower Retrofit


BUrger, Robert
Robert Burger Assoc., Inc., New York, NY
Chern. Eng. Prog., V. 75, N. 3, March 1979, pp. 78-81.
This paper stresses energy conservation and cost savings which can
be achieved in chemical plants through proper design and maintenance
of water cooling towers. These advantages can be obtained in both
chemical processing and refrigeration systems. To emphasize money
loss contributed by a malfunctioning or inefficient cooling tower, calculations are presented to illustrate this contention. The paper covers the
following top,ics: impact of improper maintenance; energy conservation
examples; phosphate plant problem. 5 refs. cited.
17) Development and Verification of a Wet Cooling Tower Drift Deposition
Model
Miksad, Richard W.; Ratcliff, Michael A.
Univ. of Texas, Austin
Proc. Air. Pollut. Control Assoc., 71st Annual Meeting, Houston, Texas,
June 25-30, 1978. Pub. by Air Poll. Control Assoc., Pittsburgh, PA,
1978, V. 4, Pap. 48, 3, 15 p.
This paper discusses preliminary results of a model which is designed
to predict drift deposition drop size distributions and number flux. The
influence of evaporation and the drop breakaway process are studied by
using both a bulk breakaway criteria and a distributed partial breakaway criterill for each drop size. Comparisons are made at several downwind receptor sites for drop size distribution and number flux. 13 refs.
cited.
18) Cooling Towers: Design and Performance
Hundemann, Audrey S. (Ed.)
NTIS, Springfield, VA
NTIS Search, Search Period covered 1970-Aug. 1978. Pub!. by NTIS,
Springfield, VA, Aug. 1978. Available from Eng. Index, New York, NY.
Provides abstracts of worldwide research on design and performance
of mechanical draft and natural draft wet, dry, and dry-wet combination cooling towers. Abstracts cover studies on size reduction, corrosion protection, and economic optimization of cooling towers primarily used with nuclear power plants and fossil fuel power plants. Also
covered are abstracts which pertain to cooling towers used in wastewater treatment. It contains 305 abstracts, 65 of which are new entries
to the previous edition.
19) Stabilitaetsverhalten Hyperbolischer Kuehltunnschalen Unter Windbelastung
(Stability of Hyperbolic Cooling Tower Shells Under Wind Load)
Walther, Jochen; Woelfel, Roland
Hochsch fuer Archit und Bauwes Weimar, E. Ger.
BauplanungBautech, V. 32, N.l1, Nov. 1978, pp. 510-512.
Based on model studies, an approximation formula for the critical
wind pressure was developed. Buckling effective factors, including dead

&M&4

COOLING TOWER LITERATURE

265

weight, flexibility of support, imperfections of the structure, fracture


areas and constructional conditions of hyperbolic towers were qualitatively and quantitatively studied. 15 refs. cited. (In German).
20) Specifying Tolerance Limits for Meridional Imperfections in Cooling
Towers
Croll, J. G. A.; Kemp, K. O.
J. Am. Con cr. Inst., V. 76, N. 1, Jan. 1979, pp. 139-158.
The collapse of a large cooling tower shell in Great Britain was believed to have been primarily due to the combined effects of geometric
imperfections and vertical cracks. Design implications of geometric imperfections in the meridional profiles of cooling towers are reassessed in
this paper. The authors suggest that the present and proposed tolerance
recommendations are not sufficiently linked to the specific nature of
the shell and its reinforcement, and if followed could result in serious
overstressing. On the basis of a simplified approach to the analysis of a
geometrically imperfect shell, tentative, code oriented, and rational
tolerance specifications are presented. 11 refs. cited.
21) Better Water Treatment in Cooling Tower Systems
Klen, E. F.; Grier, J. C.
Na1co Chern. Co., Oak Brook, lllinois
Ammonia Plant Sa!., V. 20; Annual Ammonia Saf. Symp., 22nd,
Denver, Colorado, Aug. 29-31, 1977. Publ. by AIChE (a CEP Tech.
Man.), New York, NY, 1978, pp. 57-63.
The paper discusses a two-step approach to guide an ammonia plant
operator in the design, selection, and implementation of the optimum
cooling water management program for this cooling system.
22) Estimate Cooling Tower Requirements Easily
Meytsar, J.
Favra Int., Milan, Italy
Hydrocarbon Process, V. 57, N. 11, Nov. 1978, pp. 238-239.
This paper presents graphs resulting from hundreds of stUdies of
cooling towers. With these curves one can determine the following data
related to a cooling tower: power adsorbed by fans; dimensions of cooling tower; and quantity of air operated by fans. The cooling towers
considered have the fixed data shown. Cell widths were selected to
make cooling tower dimensions easier to establish. These assumptions
are accurate enough for the estimations given.
23) Utilizb1g Water Chillers Efficiently
Cooper, Kenneth W.
Borg Warner Corp., York, PA
Energy Use Manage., Proc. of the Int. Conf., Tucson, Arizona, Oct. 2428, 1977. Publ. by Persamon Press, Elmsford, NY and Oxford, Engl.,
1977, V. 1, pp. 293-241.
This provides curves for cooling tower performance and typical off
design performance of centrifugal compressor chilled water systems.
These graphs show typical coincident wet and dry bulb temperatures, in

iil!Ml!!l!iliPf J

266

COOLING TOWERS
addition to hours of occurrence per year. Since the outdoor wet temperature is at its design value for only a few hours per year, a typical
centrifugal chiller cooled with cooling tower water can take advantage
of the lower outdoor wet bulb and operate at reduced heat dUring a
significant portion of the year. Examples of the energy savings possible
with varying cooling water temperatures are given. The effects of raising
the leaving chilled water temperature, changing compressor operating
speed, and limiting the use of hot gas bypass are discussed. 2 refs. cited.

24) Cooling Tower Technology; Cold Water Makes Profits


Burger, Robert
Robert BUrger Assoc., New York, NY
Ind. Water Eng., V. 15, p. 4, July-Aug. 1978, pp. 14-18.
,
The paper discusses design conditions and criterion of cooling tower
performance. These criterion are specified when the cooling tower is
purchased and/or rebuilt to maintain cooling of a specific quantity of
circulating water from entering the tower at a particular temperature
and leaving at a definite value. Enthalpy pressure diagram presented
relates cold water to the energy needed for refrigerant utilization.
25) Optimization of Cooling-Water Circuit Design
Paul, G. T.; Wearmouth, J. W.
McLellan & Part., West Byfleet, Surry, England
Met. Technol., V. 5, Pt. 6, June 1978, pp. 203-211.
The mecbanism of dissipating unwanted process heat energy to the
atmosphere "is examined. The importance of considering the heatexchange equipment in the process plant as part of the cooling circuit
is stressed. Seven types of cooling-water circuits often found in the
metals industries are outlined and water supplies and treatment are
discussed. Particular reference is given to the prevention of scaling and
corrosion at high heat fluxes. The influence of the water source on any
subsequent treatment for a particular circuit is pointed out and the
relative performance of evaporative cooling towers, cooling ponds, and
air-to-water and water-to-water heat exchangers examined. 6 refs. cited.
26) Cross Wind and Internal Flow Characteristics of Dry Cooling Towers
Russell, C. M. B.; McChesney, H. R.; Holder, D. W.; Jones, T. V.,
Verlinden, M.
C-E Lummus, Combust. Eng. Inc.
Combustion, V. 49, N. 11, May 1978, pp. 20-24.
The authors in association with Oxford University, undertook research, to determine how the arrangement of heat exchanger bundles at
the base of a tower affects the tower's internal flow and its sensitivity
to cross winds. To learn more about these effects, experiments were
conducted with model towers in which heat exchanger bundles were
represented by gauze screens. Two types of tests were conducted: The
first study involved a tower flow in the absence of cross winds which
was made at high Reynolds numbers. The second was a study of crosswind effects made at much reduced Reynolds numbers in a 4m by 2m
wind tunnel. 8 refs. cited.

COOLING TOWER LITERATURE

267

27) Chromate Removal by Ion Exchange


Seward, Roger B.
ARCO Chern. Co., Channelview, Texas
Int. Water Conf., Annual Meeting, 38th, Proc., Pittsburgh, PA, Nov. 13, 1977. Publ. by Eng. Soc. of West PA, Pittsburgh, 1977, pp. 201-210.
The Lyondell plant (ARCO Chemical Company) operates one of the
first industrial scale chromate recovery systems in the U.S. The chromate
recovery system is located in the ethylene plant of the Channelview,
Texas, chemical complex. It was designed to treat a 1100 GPM cooling
tower blowdown stream containing a 20-25 ppm chromate (Cr04). A
strong base anion resin is used to selectively remove the chromate. This
unit was placed in service in June, 1976. Information presented in this
paper is based upon operating experiences. Economic considerations are
also included.
28) Vibration Analysis ofAxi-Symmetric Shell by Mode Superposition
Nakao, Yoshiaki; Abiru, Hisanori
Hiroshima Tech. Inst., Japan
Mitsubishi Heavy Ind. Mitsubishi Tech. Bull., N. 127, Jan. 1978,8 p.
In designing axi-symmetric shell structures such as large-type cooling
towers, it is necessary to predict the vibration responses to various external forces. The authors describe the linear vibration response analysis
of ax i-symmetric shell structures by the finite element method. They
also analyze geometric nonlinear (large deflection) vibration which
poses a problem in thin shell structures causes dy,namic buckling in
cooling towers. They present examples of numerical calculation and
study the validity of this method. 11 r!:1fs. cited.
29) Why-and When-Cooling Towers Pay Off
Hanna, J. P.
Conair, Inc., Franklin, P A
Plast. Technol., V. 24, N. 3, March 1978, pp. 77-80.
The paper discusses recirculating cooling-tower systems and their
capability reducing water usage by up to 95% are a boon to plastics
processors in using large quantities of cooling water to remove heat
from processing machinery. Descnbed are the design and operation
techniques of cooling towers and factors determining the best type of
system for individual plant needs. Economic considerations are also
included.
30) Cooling Tower Supporting Columns and Reinforcing Rings In Small
and Large Displacement Analyses
Chan, A. S. L., Wolf, J. P.
Imp. CoIl. of Sci. & Technol., London, England
Comput. Methods Appl. Mech. Eng., V. 13, N. 1, Jan. 1978, pp. 1-26.
Basic elastic and geometric stiffness properties of the individual supporting columns are synthesized into a stiffness matrix compatible with
an axisymmetrical shell element by a series of transformations. These
are to be used in conjunction with a finite element representation of
the cooling tower, where the displacements are decomposed into Fourier

268

COOLING TOWERS
hannonics. The effect of the column supports can be rigorously accounted for in a large displacement nonlinear analysis. To complete the
stiffness property of the cooling tower structure, the elastic and geometric stiffness of the reinforcing rings are also included. Examples are
given to show the effect of these additions on the buckling wind load
and the stress distribution. 12 refs. cited.

31) Wet Coolhtg Tower Backfitting Economics


Croley, Thomas E. II; Giaquinta, Arthur R.; Patel, Virendra C.
Iowa Inst. of Hydraul. Res., Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City
ASCE J. Power Div., V. 104, p. 2, April 1978, pp. 115-130.
Because of recent legislation designed to reduce thermal pollution,
the electric utilities industry is faced with the prospect of backfitting
their existing installations with closed-cycle cooling systems. Wet cooling towers offer an attractive solution since they perform well and they
are well established. The paper presents a method for evaluating the
cost of backfitting a power plant currently using open-cycle cooling
with a closed-cycle mechanical-draft crossflow wet cooling tower. Basic
equations and normalized charts for estimating the total backfit cost
have been developed and are recommended, enabling inclusion of first
costs and continuing resultant operating costs appropriate to the backfit cost estimate. An example is given to illustrate the methodology and
the relevant parameters for cost estimating.
32) Centrifugal Water Chilling Systems: Focus on Off-Design Performance
Cooper, Kenneth W.; Erth, Richard A.
Borg-Warner Corp., York, PA
Heat Piping Air Cond., V. 50, N. 1, Jan. 1978, pp. 63-67.
The paper discusses the off-design performance of a centrifugal water
chiller. The effect of changes in operating variables on its power consumption are discussed along with a simplified method for estimating
annual operating costs, using the chiller's off-design performance, cooling tower performance, and building load profile.

33) Large Cooling Towers: The Present Trend


Diver, M.; Paterson, A. C.
Socotec, Paris, France
Struct. Eng., V. 55, N. 10, Oct. 1977, pp. 431-445.
The paper reviews relevant design parameters such as wind pressure,
including wind induced vibrations, thermal gradient, self-weight and
moments in the shell. Comparative calculations were performed varying
the value of one parameter at a time and considering the effect on concrete and steel stresses. The influence of the modulus of elasticity used
in calculations of thermal effects is discussed and illustrated. A number
of possible approaches to the towers' buckling behavior are discussed.
A detailed comparison is made between towers designed for similar
conditions in England and a number of other EUropean countries and
in the United States. 19 refs. cited.

COOLING TOWER LITERATURE

269

34) Use Side Stream Softening to Reduce Pollution


Reed, D. T.;Klen, E. F.; Johnson, D. A.
Nalco Chern. Co., Oak Brook, IL
Hydrocarbon Process, V. 56, N. 11, Nov. 1977, pp. 339-342.
The paper discusses design procedures which are available for minimizing cooling tower blowdown flow in petroleum refineries. Side
stream softening is used to reduce cooling tower blowdown, reduce pollution and save water. By-pass lime softening appears to be a practical
technique for use both with new and existing cooling tower systems
while synergistic chromate formations can be expected to adequately
protect cooling water systems in high dissolved solids applications. A
method is available for designing lime softening systems for use in zero
blowdown applications and for predicting the steady state chemistry
conditions. Each situation must, however, be tested to determine the
extent of the various effects such as softener interferences, corrosion,
etc., on a potential design. Details of the test procedure are illustrated
by examples. 10 refs. cited.
35) AirVapor Dynamics in Large-Scale Atmospheric Spray Cooling
Systems
Chaturvedi, Sushil; Porter, R. W.
Ill. Inst. of Technol., Chicago
ASME Pap., for Meeting Nov. 27-Dec. 2, 1977, 11 p.
A quantity NTU containing the spray drop wise parameters allows
prediction of cooling range if local wet-bulb temperature is known. The
essential problem is characterized by NTU and other parameters. Theory was developed for this purpose using various analytical and numerical approximations, wind attenuation and turbulent diffusion in the
atmospheric boundary layer. EXperiments were run on a large flowthrough spray canal involving segments with two types of floating spray
modules where bothlocal spray temperatures and wet-bulb temperature
correlated with ambient conditions, geometry and thermal parameters.
Previous experimental data are available for a fixed-manifolded spray
pond. 21 refs. cited.
36) Considerations Sur Le Calcul Des Refrigerants Atmospheriques
(Remarks on the Design of Natural Draft Cooling Towers)
Diver, Marius
SOCOTEC, Paris, France
Ann. Inst. Tech. Batim. Trav Publics, N. 353, Sept. 1977, pp. 61-91.
The paper discusses a study of the current methods for the design of
reinforced concrete natural cooling towers. It accounts for the following criteria: the state of the art with particular reference on theoretical
and experimental aspects; and the influence of certain parameters
(wind pressure, thermal gradient, factored weight, shell moments,
Young's modulus) on concrete and steel stresses. The French experience is compared to current techniques and codes used in other
countries. The paper leads to the formulation of practical proposals to
be used in the design of natural draft cooling towers, whose increasing
dimensions makes their conception complex. 20 refs. cited. (In French
with English abstract).

270

COOLING TOWERS

37) Comparative Performance Evaluation of Current Design Evaporative


Cooling Tower Drift Eliminators
Chan, Joseph; Golay, Michael W.
MIT, Cambridge, MA
Atmos. Environ., V. 11, N. 8, 1977, pp. 775-781.
The paper gives an analysis of the performance of standard industrial
evaporative cooling tower drift eliminators using both numerical simulation methods and experimental techniques. The simulation methods
make use of computer codes to calculate the two-dimensional laminar
flow velocity field and pressure loss in a drift eliminator geometry. The
collection efficiency is computed by performing trajectory calculations
for droplets of a given size by a fourth order Runse-Kutta numerical
method. The experiments make use of a laser light scattering technique
for the measurement of the droplet size spectra both at the inlet and
outlet of the eliminator. From these measured spectra, the collection
efficiency as a function of droplet size can be deduced. 12 refs. cited.
38) Spray Cooling: An Alternative to Cooling Towers
Shell, Gerry L.; Wendt, Ronald C.
Gerry Shell Environ. Eng., Brentwood, TN
Pollut. Eng., V. 9, N. 7, July 1,977, pp. 32-36.
The paper describes a spray nozzle cooler design concept which uses
a multiple nozzle assembly supported on a floating platform. A pumpmanifold-nozzle design produces effective heat transfer while the floating platform Offers quick, flexible installation. Heated water is sprayed
into the air tb achieve the desired heat dissipation. Spray coolers require more land than wet cooling towers but less than 5% of the land
required for cooling ponds. The effect of drift is less for spray coolers
than for wet cooling towers, and no chemical additives are required for
biological growth control. 5 refs. cited.
39) New Technology and Cooling Tower Design Practices
Lefevre, Marcel
Hamon Cooling Tower Div., Research Cottrell
Combustion, V. 48, N. 11, May 1977, pp. 28-32.
The paper considers the state-of-the-art in cooling towers, covering
various types of towers in use. It discusses how they respond to the
present and the future needs of the industry. A trend toward the
counterflow design in the heat exchanger is indicated, and a forced
draft counterflow tower is described. The design of the fan-assisted
tower using both mechanical and natural draft is briefly dealt with.
1 ref. cited.
40) Dry and Wet-Peaking Tower Cooling Systems for Power Plant
Application
Larinoff, M. W.; Forster, L. L.
Hudson Prod. Corp., Houston, TX
Combustion, V. 48, N. 11, May 1977, pp. 8-21.
The paper presents a new concept of the power plant heat-sink
system which employs the combination of a conventional wet-tower
and a conventional dry-tower. The purpose of this system is to reduce

COOLING TOWER LITERATURE

271

wet cooling-tower makeup-water requirements in water-short areas. The


dry tower operates all year around while the wet-peaking tower is used
only above certain ambient dry-bulb temperatures. The two cooling circuits serve separate sections of a conventional, surface-type, steam condenser. Thermal performance analysis is given for various combinations
of cooling systems ranging from 100% wet to 100% dry. Annual
makeup-water requirements are calculated for various tower sizes located
in different U.S. cities. 11 refs. cited.
41) Kuehlwasserpumpenbauarten Fuer Kuehltuerme
(Cooling Water Pump Systems for Cooling Towers)
Holzhueter, E.; Misod, A.; Siekmann, H.
Ind. Anz., V. 99, N. 21, March 11, 1977, pp. 373-377.
The paper discusses various factors affecting the design of cooling
tower pumps. A review of current cooling tower pump systems is given
and efficient pump control techniques are discussed. (In German).
42) Predicting the Performance of Forced-Draught Cooling Towers
Whillier, A.
Chamber of Mines of S. Africa, Environ. Eng. Lab.
J. Mine Vent Soc., S. Africa, V. 30, N. I, Jan. 1977, pp. 2-25.
An important thermodynamic parameter in cooling tower calculations is the ratio of the thermal capacity of the water stream to that
of the sir stream. This parameter is referred to as ,the tower capacity
factor. It is shown that when air or water efficiency,~re plotted against
the capacity factor test points for a given tower are found to lie on a
single smooth curve. The correlation is obtained, irrespective of whether
the equipment is used as a water cooler or air cooler, and irrespective of
the temperature levels, temperature ranges and barometric pressures.
The paper also shows that when a specified amount of heat has to be rejected into a specified air stream, optimum performance giving the lowest average water temperature is obtained when the water flow rate is
chosen so that its thermal capacity is equal to the potential thermal
capacity of the air stream. 13 refs. cited.
43) Thin Shell Finite Element by the Mixed Method Formulation-2,3
Chan, A. S. L.
Imp. Coli. of Sci. & Technol., London, England
Comput. Methods Appl. Mech. Eng., V. 10, N.I, Jan. 1977, pp. 75-103.
Th~ first part of the paper (Comput. Methods Appl. Mech. Eng.,
V. 9, N. 3, Nov./Dec. 1976, p. 337) formulates the displacement theory. Part 2 formulates the so-called geometric stiffness matrix which
performs the large displacement, nonlinear analysis by the incremental
method. This method is used for calculating buckling loads. Examples
are given of a discontinuous shell for which no finite element result has
been obtained before. In Part 3, the mass matrix is developed, and examples are' given of small displacement dynamic analysis, including the
case of a cooling tower subject to earthquake loading. 16 refs. cited.

272

COOLING TOWERS

44) Cooling Tower Estimates Made Easy


Uchiyama, Takashi
Toyo Eng. Corp., Funabashi City, Japan
Hydrocarbon Process, V. 55, N. 12, Dec. 1976, pp. 93-96.
The paper presents an analysis of water cooling tower data. It describes a method to estimate cooling tower weight, volume, number of
cells, motor size and price. Two examples are given illustrating the use
of calculation techniques developed.
45) Testing a Saltwater Cooling Tower
Monjoie, Michael; Sobel, Nelson
Power, V. 120, N. 12, Dec. 1976, pp. 42-43.
In 1974 the Atlantic City Electric Co. placed Unit 3 of its B L England Station into commercial operation. Condenser cooling for the unit
is provided by cirCUlating sea water in a closed-cycle, natural-draft
system. The cooling tower selected for the site was a hyperbolic, counterflow unit. The thermal test instrumentation procedures and test data as
well as drift measurement results are given. The paper indicates that the
tower operates within design specifications for thermal performance
and that it meets the environmental criteria regarding the drift.
46) Laboratory Simulation of Wind Loading of Rounded Structures
Farell, Cesar; Guven, Oktay; Patel, V. C.
Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City
lASS (Int. Assoc. of Shell and Space Struct.) World Consr. on Space
Enclosures, Montreal, Quebec, July 4-9,1976. Pub!. by Concordia
Univ., Build. Res. Cent., Montreal, Quebec, 1976, V. 2, pp. 905-913.
The paper shows that mean-pressure distributions on cooling tower
shells depend on a number of factors including the Reynolds number,
the surface roughness, the velocity distribution and the turbulence characteristics of the approaching stream, the presence of other large
structures in the vicinity, and the wind-tunnel blockage in the case of
model tests. The paper reviews the relative importance of these factors
and establishes criteria for the modeling of wind loadings on the basis
of experimental and analytical studies performed by the authors.
47) Cooling Water Salinity and Brine Disposal Optimized with Electrodialysis Water Recovery/Brine Concentration System
Westbrook, G.; Wirth, L. Jr.
Dow Chemical Co., Midland, MI
ASME Paper, N. 76-WA/Pwr-3 for Meeting Dec. 5, 1976,8 p.
The paper discusses discharge power plants which must operate
with the smallest possible waste volumes for containment on the site.
An electrodialysis (ED) system and its accompanying pretreatment
system are described. They are designed to concentrate solute salts to as
high as 15 to 20% concentration for solar pond or evaporator feed. The
water separated from the salts (about 90% of the flow volume) is recycled back to the cooling tower, thus reducing water usage in water
scarce areas. Capital and operating costs are compared to thermal
evaporators and solar ponds as well as the flexibility for handling
larger flows by each method. 17 refs. cited.

COOLING TOWER LITERATURE

273

48) Development of the Assisted-Draught Cooling Tower


Gardner, B. R.
Energy Dig., V. 5, N. 2, April 1976, pp. 22-27.
A 2000 megawatt generating station is capable of using up to 230
million liters of cooling water per hour. This water is needed to condense the working fluid (steam) after its passage through the turbines,
ready for recycling, as soft water, back to the boilers. Inland stations
generally must use the same cooling water over and over again in a
closed cycle. The heat absorbed by the cooling water from the condensing steam is usually dumped to the atmosphere by transferring it
to an up-draft of air in heat exchangers. These consist of regular arrays of wooden or asbestos packing installed within the lower parts of
the familiar circular towers, a prominent feature of inland station sites.
The largest towers in use by the Central Electricity Generating Board
(GEGB, in the United Kingdom) are some 114 meters high and 91
meters in diameter at the base. About six of these are needed to serve
a 2000 megawatt station if natural draft alone is used. To reduce the
bulk of the cooling-tower installation, studies were made to increase
the capacity of these towers, thus reducing the number of them required per station. The general tower dimensions were retained to prevent the plume from returning to ground. The paper discusses work on
a forced-draft design and explains why it was replaced by an induceddraft system. The latter system allowed the inlet and diffuser sections
to be dispensed with and keep the tower's apron diameter down to the
size of the packing annulus. In a tower of 1000 1)1egawatts capacity,
there would be room to install the fans in the space'between the packing and the shell-support columns. In the new design the fans are protected from the direct influence of external cross winds, which would
otherwise produce high fluctuating stresses in the blade roots and considerably shorten blade life.
.
49) Cooling Tower Effluent Reduction by Electrodialysis
Jordan, D. R.;McIlhenny, W. F.; Westbrook, G. T.
Dow Chemical
Combustion, V. 48, N. 4, Oct. 1976, pp. 28-32,45.
The paper deals with electrolysis side-stream desalting which offers
an alternative solution to the problem of water and salt management in
electric power generating plants where blowdown disposal is needed,
and where the value of recovered water is considerable. An advanced
electrodialysis technology is described. 4 refs. cited.

50) Develdpment of the Assisted-Draught Cooling Tower


Gardner, B. R.
Cent. Electr. Generating Board, England
Combustion, V. 48, N. 4, Oct. 1976, pp. 15-22.
The paper discusses a new design which is attractive enough to be
used for a full-scale tower to serve power generating stations. In the
long term, it is not expected to show financial economies over naturaldraught installations it replaces, but as a single assisted-draught cooling
tower it can do the work of three or four of the large conventional
towers. The paper claims gains in visual amenity and a reduction of the

274

COOLING TOWERS
land area occupied by a station utilizing this design. The paper begins
by outlining the basic principles of cooling-tower design and gives some
account of the work which has brought the first 1000 megawatt (electrical) induced-draught tower to the stage of being a practical proposition.

