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What is/ was Modern Architecture?

In other words, are we still today in the era of Modern Architecture, or is it over,

today in the era of Modern Architecture, or is it over, having been replaced by some

having been replaced by some form of "Post-Modernism"?

Where do we locate Modern Architecture?

• Gothic, about 1150 to 1350 • Renaissance, about 1400 to 1600 • Baroque, about 1600 to 1700 • Rococo, about 1700 to 1750 • Neo-Classicism, about 1700 to 1800 • 19 th Century, 1800 to 1900 Modernism, about 1900 to ?

Design Environments before the Industrial Revolution

(1) Neo-classicism (2) Picturesque (3) Gothic Revival

Design Environments before the Industrial Revolution (1) Neo-classicism (2) Picturesque (3) Gothic Revival

(1)(1) NEONEO--CLASSICISMCLASSICISM

(1) (1) NEO NEO - - CLASSICISM CLASSICISM

Neo-classicism

Definition:Definition:

NeoNeo--classical,classical, oror "new""new" classical,classical, architecturearchitecture describesdescribes buildingsbuildings thatthat areare inspiredinspired byby thethe classicalclassical architecturearchitecture particularlyparticularly ofof ancientancient GreeceGreece andand Rome.Rome.

AA NeoNeo--classicalclassical buildingbuilding isis likelylikely toto havehave somesome oror allall ofof thesethese features:features:

or or all all of of these these features: features: Symmetrical Symmetrical shape shape Triangular

SymmetricalSymmetrical shapeshape TriangularTriangular pediment DomedDomed roofroof

TheThe useuse ofof thethe GreekGreek && RomanRoman OrdersOrders

TallTall columns/columns/ ordersorders thatthat riserise thethe fullfull heightheight ofof thethe buildingbuilding

OsterleyOsterley ParkPark,, Hounslow,Hounslow, London,London, RobertRobert AdamAdam
OsterleyOsterley ParkPark,, Hounslow,Hounslow, London,London, RobertRobert AdamAdam

NeoNeo--classicismclassicism

Neoclassicism represents simplification after Baroque and Rococo:

straight lines are favored over curves, volumes are less often contrasted, adornments are fewer, symmetry becomes a must columns and lintels are more frequent than arches, triangular pediments than semi-circular ones. balustrades crown buildings.

lintels are more frequent than arches, triangular pediments than semi-circular ones. balustrades crown buildings.

NeoNeo--classicismclassicism

Origin

During the 1500s, the famous Renaissance architect Andrea Palladio awakened an interest in the architecture of ancient Greece and Rome. Palladio's ideas became the model for architecture in Europe for many centuries. In the late 1700s and early 1800s, the newly-formed United States drew upon classical ideals to construct grand government buildings as well as smaller private homes.

United States drew upon classical ideals to construct grand government buildings as well as smaller private
UnitedUnited StatesStates CapitolCapitol,, Washington,Washington, D.C.,D.C., 17931793--presentpresent
UnitedUnited StatesStates CapitolCapitol,, Washington,Washington, D.C.,D.C., 17931793--presentpresent

NeoNeo--classicismclassicism

The neoclassical movement that produced Neoclassical architecture began in the mid- 18th century, (1750 -1850) Reaction against both the surviving Baroque and Rococo styles, and as a desire to return to:

the perceived "purity" of the arts of Rome, to a lesser extent, 16th century Renaissance Classicism.

the more vague perception ("ideal") of Ancient Greek arts (where almost no Western artist had actually been) and

NeoNeo--classicismclassicism

The theme of neo-classicism:

(1) History (2) Purity (3) Rationality (4) Education

Neo Neo - - classicism classicism The theme of neo-classicism: (1) History (2) Purity (3) Rationality

NeoNeo--classicismclassicism

(I) History The rediscovery of the past and the new history. The past as an architectural department store. Robert Adam (1728-92). Adam as a neoclassicist and a decorator. Example; Osterley Park, Hounslow, London,

1762-80.