51) Heutiger Entwicklungsstand Der Kombinierten Nass-/Trockenkuehlung


In Der Bundesrepublik Deutschland Und Erste Betriebserfahrungen Mit
Den Verschiedenen Verfahren
,
(Present State of Development of Combined Wet/Dry Cooling in the
Federal Republic of Germany and Initial Operating Experience with
Different Processes)
Vodicka, V.
Balcke-Duerr, Bochum, Germany
VGB Kraftswerkstech, V. 46, N. 10, Oct. 1976, pp. 630-637.
The paper explains the physical background to the development of
visible cooling tower vapor. There are several processes where it is possible to suppress the firmness of the vapor. As the paper shows, parallel
connection of both the wet and dry sections of the air side offer the
most economical approach. The paper presents designs of large scale
installations, explains their, operating procedures and discusses costs.
It is shown that wet/dry cooling even in designs with a relatively high
proportion of dry removed heat is more economical than pure dry cooling. 7 refs. cited. (In German).
52) Computer Simulation of Atmospheric Effects of Waste Heat Rejected
From Conceptual Large Power Parks
Bhumralkar, C. M.
Stanford Res. Inst., Menlo Park, CA
ASME Paper, N. 76-WA/HT-20 for Meet. Dec. 5,1976,8 p.
Proposals to install large power complexes at single site (generating
capacity 10,000 to 50,000 MW/le) raise concern for the inadvertent
weather modification by attendant effluents. A mesoscale model designed to simulate the inadvertent modification of the atmosphere
caused by localized perturbations of heat and/or moistUre, was applied
to a hypothetical development at a site near Baton Rouge, LA. Numerical studies determined the relationships between local meteorological
variables, orientation of cooling towers to the ambient wind, and other
factors, and the resultant atmospheric effects. The preliminary results
presented indicate that the model's treatment of the temperature and
moisture perturbations caused by natural draft wet cooling towers is
realistic and physically consistent. The results also provide indication
that significant weather modification can result from the type of power
park development proposed. It is believed that the model can make
valuable contributions to the design of the facilities for disposing waste
heat at large power complexes. 9 refs. cited.
53) Mean Wind Loading on Rough-Walled Cooling Towers
Farell, Cesar; Guven, Oktay; Maisch, Federico
Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City
ASCE J. Eng. Mech. Div., V. 102, N. 6, Dec. 1976, pp. 1059-1081.

COOLING TOWER LITERATURE

275

Measurement of mean pressure distributions on a cooling tower


model in uniform wind for several longitudinal-rib configurations and
two uniformly distributed roughnesses are presented. The base pressure
coefficient is shown to be fairly constant along the cooling-tower
height and independent of roughness in the range of Reynolds number
independence. Differences between the base and minimum pressure
coefficients were shown to decrease with increasing relative roughness
or decreasing relative rib spacing when there was no interaction between
the flow patterns around consecutive ribs. This results in significant
reductions in the magnitude of the negative mean side pressures on the
structure and supports the use of strakes on prototypes for the purpose
of reducing the mean side sections. The physical mechanisms responsible for the surface roughness effects are identified in the light of the
boundary-layer theory. Possible choices as roughness configurations are
examined. 29 refs. cited.
54) Economics of Dry-Wet Cooling Towers
Croley, Thomas E. II; Patel, V. c.; Cheng, Mow-Soung
Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City
ASCE J. Power Div., V. 102, N. 2, Nov. 1976, pp. 147-163.
Contemporary dry-wet design efforts and economic studies are reviewed. Promising configurations are delineated. The basic accounting
scheme and relevant parameters necessary for comprehensive total cost
calculations are identified. Existing thermodynamic and psychrometric
models for dry towers, wet towers, turbines, and condensers are combined with the economic information to derive the total economies of
various dry-wet tower configUrations. Examples for four parallel airpaths and one series air-path cooling tower are included. The paper indicates that parallel air-path configurations offer the most economical
design for a dry-wet tower. Dry-wet cooling towers also appear economically competitive with wet towers in some areas with high water costs.
36 refs. cited.
55) Growing Role of Natural Draft Cooling Towers in U.S. Power Plants
Haggerty, Dennis; LeFevre, Marcel
Research-Cottrell, Hamon Cooling Tower Div.
Power Eng., (Barrington, IL), V. 80, N. 6, June 1976, pp. 60-63.
Natural draft cooling towers may well handle more kilowatt capacity
than the mechanical draft tower for power plants constructed during
the next decade. The main force behind the recent trend in natural
draft c<;>oling towers is economics. The high cost of fan energy penalizes
the mechanical draft tower in any economic analysis. As long as energy
costs remain high, the natural draft tower will be the choice for a larger
number of new plants. The typical mechanical draft tower is 60 ft. high,
while a natural draft tower may be 500 ft. high or more. Because the
natural draft tower can release its cloud of water vapor at this much
greater height, the problem of local fogging, recirculation, and icing is
eliminated. The plume is widely dispersed rather than settling back into
the valley and causing chronic fogging in local inversions.

276

COOLING TOWERS

56) Continuous Belt Ion Exchanger: Chromate Removal from Cooling


Tower Blowdown Waters
Brown, Denzel A.; May, Paul D.; Klein, Elias; Miles, H. Brinson III
Gulf South Res. Inst., New Orleans, LA
Appl. Polym. Symp., N. 29,1976: New and Spec. Fibers, Proc. Symp.
at Am. Chern. Soc. Nat'I. Meet., Chicago, IL, Aug. 26-27,1975,
pp.189-198.
The paper describes a design for a continuous process using ion exchange resin impregnated on cotton fabric belting. This, approach has
proven useful for the removal of chromate from cooling tower blowdown waters. Two processes are primarily in use today. These are chemical reduction and ion exchange columns. The paper presents an economic evaluation on the basis design of 100 gal/min treatment. This
level was established with the assumption that the average cooling
tower capacity is 10,000 gal/min and is run at a 1% continuous blowdown. It is shown that the continuous belt ion exchanger has excellent
market potential. Results of broad studies are included in this paper.
57) Spry Cooling System Design
Elgawhary, A. W.
Bechtel Power Corp., Gaithersburg, MD
Cool Towers, V. 2, 1975, pp. 95-99.
A mathematical model simulating the cooling process of a spray cooling system is presented. The analysis shows the system's thennal perfonnance for different meteorological conditions. The following observations were made from the results of this work: (a) The design
specifications for meteorological conditions spray systems must include
the coincident occurrence values of the relevant ambient parameters
such as wet bulb temperature, and wind speed and direction. (b) For
engineering applications, the meteorological conditions for a spray
system analysis should be based on the desired highest wet bulb temperature. For design purposes, the other parameters (dry bulb temperature
and wind speed) coincident with this selected high wet-bulb temperature should be used. (c) Increasing length and decreasing width of the
discharge path will improve the thennal perfonnance of the spray cooling system. 2 refs. cited.
58) Cooling Tower Drift Elimination
BUrger, Robert
Robert Burger Assoc., Inc., New York, NY
Cool Towers, V. 2, 1975, pp. 85-88.
A new cellular drift eliminator for cooling towers is discussed. The
design prevents water loss, prolongs tower life, and provides improved
plant efficiency. Before discussing drift elimination in detail, the paper
outlines the principles of cooling towers and some of the equipment
designs that use them. Tests with cooling towers indicate that conversion to cellular wet decking fill and drift eliminators can improve
operating efficiency by more than 30%.

COOLING TOWER LITERATURE

277

59) Approaches to Zero Pollutant Discharge


Dabrowski, H. J.
Giffels Assoc., Inc., Detroit, MI
Cool Towers, V. 2, 1975, pp. 51-59.
A case history is presented. It focuses on several points: chemical
treatment, ion exchange treatment, and mechanical treatment as a
means for achieving zero pollutant discharge, design and operating experiences, costs and some alternatives.
60) Electrochemical Removal of Chromates and Other Metals
Duffey, J. G.; Gale, S. B.; Bruckenstein, S.
Andco Inc., Buffalo, NY
Cool Towers, V. 2, 1975, pp. 44-50.
The paper presents operating data using the electrochemical method
of chromate removal for treatment of cooling tower blowdown water.
It is shown that chrome levels consistently under 0.05 ppm can be
achieved with no pH adjustment of the feed-water provided that it is in
the pH range of 6 to 9. Operating costs (excluding labor) are generally
in the range of 5 to 10 cents per 1,000 gal. depending upon the
chromate concentration. The labor amounts to less than one-half manhr. per day, used mainly in an acid wash procedure. Operating experience confirms the theory of the process and initial design problems
were solved permitting continuous operating periods generally in excess
of one month between electrode changes. The feasibility of removing
other heavy metals electrochemically as well as a/senates and other
compounds is demonstrated. 2 refs. cited.
61) Cooling Towers, Volume 2, 1975
Anon
AIChE, New York, NY
Cool Towers, V. 2, 1975, 99 p.
This is a manual which contains 18 papers covering various topics
such as reverse osmosis, reducing energy losses in cooling towers, controlling water pollution, environmental evaluation of closed-cycle cooling, total water management, and cooling system design.
62) Cooling Tower Technology-Wet Decking Fill
Burger, Robert
Robert BUrger Assoc.
Nat'l. Eng., V. 80, N. 6, June 1976, p. 16.
DeSign problems of water cooling towers and their use in various
water cooling systems are discussed.
63) Waste Heat Management of Steam-Electric Power P~ants
Moy, H. C.
Consolidated Edison of New York, NY
ASME Paper, N. 76-ENAs-44 for Meet. July 12-15, 1976,8 p.
The paper points out that nearly two-thirds of the supplied energy
of power plants is nonrecoverable and is ultimately rejected to the environment. The principal cooling schemes of power plant include once-

278

COOLING TOWERS
through, closed-cycle, and a combination of both. The paper discusses
the technology of each. It is concluded that avoidance of undesirable
detrimental environmental effects must be a major consideration in the
design of any once-through cooling system. Although closed-cycle alternatives may offer minimal ecological impact, their cost is high. As
for waste heat utilization, its beneficial usage in agriculture and aquaculture appears to be practical and economically feasible. 12 refs. cited.

64) Alternative Arrangements and Designs for Wet/Dry Cooling Towers


Smith, E. C.; Larinoff, M. W.
Hudson Prod. Corp., Houston, TX
Power, Eng., '(Barrington, IL), V. 80, N. 5, May 1976, pp. 58-61.
The paper makes a comparison between separate-structure wet/dry
cooling towers with different condensers or the same condenser and
with parallel or series circulating water flow. The use of single-structure
versus separate structure wet/dry towers is also considered.
65) Optimum Shape of Cooling Towers
Reinschmidt, Kenneth F.; Narayanan, R.
Comput. Struct., V. 5, N. 5-6, Dec. 1975, pp. 321-325.
The determination of the optimal shape of continuous surface
structures can be approached by algebraic techniques suitable for digital
computation. When the coordinates of the middle surface of a shell are
expressed by a finite polynomial series, an optimization problem in a
finite set of discrete variables materializes. The method is applied to a
particular example of a shell of revolution describing a natural draft
cooling tower. A simple preliminary design model is formulated to evaluate the potential savings due to numerical optimization, and the resulting nonlinear programming problem is solved by iterated linear programming. The results indicate that the method is feasible and that significant savings could be achieved by computerized shape optimization.
5 refs. cited.
66) Role of Geometric Imperfections in the Collapse of a Cooling Tower
Kemp, K. 0.; Croll, J. G. A.
Univ. Coll., London, England
Struct. Eng., V. 54, N. I, Jan. I976,pp. 33-37.
Effects of geometric imperfections in the form of the meridians of
hyperboloidal cooling towers are described. The authors show that even
moderate imperfections induce hoop stresses in the vicinity of the imperfection that are of the same order of magnitude as the meridional
stresses that would occur in this same area of the perfect shell. By examining a shell of form similar to the Ardeer shell which recently collapsed, it is indicated that imperfections may have had an important
contributory role in initiating this failure. The authors suggest that for
fu ture designs, greater attention be given to specifying imperfection.
11 refs. cited.
67) Gust Factors for Hyperbolic Cooling Towers
Singh, Mahendra P.; Gupta, Ajaya K.
Sargent & I.undy, Chicago, IL
ASCE J. Struct. Div., V. 102, N. 2, Feb. 1976, pp. 371-386.

COOLING TOWER LITERATURE

279

The paper notes that wind pressure distribution and dynamic behavior of hyperbolic cooling towers are significantly different from
those of simple slender structures. As such, the gust response factors developed for design of simple structures may not be applicable to cooling
towers. The author introduces a method which considers the dynamic
interaction of the wind and tower to obtain the gust factors for cooling
tower design. Wind pressure distribution measurements made on model
towers in wind tunnels are presented. Simplifying assumptions are made
concerning the correlation characteristics of wind pressure on a tower
surface. Effect of change in wind and tower parameters on gust factors
is examined. 12 refs. cited'.
68) Thermodynamic Models of Dry-Wet Cooling Towers
Croley, Thomas E. II; Patel, V. C.; Cheng, Mow-Soung
Inst. of Hydraul. Res., Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City
ASCEJ.PowerDiv., V.102,N.1,Jan.1976,pp.I-I9.
Basic thermodynamic models are discussed. The models are necessary for a comprehensive consideration of all cooling system costs. They
are outlined for the combination dry-wet cooling towers. The various
subsystem models of indirect air-cooled heat exchangers, crossflow
evaporative piles, turbines, and condensers are combined to give a manageable overall thermodynamic model, suitable for large numbers of
repetitive calculations at different meteorological conditions. The resulting model represents several configurations of the parallel air-path,
crossflow, induced-draft, dry-wet cooling tower. EXamples are given to
illustrate the model use and indicate its large applicability in economic,
water consumption, and plume emission studies. 44 refs. cited.
69) Comparison of Different Combinations of Wet and Dry Cooling Towers
von Cleve, H. H.
GEA Des fuer Luftkondensation, Ger.
ASME Paper, N. 75-WA/Pwr-1O for Meet., Nov. 30-Dec. 4, 1975, 7 p.
The paper notes that the most economical solution for any design is
a combination of conventional wet cooling towers with direct air cooled
condensers. Various limitations at particular sites, such as ambient air
conditions which require that wet cooling tower plumes be avoided,
makeup water quantity available, and maximum turbine backpressure
acceptable only dictate the individual design data for the wet and dry
sections. The author describes simple methods to determine the design
of both individual sections. To meet makeup water and/or backpressure
requirements the wet and the dry section must not necessarily be combined into one unit. However, one combined cooling system is required
to avofd wet cooling tower plumes.
70) Power Spray Cooling-Unit and System Performance
Soo, S. L.
Univ. of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
ASME Paper, N. 75-WA/Pwr-8 for Meet. Nov. 30-Dec. 4,1975,11 p.
The author notes that the performance of unit sprays can be expressed in the coefficient of performance per unit temperature difference of water to that of the wet bUlb. For large unit sprays, cross wind
is important to the performance because the local humidity depends on

280

COOLING TOWERS
its rate of removal. Low power requirements of spray cooling systems
requires optimum droplet size and high pump efficiency. The ratio of
spray flow to through-flow controls the loss from mixing. Optimum design should strive for small mean droplet sizes around 5-mm-dia. and
spray height around 4 m to limit the loss by cross wind while insuring
large heat release rates. For a typical power plant, the power consumption of the spray cooling system designed following these criteria
will be below 1% of the total power output and water loss below 2.5%.
Such a system as an alternative to devices like piped-in spray ponds and
cooling towers has the advantage of flexibility in design ahd operation
and future expansion. The system is also useful as an evaporator for
sewage treatment plants. 7 refs. cited.

71) Aerodynamic Design of Cooling Tower Drift Eliminators


Yao, S. C.; Schrock, V. E.
Argonne Nat'l. Lab., IL
ASME Paper, N. 75-WA/Pwr-5 for Meet. Nov. 30-Dec. 5, 1975,7 p.
A parametric study of the characteristics of inertial drift eliminators
of wet cooling towers is presented for their blade shapes, orientation
with respect to gravity, solidity ratios, blade sizes, approaching air
speed, and drift spectrum. The behavior of drift eliminators is revealed
by nondimensional parameters. A method for the optimum design of
an eliminator considering minimum cost versus performance is developed. This methodology can be integrated into the optimum design
of the entire cooling system. An example of the design approach is
given. 18 re~s. cited.
72) Dynamic Plume Model for the Prediction of Atmospheric Effects
Associated with Cooling Tower Operation
Rao, K. S.; Lague, J. S.; Egan, B. A.; Chu, Y. H.
Environ. Res. & Technol., Concord, MA
Proc. Air Pollut. Control Assoc., 68th 1975, for Meet., Boston, MA,
June 15-20, 1975, V. 1, Paper 75-04, 5,18 p.
A numerical method for predicting the convective rise of cumulus
clouds in a quiescent atmosphere was adapted to model the behavior of
a buoyant moist plume released at high vertical velocity into a crosswind. The model was successfully applied to assess the atmospheric effects (ground-level icing, fogging, and length of visible plume) associated with a number of cooling tower designs. A physically-realistic procedure for treating the merging of multiple plumes has been incorporated for applications to mechanical draft towers. 9 refs. cited.
73) Recycling cooling and Chilling Equipment Energy
Prasad, Anil; Fitzgerald, John
Appl. Eng. Corp., Elk Grove Village, IL
SPE Tech. Cont, 33rd Annual Proc., Atlanta, GA, May 5-8,1975,
pp. 8-10. Publ. by SPE, Greenwich, CT, 1975.
The authors discuss three different temperature considerations
which should be taken into account when selecting cooling and chilling
equipment. Water temperature levels of 80F to 95F are used in the

COOLING TOWER LITERATURE

281

cooling of hydraulic oil and air compressors. These higher water temperatures are usually supplied by an evaporative cooler (cooling tower).
The second range of temperatures is from 40F to 55F. This coolant
temperature is generally used for cooling molds, jacketed vessels, calenders and mills. This level of water temperature is supplied by refrigeration equipment. The usual coolant medium is water. The third area of
temperature consideration is the low temperature range of coolants.
This temperature range is from 40F to OaF and lower. These molding
temperatures are supplied by low temperature refrigeration equipment.
For larger cooling system requirements, it may be more advantageous
to consider a central system. One of the more practical central system
designs is the energy conserving air cooled type. From energy and economics standpoints, this type of chilling provides two benefits; it conserves water (l00% recovery) and it recycles process energy to conserve
heating fuel.
74) Initial Investigations of the Effects of Heat and Moisture Dissipation
from a Large NaturalDraft Cooling Tower
Peterman, William A.; Frey, Glen R.; Limbird, Arthur G.
Bowling Green State Univ., OH
Symp. on Atmos. Dittus. and Air Pollut., Prepr., Santa Barbara, CA,
Sept. 9-13, 1974, pp. 420-425. Publ. by Am. Meteorol. Soc., Boston,
MA,1974.
The paper is intended to provide an outline of the efforts underway
to ascertain the effects of heat and moisture dissipation from a large
natural draft cooling tower. The outline of the discU:'ssion is as follows:
The general problem of climatic fluctuations is treated first. A detailed
discussion of the soil environment is given. The purpose of this section
is to show how the meteorological investigations will act as the key to
understanding the total environmental change. Finally, a review of the
problem of inadvertent weather modification is provided. 17 refs. cited.
75) Evaluation of Varying Meteorological Parameters on Cooling Tower
Plume Behavior
Tsai, Y. J.: Huang, C. H.
Stone & Webster Eng. Corp., Boston,. MA
Symp. on Atmos. Dittus. and Air Pollut., Prepr., Santa Barbara, CA,
Sept. 9-13, 1974, pp. 408-411. Publ. by Am. Meteorol. Soc., Boston,
MA,1974.
Cooling tower plume behavior is simulated by an integral method.
The model offers an accurate and flexible simulation of the plume characteristics. The model allows investigation of environmental design considerations in conjunction with cooling system alternatives of electric
generating plant, plant operating modes, and meteorological conditions,
and to minimize the impact on the environment. 9 refs. cited.
76) Some Extra-High Capacity Heat Exchangers of Special Design
Forgo, L.
HOTERV, Des Br. for Ind. Power & Heat Supply, Budapest, Hungary
Heat Exch. " Des. and Theory Sourcebook, Int. Cent. for Heat and Mass

282

COOLING TOWERS
Transfer, 5th Semin., Proc. pp. 101-119. Pub!. by Scripta Book Co.,
Washington, DC, 1974, Div. of McGraw-Hill, New York, NY.
Air cooled condensing plants, steam turbines with multiple reheating
cycle are described and analyzed. Diagrams and plates illustrating design
and plants are appended. 4 refs. cited.

77) Recycling of Cooling Water in Cable Manufacture


Benenati, Samuel R.
West. Electr. Co., Buffalo, NY
Wire J., V. 8, N. 6, June 1975, pp. 61-65.
At Western Electric Company's Buffalo works, municipal water required for co.oling four cable jacketing lines has been recirculated and
reused. Water consumption for this manufacturing operation was reduced by 95%. The recirculating system uses a unique injection, spraytype commercial cooling tower which is virtually maintenance-free. The
cooling system has no moving parts, fans, wet decks, or electrical wiring.
Cooling is accomplished by spraying and expanding water through
numerous small nozzles. Insulation on the outside piping is not required
to prevent freezing, because the design of the cooling unit permits the
water to drain out when it is not in operation. FUrther reduced installation costs were achieved by the use of commercially available pump
suction diffusers and triple-du ty check valves.
78) Stability of Hyperboloidal Shells
Veronda, Daniel R.; Weingarten, Victor I.
Hughes Airc~aft Co., Fullerton, CA
ASCE J. Struct. Div., V. 101, N. 7, July 1975, pp. 1585-1602.
The paper presents an analytical and experimental investigation of
buckling loads of hyperboloidal shells with different geometries subjected to the axisymmetric loadings of external pressure and axial compression. Sander's thin shell equations were used in conjunction with
the finite element method to determine the bifurcation buckling load
of the shell. Experimental data on the instability behavior of hyperboloidal shells subjected to combined loadings is presented. Molded PVC
specimens were used in the experiments. Shell specimens were: (a)
Clamped on both ends; and (b) clamped on one end and free on the
other end. The experimental data were found to be in good agreement
with the analysis for all types of loading conditions. 16 refs. cited.
79) Analysis of a MultiUnit Cocurrent Crossflow Cooling Tower
Hayashi, Yoshishige; Hirai, Eiji
Kanazawa Univ., Japan
Heat Transfer Jap. Res., y. 3, N. 4, Oct.-Dec. 1974, pp. 67-74.
An analysis of multi-unit cocurrent crossflow cooling towers is made.
Towers were placed in series and the results obtained were compared
with that of multi-Unit countercurrent crossflow cooling towers. The
experimental data on the multi-unit cocurrent crossflow cooling tower
were analyzed in terms of enthalpy efficiency of single-unit, heat
capacity ratio and number of transfer units. An outline of design calculations of multi-unit cocurrent crossflow cooling towers is presented.
4 refs. cited.

COOLING TOWER LITERATURE

283

80) Cooling Tower Design and Evaluation Parameters


Kelly, G. M.
Marley Co., Mission, KS
ASME Paper, N. 75-IPWR-9 for Meet. May 19-20, 1975,8 p. CODEN:
ASMSA4.
The paper discusses the parameters involved in the thermal design
and evaluation of industrial cooling towers. By relating tower performance, size and costs to the previously published Rating Factor-Tower
Unit system, the engineer gains a useful tool for selecting, optimizing
and pricing various tower design conditions.
81) Successive Graphical Method of A Cross-Flow Cooling Tower
Inazumi, H.; Kageyama, S.
Shizuoka Univ., Hamamatsu, Japan
Chern. Eng. Sci., V. 30, N. 7, July 1975, pp. 717-721.
A graphical method of the calculation of the mean enthalpy driving
force in a cross-flow cooling tower is presented. In this method, the
equilibrium relationship between the temperature and the enthalpy of
saturated air is graphically represented and used in the calculation. The
applicable range is wider than the conventional methods which use the
equilibrium relation in a form of a first-order equation or an exponential expression for a limited range of the temperature. This method is
educational since it is a visual, graphical method. An example of the
calculation applied to the practical case is given. 5 refs. cited.
82) Optimization of Plant Cooling Water Systems
Allman, W. B.
DuPont, Wilmington, DE
ASME Paper, N. 75-IPWR-7 for Meet. May 19-20, 1975,5 p.
This paper attempts to demonstrate to power design engineers the
desirability of having an accurate computer model available when
needed if they are to achieve realistic and workable optimized plant
cooling water systems. Optimization guidelines and their limitations are
discussed. The balance of the paper discusses the Computer Flow Study
Diagram and the computer model and gives an example of their use in
optimizing a cooling tower system.
83) Effect of Evaporation Losses in the Analysis of Counterflow Cooling
Towers
Nahavandi, Amir N.; Kershah, Rashid M.; Serico, Benjamin J.
Newark ColI. of Eng., NJ
Nucl. 'Eng. Des., V. 32, N. 1, 1975, pp. 29-36.
In Merkel's method for the thermal design of counterflow cooling
towers, the variation of the water flow from the tower inlet to outlet
(due to evaporation losses) is neglected. This does not lead to a conservative design. In the analysis, the water evaporation losses are included
in the energy balance and a new technique for the thermal design of
cooling towers is developed. A comparison of the present analysis with
the Merkel solution indicates that the error in the Merkel method may
reach 12%, depending on the design conditions. The present solution is
recommended where more accurate results are needed. 8 refs. cited.

284

COOLING TOWERS

84) Cooling Tower Institute, Annual Meeting, 1974


Meeting
Cool Tower Inst., Annu. Meet., Paper, New Orleans, LA, Jan. 28-30,
1974. Available from Cool Tower Inst., Houston, TX, 1974.
Proceedings from this conference includes 14 papers on recent developments in the design, operation, and economy of cooling towers.
Topics include cooling tower fans, problems of waste heat utilization,
the generation of visible plumes by wet/dry cooling towers, problems of
airborne transmission of pathogenic organisms in cooling tower drift,
cooling tower rebuilding, cooling tower consumed power and its relationship t9 powerplant output, cooling requirements for the nuclear
industry, cooling water use by manufacturers, side stream filtration for
cooling towers, evolution of nonpolluting microbicides, coordinated
cooling water treatment programs, and new developments in cooling
water treatment technology.
85) Buckling of Cooling-Tower Shells: Bifurcation Results
Cole, Peter P.; Abel, John F.; Billington, David P.
Lab H. Hossdorf, Basel, Switzerland
ASCE J. Struct. Div., V. 101, N. 6, June 1975, pp. 1205-1222.
The paper describes studies of bifurcation buckling of hyperboloids
used for large-scale cooling towers. Those studies include the effects of
flexible supports, combined loadings from wind, dead weight, and
temperature, shell cracking, different variations in the wind pressure
distribution, and changes in the shell thickening. The paper gives comparisons between numerical and wind-tunnel results. The finite element
formulation used is examined and results are presented for the tower at
the Trojan Nuclear Plant on the Columbia River, Oregon. 26 refs. cited.
86) Buckling of Cooling-Tower Shells: State-of-the-Art
Cole, Peter P.; Abel, John F.; Billington, David P.
Lab H. Hossdorf, Basel, Switzerland
ASCE J. Struct. Div., V. 101, N. 6, June 1975, pp. 1185-1203.
Various analytical, experimental, and numerical contributions to the
buckling analyses of large hyperbolic cooling towers are summarized.
Previously published results for axisymmetric pressures and asymmetric
wind loadings of hyperboloids are compared to new bifurcation predictions by a finite element method. A limited series of wind-tunnel
tests remain the only standard against which various analytical and
numerical approaches can be judged. However, numerical stUdies seem
promising for studying the effect of various design factors as variable
thickness, flexible supports, and edge stiffenings. 28 refs. cited.
87) Cooling Blowdown in Cooling Towers
Crits, G. J.;Glover, G.
Cochrane Environ. Syst., King of Prussia, PA
Water Wastes Eng., V. 12, N. 4, April 1975, 5 p. between pp. 45 and 52.
The authors describe how manageable discharge levels can be obtained by sidestream treatment and careful tower design. The permissible tower control limits based on old concepts and with high pH and
new concepts requiring the use of organic additives or dispersant are
listed. Examples are given.

COOLING TOWER LITERATURE

285

88) Performance Curves for Mechanical Draft Cooling Towers


Hallett, G. F.
Ceram Cooling Tower Co., Fort Worth, TX
ASME Paper, N. 74-WA-PCT-3 for Meet. Nov. 17-22, 1974,6 p.
Both ASME PTC-23 and Cooling Tower Institute Bulletin ATP-I05
are being revised and both test codes have historically used performance
curves as a means of evaluating cooling tower capacity. Techniques and
methods are given for calculating performance curves for both counterflow and crossflow type cooling towers. These procedures can be used
dUring bid evaluation to assess and predict tower performance at various operating conditions other than the design point. 12 refs. cited.
89) Reservoir Operation Through Objective Trade-Offs
Croley, Thomas E. II
Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City
Water Resour. Bull., V. 10, N. 6, Dec. 1974, pp. 1123-1132.
Some of the problems that concern the proper methods for consideration of several different objectives in reservoir planning are discussed. Classical systems analysis approach to decision making for mUltiple objective problems is outlined and the inherent difficulties associated with multiple objectives and subjective estimates are identified.
Techniques used in reservoir design and operation are reviewed. An alternate technique for considering noncommensurate, objectives, which
relates the objectives in terms of real trade-off costs and eliminates the
need for a priori estimates of objective worth is pres,!'lnted. The method
is illustrated with three examples, including a reservpir operation problem and a cooling tower design problem. 31 refs. cited.
90) Effect of Wind Friction on Hyperbolic Cooling Towers
Herzos, Max, A. M.
Struct. Eng., V. 52, N. 11, Nov. 1974, pp. 417-420.
The paper stresses that the action of winds on the rough surfaces of
cooling towers is often not accounted for. Designing cooling towers can
result in their unsatisfactory behavior regardless of this fact. Wind
forces acting on cooling towers are discussed and approximate analysis
of cooling towers under dead load and wind is presented. 17 refs. cited.
91) Sea-Water Cooling Tower
,
Fukuda, Shozo; Aramaki, Mikio; Oda, Masao; Shoji, Ikuzo
Nagasaki Tech. Inst., Japan
Mitsubishi Heavy Ind. Tech. Rev., V. 11, N. 3, 1974, pp. 238-248.
A large capacity sea-water cooling tower is designed with a drift
elimin~tor to drastically reduce the drift carry-over. The drift carry-over
from the tower has in fact been reduced to only an order of 6 to 7 X
10 7 of the quantity of sea-water circulated for cooling, or is as low as
1/2000 or less as compared with 0.2% in the conventional fresh-water
cooling tower. The present paper gives an outline of the service results
of this cooling tower. 5 refs. cited.
92) Wet/Dry Cooling Tower: An Effective Plume Control Method
Reisman, J. I.; Dolan, N. E.
Ecodyne Corp., Santa Rosa, CA
ASME Paper, N. 74-WA/HT-57 for Meet. Nov. 17-22, 1974, 13 p.

286

COOLING TOWERS
Under certain conditions, the exhaust air of conventional mechanical
draft cooling towers may form a fog plume, causing visibility and icing
problems to highways and equipment. In cases where this cannot be
tolerated, a combination wet/dry cooling tower is shown to be effective
fog plume control method. The paper describes the basic phenomena of
cooling tower fog formation. The operation and performance characteristics of the wet/dry tower are discussed as well as a method of select
wet/dry design criteria. 11 refs. cited.

93) Experimental Cooling Tower


Rish, R. F.
Univ. of Tasmania
Australia Conf. on Heat and Mass Transfer, 1st Pap., Monash Univ.,
Melbourne, Aust., May 23-25, 1973, Sect 5, 2, pp. 1-14. Available from
Dr. R. J. Batterham, CSIRO Oiv. of Chern. Eng., Clayton, Victoria,
August 1973.
A new design of an experimental cooling tower is described. The
tower can be used for instructing in the principles of evaporative cooling and for testing film flow packings. The tower is inexpensive to construct and the power required for water heating and air circulation is
kept low. At the same time the tower is large enough to minimize errors
due to end effects. Experimental results relate air friction and mass
transfer coefficients for a range of spacings and configurations of packings. 7 refs. cited.
94) Thermal Loading of Thin-Shell Concrete Cooling Towers
Larrabee, Richard D.; Billington, David P.; Abel, John F.
Souza and Tru., Cambridge, MA
ASCE J. Struct. Div., V. 100, N. 12, Dec. 1974, pp. 2367-2383.
The behavior of reinforced concrete cooling shells is investigated
under the effect of axisymmetric operating thermal loads and nonaxisymmetric solar thermal loads. Analytical and finite element techniques
are applied. Stress and displacement results are compared to field
measurements on a 420-ft. high cooling tower. High flexural stresses
due to operating thermal gradients are found to be relieved by meridional cracking of the shell, and the effect of this cracking is examined in
relation to cooling-tower design. 7 refs. cited.
95) Axisymmetric Free Vibration and Transient Response of a Clamped
Cylindrical Shell of Linear Varying Thickness
Fisher, H. D.
Combustion Eng. Inc., Windsor, CT
Nucl. Eng. Des., V. 30, N. 2, Sept. 1974, pp. 278-285.
A variety of structural design problems in nuclear engineering require
a knowledge of the dynamic response of variable thickness shells. Examples include natural draft cooling towers subjected to wind loading,
and the core support barrel of a pressurized water reactor during a loss
of coolant accident, where the maximum radial deflection due to hydrodynamic loadings is a critical design parameter. The paper investigates
the free vibration and transient response of a circular cylindrical shell of
linear varying thickness. Mode shapes and frequencies, calculated in the

COOLING TOWER LITERATURE

287

free vibration analysis, are used in a model solution for the transverse
displacement and bending stress of the forced vibration problem. Numerical results are presented for two clamped cylinders subjected to a
triangular pressure-time history. Application of analysis to constant
thickness cylinders which are linearly thickened near a clamped support
is discussed. 12 refs. cited.
96) Vibration of Cooling Towers
Armitt, J.
Cent. Electr. Res. Lab., Leatherhead, England
Vib. Probl. in Ind., Int. Symp. Proc., Sess. Pap., Keswick, England,
April 10-12,.1973, Sess 3, Pap. 311,19 p. Available from UK at Energy
Auth., Windscale, Seascale, Cumberland, England, 1973.
Wind tunnel test methods were developed to determine wind induced
stresses in cooling towers using aeroelastic models as part of a detailed
model of a power station site. The turbulence and shear in the atmospheric wind are simulated. Tests on a model of Ferrybridge 'C' Power
Station show that resonant stresses are significant at the design wind
speed. These increase as the fourth power of wind speed and can be
greatly enhanced by turbulent wakes of upstream structures. 6 refs.
cited.
97) Wet Bulb Temperatures in Cooling Tower Design
Hill, G. B.
Heat Vent. Eng., J. Air Cond., V. 48, N. 564, July 1974, pp. 19-22,32.
This article examines the selection of cooling to~er design ambient
air wet bulb temperatures in the light of recent developments in the air
conditioning industry.
98) Wake and Gust Loading on Cooling Towers
Sawyer, R. A.
Salford, Univ., England
Vib. Probl. in Ind., Int. Symp. Proc., Sess. Pap., Keswick, England,
April 10-12, 1973, Sess. 3, Pap. 117, 19 p. Available from UK at Energy Auth., Windscale, Seascale, Cumberland, England, 1973.
An experiment was conducted in a low speed gust tunnel in which
steady and unsteady pressure distributions over the surface of a model
cooling tower were measured. Attention is concentrated on the spectra
of pressure fluctuations at a section near the throat of the tower. The
effects of boundary layer, wake and incident wake on the spectra of
pressure fluctuations at points on the tower are demonstrated, and the
effects of lateral turbulence identified by varying the amplitude of the
input to the gust actuators. 10 refs. cited.
99) Air Side Design and Operating Problems in Cooling Towers
Phelps, P. M.
Phelps Eng. Co., Kentfield, CA
ASMEPaper, N. 74-Pet-29 for Meet. Sept. 15-18, 1974,4p.
The size of a cooling tower is normally established by the amount of
air that is needed for a specified cooling job. The tower fill, which minimizes air rate requirements generally minimizes overall tower costs as

288

COOLING TOWERS
well as for anyone basic type of tower. Such low air rate designs will
usually result in comparatively less severe icing during winter months;
however, fog discharge from the tower can be greater than from a high
air rate design.

100) Treat Cooling-Tower Blowdown


Boies, D. B.; Levin, J. E.
Wapora Inc.
Power, V. 118, N. 8, Aug. 1974, pp. 76-78.
,
To maintain environmental impact at a mmmlUm, cooling-tower
systems must be designed to abate both thermal and chemical pollution
in blowdown stream. The latter is accomplished by treating blowdown
prior to discharge or reuse. Sedimentation and other methods prepare
blowdown streams for discharge to the natural environment. Evaporation or reuse permits a closed cooling system.
101) Die Wichtigsten Parameter, Die Das Verhalten Des Nassen Kuehlturms
Bestimmen
(Most Important Parameters that Decide the Operation of Wet Cooling
Towers)
Vladea, I.
Tech Hochsch, Timisoara, R'om
Brennst-Waerme-Kraft, V. 26, N. 6, June 1974, pp. 244-249.
In effecting the desired cooling range, it is important that this range
lies within the lowest possible water temperatures. Experimental studies
showed that meeting this requirement depends on the design of the internal baffles. The paper gives experimental results obtained with flat
and corrugated baffles (for countercurrent cooling) and with profiled
rods (crosscurrent cooling). As a basis for comparison, a cooling tower
with assumed operation at various air temperatures was used. 8 refs.'
cited. (In Gennan).
102) Cooling Cascades for Wet/Dry Transfer Processes
Berliner, Paul
Ges fuer Kernforsch, Karlsruhe, Germany
ASME Winter Annu. Meet., Heat Transfer Div. Symp., Pap., Detroit, MI,
Nov. 11-15, 1973, pp. 119-126. Pub!. by ASME, HTD, V. 6, New York,
1973.
Natural draught will dominate as the prime mover of cooling towers
where heated air fluxes of still unknown magnitude occur. The optimum height/diameter relation can be deduced from thenno- and aerodynamic principles. Both the uprise within a hyperbolic shell and the
buoyancy and the diffusion into the ambient air influences the capcity.
It is shown that large diameters are relatively more effective than large
chimney heights. Also, vast air rates make high air inlet openings advisable. To elevate the circulating water to the large inlet heights embodies excessive pumping heads in counterflow cooling towers. These
three factors stand against conventional design rules. They promote
the presented concept of a perimetric cooling wall. The water can be
distributed in cascades of limited height. The cooling cascades can be

COOLING TOWER LITERATURE

289

operated wet and/or dry by automatic control. The automatic operation includes a method of tJIrning the fill body of wet heat transfer
out of the air flow in periods of dry heat transfer to reduce the pressure drop of the air. 3 refs. cited.
103) Dry Cooling Tower Power Plant Design Specifications and Performance
Characteristics
Larinoff, Michael W.
Hudson Prod. Corp., Houston, TX
ASME Winter Annu. Meet., Heat Transfer Div. Symp. Pap., Detroit, MI,
Nov. 11-15, 1973, pp. 57-75. Publ. by ASME, HTD, V. 6, New York,
1973.
The paper discusses operating limitations imposed by the turbine exhaust element and the alternatives presently available to the electric
utility industry. It also presents tools for estimating dry tower plot area,
fan power and circulating pump power requirements. It shows the savings in fan power which can be expected with a decrease in turbinegenerator load and ambient air temperatures. It discusses expected maintenance costs and the owner's possible exposure with a large 1000 MW
dry cooling tower system. The paper ends with an evaluation of the potential for lower dry tower system costs in the future. 12 refs. cited.
104) Combined Dry Tower-Cooling Pond Systems for Power Plant Cooling
GUpta, Arun K.; Gorton, Robert L.
Kansas State Univ., Manhattan
,
ASME Winter Annu. Meet., Heat Transfer Div. Symp:'Pap., Detroit, MI,
Nov. 11-15, 1973, pp. 127-137. Publ. by ASME, HTD, V. 6, New York,
1973.
The paper presents economic study of a power plant cooling system.
The system studied is comprised of 'a dry cooling section followed by a
cooling pond. Cooling range is 27F with 8.0 in. Hg condenser pressure
and a base environmental condition of 98F and 50F dew point. Various ratios of dry tower to pond cooling are studied to determine least
cost proportions for a range of summer design conditions and cost
factors typical of current or expected conditions. Results are presented
only for summer maximum design conditions. Combined system cooling is shown to be more economical at the specified design condition
than either all-dry or all-pond systems for the majority of the cases considered. 11 refs. cited.
105) Dry Towers and Wet-Dry Towers for the Indirect Power Plant Cycle
Hansen, E. P.
Marley Co., Mission, KS
ASME Winter Annu. Meet., Heat Transfer Div. Symp. Pap., Detroit, MI,
Nov. 11-15, 1973, pp. 109-117. Publ. by ASME, HTD, V. 6, New York,
1973.
Dry towers for power plants are of three types. The direct system
wherein steam is condensed directly in the dry tower; the indirect type
wherein water is cooled in a dry tower and then used to condense
steam in a direct contact condenser; and the indirect type wherein water

290

COOLING TOWERS
is cooled in a dry tower and then used to condense steam in a conventional surface condenser. A dry tower design of the indirect type for
either a mixing condenser or a surface condenser is considered. Air side
capacity control and recirculation are examined and supported with
laboratory data. For sites where some water is available, the use of the
Parallel Path Wet-Dry Cooling Tower is suggested. 5 refs. Cited.

106) Dry and Wet/Dry Cooling Towers for Power Plants


Webb, Ralph L. (Ed.); Barry, Robert E. (Ed.)
Trane Co., La Crosse, WI
ASME Winter Annu. Meet., Heat Transfer Div. Symp. Pap., Detroit, MI,
Nov. 11-15, 1973. Publ. by ASME, HTD, V. 6, New York, 1973, 153 p.
Thirteen papers by various authors are presented. Topics discussed
include design optimization of the dry cooling tower; design concepts
for combined wet/dry cooling systems; economic optimization of plant
loading due to climatic variation on turbine design and operation; and
practical design and operational requirements for power plant coding
systems.
107) Periodic Cooling Towers for Electric Power Plants
Robertson, M. W.; Glicksman, L. R.
.
MIT, Cambridge, MA
ASME Winter Annu. Meet., Heat Transfer Div. Symp. Pap., Detroit, MI,
Nov. 11-15, 1973, pp. 139-153. Publ. by ASME, HTD, V. 6, New York,
1973.
A periodic cooling tower was designed to operate at lower evaporation rates than conventional wet towers and with a capital savings
over dry cooling towers. In this design discs of galvanized steel sheet
metal rotate from the hot water to the cool air. A thin layer of oil floating on the water surface separates the water stream from the air stream
and prevents any water carryover. Tests on a scale model of the periodic tower showed the amount of heat transfer due to evaporation to
be less than four-tenths of one percent as compared to eighty percent
for conventional wet towers. The cost per square foot of the periodic
heat transfer is lower than for one conventional dry tower. Half of the
total cost of a dry tower is heat transfer surface cost, thus this new
design has the potential to significantly reduce the total cost of dry
cooling towers. 9 refs. cited.
108) Plume Behavior and Potential Environmental Effects of Large Dry
Cooling Towers
Kearney, D. W.;Boyack, B. E.
Gulf Gen. at Co., San Diego, CA
ASME Winter Annu. Meet., Heat Transfer Div. Symp. Pap., Detroit, MI,
Nov. 11-15, 1973, pp. 35-48. Pub!. by ASME, HTD, V. 6, New York,
1973.
The magnitude of the heat rejection of large modern power generating plants is so great that the problem of potential environmental effects due to dry cooling systems must be studied. The plumes from
both natural-draft and mechanical-draft towers deSigned for IOOO-MW
plants of several representative types are examined with respect to

COOLING TOWER LITERATURE

291

plume height and penetration of inversions. Based on the estimated


plume behavior, numerical calculations on potential environmental impact are presented including effects such as cloud formation and precipitation, local winds and heating, fog dispersal, noise, aesthetics and land
usage. It is found that no serious local environmental effects appear
likely from large dry cooling towers. 23 refs. cited.
109) On the Minimum Size For Forced Draft Dry Cooling Towers for Power
Generating Plants
Johnson, B. M.; Dickinson, D. R.
Battelle Mem. Inst., Richland, WA
ASME Winter Annu. Meet., Heat Transfer Div. Symp. Pap., Detroit, MI,
Nov. 11-15, 1973, pp. 25-34. Publ. by ASME, HTD, V. 6, New York,
1973.
A scaling law is derived relating the heat transfer and drag characteristics, frontal area, volume, surface area, power reqUirements, and performance for mechanical draft cooling towers and on air-cooled heat
exchangers in general. Through a modified Reynolds analogy, connecting friction and heat transfer behavior, the power requirements and
heat transfer performance are related. Size functions are developed, one
of which is related to the frontal area of the heat exchanger and another
to the total volume of the exchanger. Each of these has a unique minimum with respect to the air outlet temperature for particular values of
the water outlet temperature, the entrance head loss, and relative friction
and heat transfer characteristics of the exchanger surfiace. The influence
of each parameter on the minimum frontal area and minimum size of
the heat exchanger is determined. 6 refs. cited.
110) Design of Droplet Sampling Devices for Measurements in Cooling

Towers
Morton, V. M.; Foster, P. M.
Cent. Electr. Res. Lab., Leatherhead, Surrey, England
Atmos. Environ., V. 8, N. 4, April 1974, pp. 361-372.
The interpretation of measurements is discussed for the particular
cases of collectors shaped like a circular cylinder, an aerofoil or a circular disc. It is shown through the trajectories of representative droplets
that correction factors are needed to relate the numbers caught to the
numbers present in the unobstructed flow. These factors are given in
graphical form, and a practical application is discussed.
111) Some Water Droplet Measurements Inside Cooling Towers

Martin, A.; Barber, F. R.


Sci. Servo Dep., Nottingham, Ratcliffe-on-Soar, England
Atmos. Environ., V. 8, N. 4, April 1974, pp. 325-336.
Drop size measurements were made on water sensitive papers exposed
inside cooling towers at various levels. Results are given for samples
taken under eliminators, over eliminators and high in towers. Design
and operational factors which affect the values are discussed. Droplet
removal efficiencies are given for conventional louvre eliminators and
for louvre eliminators modified with plastic meshes.

292

COOLING TOWERS

112) Meteorology and Cooling Tower Operation


Spurr, G.
C.E.G.B. Headquarters, London, England
Atmos. Environ., V. 8, N. 4, April 1974, pp. 321-324.
Climatic aspects were studied at several of the many cooling tower
plants in the United Kingdom. The impact of their operation has been
found to have a negligible effect on the local climate. A salt water tower
plant was also operated for many years with negligible effects.
113) Research and Development Background to the Environmental Problems
of Natural Draught Cooling Towers
Gardner, B. R.; Lowe, H. J.
Cent. Electr. Res. Lab., Leatherhead, Surrey, England
Atmos. Environ., V. 8, N. 4, April 1974, pp. 313-320.
Significant droplet carry-over (drift) was detected at two new 2000
MW plants. More spray was found created in the larger installations and
longer residence time in the larger towers increases droplet growth.
However, the two recent occurrences were principally due to the use
of eliminators which differed from the originally recommended designs
in construction in one case, and in installation in the other.
114) Fans Key to Optimum Cooling-Tower Design
Monroe, R. C.
Hudson Prod. Corp., Houston, TX
Oil Gas J., y. 72, N. 21, May 1974, pp. 52-56.
Questions most often asked of a fan engineer about axial-flow fans
for today's wet cooling towers generally cover: performance; efficiency;
corrosion resistance; and noise. This article reviews such fundamentals
and gives new insight for optimum tower design.
115) Response of Hyperbolic Cooling Towers to Turbulent Wind
Hashish, Mahmoud G.; Abu-Sitta, Salman H.
Ain Shams Univ., Egypt
ASCE J. Struct Div., V. 100, N. ST5, May 1974, Pap. 10542, pp. 10371051.
The paper outlines a general procedure for predicting the dynamic
response, including resonance, of hyperbolic cooling towers to turbulent winds. Pressure spectra on the tower surface were measured in a
boundary layer wind tunnel. Application to full-scale tower is examined.
It is concluded that while the quasi-steady response increases with the
wind velocity squared, the resonant response increases faster than wind
velocity cubed. 10 refs. cited.
116) American Power Conference Proceedings, Volume 35, 1973
Ramsdell, Roger G. Jr.; Pinheiro, G.; Hays, T. C.; Krippene, B. C.;
Clessuras, G. J.; McMackin, G. E.; Roma, Carlo; Mikol, W. W.;
Yaworsky, Y. J.; Baker, J. M.; Dolhec, A. C.; Berman, P. A.; Giras, T. c.;
Furlong, Dale A.
Am. Power Conf. Proc., 35th Annu. Meet., Ill. Inst. of Techno!.,
Chicago, May 8-10, 1973. Available from lIT, Chicago, IL, 1973,
1268 p.

COOLING TOWER LITERATURE

293

The following is a partial list of titles and authors:


"Practical Design Parameters for Hot and Cold Electrostatic Precipitators," by Roger G. Ramsdell, Jr. "State-of-the-Art: Precipitators on
Oil-Fired Installations," by G. Pinheiro. "Development of Large Components for Large Steam Generators," by T. C. Hays, B. C. Krippene,
G. J. Clessuras and G. E. McMackin. "Advanced Dry Cooling System
for Water from Large Power Station Condensers," by Carlo Roma.
"Complete Automation for Combined-Cycle Operation," by W. W.
Mikol and Y. J. Yaworsky. "STAG Combined-Cycle Plant ControlsFlexibility and Reliability," by J. M. Baker and A. C. Dolbec. "Total
Energy Management for Combined-Cycle Power Plants," by P. A.
Berman and T. C. Giras. "Direct Combustion of High-Sulfur Coal Using
Today's Gas Turbines," by Dale A. Furlong.
117) Cooling Water Practices
Kolflat, T. D.
Sargent & Lundy
Power Eng., (Barrington, IL), V. 78, N. 1, Jan. 1974, pp. 32-39.
The paper compares wet, dry and wet and dry cooling towers on the
basis of their performance and costs. Design factors involving heat
transfer characteristics wet bulb temperature effect, fans and stack,
etc., are evaluated.
118) Hyperbolic Cooling Towers
Abu-Sitta, Salman H.
Univ. of West Ont., London
Eng. J. (Montreal), V. 56, N. 10, Oct. 1973, pp. 26-28.
The paper explains how safe and economic structures can be realized,
and points out the sensitivity and importance of cooling tower design
in relation to the wind stresses. 5 refs. cited.
119) Stability and Dynamic Analyses of Cooling Tower
Yeh, Chang-hua; Shieh, William Y. J.
Harza Eng. Co., Chicago, IL
ASCE J., Power Div., V. 99, N. P02, Nov. 1973, Pap. 10141, pp. 339347.
The paper examines the behavior of natural draft cooling tower
wind pressure. BUckling loads of the towers of different meridional
curvatures and shell thicknesses are computed and compared. The results show that an increase in stiffness of the structure with an increase
in meridional curvature; and changes of buckling load caused by changes
in shell thickness is approximately proportional. 10 refs. cited.
120) Structural Models Conference, 1972 Conf.
Struct. Models Canf" Paper, Sydney, Aust., May 16-18, 1972. Available
from Cern. and Cancr. Assoc. of Aust., North Sydney, 1972.
The volume includes 37 papers. Discussions cover the verification of
flat plate analyses by model studies; long-term behavior of small composite prestressed concrete bridge beams; studies of a prestressed concrete girder with web openings; the structural behavior of a hyperbolic
cooling tower under static loadings; models of shear wall structures;

294

COOLING TOWERS
automatic data acquisition and analysis for model studies; structural
models for stability studies; the application of telemetry to data collection from structural tests; the aeroelastic modeling of structures in
wind; model tests on a lamella roof structure compared with several
theoretical analyses; size effects on reinforced micro-concrete models;
model studies of hyperbolic paraboloid shells; model analysis as an extension of theoretical structural studies; and comparison of physical
and theoretical models of a continuous curved girder bridge.