NeoNeo--classicismclassicism

OsterleyOsterley ParkPark,, Hounslow,Hounslow, London,London, 17621762--8080 RobertRobert AdamAdam

Front elevation
Front elevation

NeoNeo--classicismclassicism

OsterleyOsterley ParkPark,, Hounslow,Hounslow, London,London, 17621762--8080 RobertRobert AdamAdam

Etruscan room
Etruscan room

NeoNeo--classicismclassicism

FoundationFoundation ofof ModernModern ArchitecturalArchitectural TheoryTheory

OsterleyOsterley ParkPark,, Hounslow,Hounslow, London,London, 17621762--8080 RobertRobert AdamAdam

Entrance hall
Entrance hall

NeoNeo--classicismclassicism

(2) Purity The classical past as good architecture, and a source of basic principles. The desire to strip away illusion, ambiguity, complexity (Baroque & Rococo) Church of St. Genevieve/ The Pantheon, Paris, 1757-90, Jacques-Germain Soufflot

(1713-80).

NeoNeo--classicismclassicism

ChurchChurch ofof St.GenevieveSt.Genevieve// TheThe PantheonPantheon,, Paris,Paris, 17571757--90,90, JacquesJacques--GermainGermain SoufflotSoufflot (1713(1713--80).80).

- - 90, 90, Jacques Jacques - - Germain Germain Soufflot Soufflot (1713 (1713 - -
Front elevation / entry
Front elevation / entry

NeoNeo--classicismclassicism

ChurchChurch ofof St.GenevieveSt.Genevieve// TheThe PantheonPantheon,, Paris,Paris, 17571757--90,90, JacquesJacques--GermainGermain SoufflotSoufflot (1713(1713--80).80).

View up towards dome
View up towards dome
1757 - - 90, 90, Jacques Jacques - - Germain Germain Soufflot Soufflot (1713 (1713 -

NeoNeo--classicismclassicism

ChurchChurch ofof St.GenevieveSt.Genevieve// TheThe PantheonPantheon,, Paris,Paris, 17571757--90,90, JacquesJacques--GermainGermain SoufflotSoufflot (1713(1713--80).80).

- 90, 90, Jacques Jacques - - Germain Germain Soufflot Soufflot (1713 (1713 - - 80).
Interior court with frescoes
Interior court with frescoes

NeoNeo--classicismclassicism

ChurchChurch ofof St.GenevieveSt.Genevieve// TheThe PantheonPantheon,, Paris,Paris, 17571757--90,90, JacquesJacques--GermainGermain SoufflotSoufflot (1713(1713--80).80).

, Paris, Paris, 1757 1757 - - 90, 90, Jacques Jacques - - Germain Germain Soufflot
, Paris, Paris, 1757 1757 - - 90, 90, Jacques Jacques - - Germain Germain Soufflot

NeoNeo--classicismclassicism

(3) Rationality Interest in pure geometrical forms and volumes. The "visionary" or "revolutionary" architecture of Etienne-Louis Boullee (1728-99). Project for Newton Cenotaph, 1784.

or "revolutionary" architecture of Etienne-Louis Boullee (1728-99). Project for Newton Cenotaph , 1784.

NeoNeo--classicismclassicism

ProjectProject forfor NewtonNewton CenotaphCenotaph,, 1784.1784.

Neo Neo - - classicism classicism Project Project for for Newton Newton Cenotaph Cenotaph , ,

NeoNeo--classicismclassicism

RoyalRoyal saltworkssaltworks atat ArcArc--etet--SenansSenans,, 1770s,1770s, ClaudeClaude--NicolasNicolas LedouxLedoux [1736[1736--1806]).1806]).

et - - Senans Senans , , 1770s, 1770s, Claude Claude - - Nicolas Nicolas Ledoux

NeoNeo--classicismclassicism

(4)(4) EducationEducation TheThe teachingteaching responsibilitiesresponsibilities ofof design:design: thethe dutyduty ooff thethe architectarchitect oror otherother educatededucated personperson asas aa citizen.citizen. ExplicitExplicit teaching:teaching: thethe newnew museums,museums, includingincluding thosethose ofof ThomasThomas JeffersonJefferson (1743(1743--1826)1826) atat thethe secondsecond MonticelloMonticello (1793(1793--1809),1809), nearnear Charlottesville,Charlottesville, Virginia,Virginia, andand SirSir JohnJohn SoaneSoane inin hishis househouse inin London.London. TheThe neoclassicalneoclassical capitol:capitol: UnitedUnited StatesStates CapitolCapitol,, Washington,Washington, D.C.,D.C., 17931793--present,present, architects:architects: everyone,everyone, butbut especiallyespecially WilliamWilliam Thornton,Thornton, BenjaminBenjamin HenryHenry LatLatroberobe (1764(1764--1820),1820), CharlesCharles Bulfinch,Bulfinch, ThomasThomas U.U. Walter.Walter.