121) How to Get Rid of Cooling Tower Plumes


Patel, Krishn!l N.; Sanchez, Alberto J.
King/Leopold Inc., Philadelphia, P A
Actual Specif. Eng., V. 30, N. 4, Oct. 1973, pp. 103-106.
The paper describes how cooling tower plumes are formed, the
hazards involved, and how' plumes can be avoided through efficient
design.
122) Design of Underground Cooling Towers
Whillier, A.
J. Mine Vent Soc. S. Afr., V. 26, N. 6, June 1973, pp. 73-85.
Paper refers to the contents of the title paper in Vol. 25, N. 5, of
May 1972, and presents an empirical analysis of a number of carefully
conducted tests in cooling towers of the vertical, counter-flow type. In
order to put cooling tower performance on a common basis the area to
height factor is introduced. Parameters examined by Dr. Whillier are
reexamined and use is made of the area to height factor to predict cooling tower performance.
123) Dynamic Wind Stresses in Hyperbolic Cooling Towers
Abu-Sitta, Salman H.; Hashish, Mahmoud G.
Univ. of West Ont., London
ASCE J. Struct. Div., V. 99, N. ST9, Sept. 1973, Paper N. 9989,
pp.1823-1835.
The paper outlines a general procedure for estimating the wind dynamic stresses in hyperbolic cooling towers on the basis of a statistical
dynamic approach. Using wind tunnel measurements of pressure fluctuations and assuming that resonance is negligible, predicted wind stresses
agreed with measured stresses on an aero elastic model. The procedure is
applied to 45l-ft tower. 9 refs. cited.
124) Very Large Hyperbolic Cooling Towers
Furzer, I. A.
Univ. of Sydney, Aust.
In st. Eng., Aust., Mech. Chern. Eng. Trans., V. MC8, N. 2, Nov. 1972,
pp.123-l24.
The paper gives a method for obtaining the dimensions of a hyperbolic cooling tower using a modern theory. A computer program is used
to calculate a range of design variables so that a minimum cost function
can be evaluated. A single cooling tower 152m in height could handle
the thermal load of a 1000-MW power plant. 12 refs. cited.

COOLING TOWER LITERATURE

295

125) Trockene und Nasse Rueckkuehlung: ein Vergleich


(Dry and Wet Re-Cooling Compared)
Berliner, P.
Gesellschaft fuer Kernforschung, Karlsruhe, Ger.
Brennst-Waerme-Kraft, V. 25, N. 2, Feb. 1973, pp. 43-48.
The paper compares important aspects of the dry convective and the
wet cooling systems. In order to make a comparison possible between
the energy requirements of the two processes, a dimensionless number
E is derived from the Chiltron Colburn Analyses which helps in decision
findings. The number E depends on the prevailing state conditions of
the wet air and can be shown on a conditions chart. Optimal operational conditions can be obtained with a cooling tower which is so designed
that it can be adjusted at any time to the changing atmospheric and
load conditions. 20 refs. cited. (In German).
126) Zur Auslegung von Ventilator-Kuehltuermen
(Design of Cooling Tower with Forced Flow)
Pana, P.; Oancea, N. D.
Waerme, V. 79, N. 1, Feb. 1973, pp. 5-9.
An economic design of a cooling tower is presented. The analysis is
based on consideration of all elements in the cycle, such as turbine and
condenser. The optimum conditions are given for heat exchanger and
condensing temperatures. 6 refs. cited. (In German).
127) Rubber Manufacturing Plant Cooling Water System D,esign
Considerations
"
Hewitt, W. L.
Goodyear Tire and Rubber Co., Akron, OH
ASME Paper, N. 73-IPWR-6 for Meet. May 14-20, 1973, 7 p.
Current environmental regulation's necessitate that new concepts be
used in the design of industrial cooling water systems. Equipment selection and component layout related to these regulations are discussed.
Special emphasis is given to the power requirements needed for the
system. The subject matter for this paper was developed from observations of rubber industry manufacturing operations.
128) Water Cooling Plant in a Plastic Converting Works
Seiderer, S.; Weder, B.; Knopf, M.
Winterthur Engineering Works Div., Switz.
Sulzer Tech. Rev., V. 54, N. 3, 1972, pp. 213-218.
The plant is designed so that, at a wet bulb temperature of 21C,
400 m 3 of water per hour can be cooled from 35C to 24C (corresponding to a cooling capacity of 4. 4. 10 6 kcal/h). Operating principles
of the cooling towers, warm and cold water circuits and pumps are described, plus capital and operating costs.
129) Design Considerations for Particulate Instrumentation by Laser Light
Scattering (Pills) Systems
Shofner, Frederick M.; Watanabe, Yasuo; Carlson, Thomas B.
Env. Systems Corp., Knoxville, TN
[SA Trans., V. 12, N. 1, 1973, pp. 56-61.

296

COOLING TOWERS
Basic electro-optical design and performance parameters are discussed for a laser light scattering system employing an external scattering volume and a pulsed junction diode laser. Experimental sensitivity,
resolution, and calibration results are described. An exemplary particle
size distribution for liquid droplets entrained in the efflux of and generated by breakup of the circulating water in a mechanical draft cooling
tower is reported. 6 refs. cited.

130) How to Design Compact Mass Transfer Packing for Maximum


Efficiency
Egberongbe, S. A.
Process Eng., Feb. 1973, pp. 82-83, 85.
This paper points out important criteria for an efficient mass transfer packing. Also described is a new PVC packing for use in water/air or
water/gas applications such as'cooling towers. 4 refs. cited.
131) Ararat-A Computer Code for Thermal Design of Cooling Towers
Mesarovic, Miodrag M.
ENERGOPROJEKT, Belgrade, Yugoslavia
Nucl. Eng. Des., V. 24, N. 1, Jan. 1973, pp. 57-70.
A computer program is pr'esented for thermal and hydraulic designs
of cooling towers. Options are provided for evaluating cooling tower
size and performance curves by applying a basic physical model of heat
and mass transfer. The solution is conducted by multiple iteration. Iteration loops ine mutually inclusive in the model. Both film and sprayfilled cooling towers are considered with either induced or natural air
circulation. Numerical solutions are presented for a number of natural
draft cooling towers which serve present nuclear or conventional power
plants. 8 refs. cited.
132) Shell Structures and Climatic Influences
Mueller, R. K.;Mirza, S.;Doise, A. G.;Vellozzi, J. W.; Schnobrich,
W. C.; Abel, J. F.; Billington, D. P.; Buchert, K. P.; Walser, A.; Gurfinkel,
G.; Bandel, H.; Nash, W. A.; Simmonds, S. H.; Leonard, 1. W.; Lopez
Palanco, R.
Int. Assoc. for Shell Struct, lASS Calgary, Symp., Proc., Univ. of Calgary, Alta, July 3-6,1972,539 p. Available from P. G. Glockner
lASS Cant Comm., Dep. Civ. Eng., Univ. of Calgary, Alta.
The following is a partial list of titles and authors of papers presented:
"Some Questions in Connection with Unsolved Problems of the Investigation of Thermal Stresses by Means of Models," by R. K. Mueller.
"Free Vibration of Shallow Spherical Sandwich Shells," by S. Mirza
and A. G. Doise. "Brief Review of the American Standard Building
Code Requirements for Minimum Design Wind Loads," by J. W. Vellozzi. "Seismic Analysis of Cooling Towers," by W. C. Schnobrich.
"Stability Analysis of Cooling Towers: A Review of Current Methods,"
by J. F. Abel and D. P. Billington. "Preliminary Stability Analysis of
Concrete Cooling Towers," by K. P. Buchert. "Structural Design of Hyperbolic Cooling Towers," by A. Walser and G. Gurfinkel. "Report for
Session on Wind Effects," by H. Bandel: "Report for Session on Special
Topics; Random Vibrations of Shallow Shells," by W. A. Nash. "Report

COOLING TOWER LITERATURE

297

for Session on Construction," by S. H. Simmonds. "Report for Session


on Membrane Analysis and Inflatables; Inflatable Shells-A Review,"
by J. W. Leonard. "Report for Session on General Climatic Factors,"
by R. Lopez Palanco.
133) Einfluss der Ungleichfoermigkeit der Stroemung Auf die stoff-und
Waermeuebertragungsverhaeltnisse in Kuehltuermen
(Influence of Flow Nonuniformity on the Mass and Heat Transfer
Conditions in Cooling Towers)
Staudte, W.
Lehrstuhl fuer Technische Thermodynamik und Waermeuebertragung,
Luft Kaeltetech, V. 8, N: 6, Dec. 1972, pp. 315-318.
Based on locally nonuniform theoretical distribution of fluids in the
range of the inserts it is shown, that not only the nonuniformity of the
flow field of the cooling air, but also the nonuniformity of the water to
be cooled have to be taken into account in evaluating experimental results and in design. 11 refs. cited. (In German).
134) Tour de Refroidissement a Sec Pour Centrale Thermique
(Air-Cooled Cooling Tower for a Thermal Power Plant)
Bodas, Janos
Rev. Alum., N. 410, Sept. 1972, pp. 715-720.
A detailed description is provided of the design and operation of a
Heller-type cooling tower that uses natural air as cooling medium. This
design has been recently constructed in Soviet Armenia to serve as a
600-MW-thermal power plant. Attention is given to aluminum heat exchangers employed in the cooling columns of the tower. (In French).
135) Periodic Response of a Viscoelastic C.ooling Tower
Lanshaar, H. L.; Boresi, A. P.
Univ. of Illinois, Urbana
Nucl. Eng. Des., V. 22, N. 1, 1972, pp. 75-94.
The periodic response of a linear viscoelastic cooling tower to a prescribed recurring sequence of pressure fluctuations and earth accelerations are analyzed. An approximate analysis, based on the bending
theory of shells, is presented. The problem is reduced to a double sequence of boundary-value problems of linear ordinary differential
equations. 19 refs. cited.
136) Methods of Calculation for Natural Draft Cooling Towers
Keyes, R. E.
Westin'ghouse Habford Co., Richland, WA
AIChE Paper, N. 25, for Meet. Aug. 6-9, 1972,31 p.
The design of large natural draft cooling towers and analysis of their
performance are complicated by the effects of variations in ambient air
humidity. Often the effluent air from the tower is assumed to be at
100% relative humidity, to simplify calculations for design parameters.
This study avoids the simplification, and proposes a procedure for determining the major design parameters for a natural draft tower. The theoretical and empirical relationships applicable to heat balance, heat
transfer and transport, and tower draft and air resistance are given. 13
refs. cited.

298

COOLING TOWERS

137) Die Stufenschaltung bei der Kondensation in Luftgekuehlten


Dampfkraftwerken
(Multi-Stage Arrangement of Condensation in Air-Cooled Steam Power
Stations)
Kelp, F.
Brennst-Waerme-Kraft, V. 24, N. 9, Sept. 1972, pp. 333-339.
In air-cooled power stations it becomes possible to reduce the cooling air quantity, compared with the usual one-stage design, by applying
a multi-stage arrangement of the condensation, without incurring thermodynamic disadvantages. The savings in space obtained for the moving
of the cooling air facilitate the application of the air cooling (in this
case meaning' the dry-air cooling). This applies mainly to large unittype power stations as the multi-stage arrangement relates the conditions
for optimization to a new thermodynamic starting basis. 16 refs. cited.
(In German).
138) On the Minimum Size of Natural-Draft Dry Cooling Towers for Large
Power Plants
Moore, F. K.
Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY
ASME Paper, N. 72-WA/HT-60 for Meet. Nov. 26-30, 1972, 11 p.
A simple scaling law is derived relating size, shape, drag coefficient
and performance for natural-draft dry cooling towers. The tower is
viewed as a gas/dynamic duct. The flow is analyzed by a perturbation
theory for small temperature differences and flow Mach numbers. For a
given drag, temperature performance, and duct area ratio, height is inversely proportional to the square of flow area. Adapting standard heatexchanger design relationships, and postulating a Reynold's number
analogy connecting friction and heat transfer, drag and performance are
related to each other. For the gas/dynamic scaling law a size function is
developed which has a minimum at a particular air exit temperature, for
a given water exit temperature. Technical requirements for minimum
sizes are derived. 8 refs. cited.
139) Approaches to the Design of Hyperbolic Cooling Towers Against the
Dynamic Action of Wind and Earthquake
Isyumov, N.; Abu-Sitta, S. H.; Davenport, A. G.
Univ. of Western Ontario, London
Bull. Int. Assoc. Shell Spat. Struct., N. 48, March 1972, pp. 3-22.
Certain simplifications that allow the dynamic response to be reconciled with equivalent static loadings are examined. In earthquake loading the dominant effects are found to occur in the lowest mode for
which no cross sectional distortion takes place. In wind loading the dynamic response is spread over several modes. The maximum dynamic
tensile stresses at the windward base of the tower can be estimated
using simple gust effect factors. 20 refs. cited.
140) The Design of Underground Cooling Towers.
Whillier, A.
Chamber of Mines of South Africa, Johannesburg
J. Mine Vent. Soc. S. Afr., V. 25, N. 5, May 6, 1972, pp. 70-81; June,
pp.85-94.

COOLING TOWER LITERATURE

299

Recommendations are provided for designing vertical cooling towers


for use underground in mines. A method is given for predicting the
entering and leaving water temperatures when a given amount of heat
has to be dissipated. 4 refs. cited.
141) Design of Cross-Flow Cooling Towers and Ammonia Stripping Towers
Wnek, Walter J.; Snow, Richard H.
lIT Res. Inst., Chicago, IL
Ind. Eng. Chern. Process Des. Dev., V. 11, N. 3, July 1972, pp. 343-349.
The paper presents a design method which avoids the numerical
analysis previously required for cooling tower design. Approximate
analytical solutions are obtained for the simultaneous equations of conservation of energy and mass. Results agree with examples from the
literature obtained by a less general finite-difference method, and also
with data from a pilot ammonia stripping tower. Equipment and operating cost correlations are presented. A method to optimize ammonia
stripping tower design geometries is also presented. The design methods
are applicable to other cross-flow stripping systems (for example, odor
control). The possibility of using these towers for waste water treating
is also explored. 19 refs. cited.
142) Analysis and Design of Hyperbolic Cooling Towers
Gurfinkel, German; Walser, Adolf
Univ. of Illinois, Urbana
ASCE J. Power Div., V. 98, N. POI, June 1972, Pap:~8997, pp. 133-152.
The analysis and design of a hyperbolic cooling'tower for a nuclear
power plant are reviewed. Analysis is performed using computer programs. Various loading conditions on the tower such as wind, earthquake, thermal, and self-weight, are considered and their effects are
combined and compared. A number of wind-load distributions, used in
Britain, Belgium, and the U.S., are taken for the analysis. Corresponding results are compared. 18 refs. cited.
143) Nonlinear Dynamic Analysis of Cooling Tower
Yeh, Chang-hua
Hana Engrs. Co., Chicago, IL
ASCE J. Power Div., V. 98, N. POI, June 1972, Pap. 8983, pp. 49-63.
A finite element method is employed to study t1~e nonlinear dynamic
effect of a strong wind gust on a cooling tower. Geometric nonlinearities associated with finite deformations of the structure are considered
but the material is assumed to remain elastic. Load is applied in small
increments and the equation of motion is solved by a step-by-step integration technique. It has been found that the cooling tower will collapse under a wind gust of maximum pressure 1.2 psi. 13 refs. cited.
144) Wet-Type Hyperbolic Cooling Towers
Rogers, Paul
Partner, Alfred A. Yee & Paul Rogers Inc., Los Angeles, CA
Civ. Eng., (NY), V. 42, N. 5, May 1972, pp. 70-72.
The author describes key considerations in design. The hyperbolic
shape is shown to be an advantageous structural solution.

300

COOLING TOWERS

145) power Plant Cycles for Dry Cooling Towers


Leung, P.;Moore, R. E.
Bechtel Corp., Los Angeles, CA
ASCE J. Power Div., V. 97, N. P04, Dec. 1971, Pap. 8565, pp. 729-47.
Design considerations affecting turbine thermal cycles for steamelectric generating plants employing dry cooling towers are presented.
Effects on major plant components, such as turbine exhaust end sizes,
cycle parameters, and steam conditions, and the extent of feedwater
heating within the regenerative cycle. Plant siting constraint considerations and general economic appraisals of fossil-fueled 11lld nuclearfueled cycles are summarized. 11 refs. cited.
146) Up Cooling Tower Capacity Without Adding New Cells
Phelps, P. M.
Phelps Engineering Co., Kentfield, CA
Heat, Piping Air Cond., V. 43, N. 3, March 1971, pp. 82-4.
By combining narrow sections of thin wall, high performance packing in both crossflow and counterflow configurations tower performance can be upgraded. The design is also applicable to new cooling tower
construction. On an economic basis it would be expected to have more
potential in rebuilding and upgrading existing towers. Crossflow cooling
sections are installed along the sides of the tower. A space is left below
the crossflow packing, of sufficient height to pennit passage of a predetennined amount of ambient air to the inner portion of the tower,
which is filled
with counterflow packing.
;
~,

147) Cooling Towers with Turbine Drive of the Blower


Berliner, P.
HeizungLueftung-Haustech, V. 21, N. 6, June 1970, pp. 196-201.
The paper covers the design of cooling towers which have two fluid
flow engines. One is a turbine and the other an axial fan that operates
with one mutual shaft. The turbine takes advantage of the pressure
gradient, which will be utilized with the application of spray nozzles for
a regular spraying of the cooling water. Method of designing such cooling towers and the selection of reasonable operation areas is defined.
(In Gennan).
148) Rugeley Dry Cooling Tower System
Christopher, P. J.; Forster, V. T.
English Electric Co., Ltd., Willans Works, Rugby, England
[nst. Mech. Eng. Proc. (Part 1) Gen. Proc., V. 184, N. 11, 1969-0,
pp. 197-221.
Studies showed that a new cooling system provided the most economic and practical solution for large steam turbines. The design uses
the atmosphere as a heat sink for the turbine exhaust heat by a combination of a jet condenser, closed water circuit, heat exchangers cooled
by air, and cooling tower. Although there is a water circuit to be filled
initially, no further water is needed. This dry cooling tower system was
first applied to a 120 MW turbine at the Rugeley Power Station. It was

COOLING TOWER LITERATURE

301

designed to dissipate nearly 600 million Btu of heat/hr, to produce a


turbine exhaust vacuum of 28.7 in. of mercury when the turbine was in
full load conditions to operate under all conditions of weather and turbine load, and to meet the normal requirements of availability and
durability. The plant at Rugeley saves between 1.5 and 1.8 million gal.
of water a day when compared with an equivalent 'wet' tower where
makeup water is approximately 2% of circulating flow rate. The cooling
tower system and its performance in service are described in some
detail.
149) Free Vibration of Hyperbolic Cooling Towers
Hashish, M. G.; Abu-Sitta, S. H.
Univ. of Western Ontario, London
ASCE J. Eng. Mech. Div., V. 97, N. EM2, April 1971, Pap. 8037,
pp. 253-69.
The paper presents a modified finite difference technique for determining the natural frequencies and mode shapes of hyperbolic cooling
tower shells. The influences of the meridional curvature and the boundary conditions on the vibration characteristics of the tower are investigated. In all cases, changes in frequency are found to be essentially due
to changes in membrane energy. The paper shows that, for a fixed- free
shell, the increased meridional curvature leads to an increase in the
natural frequency. The lack of axial restraint results in a large reduction
in the membrane energy. 12 refs. cited.
,.. \"

150) Reduction of Blowdown from Power Plant Cooling Tower Systems


Christiansen, P. B.
Southern California Edison Co., Los Angeles, CA
AIChE Workshop, Ind. Process Des Water Pollut. Contr., V. 2, Houston,
TX, April 24-25,1969, pp. 85-8.
.
Given are two examples which show different methods that are
used to reduce the quantities of waste water from cooling tower operation. In one case, the treatment technique of an existing facility was
modified to reduce waste water production. In the order case, a new
plant design included facilities for the minimization of the requirements
for waste water disposal.
151) Design of Cooling Towers Circulating Brackish Waters
Deflon, J. G.
Marley Co., San Gabriel, CA
AIChE Workshop, Ind. Process Des Water Pollut. Contr., V. 2, Houston,
TX, April 24-25, 1969, pp. 69-73.
Maintenance and costs of cooling towers circulating brackish water
is naturally of considerable concern. Inadequate consideration of materials of construction and disregard of the simple rudiments of water
control can be expensive. If the above suggestions for designing and
operating such a unit are taken into consideration, maintenance should
be little more than that of a standard tower employing fresh water
makeup.

'"'

302

COOLING TOWERS

152) Cooling Tower Fog: Control and Abatement


Veldhuizen, H.; Ledbetter, J.
International Nickel Co. of Canada, Ltd., Sudbury, Onto
J. Air Pollut. Contr. Ass., V. 21, N. 1, Jan. 1971, pp. 21-4.
Fogs from cooling towers are causing an increasing number of visibility problems as well as icing of roads, sidewalks, and powerlines,
during freezing weather. The paper summarizes a study aimed at ascertaining the best method of fog control at a refinery in Houston, Texas.
The induced draft, counterflow cooling towers of concern have design
capacities of 750 X 10 6 Btu/hr and 225 X 10 6 Btu/hr under local
climatic conditions. Several methods of alleviating restricted visibility
were considered and cost estimates were made for the most promising
methods. 21 refs. cited.
153) System Costs Say Optimize Cooling
Nicoli, L. G.; Jaske, R. T.; Witt, P. A.
Battelle-Northwest, Richland, WA
Hydrocarbon Process, V. 49, N. 10, Oct. Sec. 1 1970, pp. 97-100.
The increasing cost of heat rejection is aggravated by tougher competition for air and water use and more rigid controls. Imaginative design
is needed to curb such costs: New technology and the computer can optimize plant systems. This paper reviews present day cooling tower technology.
154) Cooling Towers Supported on Columns
Univ. of Western Ontario, London
ASCE J. Struct. Div., V. 96, N. STl2, Dec. 1970, Pap. 7753, pp. 257588.
The paper discusses stresses due to the individual effects of forces,
moments and deformations at the base of hyperboloidal cooling towers.
With the assumption that the column- spacing is sufficiently small to
permit taking an average stiffness per unit length, forces and moments
in a loaded cooling tower, supported on columns, are calculated for different column stiffnesses and different load distributions in the circumferential direction. The paper indicates that all base displacements have
finite values, membrane (not bending) stiffness of the column is important, and column effect is noticeable when bending moments are significant. 7 refs. cited.
155) Analysis of Hyperboloids of Revolution
Krishna, Reddy, G. V.
PSG ColI. of Technol., Coimbatore, India
Indian Caner. J., V. 44, N. 3, March 1970, pp. 123-5.
The equilibrium equations of a hyperboloid of revolution used for
cooling towers derived by using membrane theory under an arbitrary
static normal load are reduced to a single partial differential equation
with constant coefficients. The problem of finding displacements is reduced to a similar type of equation so that the solution for this problem becomes straightforward. 11 refs. cited.

COOLING TOWER LITERATURE

303

156) Cooling Tower Application


Kohloss, F. H.
ASHRAE J., V. 12, N. 8, Aug. 1970, pp. 49-52.
The article features a two-stage evaporative cooling system with
cooling tower and dry basin for freezing weather tower operation. Design conditions and visual problems are discussed together with cooling
tower enclosure, structural and vibration considerations.
157) Design of Reinforced Concrete Chimneys
Diver, M.
J. Amer. Concrete [nst., V. 67, N. 10, Oct. 1970, pp. 788-801.
The paper presents a method for the rational design of reinforced
concrete chimneys or cement silos, towers for warm liquids and cooling
towers subject to the effects of thermal gradients. The loads acting on
the structure are divided into general loads and local loads. The effects
of these loads on the concrete, the vertical reinforcement, and the horizontal (annular) reinforcement are studied with the aid of tables to obtain the significant stresses. A numerical example is given. 8 refs. cited.
158) "Proceedings of the Conference on Tower Shaped Structures" Held
Under the Auspices of the Int. Organization of Shell Structures (lASS),
April 24-26,1696, The Hague, Neth.
Organ. for Appl. Sci. Res. in the Netherlands, Inst. TNO for Bldg.
Mater. and Bldg. Structures, Delft, Neth., 1969 (rec'd, 3/23/70),
392 p.
"
Twenty-five papers were presented at a conference of the International Working Group of Tower Shaped Structures. They dealt with
recent developments on wind and ice loadings of structures like TVtowers, chimneys, guyed stacks, tall buildings, and cooling towers. The
main themes of the meeting with stochastical concepts of wind loading,
load in wind direction, load perpendicular to the wind direction, ice
loading, and wind load on cooling towers.
159) Wind Loading of Cooling Towers
Kraetzig, W. B.; Peters, H. L.
Proc. of Conf. on Tower Shaped Structures, by lASS, April 24-26,
1969, Hague, Neth. Int. Ass. for Shell Struct., 1969, pp. 243-53.
Observations showed that the wind direction is not perpendicular to
the cooling tower axis when a cooling tower is standing on a slope. To
analyze pressure distributions on the inside and the outside face of the
shell, tests were carried out at the Institut fuer Massivbau of the Technical University of Hannover to conduct the measurements of the inside
and outside pressure distributions of an idealized cooling tower model
in a wind tunnel and of perpendicular and nonperpendicular air stream
to the model axis.
160) Stability of Hyperboloidal Cooling Tower
Lanshaar, H. L.; Boresi, A. P.; Miller, R. E.; Bruegging, J. J.
Univ. of Illinois, Urbana

304

COOLING TOWERS
ASCE J. Eng. Mech. Div., V. 96, N. EM5, Oct. 1970, Pap. 7635,
pp.753-79.
An infinitesimal theory of instability of an elastic orthographic shell
of revolu tion subjected to uniform external normal pressure is developed
in this paper. The theory leads to a linear eigenvalue problem for determining buckling pressure. Numerical calculations based on piecewisepolynomial approximations and the partition method are given for a
tower erected in West Virginia. The tower is a reinforced concrete hyperboloidal shell of revolution, 370 ft. high and 5.5 in. thick for most
of its height. 11 refs. cited.