Lat robe robe (1764 (1764 - - 1820), 1820), Charles Charles Bulfinch, Bulfinch, Thomas Thomas U.

NeoNeo--classicismclassicism

FoundationFoundation ofof ModernModern ArchitecturalArchitectural TheoryTheory

UnitedUnited StatesStates CapitolCapitol,, Washington,Washington, D.C.,D.C., 17931793--presentpresent

United United States States Capitol Capitol , , Washington, Washington, D.C., D.C., 1793 1793 - -

NeoNeo--classicismclassicism SourceSource ofof InspirationInspiration

classicism Source Source of of Inspiration Inspiration Architects of the time drew inspiration from a number

Architects of the time drew inspiration from a number of architectural building types taken from antiquity:

Most common resources are:

types taken from antiquity: Most common resources are: (1) The Roman triumphal arch. (2) The Greek

(1) The Roman triumphal arch. (2) The Greek / Roman temple.

(1)(1) TheThe RomanRoman TriumphalTriumphal ArchArch

(1) (1) The The Roman Roman Triumphal Triumphal Arch Arch

NeoNeo--classicismclassicism TheThe BuildingBuilding ExampleExample

ArcArc dede TriompheTriomphe dudu Carrousel,Carrousel, ParisParis

(1806-08(

))

CharlesCharles PiercierPiercier andand PierrePierre FrancoisFrancois-- LeonardLeonard FontaineFontaine

CopiedCopied thethe detaildetail ofof ArchArch ofof ConstantineConstantine

massivemassive rectangularrectangular slabslab ofof masonrymasonry withwith threethree holesholes inin itit--thethe centercenter holehole isis thethe mainmain arch,arch, thethe otherother twotwo areare lowerlower andand narrowernarrower subsidiarysubsidiary arches.arches. FourFour columns,columns, dividingdividing thethe arches,arches, thatthat standstand onon pedestalspedestals andand risingrising toto anan entablature,entablature, whichwhich breaksbreaks outout overover eacheach separateseparate columncolumn andand atat eacheach ofof thosethose pointspoints ofof breakingbreaking outout carriescarries aa carvedcarved standingstanding figure.figure.

points points of of breaking breaking out out carries carries a a carved carved standing standing
points points of of breaking breaking out out carries carries a a carved carved standing standing
points points of of breaking breaking out out carries carries a a carved carved standing standing

(2)(2) TheThe RomanRoman // GreekGreek TempleTemple

(2) (2) The The Roman Roman / / Greek Greek Temple Temple

NeoNeo--classicismclassicism TheThe BuildingBuilding ExampleExample

Maison Carree ( 130 AD )

‘Temple architecture were used widely as an antique model for architecture. The best preserved of all Roman temples is the Corinthian Maison Carree at Nimes (c. AD 130). A typical temple - a rectangular building with an open portico and pediment in front with columns all round - was Used as a model for churches widely in the eighteenth century. Attracted such bored epithets as 'mere copyism and 'cold imitation' to the Neo classical movement

century. Attracted such bored epithets as 'mere copyism and 'cold imitation' to the Neo classical movement
century. Attracted such bored epithets as 'mere copyism and 'cold imitation' to the Neo classical movement
century. Attracted such bored epithets as 'mere copyism and 'cold imitation' to the Neo classical movement
LaLa MadeleineMadeleine (1807(1807--1842)1842)
LaLa MadeleineMadeleine (1807(1807--1842)1842)

begunbegun asas aa church,church, waswas continuedcontinued byby NapoleonNapoleon asas aa TTempleemple ofof GloryGlory butbut waswas completedcompleted asas aa churchchurch inin 1842.1842. DirectDirect referencereference toto thethe MaisonMaison CarreeCarree,, resultingresulting aa lifelesslifeless paraphraseparaphrase ofof anan antiqueantique RomanRoman temple.temple.

NeoNeo--classicismclassicism

(a)

FRANCE

(b)

ENGLAND

(c)

GERMAN

NeoNeo--classicismclassicism

Neo Neo - - classicism classicism (a) (a) France France Most Most telling telling images images

(a)(a) FranceFrance

Neo Neo - - classicism classicism (a) (a) France France Most Most telling telling images images

MostMost tellingtelling imagesimages ofof neoneo-- classicismclassicism beforebefore andand priorprior toto thethe FrenchFrench Revolution.Revolution. SpearheadedSpearheaded byby 22 architects:architects:

(1736(1736--1806)1806) (1728(1728--1799)1799)
(1736(1736--1806)1806)
(1728(1728--1799)1799)

ClaudeClaude--NicolasNicolas LedouxLedoux

EtienneEtienne--LouisLouis BoulleeBoullee

ArchitectureArchitecture asas anan expressiveexpressive language.language.

- - Louis Louis Boullee Boullee Architecture Architecture as as an an expressive expressive language. language.
- - Louis Louis Boullee Boullee Architecture Architecture as as an an expressive expressive language. language.

i)i) ClaudeClaude NicholasNicholas LedouxLedoux

i) i) Claude Claude Nicholas Nicholas Ledoux Ledoux

LedouxLedoux

RevolutionaryRevolutionary architectarchitect inin hishis approachapproach toto thethe architecturalarchitectural idealideal mademade throughthrough geometrygeometry LedouxLedoux waswas nono meremere copyistcopyist eveneven whenwhen hehe appliedapplied conventionalconventional details.details. HeHe designeddesigned aa numbernumber ofof buildingsbuildings betweenbetween 17651765 andand 17801780 inin whichwhich hehe attemptedattempted toto reconcilereconcile thethe traditionaltraditional elementselements ofof FrenchFrench classicismclassicism withwith thethe newnew spiritspirit ofof thethe antiqueantique

of of French French classicism classicism with with the the new new spirit spirit of of

TollhousesTollhouses (1780(1780s)s)

LedouxLedoux

ExploredExplored rangerange ofof neoneo--classicalclassical

combinations.combinations.

BasicallyBasically cubecube--likelike andand includedincluded templetemple frontsfronts with:with:

ArcuatedArcuated PalladianPalladian windowswindows PeristylesPeristyles DomesDomes AA hosthost ofof otherother classicalclassical elements.elements.

of of other other classical classical elements. elements. Specialty Specialty is is in in the the

SpecialtySpecialty isis inin thethe combinationcombination oror rere-- constitutionconstitution ofof architecturalarchitectural arrangement.arrangement.

combination or or re re - - constitution constitution of of architectural architectural arrangement. arrangement.
combination or or re re - - constitution constitution of of architectural architectural arrangement. arrangement.

LedouxLedoux

RoyalRoyal SaltworksSaltworks atat ChauxChaux (1775(1775--

1779)1779)

Aerial view showing the salt works which were built at the center of the double
Aerial view showing the salt works which were built at the
center of the double D-shaped plan
which were built at the center of the double D-shaped plan Director's House, Saltworks, Arc et

Director's House, Saltworks, Arc et Senans; note the Banded Doric columns

plan Director's House, Saltworks, Arc et Senans; note the Banded Doric columns The curved range of

The curved range of work buildings

LedouxLedoux

ChateauChateau dede BenouvilleBenouville,, CalvadosCalvados

(1768(1768--75)75)

LedouxLedoux waswas nono meremere copyistcopyist eveneven whenwhen hehe appliedapplied conventionalconventional details.details.

HeHe designeddesigned aa numbernumber ofof buildingsbuildings betweenbetween 17651765 andand 17801780 inin whichwhich hehe attemptedattempted toto reconcilereconcile thethe traditionaltraditional elementselements ofof FrenchFrench classicismclassicism withwith thethe newnew spiritspirit ofof thethe antique.antique.

classicism with with the the new new spirit spirit of of the the antique. antique. Besançon.