161) Earthquake Design of Cooling Towers


Abu-Sitta, S. H.; Davenport, A. G.
Univ. of Western Ontario, London
ASCE J. Struct. Div., V. 96, N. ST9, Sept. 1970, Pap. 7524, pp. 18891902.
A dynamic statistical approach is used to predict dynamic stresses in
a hyperboloidal cooling tower due to earthquakes. It is shown that the
configuration associated with one circumferential wave is the only one
which is excitable by earthquake force and that the first mode of such
configuration is dominant. ~n equivalent static load is calculated on
this basis. Numerical data presented give coefficients for equivalent
static loads, natural frequencies of cooling towers, and static stresses for
a seismic load. 21 refs. cited.
162) Model of Natural Draft Cooling Tower Performance
Winiarski, L. D.; Tichenor, B. A.
Pacific Northwest Water Lab., Corvallis, OR
ASCE J. Sanit. Eng. Div., V. 96, N. SA4, Aug. 1970, Pap. 7461,
pp.927-43.
Methods of approximating the heat transfer and friction coefficients
of a tower are examined. For parallel plate, film packing coefficients
are calculated to ,correspond to the geometry of the packing. A counterflow computer program computes these coefficients from published
data for a variety of packing. Sample calculations are made, and the sensitivity of tower performance to small changes in various input or design variables is illustrated. A method is developed for analyzing the
performance of counterflow and crossflow towers that does not assume
saturated air at the top of the packing. 7 refs. cited.
163) Hyperbolic Cooling Towers, Development and Practice
Rogers, P.; Cohen, E. W.
ASCE 1. Power Div., V. 96, N. POI, Jan. 1970, Pap. 7030, pp. 117-28.
Hyperbolic reinforced concrete cooling towers are analyzed for
changing positive and negative wind pressures. The solution lies in the
membrane theory preferably including the moments caused by deformations. To protect against ovalling, a strong top ring is recommended.
The transition between the thin shell and the diagonal columns has to
be designed as a deep beam. Unyielding foundations are needed to prevent prohibitive flexural moments from affecting the membrane forces.
Continuous heavy ring footings are recommended either directly on
soil or on pilings or caissons. 10 refs. cited.

COOLING TOWER LITERATURE

305

164) Cost Analysis of Large Evaporative Type Cooling Towers


Chatfield, D. L.; Street on, D. F.
Suiselectra, Basel', Switzerland
Kerntechnik, V. 11, N. 11, Nov. 1969, pp. 649-52.
A method is given for predicting the costs of large evaporative type
natural and mechanical draft cooling towers as functions of the main
design parameters. The costs and parameter factors are expressed analytically for use in power plant optimization programs. 3 refs. cited.
165) Climate Determines the Choice of Cooling Systems
Oarke, D. G.
Shawinigan Eng. Consult. Ltd.
Oilweek, (Calgary, Alberta), V. 30, N. 36, Oct. 15, 1979, pp. 50-51.
Climate plays a major role in the selection of a cooling system. A
large majority of wet cooling towers are of the mechanical draft type,
although large industrial users are increasingly considering the natural
draft type, which is approximately 40% more expensive but uses no fans
and requires less energy than the former. The advantages of the cross
flow over the more thermally efficient counter flow mechanical draft
type tower are less resistance to air flow, ability to operate at higher
air velocities, and lower fan power requirements. The main requirements for cold weather operation are heavier louver construction to resist ice buildup, ice retention bars, solid fan blades, and louver deicing
as often as necessary. Ceramic towers show promise for cold climates;
their high capital cost should be offset by lack of cheJ,Ilical treatment
for parts, less maintenance, low drift loss, less fire risk, ,quiet operation,
and freezeproof quality.
166) The Effect of Heat Transfer Surface Temperature on the Scaling
Behavior of Simulated Cooling Tower Water
Knudsen, J. G.; Story, M.
Oreg. State Univ.
15th AIChE Nat'l. Heat Transfer Cone (San Francisco, Aug. 1975)
AIChE Symp. Ser. V. 74, N. 174, 1978, pp. 25-30.
The effect of heat transfer surface temperature on the scaling behavior of simulated cooling tower water was determined in a portable
fouling test unit which was integrated into a spray cooling tower
mounted over a 150 gal water storage tank. Tap water evaporated to
two different solids concentrations and tap water to which calcium
chloride and magnesium carbonate were added to 1600 ppm total solids
content were used. A plot of the asymptotic fouling resistance versus
the reciprocal of the absolute surface temperature was obtained for
runs where water quality was nearly constant. FOUling resistance was
found to remain reasonably constant over the final 100 hr of a run. An
equation representing a least squares fit of the data was derived. It indicated a heat of activation of 11,000 Btu/lb mole.
167) Improving Cooling Tower Fan System Efficiencies
Monroe, R. C.
Hudson Prod. Corp.
7th Turbomachinery Symp., (Houston Dec. 7, 1978), Combustion,
V. 50, N. 11, May 1979, pp. 20-26.

306

COOLING TOWERS
A discussion of fan systems used in dry and wet cooling towers
covers their general design, system efficiency, system losses due to design of the fan and its housing and to unwanted air movements, and a
series of full-scale fan tests which demonstrated the contributions of
various components to fan system efficiency.

168) Double Circuit Means Savings for Cooling Towers


Bollain, J. A.; Yaninter, S. A.
Yaninter S. A.
Process Eng., (London), June 1978, pp. 100-1, 103.
A new technique for operating closed-circuit cooling systems to
avoid the use of contaminated water is presented. The conventional
tower packing is retained as a first stage, and the cooled recirculating
water then flows around a tubular bundle located in the tank reservoir.
In this double-circuit cooling tower, the transfer of heat to air is carried
out by the tower plastic core, which permits the use of large heatexchange surfaces at low cost. The double-circuit tower is compact and
economical. It has the lowest energy consumption of the closed-circuit
cooling processes. Procedures for calculating the appropriate values for
the design variables are explained, and a numerical example is given.
169) Dry Cooling Towers That Match the Efficiency of Wet Ones
Maschinenfabrik-Augsburg Nuernberg A.
Chern. Eng., (New York), V. 85, N. 10, April 24, 1978, pp. 35-36.
Dry coolillg towers that match the efficiency of wet ones have been
developed by Maschinenfabrik Augsburg-Nuernberg A. G. (M.A.N.),
which is building a pilot plant to test its LRT design on one of its own
power plants. M.A.N. expects the new technology to reach commercial
stage in three to five years. They plan to license the know-how, but will
not build LRT units. The design concept reverses the conventional configuration in dry coolings. Under the new scheme, air flows through
heat-exchanger tubes while steam from the turbine (direct cooling) or
cooling water (indirect cooling) flows through 1-3 mm spaces between
the tubes, thus enabling efficiency to reach that of a wet-cooled plant.
Normally, dry coolers cause a 3% decrease in power-generation capability. The design may also be used to reduce the height of conventional
dry-cooled towers by up to 67%, at the expense of some efficiency.
170) The Effect of Condensation Upon Transfer Rates with Application to
Flue-Gas Washing Plants and Cooling Towers
Bettelheim, J.;Foster,P. M.;Kyte, W. S.
Cent. Electr. Res. Lab.
Trans. [nst. Chern. Eng., V. 58, N. 1, Jan. 1980, pp. 3-8.
The effect of condensation upon transfer rates with application to
flue-gas washing plants and cooling towers are discussed. Theoretical
models were developed for determining the rate of heat and mass transfer under conditions where fog formation prevails. Derived relationships
are functions of the vapor and liquid equilibria and local heat and mass
transfer of driving forces. They were used for a numerical study of the
amount of fog formation as a function of the operational variables of a
flue-gas washing plant in which the inlet gas temperature is typically

COOLING TOWER LITERATURE

307

150C with a water content of 0.075 kg/kg. Although heat and mass
transfer rates were relatively insensitive to the choice of the model, the
amount of fog formation was not. The models neglect the effects of
condensation within the boundary layer, thus underestimating fog formation by a factor of up to three. The amount of fog formed in flue-gas
washing plants increased up to a maximum value with decreasing feedwater temperature over a narrow band of liquid-to-gas ratios.
171) A Computer Model of Cooling Tower Water Systems
Noblett, J. G.; Wilde, K. A.; Micheletti, W. C.
Electric Power Research Institute
Radian Corp.
72nd AIChE Annu. Meet., (San Francisco), Nov. 25-29, 1979, Prepr.
N. 47E, 17 p.
A computer model of cooling towers was developed under a research
project sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute. The twopart computer model consists of an equilibrium model, which is a general, multicomponent aqueous ionic equilibrium program, for describing the major inorganic chemical reactions within cooling tower
systems, and a process model to perform the engineering calculations
needed to describe the unit operations within the cooling tower system.
The use of the computer program is illustrated for a system with sidestream softening to control dissolved calcium levels and acid addition to
control calcium carbonate scale potential and with blowdown removed
before the condenser.
,,',
172) Chromate versus Non-Chrome Treatment of Refinery Cooling Tower
Effluents
Tanis, J. N.; Keys, c.; Drew Chemical Corp.; Placid Refining Co.
Drew Chem. Corp.
Nat7. Pet. Refiners Assoc. Annu. Meet., (San Antonio, TX), Pap.
N. AM-79-40, Mar. 25-27,1979,19 p.
Zinc chromate treatment of cooling water circulating at 2700 gpm at
Placid Refining Co.'s 36,000 bbl/day refinery was replaced by treatment with 150 ppm of Drew Chemi,cal Corp.'s organic corrosion inhibitor because of current expansion projects involving a 20,000 bbl/day
vacuum unit, a 40,000 gpm cooling water demand, and a maximum allowable chromate discharge of 1.6 Ib/day. Calcium hypochlorite was
replaced by gaseous chlorination for microbiological control. Corrosion
rates for mild steel under the treatment have been 2-4 mils/yr. An attempt, to treat the cooling water with an inorganic polyphosphate produced considerable fouling due to the local makeup water qUality. A
comparison of traditional zinc-chromate technology combined with various chromium removal systems showed that the program was more
economical.
173) A New (Colorimetric) Method for the Determination of Phosphonates
in Boiler and Cooling Tower Waters
Sloat, S. S.; Buck, M.
Hach Chem. Co.
Combustion, V. 51, N. 2, Aug. 1979, pp. 10-13.

308

COOLING TOWERS
A new method for determining phosphonates in boiler and cooling
tower waters was presented at the 39th International Water Conference
(1978) involving chelation of the phosphonate with iron, removal of
excess iron and other metal ions, and addition of a strong reducing
agent and 1, lO-phenanthrolin indicator. Concentration ranges available
are 0-15 mg/l for aminotri (methylene phosphonic acid) with 1% error
for field determinations and 0-3 mg/l with 2% error for laboratory determinations; 0-7 mg/l for hydroxy ethylene diphosphonic acid with 2%
error; 0-16 mg/l ethylenediamine tetra (methylene phosphonic acid)
with 3% error; and 0-15 mg/l of diethylenetriamine penta (methylene
phosphonic acid) with 2% error. The method requires no boiling and
works in the' presence of chomate, zinc, triazole, and most other substances found in boiler and cooling water. Substances which chelate
iron will, however, interfere.

174) Protecting Cooling Towers from Overpressure


Veazy, 1. A.
Monsanto Agricultural Products Co.
Chern. Eng. Prog., V. 75, N. 7, July 1979, pp. 73-77. (In English).
The installation of a vent on the top of a riser prevented damage to
the cooling tower in Monsal1to Agricultural Products Co.'s Luling, LA,
ammonia plant when an exchanger tube failed and high-pressure synthesis gas entered the return water header. The vent had been installed to
provide further protection after a rupture disk on the exchanger had
failed to blow during a previous accident. The earlier accident, on
October 31, 1977, at this 1040 ton/day plant occurred when the incursion of high-pressure gas caused a water hammer that ruptured the
distribution header in the tower. The planned safety systems did not
prevent the large pressure surge or restrain the 3 m section of 61 cm dia
header, which would have fallen except for the fortuitous presence of a
vertical run of electrical conduit anchored to the west end of the tower.
175) A (Column) Internal for the Mist-Free Operation of Wet (Cross Flow)
Cooling Towers
Haellgren, K.; Schultz, M.; Harting, P. E.
Brennst.-Waerme-Kraft, V. 30, N. 2, Feb. 1978, pp. 71-73.
A (column) internal for the mist-free operation of a wet cross flow
cooling tower is described in this paper. The design is based on a Munter
cross structure design and whose entire heat-exchange area can be used
for straight wet operation at higher outdoor temperatures and which
can be converted to combined wet-dry operation (both dry and evaporative cooling) to prevent the occurrence of a vapor plume at low outside temperatures. (In German).
176) The Reuse of Biologically Treated Wastewater as Cooling Tower
Makeup
Wykowski, J. C.; Delaunay, J.; Franco, R. J.
Exxon Research & Engineering Co.
Esso S.A.F.
Esso Eng. (Eur.) Ltd.
Nat'l. Assoc. Carras. Eng., 'Corros./78' Meet., (Houston, TX), Pap.
N.80,March6-1O, 1978, 13 p.

COOLING TOWER LITERATURE

309

The reuse of biologically treated wastewater as cooling tower makeup was investigated by Esso S.A.F. and Exxon Research / Engineering
Co. in a pilot plant at the Fog, Fr., refinery by measuring corrosion
rates, heat transfer, and biological growth. Heat exchanger tube deposits
at the end of each test were analyzed. Test facilities included a cooling
tower/heat exchanger circuit fed with ammonia-containing wastewater
pretreated via bacterial degradation of soluble organics. Only a zincchromate-phosphate corrosion inhibitor gave good general corrosion
protection of carbon steel when added to the cooling water. Satisfactory biological control, giving a bacteria count of 50,000/ml or less, was
achieved by shock chlorination with 30-50 mg/l of hypochlorite every
other day with a chromate inhibitor. In another test, isothiazoline was
effective in keeping bacteria counts under 50,000/ml for 24 hrs after its
addition. With the zinc chromate phosphate inhibitor and good biological control, heat transfer rates were high and fairly constant. The major
constituent of the deposits was iron. The seven-tube heat exchanger
provided a good correlation between on-line data and heat exchanger
tube analyses. Removal of 60-70% of the suspended solids and the more
successful treatments met the makeup water criteria of less than 40 mg/l
COD, 15 mg/l BOD, and under 40 mg/l of ammonia. Suspended solids
in the biologically treated wastewater should be reduced to less than
10 mg/l.
177) Performance Predicted for Cooling Tower
Calgon Corp.
Oil Gas J., V. 77, N. 7,139, Feb. 12, 1979.
The paper provides an overall cooling system model called Dnimod.
The model is applied to present and future cooling system requirements,
and eliminates plant trials of treatment chemicals. At a midwest refinery
petrochemical plant, oil leaks, tne use of four alternating water
sources, and entrained solids were causing heat transfer losses and unscheduled shutdowns. In less than an hour, the model identified the
best of the available water sources and blends, and recommended a
treatment program for use before each water change. This enabled the
refinery to increase heat transfer by 20%, eliminate unscheduled shutdowns, and with treatment, use the plant wastewater safely for all cooling water makeup.
178) A Study of a Fluidized Turbulent Bed Contactor with Application to
Cooling Towers
Purdue Dniv., Diss. (1977), 279 p. (In English). (Abstr.)
Diss. Abstr. Int., V. 38, N. 10, Apr. 1978, pp. 4911B-4912B.
A study of a fluidized turbulent bed contact or with application to
cooling towers was conducted to maximize cooling performance. Eleven
fill materials were tested for fluidization, and seven were evaluated in
cooling tests. Tower characteristic and power ratio were used as performance indexes. Small, large-density polypropylene spheres save large
tower characteristic values, however, very low-density polystyrene foam
was best with regard to input power cost. A moderate-density polypropylene sphere was the optimum fill. Column pressure drop was an important factor since conventional cooling towers operate at nearly negligible pressure drop. Liquid and gas flow rates, static film depth, and fill

310

COOLING TOWERS
bulk density were major determinants of pressure drop. Very low-density
fill suffered from hydrodynamic and fluidization anomalies, and highdensity fill save excessive pressure drop. Spherical particles fluidized
best, giving uniform operation. Staging the fill-in layers gave slight hydrodynamic advantages but no improvement in cooling performance.

179) An Innovative Approach to Controlling Salt-Water Cooling Tower


System Problems
Lendvai-Lintner, E.; Franco, R. J.; Beecher, J. S.
Exxon Res. & Eng. Co.
Drew Chern. Corp.
Natl. Assoc. Carras Eng. 'Corros/78' Meet., (Houston Mar. 6-10, 1978),
Pap. N. 85, 16 p.
To overcome severe corrosion and fouling problems faced after conversion of the once-through cooling water system at the Exxon Chemical Co.'s Bayway, NJ, plant to a cooling tower recirculating system, exhaustive studies were made by Drew Chemical Corp. to determine an
optimum chemical treatment program. Field implementation of the
program reduced carbon steel corrosion significantly, with 40-60% of
the heat exchangers presently chemically cleaned on a semiannual
. basis. A complex combination of chemicals was developed, including
polyphosphate, phosphonate and zinc chloride (anticorrosion), iron
chelating and dispersins age~ts (rems>val of iron oxide foulant), anionic
polymer dispersants and nonionic polymer surfactants (preventing
microbiological and sediment fouling), sodium hypochlorite (a general
biocide), and a proprietary organosulfur-based biocide (destroying SUlfate-reducing bacteria). To reduce mechanical problems due to automatic chemicals injection some improvements are now being implemented which could raise equipment service factors ~reat1y.
180) Dynamics of a Vaporizing a (10-50 (mu) Water) Droplet in Laminar
Entry Region of a Straight Channel (with Isothermal Walls, as in a Dry
Cooling Tower)
Bhatti, M_ S.
Owens-Corning Fiberglas Corp.
ASME-AIChE Heat Transfer Cant, (Aug. 15-17, 1977) (Abstr.)
Mech. Eng. N. 77-HT-40, V. 99, N. 10, Oct. 1977, pp. 100-7.
181) Effect of Alkalinity on the Scaling of Simulated Cooling Tower Water
Morse, R. W.; Knudsen, J. G.
Oreg. State Univ.
Can. J. Chem. Eng., V. 55, N. 3, June 1977, pp. 272-78.
182) Corrosion in Cooling Towers
Carter Industrial Products Ltd.
Carras. Prevo Control, V. 24, N. 4, Aug. 1977, p. 30.
183) (An Analysis of the) Energy Balance and Transfer in Wet Cooling
Towers
Klenke, W.
Brennst-Waerme-Kraft, V. 29, N. 5, May 1977, pp. 198-206. (In
German).

COOLING TOWER LITERATURE

311

184) (Petrosar Ltd. Will Use Reinforced Plastic Mortar (RPM) Pipe in a
Cooling Tower)
Petrosar Ltd.
Can. Pet., V. 18, N. 3, May 1977, p. 11.
185) (An Experimental Study of the) Effect of Wind-Tunnel Walls on the
Flow Past Circular Cylinders and Cooling Tower Models
Guven, 0.; Farell, C.; Carrasque1, S.; Patel, V. C.
Lab Nac Hidraulica Caracas
Univ. Iowa
ASME Winter Annu. Meet., (New York, Dec. 5-10, 1976), Pap. N. 76WA/FE-20,Mech. Eng., V. 99, N. 2, Feb. 1977, pp. 130-38.
186) Steeling Cooling Towers Give Wood the Cold Shoulder
Wigley, S.
Process Eng., (London), Feb. 1977, pp. 45-46.
187) Cooling Tower Service
Carter Industrial Products Ltd.; Millington P.
Carter Ind. Prod. Ltd.
Processing, (London), V. 23, N. 1, Jan. 1977, p. 21.
188) Offsite Facilities/How to Prevent Cooling Tower Fog
Campbell, J. C.
Lilie Hoffman Cooling Towers Inc.
Cooling Tower Inst. Meet., (Houston, Jan. 19-21,1976), Hydrocarbon
Process, V. 55, N. 12, Dec. 1976, pp. 97-100.
189) Offsite Facilities/Cooling Tower Estimates Made Easy
Uchiyama, T.
.
Toyo Eng. Corp.
Hydrocarbon Process, V. 55, N. 12, Dec. 1976, pp. 93-96.
190) (Computer Models for an Economic) Analysis of Different Types of
Dry-Wet Cooling Towers
Cheng, M. S.
Univ. Iowa fliss., (1976), 189 p. (Abstr.), Diss. Abstr. Int. B, V. 37,
N.4,Nov. 1976,p. 2433B.
191) Sodium Molybdate as a Corrosion Inhibitor in Cooling Tower Water
Robitaille, D. R.
Climax MolybdenUm Co., MI
Natl. Assoc. Corros. Eng. 'Corros/76' Meet. (Houston, Mar. 22-26,
1976)
Mater Performance, V. IS, N. 11, Nov. 1976, pp. 40-44. (In English).
192) Cooling Tower Air Humidification for Makeup and Blowdown
Reduction
Phelps, P. M.
Phelps Eng. Co.
3rd AIChE-EPA Natl., 'Complete Water Reuse' Conf. (Cinci.
June 27-30,1976), Proc., 1976, pp. 391-94.

312

COOLING TOWERS

193) Water Cooling Tower Technology ... The Air/Water/Heat Rejection


Machine
Burger, R.
Robert BUrger Assoc. Inc.
3rd AIChE-EPA Natl., 'Complete Water Reuse' Conf., (Cinci., June 2730,1976), Proc., 1976, pp. 380-90.
194) RO (Reverse Osmosis) Treatment of Powerplant Cooling Tower
Blowdown for Reuse
Fang, H. H. P.; Chian, E. S. K.
Univ. Ill, Urbana
AIChE Natl. 'Meet., (1974), AIChE Symp. Ser. V. 71, N. lSI, 1975,
pp.82-86.
195) Calculation and Measurement of Heat and Mass Transfer in Cooling
Towers
Kast, W., Quast, U.
Tech Hochsch Darmstadt
VDI~ VC Heat & Mass Transfer Comm. Meet., (Schliersee Apr. 5-6,
1976) (Ger Abstr), Chem-Ing-Tech, V. 48, N. 9, Sept. 1976, pp. 821-25.
196) Energy Optimization of Cooling Tower Blowdown Recovery
Ahlgren, R. M.
Aqua Chern. Inc.
2nd AIChE-EPA Natl. 'Complete Water Reuse' Conf., (Chic. May 4-8,
1975), Proe., 1975, pp. 515-19.
197) Cooling Tower Operations with Air/Water Interface and Energy
Considera tions
Burger, R.
Robert Burger Assoc. Inc.
2nd AIChE-EPA Natl. 'Complete Water Reuse' Conf., (Chic. May 4-8,
1975), Proc., 1975, pp. 520-27.
198) Reuse of Wastewater Effluent as Cooling Tower Makeup Water
Exxon Chemical Co.; Fleischman, M.
Univ. Louisville
2nd AIChE-EPA Natl. 'Complete Water Reuse' Conf., (Chic. May 4-8,
1975), Proc., 1975, pp. 501-14.
199) A Spray System for Cooling Towers
Von Allmen, F.
American Air Filter Co.
Power, V. 120, N. 6, June 1976, pp. 38-39.
200) Counter-Flow Evaporative Cooling Tower Performance Modeling and
Verifica tion
Savery, C. W.
Drexel Univ.
ASME Winter Annu. Meet., (Houston Nov. 30-Dec. 4, 1975) (Abstr.)
Mech. Eng., V. 98, N. 5, May 1976, pp. 98-107. Pap. N. 75-WA/HT-43.

COOLING TOWER LITERATURE

313

201) Analysis of Large Dry Cooling Towers with Spine-Fin Heat Exchange
Elements
Moore, F. K.
Cornell Univ.
ASME Winter Annu. Meet., (Houston Nov. 30-Dec. 4, 1975), Mech.
Eng., V. 98, N. 5, May 1976, pp. 94-107, Pap. N. 75-WAjHT-46.
202) (Application of Corrugated Plate Packing to Improve Heat Transfer in
Evaporative Cooling Towers)
Zemanek, J.
Natl. Res. Inst. Eng., Prague
5th Czech. Comm. Ind. Chem.-Czech Chern. Soc.-Eur Fed Chern.
Eng. IT (Chisa) Congr. (Prague Aug. 25-29, 1975) Chern Tech (Leipz),
V. 28, N. 3, March 1976, pp. 180-86. (In German).
203) Sodium Molybdate as a Corrosion Inhibitor in Cooling Tower Water
Robitaille, D. R.
Climax Molybdenum Co., MI
Natl. Assoc. Carras. Eng. 'Corrosf76' Meet., (Houston Mar. 22-26,
1976), Pap. N. 93, 8 p.
204) Comparison of Different Combinations of Wet and Dry Cooling Towers
Cleve, H. H. von
Gea Ges Luftkondensation
ASME Winter Annu. Meet., (Houston Nov. 30-Dec. 4', 1975), Mech.
Eng., V. 98, N. 2, Feb. 1976, pp. 76-87, Pap. N. 75-WAjPWR-IO.
205) Calcium Sulfate Solubility in Dynamic Cooling Tower Systems ...
Zero Blowdown
Klen, E. F.; Johnson, D. A.
Nalco Chern. Co.
Natl. Assoc. Carras Eng. 'Corrosf76' Meet., (Houston Mar. 22-26,
1976), Pap. N. 88, 14 p.
206) Energy Conservation in Caprolactam Recovery (by Using the
Evaporative Capacity of Cooling Towers)
Kiopekly, G.
Am. Enka Co.
171st ACS Natl. (Centennial) Meet., (New York Apr. 4-9, 1976)
Abstr. Paper Abstr. N. CELL-24.
207) Cooling Tower Blowdown and Makeup
Caplan, F.
Pollution Engineering, V. 8, N. 2, Feb. 1976, p. 36.
208) Automation Improves (Cooling Tower and Heat) Exchanger Cooling
Fans
Pyle, D. S.
Oil Gas J., V. 74, N. 3, Jan. 19, 1976, pp. 56-57.

314

COOLING TOWERS

209) (The Nation's First Natural-Draft Cooling Tower Using Sea Water for
Condenser Cooling)
Atlantic City Electric Co. ; Research-Cottrell Inc.
Environ. Sci. Technol., V. 9, N. 12, Nov. 1975, p. 1009.
210) Performance Curves for Mechanical Draft Cooling Towers
Hallett, G. F.
Ceramic Cooling Tower Co.
ASME Winter Annu. Meet., (New York Nov. 17-22, 1974), Pap. N. 74WA/PTC-3, J. Eng. Power, V. 97, N. 4, Oct. 1975, pp. 503~9.
211) Accuracy of an Analogy Between Heat and Mass Transfer and the Lewis
Correlation for Conditioners and Cooling Towers
Berman, L. D.
Vses Teplotekh Inst. Moscow, USSR
Kholod Tekh 1974, N. 2, pp. 34-7; Chern. Abstr. V. 81-15095. (In
Russian).
212) Environmental Impact Assessment of Cooling Towers
Williams M. D.; Bartlit, J. R.
Sierra Club Natl. Water Resources Comm.
Natl. Assoc. Corros Eng. 'Co~rosI75' Meet. (Toronto Apr. 14-18, 1975),
Mater Performance, V. 14, N. 9, Sept. 1975, pp. 39-41.
213) Heat Transfer/Cooling Towers ... Fouling Measurement Techniques
Heat Transfer Research Inc.; Ritter, R. B.; Fischer, P.; Suitor, J. W.
Heat Transfer Res. Inc.
Chem. Eng. Prog., V. 71, N. 7, July 1975, pp. 66-72.
214) Heat Transfer/Cooling Towers ... Blowdown Concentration by
Electrodialysis
McIlhenny, W. F.; Bearden, M. D.; Jordan, D. R.
Dow Chern. U.S.A.
Chem. Eng. Prog., V. 71, N. 7, July 1975, pp. 77-82.
215) Quick Calculation of Cooling Tower Blowdown and Makeup
Caplan, F.
Chem. Eng., (New York), V. 82, N. 14, July 7,1975, p. 110.
216) Facts on Water Use in Cooling Towers
Sussman, S.
Olin Corp.
Cooling Tower [nst. Annu. Meet., (Houston Feb. 10, 1975), Hydrocarbon Process, V. 54, N. 7, July 1975, pp. 147-55.
217) Materials Problems in Salt Water Cooling Towers
Walston, K. R.
Exxon Res. & Eng. Co.
Mater Performance, V. 14, N. 6, June 1975, pp. 22-26.

COOLING TOWER LITERATURE

315

218) Measurement and Characterization of (Wet) Cooling Tower Drift


(Including a Particulate Sampler)
Shofner, F. M.; Margetts, M. J.; Wilber, K. R.
Environ. Syst. Corp.
ASME Winter Annu. Meet., (New York Nov. 17-22, 1974) (Abstr.)
Mech. Eng., V. 97, N. 4, Apr. 1975, pp. 56-59, Pap. N. 74-WAjHT-60.
219) Environmental Impact Assessment of Cooling Towers
Bartlit, J. R.; Williams, M. D.
Sierra Club Natl. Water Resources Comm.
Natl. Assoc. Corros Eng. 'Corros/75' Meet., (Toronto Apr. 14-18,
1975), Pap. N. 147,7 p.
220) Performance Curves for Mechanical Draft Cooling Towers
Hallett, G. F.
Ceramic Cooling Tower Co.
ASME Winter Annu. Meet., (New York Nov. 17-22, 1974) (Abstr.)
Mech. Eng., V. 97, N. 5, May 1975, pp. 56-61, Pap. N. 74-WAjPTC-3.
221) Calculations for Industrial Water Cooling Towers
Reverberi, A.; Chiarioni, M. G.
Univ. Genoa
Riv. Combust., V. 29, N. 1, Jan. 1975, pp. 15-20. (In Italian).
222) Cooling Towers ... Best Control of the Low Point oi,!he Camot Cycle
Henriet, P . '
Ind. Pet Monde Gaz-Chim., V. 43, N. 4, Apr. 1975, pp. 35-37. (In
French).
223) (The Impact of Cooling Towers on Water, Land, and Air Environments)
Bartlit, J. R.; Williams, M. D.
Natl. Assoc. Corros Eng. 'Corrosj75' Meet., (Toronto Apr. 14-18,1975)
(Abstr.) Can
Chem. Process, V. 59, N. 2, Feb. 1975, pp. 30, 32-34.
224) Radial Air Distribution Functions in Water Cooling Towers
Funer, I. A.
Univ. Sydney
Chem. Eng. Sci., V. 30, N. 3, Mar. 1975, pp. 349-51.
225) Heat Transfer Survey 1974jWinter Operation of Mechanical Draught
Cooling Towers
Cabral, B. F. A.
Carter Ind. Prod. Ltd.
Process Eng., (London), Spec. Issue 45,1974, p. 47.
226) Conservation of Energy in Cooling Towers
Moran, D.
Tower Performance Inc.
67th AIChE Annu. Meet., (Washington, D.C. Dec. 1-5, 1974), Pap.
N.40D, 11 p.

316

COOLING TOWERS

227) Heat Rejection from Dry Cooling Towers with Fluidized Beds
Andeen, B. R.; Glicksman, L. R.
67th AIChE Annu. Meet., (Washington, D.C. Dec. 1-5, 1974), Pap.
N. 67A, 30 p.
228) Concrete Cooling Tower Maintenance
Shell Composites Ltd.; Imperial Chemical Industries Ltd.
Carras Prevo Control, V. 21, N. 5, Oct. 1974, p. 18.
229) Waste Heat Disposal in the Process Industry ... (Factors Governing the
Selection of,an) Air Cooler and/or Water Cooling Tower
Maze, R. W.
Marley Co.
ASME Pet Mech. Eng. Cant, (Sept. 15-18, 1974) (Abstr.), Mech. Eng.,
V. 96, N. 10, Oct. 1974, pp: 58-65, Pap. N. 74-PET-13.
230) Water Management Trends in Refinery Cooling Systems (Including the
Economics of Cooling Tower Recycle Systems)
Griffin, R. W.
Nus Corp.
ASME Pet Mech. Eng. Conf;, (Sept. 15-18,1974) (Abstr.), Mech. Eng.,
V. 96, N. 10, Oct. 1974, pp. 58-65, Pap. N. 74-PET-15.
231) (In) An Analysis of a Counterflow Spray Cooling Tower
Hollands, K. G. T.
Univ. Waterloo
Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, V. 17, N. 10, Oct. 1974, pp. 1227-39.
232) Ion Exchange Hollow Fibers (Potential for Reducing Waste Disposal
Problems with Cooling Tower Blowdown Water)
Klein, E.; Ward, R.; May, P.; Smith, J. K.
Gulf South Res. Inst.
168th ACS Natl. Meet., (Atlantic City Sept. 8-13,1974) (Abstr.), Pap.
Abstr. N. Inde-16.
233) The Cooling Tower Business Today
Furlong, D.
Environ. Sci. Technol., V. 8,N. 8,Aug.1974,pp. 712-16.
234) A Comparison of Evaporative Loss in Cooling Towers and in River
Water Cooling
Spangemacher, K.
Brennst.-Waerme-Kraft, V. 25, N. 12, Dec. 1973, pp. 472-74. (In
German).
235) A Mathematical Model for the Computer Simulation of Moist Plumes
from Stacks and Cooling Towers
Ting, H. T.
Univ. Tex. Austin fliss. (1972), 214 p. (Abstr.), Diss. Abstr. Int. B,
V. 34, N. 2, Aug. 1973, p. 686B.

COOLING TOWER LITERATURE

317

236) (The TemperatureDependence of) the Evaporation Coefficient for


Evaluating Cooling Towers
Klenke, W.
VDI Verfahrenstech Ges. 'Heat + Mass Transfer' Comm. Meet. (Bad
Mergentheim Apr. 2-3 1972). Chern-lng-Tech, V. 45, N. 17, Sept.
1973, pp. 1075-82. Tech. Univ. Braunschweig. (In German).
237) The Case for Chromate in Cooling Tower Treatment
Lane, R. W.
Mater Prot. Performance, V. 12, N. 9, Sept. 1973, pp. 27-30. Ill. State
Water Surv.
238) Calculation of Cooling in Liquid-Drop-Type Cooling Towers for Sea
Water Containing Petroleum Products
Aliev, N. D.
Azerb Neft Khoz, 1972, N. 12, pp. 38-9. Chern. Abstr. V. 78-149466.
(In Russian).
239) Method for the Calculation of Over-All Volumetric Enthalpy Transfer
Coefficients in Cross-Flow Cooling Towers
Hirai, E.; Hayashi, Y.
Kagaku Kogaku-1973, V. 37, N. 3, pp. 314-16. Chern. Abstr., V. 78138342. (In Japanese). Dep. Chern. Eng. Kanazawa Univ., Kanazawa,
Japan.
240) Volumetric Film Coefficients in Cross-Flow Cooling ,Towers
Eliminator-Type P a c k i n g '
Okubo, M.;Hirai, E.; Hayashi, Y.
Kagaku Kogaku 1972, V. 36, N. 12, pp. 1346-9. Chern. Abstr. V. 7874113. (In Japanese). Dep. Chern. Eng. Kanazawa Univ., Kanazawa,
'
Japan.
241) Reclaiming Cooling Tower Blowdown
El Paso Natural Gas Co.; Fosberg, T. M.
Ind. Water Eng., V. 9, N. 4,1972, pp. 35-37. (Abstr.). WaterPollut.
Abstr. (United Kingdom), V. 45, N. 9, No. 2210, Sept. 1972.
242) Reuse of Refinery Wastewater in Cooling Towers
Mobil Oil Corp.; Hart, J. A.
Natl. Assoc. Corros Eng. 'Corros/73 , Int. Forum (Anaheim, CA
Mar. 19-23, 1973), Pap. N. 89,19 p. Mobil Oil Corp'.
243) Evaporative Cooling Tower Performance Predictions
Hammill, M:P.; Savery, C. W.
ASME Winter Annu. Meet., (Nov. 26-30, 1972) (Abstr.), Mech. Eng.,
V. 95, N. 6, June 1973, pp. 59-62, Pap. N. 72-WAjHt-62. Drexel Univ.
244) Simultaneous Heat and Mass Transfer in Cooling Towers
Wolfersdorff, W. D. B. von
VDI- Verfahrenstech GesAnnu. Meet., (Cologne Oct. 3-5,1972). Chemlng-Tech, V. 45, N. 6,Mar. 1973, pp. 356-62. (In German). Tech
Hochsch Aachen.

318

COOLING TOWERS

245) Accurate Performance Testing of Crossflow Cooling Towers


Reisman, J. I.; Ovard, J. C.
ASME Winter Annu. Meet., (Nov. 26-30, 1972) (Abstr.), Mech. Eng.,
V. 95, N. 5, May 1973, pp. 45-57, Pap. N. 72-WA/PTC-5. Ecodyne
Cooling Prod. Co.
246) Wastewater Recycled for Use in (Mobil Oil Corp.'s East Chicago, Ind.)
Refinery Cooling Towers
Mobil Oil Corp., Hart, J. A.
Oil Gas J., V. 71, N. 24, June II, 1973, pp. 92-96.
247) No Cheap Cure for Cooling Tower Noise
Butler, P.
Process Eng., (London), Dec. 1972, p. 69.
248) Environmental Aspects of Cooling Tower Operation. Accumulation and
Escape of Dissolved and Undissolved Substances
Resch, G.; Burgmann, F.
Tech Mitt, V. 65, N. 5, May 1972, pp. 237-39. (In German).
Ver Elektrizitaetswerke Westfalen.
249) Mechanical Draught Cooling Towers
Nair, S. R.
Chern. Eng. World, V. 7, N. 7, July 1972, pp. 101-4.
Thennopak Eng. PVT Ltd.
250) Acoustical Aspects of Large (Wet-Type) Cooling Towers
Boehm, O.
Tech Mitt, V. 65, N. 5, May 1972, pp. 240-44. (In German).
Mueller BBN G.M.B.H.
251) Fog and Ice Formation During Cooling Tower Operation
Bach, H.
Tech Mitt, V. 65, N. 5, May 1972, pp. 230-36. (In German).
DTSCH Wetterdienst Wetteramt, Essen.
252) Potential Augmentation of (Downwind) Precipitation from Cooling
Tower (Water Vapor) Effluents
Changnon, S. A. Jr.; Huff, F. A.
7Ist AIChE Natl. Meet., (Dallas Feb. 20-23, 1972), Program (Abstr.),
Pap. N. 30B.
Ill. State Water Surv.
253) Biological Effects of Cooling Tower Blowdown (on Aquatic Life)
Garton, R. R.
7Ist AIChE Natl. Meet., (Dallas Feb. 20-23,1972), Program (Abstr.),
Pap. N. 32E.
Pacific Northwest Water Lab.

COOLING TOWER LITERATURE

319

254) Thermal Cycle Arrangements for Power plants Employing Dry Cooling
Towers
Leung, P.; Miliaras, E.; Moore, R. E.
J. Eng. Power, V. 94, N. 1, Jan. 1972, pp. 70-71.
255) Chemical Treatment for Cooling Tower and Related Systems
(Consistent with Pollution Control)
Bischof, A. E.; Goldstein, P.
Mater Prot. Performance, V. 10, N. 12, Dec. 1971, pp. 26-28.
256) A Cooling Tower study
Illinois Institute of Technology Res.; Sockham, J.; U. S. Air Pollution
Control Office
U.S. Dep. Commerce Nat. Tech. Inform. Servo PB, N. 201, Jan 1971,
p. 216, 123 p.
257) Cooling Tower Blowdown and Boiler Blowdown as Waste Water
Problems
Schieber, J. R.
AIChE Water Comm. Workshop. 'Ind. Process Design Water Pollut.
ContI.' (San Francisco Mar. 3 I-Apr. 2,1970), Proc. 3, pp. 18-23.
258) Cooling Tower Fog, Control and Abatement
Veldhuizen, H.; Ledbetter, J.
J. Air Pollut. Contr. Ass., V. 21, N. 1, Jan. 1971, pp. 21-24.
259) Cooling Tower Plumes/Probabilities of Cooling System Fogging
Decker, F. W.
68th AIChE Nat. Meet., (Houston Feb. 28-Mar. 4,1971), Program
(AbstI.), Pap. N. 63D.
260) Cooling Tower Plumes/Bent Over Moist Plumes
Csanady, G. T.
68th AIChE Nat. Meet., (Houston Feb. 28-Mar. 4, 1971), Program
(AbstI.), Pap. N. 63C.
261) Cooling Tower Plumes/Plume Puncturing of Inversions
Brown, D.
68th AIChE Nat. Meet., (Houston Feb. 28-Mar. 4,1971), Program
(Abstr.), Pap. N. 63B.
262) Ecological Aspects of Air Coolers and Cooling Towers
Macalliso, C. A.
68th AIChE Nat. Mee't., (Houston Feb. 28-Mar. 4, 1971), Program
(Abstr.), Pap. N. 71C.
263) Cooling Tower Plumes/Environmental Aspects of Cooling Towers
Colbaugh, W. C.
68th AIChE Nat. Meet., (Houston Feb. 28-Mar. 4, 1971), Program
(Abstr.), Pap. N. 63A.

320

COOLING TOWERS

264) Behavior of Cooling Tower Plumes (During the 1968-69 and 1969-70
Winters)
Frankenberg, T. T.; Singer, I. A.; Smith, M. E.
68th AIChE Nat. Meet., (Houston Feb. 28-Mar. 4, 1971), Program
Pap. N. 37E.
265) The Prediction and Verification of Visible Plumes Behavior
Associated with Cooling Tower Discharges
Petrillo, J. L.
68th AIChE Nat. Meet., (Houston Feb. 28-Mar. 4,1971), Program
Pap. N. 37D.,
266) Considerations Concerning Cooling Tower Plumes
Hall, W. A.
68th AIChE Nat. Meet., (Houston Feb. 28-Mar. 4, 1971), Program
Pap. N. 37B.
267) Predicting Cooling Tower Plume Behavior
Hosler, C. L.
68th AIChE Nat. Meet., (Houston Feb. 28-Mar. 4, 1971), Program
Pap. N. 37A.
268) Latent Heat ,Effects in Plumes from Cooling Towers
Nielsen, H. 1.; Aynsley, E.
68th AIChE Nat. Meet., (Houston Feb. 28-Mar. 4, 1971), Program
Pap. N. 37C (Abstr.).
269) The Use of Closely Spaced (Flat and Corrugated Sheet) Packing in
Hyperbolic Cooling Towers
Rish, R. F.
Res. Results Servo MS (Available in Manuscript form) for ordering see
ACS Single Article Announce, N. 17 (Sept. 15, 1971), N. 71-247, 20 p.
270) (Two New Methods for) Calculation of the Over-All Volumetric
Enthalpy Transfer Coefficient in Cross-Flow Cooling Towers
Hayashi, Y.;Hirai, E.
Kagaku Kogaku, V. 34, N. 9, 1970, pp. 965-71 (Abstr.).
J. Chern. Eng. Jap., V. 4, N. 1, Feb. 1971, p. 106.
271) Thermal Cycle Arrangements for Power Plants Employing Dry Cooling
Towers
Moore, R. E.; Leung, P.
ASME Joint Power Generation Conf. (Pittsburgh) Sept. 27-30, 1970),
Pap. N. 70-PWR-6. J. Eng. Power, V. 93, N. 2, Apr. 1971, pp. 257-64.
272) Operation and Maintenance of Cooling Towers
Kuehmsted, A. M.
Chern. Eng. (New York), V. 78, N. 10, May 3,1971, pp. 112-114-15.

COOLING TOWER LITERATURE

321

273) Developing Cooling Tower Recirculation Factors from Field Test Data
Baker, D. R.
9Ist ASME Winter Annu. Meet. (Nov. 29-Dec. 3,1970), Pap. N. 70WA/HT-22.
274) A Profile of Industrial Cooling Towers
Ovard, J. C.
I6Ist ACS Nat. Meet., (Los Angeles Mar. 28-Apr. 2, 1971), Abstr.
Pap. Abstr. N. INDE-81.
275) The Use of Membrane Processes in Cooling Tower Operations
Cecil, L. K.
68th AIChE Nat. Meet., (Houston Feb. 28-Mar. 4, 1971), Program
Pap. N. 78G.
276) Cooling Tower Operating Problems/Solubility of Calcium Sulfate
Glater, J.
68th AIChE Nat. Meet., (Houston Feb. 28-Mar. 4, 1971), Program
Pap. N. 78F.
277) Simulation of Evaporation from a Cooling Lake with a Comparison
to a Real Case and the Alternative Use of Cooling Towers
Drew, H.; Jaske, R. T.
68th AIChE Nat. Meet., (Houston Feb. 28-Mar. 4, 1971), Program
Pap. N. 78E.
278) Cooling Tower Drift Measurements
Shofner, F. M.; Thomas, C. O.
68th AIChE Nat. Meet., (Houston Feb. 28-Mar. 4, 1971), Program
Pap. N. 78D (Abstr.).
279) Use of a Computer in Test Data Reduction and Performance
Prediction for Cross Flow Cooling Towers
Park, J. E.; Vance, J. M.
68th AIChE Nat. Meet., (Houston Feb. 28-Mar. 4, 1971), Program
Pap. N. 78C.
280) Evaluation of Counter-Flow Cooling Tower Cell Performance
Wrinkle, R. B.
68th AIChE Nat. Meet., (Houston Feb. 28-Mar. 4, 1971), Program
Pap. N. 78B.
281) Salt Water Cooling Tower Operation (in Relation to Ecology)
Nester, D. B.
68th AIChE Nat. Meet., (Houston Feb. 28-Mar. 4,1971), Program
Pap. N. 78A.
282) Increasing Cooling Tower Capacity Without Enlarging the Structure
Phelps, P. M.
68th AIChE Nat. Meet., (Houston Feb. 28-Mar. 4,1971), Program
Pap. N. 700.

322

COOLING TOWERS

283) Economics of Stainless Steel Cooling Towers for Industry


68th AIChE Nat. Meet., (Houston Feb. 28-Mar. 4, 1971), Program
Pap. N. 70D.
284) Methods for Rejecting Waste Heat from Steam-Electric Power Plants
(Including Natural and Mechanical Draft Evaporative Cooling Towers,
and Dry Cooling Towers)
Oleson, K. A.
68th AIChE Nat. Meet., (Houston Feb. 28-Mar. 4, 1971), Program
Pap. N. 70A.
285) Legal Aspects of Salinity Caused by Cooling Towers ... The Colorado
River
Gindler, B. J.; Holburt, M. B.
68th AIChE Nat. Meet., (Houston Feb. 28-Mar. 4, 1971), Program
Pap. N. 48D.
286) Cooling Tower Technology and the Law/Problems of Consumptive
Withdrawals (from the Great Lakes)
Stewart, B. F.
68th AIChE Nat. Meet., (Houston Feb. 28-Mar. 4,1971), Program
.
Pap. N. 48C.
287) The Cooling Tower as a Factor in Riparian Law
Davis, C.
68th AIChENat. Meet., (Houston Feb. 28-Mar. 4,1971), Program
Pap. N. 48B.
288) Cooling Tower Technology and the Law/The Cooling Tower ...
Technology and Practical Interactions in Practice
Moses, R. J.
68th AIChE Nat. Meet., (Houston Feb. 28-Mar. 4, 1971), Program
Pap. N. 48A.
289) Plastic Cooling Tower Saves Space and Weight
Whirlcool Inc.
Chern. Eng., (New York), V. 78, N. 2, Jan. 25,1971, p. 48.
290) How To Do It/How to Estimate Cooling Tower Costs
Kuong, J. F.
Hydrocarbon Process, V. 48, N. 7, July 1969, pp. 200-202.
291) (Avoidance of Thermal Pollution by Using) Dry Type Cooling Towers
for Steam Electric Generating Plants
Rossie, J. P.
68th AIChE Nat. Meet., (Houston Feb. 28-Mar. 4, 1971), Program
Pap. N. 26B.
292) (Use of Models to Study Noise from Cooling Towers)
Boehm, A., Hubert
Ver Deut Ing-Deut Phys Ges. 'Acoust. & Vibration Technol'MTG
(Berlin Sept. 16-18,1970). (In German).

COOLING TOWER LITERATURE

323

293) Cooling Towers for BP


BP Chemicals UK Ltd.
Eur. Chern. News, V. 16, N. 398, Sept. 19,1969, p. 42.
294) Performance Testing of Large Natural Draft Cooling Towers
Morgenweck, F. E.
Arner. Soc. Mech. Eng. Winter Ann. Mtg., (Dec. 1-5,1968), Pap.
N.68-WA/PTC-4.
295) Process Control & Computers/ Automatic Cooling Tower Control
Magna Corp.; Feitler, H.; Townsend, C. R.
Chern. Eng. Progr., V. 65, N. 5, May 1969, pp. 63-67.
296) Automatic Cooling Tower Control System Minimizes Pollution
Feitler, H.; Townsend, C. R.
61st AIChE Ann. Mtg., (Los Angeles Dec. 1-5, 1968), Program
Pap. N. 47A.
297) Natural Draft Cooling Tower, Maximum Liquid Loading
Furzer, I. A.
Ind. Eng. Chern. Process Des Develop., V. 7, N. 4, Oct. 1968, pp. 56165.
298) The Natural Draft Cooling Tower, An Approximate Solution
Furzer, I. A.
"
Ind. Eng. Chern. Process Des Develop., V. 7, N. 4, oct. 1968,
pp.555-60.
'
299) Cooling Towers-2. Cooling Tower Blowdown Treatment Costs
Glover, G. E.
AIChE Water Comm. Workshop (Houston Apr. 24-26, 1969), AIChE
Ind. Process Des
Water Pollut. Contr. Workshop Proc., V. 2, 1970, pp. 74-8l.
300) Investigation of the Behavior of a (Semi-Industrial) Triclde Film,
Countercurrent Cooling Tower
Iorga, D.; J adaneantu, M.; Negru, D.; Oancea, N. D.; Barbu, V.;
Vladea,1.
Brennst.- Waerrne-Kraft, V. 22, N. 10, Oct. 1970, pp. 486-90.
301) (An AIChE) Cooling Tower Panel
American Institute of Chemical Engin.
AIChE Water Cornrn. Workshop, (Houston Apr. 24-25, 1969), AIChE
Ind. Process Des
Water Pollut. Contr. Workshop Proc., V. 2, 1970, pp. 93-99.
302) Cooling Towers-S. Problems in Replacing Chromate as a Corrosion
Inhibitor for Open-Recirculating Cooling Waters
Zecher, D. C.
AIChE Water Comm. Workshop, (Houston Apr. 24-25,1969), AIChE
Ind. Process Des
Water Pollut. Contr. Workshop Proc., V. 2, 1970, pp. 89-92.

324

COOLING TOWERS

303) Cooling Towers-4. Reduction of Blowdown from Power Plant Cooling


Tower Systems
Southern California Edison Co.; Christiansen, P. B.; Colman, D. R.
AIChE Water Comm. Workshop, (Houston Apr. 24-25, 1969), AIChE
Ind. Process Des
Water Pollut Contr. Workshop Proc., V. 2, 1970, pp. 85-88.
304) The Thermal Efficiency Factor of Cooling Towers
Oancea, N. D.; Vladea, I.
Brennst.- Waerme-Kraft, V. 22, N. 3, Mar. 1970, pp. 123-27.
305) Heat and Mass Transfer at Countercurrent Trickle Films in a Vertical
Channel and a Cooling Tower
Oancea, N. D.; Vladea, I.
Ver. Deut. Ing. Chem. Eng. Ann. Mtg., (Bayreuth Sept. 30-0ct. 2,
1969), Chem-Ing-Tech, V. 2, N. 6. Mar. 1970, pp. 403-9.
306) Natural Draft Cooling Towers and How They Fit Into the Thermal
Pollution Picture
Jones, W. J.
67th AIChE Nat. Mtg., (Atlanta Feb. 15-18, 1970), Program Pap.
N. 26 D.
307) Cooling Towers Use Plastics
Billings, R. Y'I.
Cooling To,wer Inst. Mtg., (New York June 26-28,1967)
Oil Gas J., V. 65, N. 44, Oct. 30, 1967, pp. 145-47.
308) Chemical Considerations in Planning Pollution Induced Climate
Modification in the Lake Michigan Basin.
(Water-Vapor, Thermal, and Solids Pollution of the Atmosphere by
Cooling Towers)
Winchester, J. W.
67th AIChE Nat. Mtg., (Atlanta Feb. 15-18, 1970), Program
Pap. N. 260.
309) Resistance Characteristics of Natural Draft Cooling Towers
Mikyska, L.
Brennst.-Waerme-Kraft, V. 21, N. 12, Dec. 1969, pp. 634-36.
310) Use Rotary Spray Cooler as Lab Cooling Tower
Ghosh, M. K.
Hydrocarbon Process, V. 47, N. 9, Sept. 1968, p. 302.
311) Laboratory Evaluation of Cooling Tower Corrosion Inhibitors
Ziegenhorn, R. D.; Lane, R. W.
Nat. Ass. Corros. Eng. N. Central Reg. Con[., (Chicago Sept. 30Oct. 2, 1968), Pap. 12P.
312) For Steam Turbine Drives ... Are Dry Cooling Towers Economical
Rabb, A.
Hydrocarbon Process, V. 47, N. 2, Sect 1, Feb. 1968, pp. 122-24.