Besançon. Theater, 1775-79

classicism with with the the new new spirit spirit of of the the antique. antique. Besançon.
classicism with with the the new new spirit spirit of of the the antique. antique. Besançon.
classicism with with the the new new spirit spirit of of the the antique. antique. Besançon.

ii)ii) EtienneEtienne--LouisLouis BoulleeBoullee

ii) ii) Etienne Etienne - - Louis Louis Boullee Boullee

BoulleeBoullee

ArchitecturalArchitectural visionaryvisionary ofof France.France. LittleLittle builtbuilt worksworks moremore ofof anan architecturalarchitectural theorist.theorist. VisionVision soaredsoared beyondbeyond conventionalconventional meansmeans designsdesigns asas aa formform ofof poeticpoetic communication.communication. UnUn--builtbuilt abstractabstract projectsprojects purepure studiesstudies ofof purepure geometry.geometry. UtopianUtopian idealsideals architecturearchitecture mustmust bebe associatedassociated withwith politicspolitics andand thethe socialsocial conditioncondition toto leadlead thethe wayway toto aa newnew worldworld ofof betterbetter standards.standards.

to to lead lead the the way way to to a a new new world world

BoulleeBoullee

CenotaphCenotaph && MonumentMonument forfor SirSir IsaacIsaac NewtonNewton (1784)(1784)

HugeHuge hollowhollow spheresphere asas metaphoricalmetaphorical tributetribute toto thethe scientistscientistss work.work.

to to the the scientist scientist ’ ’ s s work. work. Monumental Monumental scale scale

MonumentalMonumental scalescale withwith strippedstripped downdown classicizingclassicizing elements.elements.

BuildingBuilding toto househouse aa planetariumplanetarium andand shrine.shrine.

Interior View - Night: Internal illumination system to simulate the solar system.

Internal illumination system to simulate the solar system. Exterior View: note rows of cypress trees ringing

Exterior View: note rows of cypress trees ringing the sphere

Internal illumination system to simulate the solar system. Exterior View: note rows of cypress trees ringing

BoulleeBoullee

BibliothequeBibliotheque dudu RoiRoi (The(The NationalNational Library)Library) 17881788

LibraryLibrary hallhall consistingconsisting ofof tunneltunnel--likelike space,space, defineddefined byby wallswalls ofof stacksstacks andand aa cofferedcoffered barrelbarrel vault.vault. BetweenBetween wallwall andand vault,vault, fullfull lengthlength colonnadecolonnade toto hihighlightghlight thethe vvastnessastness ofof thethe overalloverall scale.scale.

colonnade to to hi hi ghlight ghlight the the v v astness astness of of the
colonnade to to hi hi ghlight ghlight the the v v astness astness of of the

iii)iii) AlexanderAlexander--PierrePierre VignonVignon

iii) iii) Alexander Alexander - - Pierre Pierre Vignon Vignon

VignonVignon

LaLa MadeleineMadeleine (1807(1807--1842)1842)

begunbegun asas aa church,church, waswas continuedcontinued byby NapoleonNapoleon asas aa TempleTemple ofof GloryGlory butbut waswas completedcompleted asas aa churchchurch inin 1842.1842. DirectDirect referencereference toto thethe MaisonMaison CarreeCarree,, resultingresulting aa lifelesslifeless paraphraseparaphrase ofof anan antiqueantique RomanRoman temple.temple. TheoristTheorist WinckelmannWinckelmann wouldwould disagreedisagree withwith suchsuch approachapproach ofof directdirect copyismcopyism

would would disagree disagree with with such such approach approach of of direct direct copyism copyism
would would disagree disagree with with such such approach approach of of direct direct copyism copyism
would would disagree disagree with with such such approach approach of of direct direct copyism copyism

iv)iv) JacquesJacques--GermainGermain SoufflotSoufflot

17131713 -- 17801780

iv) iv) Jacques Jacques - - Germain Germain Soufflot Soufflot 1713 1713 - - 1780 1780

SoufflotSoufflot

ChurchChurch ofof St.St. Genevieve/Genevieve/ Pantheon,Pantheon,

ParisParis (1757(1757--92)92)

RemarkedRemarked onon lessonslessons fromfrom gothicgothic churches:churches:

TruthTruth ofof structurestructure inin RomanRoman revivalrevival mode.mode. QuestionQuestion thethe validityvalidity ofof RomanRoman classicalclassical design.design.

of of Roman Roman classical classical design. design. Plan Plan resembling resembling St St Mark Mark

PlanPlan resemblingresembling StSt MarkMarkss inin VeniceVenice

GreekGreek crosscross DomesDomes supportedsupported byby singlesingle columnscolumns withwith straightstraight entablaturesentablatures LightnessLightness ofof structurestructure derivedderived fromfrom gothicgothic examplesexamples

Lightness Lightness of of structure structure derived derived from from gothic gothic examples examples
Lightness Lightness of of structure structure derived derived from from gothic gothic examples examples

SoufflotSoufflot

ChurchChurch ofof St.St. Genevieve/Genevieve/ Pantheon,Pantheon,

ParisParis (1757(1757--92)92)

PlanPlan resemblingresembling StSt MarkMarkss inin VeniceVenice

GreekGreek crosscross DomesDomes supportedsupported byby singlesingle columnscolumns withwith straightstraight entablaturesentablatures LightnessLightness ofof structurestructure derivedderived fromfrom gothicgothic examplesexamples GothicGothic lightnesslightness withwith Greek/RomanGreek/Roman styling.styling. InteriorInterior RomanRoman inin feelingfeeling andand richrich inin decoration.decoration. ToTo comparecompare withwith SirSir JohnJohn SoaneSoaness BankBank ofof EnglandEngland

To To compare compare with with Sir Sir John John Soane Soane ’ ’ s s
To To compare compare with with Sir Sir John John Soane Soane ’ ’ s s
To To compare compare with with Sir Sir John John Soane Soane ’ ’ s s

NeoNeo--classicismclassicism

Neo Neo - - classicism classicism (b) (b) England England

(b)(b) EnglandEngland

Neo Neo - - classicism classicism (b) (b) England England
Neo Neo - - classicism classicism (b) (b) England England

NeoNeo--classicismclassicism

EnglandEngland

EnglandEngland mademade thethe mostmost determineddetermined efforteffort toto applyapply thethe newnew archaeologicalarchaeological informationinformation toto thethe creationcreation ofof aa newnew architecturearchitecture directlydirectly inspiredinspired byby thethe antique.antique. SometimesSometimes theythey changedchanged theirtheir contextcontext toto gardengarden buildingsbuildings andand interiorinterior space.space. ThereThere werewere earlyearly architectsarchitects usedused informationinformation fromfrom previousprevious architectsarchitects likelike Palladio,Palladio, butbut laterlater generationgeneration preferredpreferred toto studystudy thethe antiqueantique modelsmodels fromfrom firstfirst hand.hand.

preferred preferred to to study study the the antique antique models models from from first first

NeoNeo--classicismclassicism (England)(England) BuildingBuilding ExamplesExamples

BankBank ofof England,England, LondonLondon

(1788(1788--1833)1833)

SirSir JohnJohn SoaneSoane

EvidentEvident areare thethe basicbasic geometricgeometric shapesshapes ofof thethe composition.composition. FlatFlat surfacesurface expressionexpression stressingstressing thethe crispcrisp outline.outline. Pilasters,Pilasters, entablaturesentablatures andand cofferscoffers reducedreduced toto aa thinthin diagrammaticdiagrammatic patternspatterns ofof groovesgrooves andand fretwork.fretwork. RigoristRigorist tendenciestendencies evident.evident.

of of grooves grooves and and fretwork. fretwork. Rigorist Rigorist tendencies tendencies evident. evident.
of of grooves grooves and and fretwork. fretwork. Rigorist Rigorist tendencies tendencies evident. evident.
of of grooves grooves and and fretwork. fretwork. Rigorist Rigorist tendencies tendencies evident. evident.

NeoNeo--classicismclassicism EnglandEngland BuildingBuilding ExamplesExamples

England England Building Building Examples Examples Chiswick Chiswick Hall/ Hall/ House House Lord Lord

ChiswickChiswick Hall/Hall/ HouseHouse

LordLord BurlingtonBurlington

LordLord BurlingtonBurlington hadhad anticipatedanticipated thethe newnew wavewave ofof enthusiasmenthusiasm forfor thethe antique.antique. HisHis knowledgeknowledge ofof thethe antiqueantique isis basedbased onon Palladio'sPalladio's architecturearchitecture andand hishis codifiedcodified andand illuminatedilluminated drawingsdrawings ofof thethe antique.antique.

and his his codified codified and and illuminated illuminated drawings drawings of of the the antique.
and his his codified codified and and illuminated illuminated drawings drawings of of the the antique.