COOLING TOWER LITERATURE


313) Model Measurements on Cooling Towers
Vogelsang
2nd Intern Heat Eng. Can! (Karl-Marx-Stadt, E. Ger. Sept. 26-29,
1966).
314) On the Problem of Heat and Mass Transfer in Cooling Towers with
Film Systems
Vladea, J.
2nd Intern. Heat Eng. Cant (Karl-Marx-Stadt, E. Ger. Sept. 26-29,
1966).
315) Water Cooling Tower Plumes
Baker, K. G.
Chern. Process Eng., V. 48, N. 1,1967, pp. 56-58.
316) Processing Notes/Diver Cleans Cooling Tower
Mobil Oil Corp.
Oil Gas J., V. 65, N. 38, Sept. 18, 1967, p. 106.
317) New Exchange Resin Could Reduce Cooling Tower Blowdown
Rohm & Haas Co.; Downing, D. G.; Owens, D. L.; Printz, J.
Cooling Tower Inst. Annu. Mtg. (1966) (Adapt.)
Petro/Chern Engr., V. 39, N. 9, pp. 36-37.
318) Cooling Towers Not Unmixed Blessing in Pollution Cpntrol
Forbes, M. C. .
Cooling Tower Inst. Ann. Mtg., (Houston 1967) (Cond)
Oil Gas J., V. 65, N. 17, Apr. 24, 1967, pp. 88-90.
319) Plastics for Refinery Water Cooling Towers
Shell International Petroleum Co. Ltd.; Sherwood, P. W.
Erdoel Kahle, V. 19, N. II, Nov. 1966, pp. 823-24.
320) Maintenance of (Wooden) Cooling Towers in Modern Refineries
Sinclair Refining Co.; Gulf Oil Corp.; Sherwood, P. W.
Erdoel Kahle, V 19, N. 8, Aug. 1966, pp. 591-92.
321) Selection of Materials and Coatings for Water Cooling Towers
Nelson, J. A.
Mater Protect,
V. 5, N. 7, July 1966, pp. 27-29.
,
322) Capacities of Cooling Towers
Davis, D. S.
Brit. Chern. Eng., V. 11, N. 5, May 1966, p. 360.
323) Three Ways to Improve Your Cooling-Tower Performance-3.
The Economics of Treating Cooling Tower Water
Keith, G. M.
Cooling Tower Inst. Ann. Mtg., (Houston 1965) (Cond)
Oil Gas J., V. 63, N. 29, July 19, 1965, p. 76.

325

326

COOLING TOWERS

324) Three Ways to Improve Your Cooling-Tower Performance-2.


Rigid Vinyl for Cooling Towers
Weyland, R. V.
Cooling Tower Inst. Ann. Mtg., (Houston 1965) (Cond)
Oil Gas J., V. 63, N. 29, July 19, 1965, pp. 75-76.
325) Combating Algal Growth in Recycle Water Cooling Towers With New
Microcides
Pommer, E. -H.; Distler, H.
16th Deut Ges Mineraloelwiss U Kohlechem Ann. Mtg. (Cologne
Oct. 9, 1964), Erodel
Kohle, V. 18~ N. 5, May 1965, pp. 381-86.
326) How to Solve Cooling Tower Problems Quicker
Campbell, J. C.
Petro/Chem Engr., V. 37, N. 3, Mar. 1965, pp. 23-27.
327) Eight Years Experience With Reuse and Biooxidation of Refinery
Wastewater in Cooling Tower Systems at Sun Oil Co. S. Toledo
Refinery
Mohler, E. F. Jr.;Elkin, H. I:.;Kumnick, L. R.
37th Ohio Water Pollution Control Conf. Ann. Mtg., (Toledo June 1214,1963)
J. Water Pollution Control Federation, V. 36, N. 11, Nov. 1964,
pp.1380-92.
328) Cooling Towers Used for Waste Treatment. Use of a Cooling Tower as
a Triclding Filter in Pollution Control
Smith, R. M.
Cooling Tower lnst. Mtg. (1964) (Cond)
Oil GasJ., V. 62, N. 37, Sept. 14,1964, pp. 115-16.
329) The Decay of Timber in Cooling Towers and Its Prevention
Farbenfabriken Bayer, A. G.
Kueheturm-Impraegnierung (Con d) Bitumen Teere Asphalte Peche,
V. IS, N. 5, May 1964, pp. 233-34.
330) The Characteristics of Cooling Towers with Natural and Mechanical
Draft
Spangemacher, K.
Brennstoff-Waerme-Kraft, V. 16, N. 5, May 1964, pp. 241-46.
331) Questions on Technology Dry vs. Wet Cooling Towers
Nelson, W. L.
Oil GasJ., V. 62, N. 23, June 8,1964, p. 164.
332) Experimental Studies on the Contribution of the Splash Zones in
Countercurrent Cooling Water Towers
Barbu, V.; Vladea, I.
Univ. Timisoara
Brennst.-Waerme-Kraft, V. 28, N. 5, May 1976, pp. 198-202. (In
German).

-------------

COOLING TOWER LITERATURE

327

333) The Natural Draught Cooling Tower


Furzer, I. A.
Brit. Chem. Eng., V. 13, N. 9, Sept. 1968, pp. 1287-90.
334) Cut Costs ... Balance Cooling Tower Fans in Place
Blake, M. P.
Hydrocarbon Process, V. 46, N. 6, June 1967, pp. 150-54.
335) Practical Tips on Cooling-Tower Sizing
Maze, R. W.
Hydrocarbon Process, V. 46, N. 2, Feb. 1967, pp. 123-26.
336) Control Cooling-Tower Blowdown
Mapstone, G. E.
Hydrocarbon Process, V. 46, N. 1, Jan. 1967, pp. 155-60.
337) Cooling Tower Steam Sterilization, Four Years' Progress
McConomy, T. A.
Mater Protect, V. 5, N. 9, Sept. 1966, pp. 51-53.
338) Reinforced Concrete Cooling Tower Sheathing
Doganoff, I.
Brennstoff-Waerme-Kraft, V. 18, N. 3, Mar. 1966, pp. 109-13.
339) Operating Characteristics of Natural-Draft Cooling T<,>wers
Mikyska, L.
Brennstoff-Waerme-Kraft, V. 18, N. 3, Mar. 1966, pp. 106-8.
340) The Latest Development in Cooling Tower Control
Macht, W. A.
.
Nat. Gas Processors Assoc. South Reg. Mtg., (Tyler, TX 1965)
Petro/Chem Engr., V. 38, N. 3, Mar. 1966, pp. 24-27.
341) Spray Technology and Its Application in the Chemical Industry ...
Spray Towers and Their Design
Viehweg, H.; Schubert, M.
Chem. Tech., (Berlin), V. 17, N. 5, May 1965, pp. 269-76.
342) Symposium on Cooling Tower Materials and Water Treatment
Comeaux, R. V.; Baech1er, R. H.; Willa, J. L.; Hatch, G. B.;
Shema, B. F.; Kelly, B. J.; Sloan, L.; Terry, S. L.
149tlt Am. Chem. Soc. Natl. Mtg., (Detroit Apr. 4-9, 1965) Abstr.
Papers, pp. 110-150.
343) Cooling Tower Design Calculations with an Electronic Computer
Mikyska, L.; Reinisch, R.
Brennstoff-Waerme-Kraft, V. 17, N. 2, Feb. 1965, pp. 61-63.
344) A Central System Controls pH in Seven Cooling Towers
Hess, H.; La Gloria Oil & Gas Co.
Hydrocarbon Process Petrol Refiner, V. 44, N. 2, Feb. 1965, pp. 18283.

328

COOLING TOWERS

345) Some New Materials for Cooling Water Towers to Combat Corrosion
and Wood Deterioration
Baker, D. R.
Natl. Assoc. Corrosion Engrs. N. Central Reg. Cont, (Kansas City
Oct. 1963)Mater Protect, V. 3, N. 10, Oct. 1964, pp. 58-62.
346) A Method of Measuring the Progress of Wood Rot in Cooling Towers
Bird, P. G.; Kaye, S.
20th Natl. Assoc. Corrosion Engrs. Ann. Cont, (Chicago Mar. 9-13,
1964) Mater Protect, V. 3, N. 10, Oct. 1964, pp. 46-50.
347) Effect of Maintenance on Cooling Tower Thermal Performance
Willa, J. L.
Natl. Assoc. Corrosion Engrs. N. Central Reg. Cont, (Kansas City
Oct. 3, 1963)Mater Protect, V. 3, N. 10, Oct. 1964, pp. 35-36.
348) Microbiological Control to Prevent Corrosion in Recirculating Water
Systems
Trautenberg, G. A.; Askew, A. C. Jr.
20th Natl. Assoc. Corrosion Engrs. Ann. Cont, (Chicago Mar. 9-13,
1964) Mater Protect, V.3,N: 10,Oct.1964,pp.26-28,31.
349) Case History on Economics of Chemical Treatment of a Recirculating
Water Cooling Tower
Siebert, 0. W.; Engman, W. G.
20th Natl. Assoc. Corrosion Engrs. Ann. Cont, (Chicago Mar. 9-13,
1964) Mater Protect, V. 3, N. 10, Oct. 1964, pp. 20-22, 24-25.
350) A Simulated Cooling Tower for Evaluating Slime Control
Song, P.; Wolfson, L. L.
20th Natl. Assoc. Corrosion Engrs. Ann. Cont, (Chicago Mar. 9-13,
1964) Mater Protect, V.3,N. 10,Oct.1964,pp. 14-17.
351) How to Control Fungi in Cooling Towers
Brown, C. W.
Cooling Tower Inst. Mtg., (New Orleans Jan. 18, 1964) Hydrocarbon
Process Petrol Refiner, V. 43, N. 8, Aug. 1964, pp. 146-48.
352) HPI Handbook/Nomograph for Estimating Water Cooling Towers
Petro/Chern. Engineer
Petro/Chem Engr., V. 36, N. 5, May 1964, p. 36.
353) The Mollier I-X-Diagram for Evaluating Measurements on Cooling
Towers
Haeussler, W.
Tech Hochschu1e Chemnitz Heat Techno1 Mtg. (Sept. 24-26, 1963)
(Abstr)
Brennstoff-Waerme-Kraft, V. 16, N. 2, Feb. 1964, p. 95.

COOLING TOWER LITERATURE

329

354) Wind Effects on the Operation of Natural-Draft Cooling Towers


Zembaty, W.
Tech Hochschule Chemnitz Heat Technol Mtg. (Sept. 24-26, 1963)
(Abstr.)
Brennstoff-Waerrne-Kraft, V. 16, N. 2, Feb. 1964, p. 95.
355) The Influence of Temperature Stratification on the Thermal
Performance of a Natural Draft, Dry Cooling Tower
Buxmann, J.
Brennst.-Waerrne-Kraft, V. 29, N. 3, Mary. 1977, pp. 90-94. (In
German).
356) An Analysis of Crossflow Cooling Towers. The Change in the Water
Flow Rate is Considered
Hayashi, Y.; Hirai, E.; Ito, N.
Kanazawa Univ.
40th Soc. Chern. Eng. Jap. Annu. Meet., (Nagoya Apr. 1975)
J. Chern. Eng. lap., V. 9, N. 6, Dec. 1976, pp. 458-63. (In English).
357) Aerodynamic Design of (Wet) Cooling Tower Drift Eliminators
Schrock, V. E.; Yao, S. C.
Argonne Natl. Lab.
Univ. Calif., Berkeley
ASME Winter Annu. Meet., (Houston Nov. 30-Dec. 5,1975), Pap.
N.75-WA/PWR-5
"
l. Eng. Power, V. 98, N. 4, Oct. 1976, pp. 450-56. (rn English).
358) Considerations Required for the Optimum Design of a Wet-Dry
Cooling Tower with Respect to Minimizing (Cost and) Visible Vapor
Vodicka, V.; Henning, H.
Ba1cke Duerr A. G.
Brennst.-Waerrne-Kraft, V. 28, N. 10, Oct. 1976, pp. 387-92. (In
German).
359) Design Guidelines. Design of Cooling Towers
Ibrahim, S. H.
India Reg. Eng. ColI. Tiruchirapally
Chern. Eng. World, V. 10, N. 6, June 1965, pp. 53.-59.
360) Heat Transfer/Cooling Towers ... Spray Cooling System Design
Elgawhary, A. W.
Bechtel Power Corp.
Chern. Eng. Prog., V. 71, N. 7, July 1975, pp. 83-87.
361) Heat Transfer/Cooling Towers ... Cooling Tower Drift Elimination
Burger, R.
Robert Burger Assoc. Inc.
Chern. Eng. Prog., V. 71, N. 7, July 1975, pp. 73-76.

330

COOLING TOWERS

362) Cooling Tower Design and Evaluation Parameters


Kelly, G. M.
Marley Co.
ASME Ind. Power Conf., (Pittsburgh May 19-20, 1975) (Abstr.)
Mech. Eng., V. 97, N. 8, Aug. 1975, pp. 74-76, Pap. N. 75-IPWR-9.
363) Chromate Recovery from Cooling Tower Blowdown by Ion Exchange
Resin
Yamamoto, D.; Yabe, K.
Kurita Water Ind. Co. Ltd.
Sekiyu Gaklmi Shi, V. 18, N. 4, Apr. 1975, pp. 284-90. (In Japanese).
364) A Successive Graphical Method of Design of a Cross-Flow Cooling
Tower
Kageyama, S.; Inazumi, H.
Shizuoka Univ.
Chern. Eng. Sci., V. 30, N. 7, July 1975, pp. 717-21.
365) The Role of the Cooling Tower Institute
Sussman, S.
Olin Corp.
79th AIChE Natl. Meet., (Houston Mar. 16-20, 1975) Pap. N. 58F,
II p.
366) Air Side Design and Operating Problems in Cooling Towers
Phelps, P. M.
Phelps Eng. Co.
ASME Pet. Mech. Eng. Conf. (Sept. 15-18,1974) (Abstr.)
Mech. Eng., V. 96, N. 10, Oct. 1974, pp. 58-65, Pap. N. 74-PET-29.
367) Performance and Design of a Turbulent Bed (Contactor (TBC Cooling
Tower
Hertwig, T. A.; Dengler, J. L.; Barile, R. G.
Purdue Univ.
AIChE Syrnp. Ser., V. 70, N. 138, 1974, pp. 154-62.
368) Cooling Tower Basin Design
Friar, F.
Chern. Eng., (New York), V. 81, N. IS, July 22,1974), pp. 122,124.
369) On the Minimum Size of Large Dry Cooling Towers with Combined
Mechanical and Natural Draft
Moore, F. K.
J. Heat Transfer, V. 95, N. 3, Aug. 1973, pp. 383-89.
370) Cooling Tower Conserves Water with Wood
Ecodyne Ltd. ; Gulf Oil Canada Ltd.
Can. Pet., V. 14, N. 5, May 1973, pp. 44-47.

COOLING TOWER LITERATURE

331

371) Analysis of Multiunit Counter-Cross-Flow Cooling Tower


Okubo, M.; Hirai, E.; Hayashi, Y.
Kagaku Kogaku 1972, V. 36, N. 2, pp. 204-10, Chern. Abstr. V. 76142735. (In Japanese).
Dep. Chern. Eng. Kanazawa Univ., Kanazawa, Japan.
372) A Method for Designing Counterflow Water Cooling Towers
Vojislav, A.
Eur. Fed. Chern. Eng. Int. 'Chern. Eng. Servo Mankind' Congr. (Paris
Sept. 3-9,1972)
Chirn. Ind. Genie Chirn., V. 105, N. IS, JUne-July 1972, pp. C17-C57,
Pap. N. 4.
373) Economic Aspects of Various (Cooling Tower) Condensation Processes
Blanck, D.
Tech. Mitt, V. 65, N. 5, May 1972, pp. 211-14. (In Gennan).
374) The Design of Cross-Flow Cooling Towers and Ammonia Stripping
Towers
Wnek, W. J.; Snow, R. H.
Ind. Eng. Chern. Process Des Dev., V. 11, N. 3, July 1972), pp. 343-49.
375) Cooling Tower Plume Abatement
Marley Co.; Hall, W. A.; Atlantic Richfield Co.
Chern. Eng. Progr., V. 67, N. 7, July 1971, pp. 52-54',
376) Cooling Towers Boost Water Reuse
Axsom, J.
Environ. Sci. Technol., V. 5, N. 3, Mar. 1971, pp. 204-6.
377) Mechanical-Draught Cooling Towers
Kunesch, A. M.
lnst. Chern. Eng. London + Southeast Br. 'Ind. Cooling' Symp. (Dec. 10,
1970).
Chern. Eng. (London), N. 253, Sept. 1971, pp. 337-42.
378) Salt-Water Cooling Tower
Enjay Chemical Co.; Nester, D. M.
Chern. Eng. Progr., V. 67, N. 7, July 1971, pp. 49-51.
379) The 'Uhermal and Functional Design of Natural-Draught Cooling Towers
Hawkins, P.
Inst. Chern. Eng. London + Southeast Br. 'Ind. Cooling' Symp (Dec. 10,
1970)
Chern. Eng. (London), N. 253, Sept. 1971, pp. 328-33.
380) The Aerodynamic Resistance of Cooling Towers
Konikowski, T.;Zembaty, W.
Brennst.-Waerrne-Kraft, V. 23, N. 10, Oct. 1971, pp. 441-45.

332

COOLING TOWERS

381) Evaluation of Cooling Tower Tests


Hiecke, R.
Chern. Tech. (Leipzig), V. 23, N. 2, Feb. 1971, pp. 76-83.
382) Design of Cross-Flow Cooling Towers and Ammonia Stripping Towers
Snow, R. H.;Wnek, W. J.
Res. Results Servo Ms. (Manuscript), ACS Single Article Announce N. 4
(Feb. 26, 1971), N. 70-482, 28 p.
383) Internal Design of Cells for Cooling Towers
Campbell, J. C;.
68th AIChE Nat. Meet., (Houston Feb. 28-Mar. 4,1971) Program
Pap. N. 70B.
384) (Noise from Cooling Towers of Various Designs)
Bublitz, D.
Ver Deut Ing-Deut Phys Ges. 'Acoust & Vibration Technol'Mtg.
(Berlin Sept. 16-18, 1970). (In German).
385) Natural Draft Cooling Towers
Stenning, A. H.; Furzer, I.
Ind. Eng. Chern. Process Des Develop., V. 8, N. 4, Oct. 1969, p. 599.
386) Mechanical Draught Cooling Towers
Hill, G. B.
Chern. Process Eng. Heat Transfer Surv., Aug. 1969, pp. 36-40.
387) Trends in Cooling Tower Construction
Castleberry, J. R.
Mater Protect, V. 8, N. 3, Mar. 1969, pp. 67-70.
388) Critical Considerations Regarding the Design of Cooling Towers, Taking
Account of the Enthalpy Difference
Alic, V.
Hung. Sci. Machine Constr. Ass. Mtg., (Budapest Apr. 9-12,1968) (Ger.
Abstr.).
389) Cooling Towers-3. Application of Air-Cooled Heat Exchangers
Smith, E. G.
AIChE Water Comm. Workshop; (Houston Apr. 24-25,1969), AIChE
Ind. Process Des
Water Pollut. Contr. Workshop Proc., V. 2, 1970, pp. 82-84.
390) Cooling Towers-I. Design of Cooling Towers Circulating Brackish
Waters
Deflon, J. G.
AIChE Water Comm. Workshop, (Houston Apr. 24-25, 1969) AIChE
Ind. Process Des
Water Pollut. Contr. Workshop Proc., V. 2, 1970, pp. 69-73.

COOLING TOWER LITERATURE


391) Factors to Consider in Selecting a Cooling Tower
Demonbrun, J. R.
Chern. Eng., V. 75, N. 19, Sept. 9, 1968, pp. 106-16.
392) Cross Flow Cooling Tower Analysed
Vouyoucalos, S.
Brit. Chern. Eng., V. 13, N., July 1968, pp. 1004-6.
393) Productivity Costimating-43. What is Cost of Cooling Towers
Nelson, W. L.
Oil Gas J., V. 65, N. 47, Nov. 20, 1967, pp. 182, 187.
394) (The Design of Cooling Towers)
Maschinenfabrik Ba1cke-Bochum; Spangenmacher, K.
2nd Intern. Heat Eng. Cant. (Karl-Marx-Stadt. E. Ger. Sept. 26-29,
1966).
395) Research into Evaporative Cooling in Cooling Towers
Berman, L. D.
2nd Intern. Heat Eng. Canf. (Karl-Marx-Stadt E. Ger. Sept. 26-29,
1966) (Abstr.).
396) Costlier Cooling Towers Require a New Approach to Water-Systems
Design
.'
Paige, P. M.
Chern. Eng., V. 74, N. 14, July 3,1967, pp. 93-96, 98.
397) (A Review of Design Methods for Cooling Towers)
Alic, F.
2nd Chisa Intern. Congr. (Marianske Lazne Sept. 12-19, 1965) Kern
Ind. (Zagreb), V. 7-425 (1966)
Brit. Chern. Eng., V. 11, N. 10, Oct. 1966, p. 1237.
398) (A New Design Method for Cooling Towers)
Singham, J. R.; Spalding, D. B.
2nd Chisa Intern. Congr. (MarianskeLazne Sept. 12-19, 1965)
Brit. Chern. Eng., V.11,N.10,Oct. 1966,p. 1237.

333

This page intentionally left blank

AUTHOR INDEX

Abel, J. F. 284,286,296
Abiru, H. 267
Abu-Sitta, S. H. 292,293,294,298,
301,304
Ahlgren, R. M. 312
Alic, V. 332,333
Aliev, N. D. 317
Allman, W. B. 283
Andeen, B. R. 316
Aramaki, M. 285
Armitt, J. 287
Askew, A. C., Jr. 328
Axsom, I. 331
Aynsley, E. 320
Baden, F. 162
Baechler, R. H. 327
Baker, D. R. 321,328
Balcer, J. M. 292
Baker, K. G. 325
Bandel, H. 296
Barber, F. R. 291
Barbu, V. 323,325
Barile, R. G. 330
Barry, R. E. 290
Bartlit, J. R. 314,315
Bartz, J. A. ,85
Bauer, R. Q. 162
Bearden, M. D. 314
Beecher, J. S. 310
Benenati, S. 282
Berliner, P. 288,295,300
Berman, L. D. 314,333
Berman, P. A. 292
Bettelheim, J. 306
Bhatti, M. S. 310
Bhumralkar, C. M. 274

Billings, R. W. 324
Billington, D. P. 284,286,296
Bird, J. L. 328
Bird, R. B. 58,123
Bischof, A. E. 319
Blake, M. P. 327
Blanck, D. 331
Bodas, J. 297
Boehm, A. H. 322
Boehm, O. 318
Boies, D. B. 288 ;
Boresi, A. P. 297
Boyack, B. E. 290
Brooke, J. M. 261
Br'own, C. W. 328
Brown, D. A. 276,319
Bruckenstein, S. 277
Bruegging, J. J. 303
Bublitz, D. 332
Buchert, K. P. 296
Buck, M. 307
Burger, R. 11,264,266,276,312,329
Burgmann, F. 318
Butler,P.318
Buxmann, J. 329
Cabral, B. F. 162,315
Campbell, J. C. 311,326,332
Caplan, F. 313,314
Carlson, T. B. 295
Carrasquel, S. 311
Castleberry, J. R. 332
Cecil, L. K. 321
Chan, A. S. L. 267,271
Chan, J. 270
Changnon, S. A., Jr. 318
Chatfield, D. L. 305
335

336

COOLING TOWERS

Chaturvedi, S. 269
Cheng,M.S.275,279,311
Cheremisinoff, N. P. 11,58,183
Cheremisinoff, P. N. 11,123,162,183
Chian, E. S. K. 312
Chiarioni, M. G. 315
Chilton, T. H. 34,58
Christiansen, P. B. 301
Christopher, P. J. 300
Chu, Y. H. 280
Clarke, D. G. 305
Clessuras, G. J. 292
Cohen, E. W. 304
Colbaugh, W. C. 319
Cole, P. P. 284
Comeaux, R. V. 327
Cooper, J. W. 214
Cooper, K. W. 265,268
Crits,G.J.284
Croley, T. E. 259,268,275,279,285
Croll, J. G. A. 265,278
Csanady, G. T. 319

Fang, H. H. P. 312
Farrell, C. 272,274,311
Feitler, H. 323
Fischer, P. 314
Fisher, H. D. 286
Fitzgerald, J. 280
Fleischman, M. 312
Forbes, M. C. 325
Forgo, L. 281
Fornesi, R. 263
Forster, L. L. 270
Forster, V. T. 300
Fosberg, T. M. 317
Foster, P. M. 291,306
Franco, R. J. 308,310
Frankenberg, T. T. 320
Frey, G. R. 281
Friar, F. 330
Fukuda, S. 285
Furlong, D. A. 292,316
Furzer, I. A. 294,315,323,327,332

Dabrowski, H. J. 2,77
Davenport, A. G. ,+98,304
Davis, C. 322
Davis, D. S. 325
Davis, E. J. 58
Decker, F. W. 319
Deflon, J. G. 301,332
Delaunay, J. 308
Demonbrun, J. R. 333
Dengler, J. L. 330
Dickinson, D. R. 291
Dicmas, J. J. 263
Distler, H. 326
Diver, M. 268,269,303
Doganoff, I. 327
Doise, A. G. 296
Dolan, N. E. 162,285
Dolhec, A. C. 292
Downing, D. G. 325
Drew, H. 321
Dropkin, D. 34
Duffey, J. G. 277

Gale, S. B. 277
Gardner, B. R. 273,292
Garton, R. R. 318
Geiss, H. 162
Ghosh, M. K. 324
Giaquinta, A. R. 259,268
Gilliland, E. R. 58
Gindler, B. J. 322
Giras, T. C. 292
Glater,J.321
Glicksman, L. R. 290,316
Glover, G. 284,323
Golay, M. W. 270
Goldstein, P. 319
Gorton, R. L. 289
Gottzmann, C. E. 85
Grier,J.C.265
Griffin, R. W. 316
Guild, D. A. 262
Gupta, A. K. 278,289
Gurfinkel, G. 296,299
Guven, O. 272,274,311
Guzy, J. G. 58

Egberongbe, S. A. 296
Elgawhary, A. W. 276,329
Elkin, H. F. 326
Engman, W. G. 328
Erth, R. A. 268

Haellgren, K. 308
Haeussler, W. 328
Haggerty, D. 275
Hall, W. A. 320,331
Hallett, G. E. 285,314,315
Hammill, M. P. 317