NeoNeo--classicismclassicism

Neo Neo - - classicism classicism (c) (c) Germany Germany

(c)(c) GermanyGermany

Neo Neo - - classicism classicism (c) (c) Germany Germany
Neo Neo - - classicism classicism (c) (c) Germany Germany

NeoclassicismNeoclassicism inin GermanyGermany

ArchitectsArchitects inin GermanyGermany developeddeveloped aa severesevere butbut inventiveinventive stylestyle inin thethe 1790s1790s thatthat waswas indebtedindebted toto LedouxLedoux AsAs wellwell asas toto Winckelmann'sWinckelmann's callcall forfor aa returnreturn toto thethe spiritspirit ofof ancientancient GreekGreek architecturearchitecture TheThe greatgreat monumentmonument ofof thethe BerlinBerlin schoolschool waswas thethe BrandenburgBrandenburg GateGate (1789(1789--93)93) byby LanghansLanghans

school school was was the the Brandenburg Brandenburg Gate Gate (1789 (1789 - - 93) 93)

NeoNeo--classicismclassicism (Germany)(Germany) BuildingBuilding ExamplesExamples

(Germany) (Germany) Building Building Examples Examples Brandenburg Brandenburg Gate Gate (1789 (1789 - - 93) 93)
(Germany) (Germany) Building Building Examples Examples Brandenburg Brandenburg Gate Gate (1789 (1789 - - 93) 93)

BrandenburgBrandenburg GateGate (1789(1789--93)93) LanghansLanghans DistantlyDistantly inspiredinspired byby thethe propylaeapropylaea onon thethe AcropolisAcropolis inin Athens,Athens, itit waswas thethe firstfirst ofof thethe ceremonialceremonial DoricDoric gatewaysgateways toto riserise inin modernmodern Europe.Europe. TheThe GreekGreek revivalrevival inin GermanyGermany waswas linkedlinked withwith thethe growthgrowth ofof PrussianPrussian nationalismnationalism andand imbuedimbued withwith thethe supposedsupposed moralmoral virtuesvirtues ofof thethe DoricDoric order.order.

imbued with with the the supposed supposed moral moral virtues virtues of of the the Doric

KarlKarl FriedrichFriedrich SchinkelSchinkel

Karl Karl Friedrich Friedrich Schinkel Schinkel

KarlKarl FriedrichFriedrich SchinkelSchinkel

AltesAltes MuseumMuseum (1824(1824--1828)1828)

KarlKarl FriedrichFriedrich SchinkelSchinkel transformedtransformed BerlinBerlin withwith aa seriesseries ofof monumentsmonuments inin aa rationalistrationalist GreekGreek style.style.

FacadeFacade inin thethe formform ofof anan openopen colonnadecolonnade ofof nineteennineteen bays;bays; withwith itsits longlong butbut undemonstrativeundemonstrative IonicIonic colonnadecolonnade

bays; bays; with with its its long long but but undemonstrative undemonstrative Ionic Ionic colonnade colonnade
bays; bays; with with its its long long but but undemonstrative undemonstrative Ionic Ionic colonnade colonnade

(2)(2) THETHE PICTURESQUEPICTURESQUE

(2) (2) THE THE PICTURESQUE PICTURESQUE

TheThe PicturesquePicturesque

(1)(1) TheThe EnglishEnglish LandscapeLandscape GardenGarden TheThe newnew EnglishEnglish garden:garden: aa reactionreaction againstagainst FrenchFrench andand DutchDutch formalformal gardensgardens ofof thethe 17th17th century.century. TheThe architecturalarchitectural impactimpact ofof thethe PicturesquePicturesque waswas thethe newnew emphasisemphasis itit placedplaced onon architecturearchitecture asas partpart ofof anan environment.environment.

TheThe PicturesquePicturesque traditiontradition ofof EnglandEngland createdcreated thethe EnglishEnglish landscapelandscape gardengarden AA varietyvariety ofof differentdifferent kindskinds ofof structurestructure werewere placplaceded inin relationrelation toto carefullycarefully composedcomposed plantingsplantings inin orderorder toto capturecapture thethe effecteffect ofof aa paintingpainting byby ClaudeClaude oror PoussinPoussin HenryHenry Hoare'sHoare's StourheadStourhead waswas anan outstandingoutstanding exampleexample ofof thisthis approachapproach toto gardeninggardening andand gardengarden architecture.architecture.

of of this this approach approach to to gardening gardening and and garden garden architecture. architecture.

TheThe PicturesquePicturesque

StourheadStourhead HouseHouse andand Gardens,Gardens, Stourton,Stourton, WarminsterWarminster

Picturesque Stourhead Stourhead House House and and Gardens, Gardens, Stourton, Stourton, Warminster Warminster
Picturesque Stourhead Stourhead House House and and Gardens, Gardens, Stourton, Stourton, Warminster Warminster

TheThe PicturesquePicturesque

StourheadStourhead HouseHouse andand Gardens,Gardens, Stourton,Stourton, WarminsterWarminster

Picturesque Stourhead Stourhead House House and and Gardens, Gardens, Stourton, Stourton, Warminster Warminster

TheThe PicturesquePicturesque

KewKew Gardens,Gardens, SurreySurrey

ChineseChinese Pagoda,Pagoda, 17631763

SirSir WilliamWilliam ChambersChambers

Gardens, Surrey Surrey Chinese Chinese Pagoda, Pagoda, 1763 1763 Sir Sir William William Chambers Chambers
Gardens, Surrey Surrey Chinese Chinese Pagoda, Pagoda, 1763 1763 Sir Sir William William Chambers Chambers

TheThe PicturesquePicturesque

(2)(2) TheThe ConceptConcept ofof thethe PicturesquePicturesque ContemporaryContemporary withwith neoneo--classicismclassicism (England)(England) IntellectualIntellectual underpinnings:underpinnings: aa newnew conceptconcept ofof naturenature (nature(nature asas life;life; thethe geniusgenius lociloci// spiritspirit ofof thethe place),place), newnew thinkingthinking aboutabout aestheticsaesthetics,, aa newnew appreciationappreciation ofof historicalhistorical andand culturalcultural diversity.diversity. TheThe modernmodern conceptconcept ofof style.style. ExoticismExoticism andand nationalism.nationalism.

The The modern modern concept concept of of style. style. Exoticism Exoticism and and nationalism. nationalism.

TheThe PicturesquePicturesque

(3)(3) PicturesquePicturesque AssociationismAssociationism TheThe transfertransfer ofof picturesquepicturesque compositioncomposition fromfrom thethe gardengarden toto thethe househouse andand thethe inventioninvention ofof anan aestheticaesthetic theorytheory ((associationismassociationism)) toto accountaccount forfor itsits appeal.appeal. FonthillFonthill Abbey,Abbey, Wiltshire,Wiltshire, Eng.,Eng., 17951795--1807,1807, byby JamesJames WyattWyatt forfor WilliamWilliam Beckford.Beckford.

Eng., Eng., 1795 1795 - - 1807, 1807, by by James James Wyatt Wyatt for for

(3)(3) GOTHICGOTHIC REVIVALREVIVAL

(3) (3) GOTHIC GOTHIC REVIVAL REVIVAL

GothicGothic RevivalRevival

Adaptation occurred after 1800 – approximately 1830’s to 1850’s. Style very particular to place and building typology. From supposition that Gothic architecture was an indigenous style of Northern Europe Revivalism tendencies hinged on:

Style as development of Northern culture – patriotism Style best suited to a northern climate and colder zone. New material of construction:

climate and colder zone. New material of construction: Gothic style – skeletal articulation and tensile structure

Gothic style – skeletal articulation and tensile structure renders itself to be expressed in iron as the new material in the industrial age.

GothicGothic RevivalRevival

Contributions to modern thoughts of architecture Free planning Asymmetrical massing Varied silhouettes Plasticity of forms Exploitation of colour and texture in use of indigenous stones. Style kept alive a sense of craftsmanship at a time of mass production was beginning to alter the age old habits of the building industry. Style more prevalent in England and America. To be used in the design of churches and country houses. Classical style for public buildings and mansions.

America . To be used in the design of churches and country houses . Classical style

Lyndhurst Tarrytown, New York 1838 and 1864-65

Lyndhurst Tarrytown, New York 1838 and 1864-65

GothicGothic RevivalRevival

Gothic Gothic Revival Revival

GothicGothic RevivalRevival

House of Parliament, London Sir Charles Barry assisted by A. W. N. Pugin 1835-67 Gothic
House of Parliament, London
Sir Charles Barry assisted by A. W. N. Pugin
1835-67
Gothic Details

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