AUTHOR INDEX
Hanna, J. P. 267
Hansen, E. P. 289
Harris, T. G., III 261
Hart, J. A. 317,318
Harting, P. E. 308
Haschke, D. 162
Hashish, M. G. 292,294,301
Hatch, G. B. 327
Hawkins, P. 331
Hayashi, Y. 282,317,320,329,331
Hays, T. C. 292
Henley, E. J. 34
Henning, H. 329
Henriet, P. 315
Herberholz, P. 259
Hertwig, T. A. 330
Herzos, M. 285
Hess, H. 327
Hewitt, W. L. 295
Hiecke, R. 332
Hill, G. B. 287,332
Hilpert, R. 161
Hirnmelblau, D. M. 34,58
Hirai, E. 282,317,320,329,331
Hofmann, P. 262
Holburt, M. B. 322
Holder, D. W. 266
Hollands, K. G. T. 316
Holzhauer, R. 11
Holzhueter, E. 271
Hosler, C. L. 320
Hougen, O. A. 58
Hsu, T.-D. 259
Huang, C. H. 281
Huff, F. A. 318
Hundernann, A. S. 264
Ibrahim, S. H. 329
Inazumi, H. 283,330
Iorga, D. 323
Isyumov, N. 298
Ito, N. 329
Ivins, V. S. 85
Jablonka, G. E. 85
Jadaneantu, M. 323
Jarvis, T. J. 260
Jaske, R. T. 302,321
Johnson, B. M. 291
Johnson, D. A. 269,313
Jones, T. V. 266

Jones, W. J. 324
Jordan, D. R. 273,314
Kageyama, S. 283,330
Kast, W. 312
Kaye, S. 328
Kearney, D. W. 290
Keith, G. M. 325
Kelly, B. J. 327
Kelly, G. M. 283,330
Kelp, F. 298
Kamp, K. O. 265,278
Kern, D. Q. 58,123,161
Kershah, R. M. 283
Keyes, R. E. 297
Keys, C. 307
Kiopekly, G. 313
Klein, E. 276,316
Klein, G. 260
Klen, E. F. 265,269,313
Klenke, W. 310,317
Knopf, M. 295
Knudsen, J. G. 262,305,310
Knuesch, T. 11
Kohloss, F. H. 303
Kolflat, T. D. 11,85,293
Konikowski, T. 331
Kraetzig, W. B. 303
Krippene, B. C. 292
Krishna, R. G. V. 302
Kubal, D. 85
Kuehmsted, A. M. 320
Kumnick, L. R. 326
Kunesch, A. M. 331
Kuong, J. F. 322
Kyte, W. S. 306
Lague, J. S. 280
Lane, R. W. 317,324
Lanshaar, H. L. 297,303
Larinoff, M. W. 85,270,278,289
Larrabee, R. D. 286
Ledbetter, J. 302,319
Lee, J. W. 199
Lee, S. H. 262
Lefevre, M. 270,275
Lemrnens, P. 261
Lendvai-Lintner, E. 310
Leonard, J. W. 296
Leung,P.319,320
Levin, J. E. 288

337

338

COOLING TOWERS

Lichtenstein, J. 85 161
Lightfoot, E. N. 58,123
Limbird, A. G. 281
Lopez, P. R. 296
Lowe, H. J. 292
Macaluso, C. A. 319
Maisch, F. 274
Mapstone, G. E. 327
Margetts, M. J. 315
Martin, A. 29
Matson, J. V. 261
May, P. D. 276,316
Maze, R. W. 11,316,327
McAdams, W. H. 123
McCabe, W. L. 34,58
McChesney, H. R. 266
McConomy, T. A. 327
McDowell, D: W., Jr. 161
McGraw, M. G. 11
McHale, C. E. 85
McIlhenny, W. F. 273,314
McMackin, G. E. 292
Merkel, F. 123 '
Mesarovic, M. M.,296
Meystar, J. 265
Micheletti, W. C. 307
Mikol, W. W. 292
Miksad, R. W. 264
Mikyska, L. 324,327
Miles, H. B., III 276
Miliaras, E. 319
Miller, R. E. 303
Mirsky, G. R. 261
Mirza, S. 296
Misod, A. 271
Mitchell, S. W. W. 85
Mohler,E.F.,Jr. 326
Monjoie, M. 272
Monroe, R. C. 263,292,305
Moore, F. K. 298,313,330
Moore, R. E. 300,319,320
Moran, D. 315
Morgenweck, F. E. 323
Morse, R. W. 310
Morton, V. M. 291
Moses, R. J. 322
Moy, H. C. 277
Mueller, R. K. 296
Mungan, I. 260
Mussalli, U. G. 262

Nahavandi, A. N. 283
Nair, S. R. 318
Nakao, Y. 267
Narayanan, R. 278
Nash, W. A. 296
Negru, D. 323
Nelson, J. A. 325
Nelson, W. L. 333
Nester, D. B. 321
Nicoli, L. G. 302
Nielsen, H. J. 320
Niemann, H. J. 260
Noblett, J. G. 307
Oancea, N. D. 295,323,324
Oda, M. 285
Okubo, M. 317,331
Oleson, K. A. 85,322
O'Neill, P. S. 85
Ovard, J. C. 318,321
Owens, D. L. 325
Paige, P. M. 333
Pana, P. 295
Parekh, M. 123
Park, J. E. 263,321
Patel, K. N. 294
Patel, V. C. 268,272,275,279,311
Paterson, A. C. 268
Paul, G. T. 266
Perrinjaquet, M. 162
Perry, R. H. 34
Peterman, W. A. 281
Peters, H. L. 303
Petrillo, J. L. 320
Phelps,P.M.287,300,311,321330
Pinheiro, G. 292
'
Pludek, V. R. 199
Pommer, E. H. 326
Porter, R. W. 269
Prasad, A. 280
Printz, J. 325
Puckorius, P. R. 199
Pyle,D.S.313
Quast, U. 312
Rabb, A. 324
Ramsdell, R. G., Jr. 292
Rao, K. S. 280
Ratcliff, M. A. 264
Reed, C. E. 161

AUTHOR INDEX

Reed, D. T. 269
Reinisch, R. 327
Reinschmidt, K. F. 278
Reisman, J. I. 285,318
Resch, G. 318
Reverberi, A. 315
Rish, R. F. 286,320
Ritter,R.B.314
Robertson, M. W. 290
Robitaille, D. R. 311 ,313
Roffman, A. 214
Rogers, P. 299
Roma, C. 292
Rossie, J. P. 322
Russell, C. M. B. 266
Sanchez, A. J. 294
Savery, C. W. 312,317
Sawyer, R. A. 287
Schieber, J. R. 319
Schnob rich, W. C. 296
Schrecker, G. O. 262
Schrock, V. E. 280,329
Schubert, M. 327
Schultz, M. 308
Schultz, S. L. 259
Seiderer, S. 295
Septhon, H. H. 260
Serico, B. J. 283
Seward, R. B. 267
Sheef, T. J. 85
Shell, G. L. 270
Shema,B.F.327
Sherwood, P. W. 325
Sherwood, T. K. 58,123,161
Shieh, W. Y. J. 293
Shofner, F. 295,315,321
Shoji, I. 285
Siebert, O. 328
Siekmann, H. 271
Simmonds, S. H. 296
Silvestri, G. J. 85
Simpson, W. M. 123
Singer, I. A. 320
Singh, M. P. 278
Singham, J. R. 333
Sloan, L. 327
Sloat, S. S. 307
Smith, E. C. 85,278
Smith, E. G. 332
Smith, J. C. 34,58

Smith, J. K. 316
Smith, M. E. 320
Smith, R. M. 326
Snow,R.H. 299~31~32
Sobel, N. 272
Sockham, J. 319
Song, P. 328
Soo, S. L. 279
Spalding, D. B. 333
Spangemacher, K. 316,326
Spurr, G. 292
Staffin, H. K. 34
Staudt, W. 297
Stenning, A. H. 332
Stewart, B. F. 322
Stewart,W. E. 58,123
Story, M. 305
Strauss, S. 161,183
Streeton, D. F. 305
Suitor, J. W. 314
Sussman, S. 314,330
Taft,E.P.262
Tanis, J. N. 307 ,
Terry, S. L. 327 '
Thomas, C. O. 321
Tichenor, B. A. 304
Ting, H. T. 316
Townsend, C. R. 323
Trautenberg, G. A. 328
Treybal, R. E. 34,58
Troscinski, E. S. 162
Tsai, Y. J. 281
Uchiyama, T. 272,311
Vance, J. M. 263,321
Van Der Walt, N .
85
Van Wie, N. H. 263
Veazey, J. A. 261,308
Veldhuizen, H. 302,319
Vellozzi, J. W. 296
Vermeulen, T. 260
Veronda, D. R. 282
Viehweg, H. 327
Vladea, I. 288,323,324,325,326
Vodicka, V. 214,274,329
Vogt,K.J.162
Vojislav, A. 331
Von Allmen, F. 312
von Cleve, H. H. 279,313

.r.

339

340

COOLING TOWERS

von Wolfersdorff, W. D. B. 317


Vouyoucalos, S. 333
Walser, A. 296,299
Walston, K. R. 314
Walther, J. 264
Ward, R. 316
Watanabe, Y. 295
Watson, R. G. 162
Wearmouth, J. W. 266
Weast, R. C. 34
Webb, R. L. 290
Webb, R. O. 262
Webster, D. J. 85
Weder, B. 295
Weingarten, V. I. 282
Wendt, R. C. 270
West, L. A. 85
Westbrook, G. 272,273
Weyland, R. V. 326
Whillier, A. 271,294,298
Wigley, S. 311
Wilber, K. R. 315
Wilde, K. A. 307
Willa, J. L. 327,328

Williams, M. D. 314,315
Winchester, J. W. 324
Winiarski, L. D. 304
Wirth, L., Jf. 272
Witt, P. A. 302
Wnek, W. J. 299,331,332
Woelfel, R. 264
Wolf, J.P. 267
Wolfson, L. L. 328
Wrinkle, R. B. 321
Wykowski, J. C. 308
Yabe, K. 330
Yamamoto, D. 330
Yaninter, S. A. 306
Yao, S. C. 280,329
Yaworsky, Y. J. 292
Yeh, C. 293,299
Young, R. A. 123,162,183
Zecher, D. C. 323
Zembaty, W. 331
Zemenek, J. 313
Zerna, W. 260
Ziegenhorn, R. D. 324

-------------~---~---

SUBJECT INDEX
abstracts 259
acceptance testing 5
access 175
acetone in water 47
aco ustical aspects 318
adiabatic humidification 92
aerodynamic design 280,329
agricultural wastewater 260
air
-cooled cooling tower 297
humidity 145,311
inlet 5
movers 9
pollution 154
rate 127
saturation process 44
side design 287,330
vapor dynamics 269
-water mixtures 115
-water system 13
airborne contaminants 186
algal growth 326
alkalinity 194,310
ambient dry-bulb temperature 5
ambient wet-bulb temperature 5
American Power Conference
Proceegings 292
ammonia 83
stripping 299,332
analysis of hyperboloids 302
annual fixed charges 181
application 303
approach 107
to the wet-bulb 5
Arnold diffusion cell 55
asbestos fill packing 6
assisted-draught cooling tower 273

atmospheric
atmospheric
atmospheric
atmospheric
automation

conditions 134
effects 280
precipitation 259
spray tower 59,60,61
313

baffles 88
Baltimore Aircoil Co, 77,79
basin design 330
bids evaluation 179
bifurcation results ',284
biological effects 318
biologically treated wastewater 308
black box technique 39
blowdown 5,146,149,261,284,288,
301,311,312,313,314,317,318,
319,323,324,327,330
blowthrough tower 76
boiler blowdown 319
brackish water 262,301,333
brine concentration 272
buckling of cooling-tower shells 284
cable manufacture 282
calcium carbonate 'scale 187
calcium sulfate 321
solubility 313
calculation of city water/sewer tax
costs 182
capability penalties 181
capacity 5,300,321,325
capital costs 182
capital investment 181
caprolactum recovery 313
carbonate hardness 194
Camot cycle 315
casing 5

341

342

COOLING TOWERS

cell 6
cellular film 6
centrifugal fan 166
characteristic curves 129
chemical composition 149
chemical passivation 189
chemical treating agents 197,319
chilling systems 268
chlorine 193
chromate 277,317,323
removal 267,276
chrome treatment 307
circuit design 266
circula ting pumps 163
circulation rate 146
classification of cooling towers 59
Clausius-Clapeyron equation 15
climate 305
modification 324
climatic influences 296
climatological data 131
cocurrent crossflow 282
coil shed towers 59,63,65
collapse 278
,
combined wet/dry pooling 274
combustible construction 153
computer 323,327
code 296
model 307,311
simulation 274,316
test data 321
concentration cycles 6
concen tra tion gradient 47
concrete cooling tower maintenance

316
condensation 45
configurations 59
constants for heat capacity 23
construction 260
control system 323
convection 152
conversion factors 225
cooling tower
classifications 59
fill arrangements 90
market 2
operation 4,94
requisition 169,265
selection 134
subclassifications 59
Cooling Tower Institute 6,284,330
cooling water makeup 149

corrosion 186,310,311,313,323
control 188
detection 190
corrugated plate packing 313
cost 181,302,322,323,333
analysis 305
countercurrent cooling tower operation 97,110
counterflow 6,69,321
tower 62,283,312,316
critical temperature 13
crossflow 6,69,283,318,320
mechanical draft towers 73
tower 63,299,308,317
tower cooling diagram 127

data required with bids 176


decay of timber 326
deck-filled towers 59,62
deck-stacks 174
defini tions in thermodynamics 18
degrees of superheat 15
delta temperature 6
design 260,264,269,276,281,283,

287,295,327,330,333
conditions, 6
considerations 82,108
elemen ts 73,74
overview 8
parameters 110
performance 178,268
practices 125,270
principles 87
dew point 25
diffusion 134
calc ula tio ns 111
(redistribution) deck 6,44,46,47
units 113
diffusional heat transfer 87
direct-contact transfer 43
direct dry-type cooling tower 80
discharge of cooling water 261
displacement analyses 267
distribution system 6,70,173,178
downwind measurements 262
draft 68
drawings and performance curves

179
drift 6,146,262,315
deposition model 264

SUBJECT INDEX

eliminator 6,173,270,276,280,
329
measurement 321
drive shafts 167
and couplings 178
droplet measurements 291
droplet sampling devices 291
dry and wet recooling 295
dry bulb temperature 25
dry cooling 82,83,289,300,306,320,
324
towers 79,81,266,290
dry towers 289
dry-wet mechanical-draft cooling
tower 145,275,279,311
dynamic plume model 280
earthquake 298
design 304
ecological aspects 319
economic 183,259,268,275,316,322,
325,328
considera tions 181
effectiveness coefficient 135
efficiency 135,306
effluent 307,318
reduction 273
electric power plants 290
electrochemical removal 277
electrodialysis 273
water recovery 272
empirical approach to tower sizing
136
energy 280,310,312,313,315
and material balances 39
balance 35,36,37,96
penalties 181
enthalpies and humidities 115
enthalpy 20,38
changes 22,23
differenc~ 332
temperature diagram 126,133
transfer coefficients 317,320
values 24
environmental aspects 318
environmental conditions 157
environmental effects 290
environmental impact assessment
314,315
environmental problems 292
equilibrium curves 102,116

343

equilibrium pressure 13
evaluation parameters 283
evaporation 108,321
coefficient 317
losses 283,316
water cooling 263,317
exhaust air 144
experimental cooling tower 286
extensive property 19
factory-assembled towers 74,75
fan 165,177,292,313
-assisted hyperbolic towers 75,77
configuration 167
system efficiencies 263,305
fill 89,172
arrangements 70,90
bypass 209,210
material 65
packing 7
packing factors 137
water distribution 212
zoning subsystem 211
film
coefficients 317
packing 70,71
surface 88
fire hazard 1 53
first law of thermodynamics 38
fish protection 262
flexible coupled shaft 175
flow 89
allocations 210
variance 108
flowsheets 168,170
flue gas 154
washing 306
fluidized bed 316
fluidized turbulent bed contactor
309
fog 7,311,318,319
control 302
formation 143
forced draft 76,271,291
flow 295
fouling 43
measurement techniques 314
framework 172
freezing weather 142
friction factor 52
fungi 328

344

COOLING TOWERS

gas
absorption 88
cooler 150
cooling operations 150,151
laws 16
-liquid contacting 87
gear reducers 167,174,178
geometric imperfections 278
geometries 67
graphical methods 283
ground
area 132,136
concentration 154,157
fog 145
guarantee 175
gust factors 278
hardware 174
heat 19
absorbed 105
and mass transfer 312,317
and mass transfer analogies
44,314
and moisture dissipation 281
balance 141'
capacity 21
capacity curves 22
exchanger 43,281
exchanger design 43
load 7,127
load determination 104
of vaporization 24
rejection fluid 83 316
sink 3
'
transfer 35,68,314,315
transfer coefficient 45
transfer surface 305
Henry's law 51
high-impact polyethylene 200
historical developments 2
humid heat 26
humidification characteristics 112
humidity 91
charts 29,31,91
humid volume 26,29
hybrid cooling system 259
hydrogen evaluation 190
hyperbolic cooling towers 2 66 69
75,278,285,292,293,294,298,
299,301,304,320
hyperbolic natural-draft tower 61

hyperboloidal cooling tower 303


hyperboloidal shells 282
ice
control 211
damage 207
formation 318
prevention 209 211
.. prevention syst;m de'sign 207
lCIng 142
immersion heater 143
induced draft 7
industrial water cooling 315
inhibitors 191
installation 138
instrumentation 168
integration procedures 113
~nternal energy 20,36
mternal flow characteristics 266
inversion 157
ion exchanger 267276316
isothermal conditi;ns

44

kinetic energy 20,36


L:G ratio 126,134,135
lab cooling tower 324
laboratory simulation 272
Lake Michigan basin 324
Langelier and Ryznar equation 191
large cooling towers 268
latent heat effects 320
latent heat of vaporization 7
legal aspects 322
Legionnaire's disease 193
Lewis number 53,101,150
correlation 151,314
rela tionship 52
liquid
drop type 317
film resistance 112 113
loading 323
'
literature 259
location of the tower 138
louvers 7,173
low heat load 210
maintenance 320
makeup 7,313,314

SUBJECT INDEX
requirements 148
mass and heat transfer 297
mass transfer 35
coefficient 45,51
packing 296
theory 46
material 176
and coatings 325
and design 172
and energy balances 40
mechanical components 163
mechanical-draft cooling towers 59,
60,70,73,76,285,318
performance 142
mechanical equipment 174
membrane processes 321
meridional imperfections 265
meteorological parameters 281
meteorology 292
methods of calculation 297
mist-free operation 308
mode superposition 267
model 263
measurements 325
of natural draft cooling 304
modeling 312
molal absolute humidity 28
molar flux expression 51
molar heat of evolution 27
Mollier I-X diagram 328
motors 174,177
multicell mechanical-draft towers
145
multistage arrangement 298
natural-draft cooling towers 59,60,
65,78,269,275,281,323,324
natural-draft indirect-contact cooling
towers 259
net effective volume 7
noise 166,114,261,322
noncarbonate hardness 194
nonlinear dynamic analysis 299
normal boiling point 14
nozzles 9
number of transfer units 52
operating
costs 82,181,182
diagram 102

345

line 116
principles 3
problems 287
operation 125,288
and maintenance 181
optimization 283
organic growths 186,192
outside installation 138
overpressure 261,308

packing
coefficien ts 108
height specifications 112
material 88,112
partial saturation 17
particulate instrumentation 295
particulate sampler 315
partitions 173
passivation 189
performance 7,127,175,264,270,
271,279,289,309
curve 7,180,285,314,315
range 263
requirements 136
periodic cooling towers 290
pH 327
phosphate 198
phosphonates 307
plastic chemical resistance chart 201
plastic converting 295
plastic cooling towers 198,199,322,
324
plenum 7
p~ume 7,154,155,294,316,319,320,
325
abatement 331
and atmospheric air 143
behavior 281,290
control 285
pollutant discharge 277
pollution 269,324
control 325
pond systems 289
potential energy 20,36
power generating plants 291
power plants 275,277,289,290,298,
319,324
application 270
cooling 260,301
cooling towers 261

346

COOLING TOWERS

design 289
installation 68
power spray cooling 279
precipitation 318
pressure-temperature diagram 14
pretreatment of cooling water
systems 188
pretreatment procedures 190
preven tion of scale formation 188
Proceedings of the Conference on
Tower Shaped Structures 303
process conditions '130,133
process control 323
propeller fan 165
psychrometer 7
psychrometric chart 29,30,91,144
pump 163
intakes 263
pumping head 8
pumping systems 271
purchasing specifications 158
purge 5
radial air distribution 315
range 8
.
and gpm 107
variance 108
rating chart 130
recirculation 8,140
factors 321
problems 139
rates 149
recycling cooling 280,282
redwood fill 67
refinery cooling 307,316
refinery wastewater 317,326
reinforced concrete 327
chimneys 303
reinforced plastic mortar 311
reinforcing rings 267
relative humidity 144
reliability 181
reservoir operation 285
retention time 148
retrofit 264
reverse osmosis 312
rigid vinyl 326
ring water temperature 208
riparian law 322
riverwater cooling 316

rounded structures 272


rubber manufacturing 295
safety precautions 153
salinity and brine disposal 272
saltwater cooling towers 272,310,
314,321
saturated condition 16
saturated and stability index 191
scale formation 185,186
scaling 187,262,310
sealing 305
seawater cooling tower 285,314,317
sensible heat 3
service 311
sewer taxes savings 182
shape of cooling towers 278
sheeting 172
shell structures 296
size 298
factor with approach 109
sizing cooling towers 136
slime control 328
sodium molybdate 311,313
softening 261,269
source listing 259
specification guide 158
specific heat 22
speed reducers 167
spine-fin heat exchange 313
splash packing 70,71
splash zones 326
spray
cooling 269,270,276,324
system 312
technology 327
stability and dynamic analyses 293
stability class estimates 156
stack gases 156
staging 132
stainless steel 322
static pressure drop 8
steady-state conditions 39
steam
-electric power plants 322
sterilization 327
tables 215
turbine drives 324
Structural Models Conference 293
subclassifications of cooling towers
60

- -

----.~~~~~~~~~~~~~-~-----~~-

SUBJECT INDEX

submergence depth pumps 164


sump 8
supporting columns 267
suspended matter 186,193
temperature gradient 108
temporary hardness 194
terminology 5
test procedures 5
testing 179
thermal cycle 319,320
thermal design 296
thermal efficiency 324
thermal loading 286
thermal performance 328,329
thermal pollution 1,322
thermal power plant 297
thermodynamics 259
models 279
thin-shell concrete 286
thin-shell finite element 271
topographical considerations 2
total dissolved solids 8
total hardness 194
tower
characteristics 127
coefficients 125
designs 77,136
orientation 140
packing 90
shells 260,264
sizing 113,136
specification 104
transfer rates 306
units 51
transport modeling 262
treatment of the lumber 173
trickle film 323,324
turbine 175,177
drive 300
turbulent diffusion 156
turbulent pllime zone 156
two-film theory 47
underground cooling towers 294,298
valves 168
vaporization process 14
vaporizing 310
vapor pressure 13
curve for water 14

347

vapor system 13
vertical turbulence 155
vibration 175,286,287,301
analysis 267
viscoelastic cooling tower 297
vortex formation 164
wake and gust loading 287
wake formation 145
waste
disposal 316
heat 274,277,322
heat disposal 316
treatment 326
wastewater 318
effluent 312
water 262
analysis 194
chillers 265
consumption 149,314
contaminants 186
cost 182
distribution system 72
intakes 262
load 8
practices 293 '
rates 127
systems 307
. temperature 106
treatment 185,197,265
wet-bulb temperature 8,26,27,105,
106,130,132,287
determination 104
wet decking fill 277
wet-dry cooling tower 64,83,84,278,
279,285,290
wet-dry transfer 288
wet gas 15
wet peaking 270
wind 266,292,298,311
effects 260,329
friction 285
load 264,272,274,303
stresses 294
velocities 131
windage losses 146
winter operating modes 213
winter operation 141,207,315
wood 311,325
rot 328
work 19

MORE VALUABLE BOOKS


ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION AND CONTROLP. Aarne Vesilind
WATER TREATMENT PLANT DESIGN-Robert L. Sanks
UNIT CONVERSIONS AND FORMULAS MANUAL-Nicholas P.
Cheremisinoff and Paul N. Cheremisinoff
TREATMENT & DISPOSAL OF WASTEWATER SLUDGESP. Aarne Vesilind
RESOURCE RECOVERY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT-Robert M.
Clark & James I. Gillean
AUTOMATIC PROCESS CONTROL-Paul N. Cheremisinoff &
Harlan J. Perlis
CHEMISTRY IN WATER REUSE-Vol. 1 & 2-William J. Cooper
CHEMISTRY OF NATURAL WATERS-Samuel D. Faust & Osman M. Aly
ORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING HAZARDS-Alan S. Goldfarb
ATMOSPHERIC POLLUTANTS IN NATURAL WATERSSteven J. Eisenreich
.
BIOGAS PRODUCTION AND UTILIZATION-Elizabeth C. Price &
Paul N. Cheremisinoff
ECONOMIC ANALYSIS FOR FISHERIES MANAGEMENT PLANSLee G. Anderson
COOLING TOWERS-Selection, Design & Practice-Nicholas P.
Cheremisinoff & Paul N. Cheremisinoff
TRACE METALS IN THE ENVIRONMENT-Vol.1-6-lvan C. Smith
& Bonnie L. Carson
FAST NEUTRON ACTIVATION ANALYSIS-John W. McKlveen
SOLAR HEATING AND COOLING OF BUILDINGS-Richard S. Greeley
ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH CHEMISTRY-James D. McKinney
ASBESTOS PARTICLE ATLAS-Walter C. McCrone
CONTAMINANTS AND SEDIMENTS-Vol. 1 & 2-Robert A. Baker
METHANE GENERATION & RECOVERY FROM LANDFILLS-EMCON
Associates
COMPOST ENGINEERING PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICER. Tim Haug
ATMOSPHERIC SULFUR DEPOSITION-David S. Shriner
SYNTHETIC FOSSIL FUEL TECHNOLOGY-K. E. Cowser
PLASTIC-PACKED TRICKLING FILTERS-Erik Sarner
SLUDGE-HEALTH RISKS OF LAND APPLICATION-Gabriel Bitton
WASTEWATER ENGINEERING DESIGN FOR UNSEWERED AREASRein Laak

~tJ
ANN ARBOR SCIENCE
~

PUBLISHERS INC TH[ BUTTERWORTH GROUP

ISB N 0-250-40407-9