Sei sulla pagina 1di 12

Utv

vz gP

sg
ZAig "w"
sgv iv, ErAi AZz UtvPz CvAv gAiiz
vUU MAzV "w"Ai gzg sgZAig. Q
Dg viz zQz v DAisl PwUU nP gz M
sg EgzjAz, wAi Pv Jgq sg JAz
PgAi grAiAl. Eg, dqq J Hj Q 1114g
dzgAv. Pz U C zg, Hj j U
iv Arvg vPrPArzg. dq JAzg Gd JAz
Gvgzg sgg vqU JzPAqg, gAig, Eg
vg JAz CiAz vg. dq = d DVgz J
Ci Pq GAl. d gq vizz, t
sAqjAiiVnz Cg; UV, C gd dqqVv Jz
MAz H. Cz FV eg Jz E Pg v. Ml, Cz
Ai D Ez Hg Jz zAg vP.
sgZAig vAz gzsAi. vB Utvz RUz
Arvg. sgg zUg Cg. RU, z, UtvU
gAUvgz sgg v 36 Ai "zAv gt" JA
GzAx gzg. w, dUtv, UUtv v UzsAi
JAz Ezg sUUAl. EA v EAlgrAim
lz qUjU ga CP Utvz lU w JA z
sUz. Ai, sg, GzUU CAi iU PPU,
KP-z-v szU, AP-PzAv UtvjPU,
U-U, W-W, jPiP, , EP,
g, vg, gr, ZPr, g v UPgtU, Zg
PgtU, rU, PvUtv, WPwU, PlP, PAid v
P, bAiiUtv - U vg AiU Ml g
CzsAiU E ZzjPAr. 1817g F Pw x
PP JAjAz EAVU CzUAq , v dUv
sgvzv gUUtUAz rv. EAz Azg, wAi
CPg PjPAi gU Dv Aw C sd sU

vd irz! Cz Az dAVg Dqvz Pz 1587g


Plv.
PAi CAz Utvd t Utvd J iv d
Utvz Aig z. wAi NzU Czg w
CsUvz. MAz P Cx PC Ar U P
sgZAig U, s, CAPgU CvAv
PV. Utv gAi, vv gAi JAz UAi
sgg CAv j U r:
CPgB Rg g Bv
AiP CAv CZv svUu Aizv
Rg (CAv)P Aiiz CA jzg Pzg Czg Ai
vU; giv Az fPn AiiV, v C
V jzg C zAz U KggUz U.
sgg DPg Pg C ZZ E Cv. Dzg, M
zyU CAv zl iq CUxU s G,
PU Pq Azl Pz Cg ws, r E U
Ptvz. zg Pq vU PAzU Cg APZV zU,
U Pvg.
wAi g MAz z Vz:
AP qgP PB
RmAU Q g ZAivsAw
C PvB Pw wszB
Asgj UzjgdASB
F zz z g U Cx U: (U), CAP, C
(), qgU, P (gAq), , RmAU (vAi gAq MAz
zAq), Q, g (t), Z () - F v v v PU r
g J UAi C wU iq zs?
E U v PU Egz U zs J gz!

Dzg, a UAxU v gtz, U Lz vU


J iv Vz. Lz v Ez v PU EgP
JAz sgg Aiagz! Q 1117g PlvAz
j ZP zAiz Iv Ai sgg J
gU CPgB vAv MAz Azg AsUz! F UAi
U sgvz g E JAz vg. Uzg, F zAi
PnVAi gz AZ nz sgg, EU sn
Pngzz (v Cz PgtP PlPzgVg) zsv EzAi
Jz Pvz CA. v PAq,Pz,Nz CAU CUvP vP
iqUAU Cg Pz gzjAz, F zsvAi
vPAw.
Cz, F (z) EAz R AUwAi U wvz.
CzAzg, sgvz gqAi viz wU
CAP(PAid) v P (Permutations and Combinations)
U AUwAi CP zsU irAiiVv. sgg v
PlPzg Dz gZAig, F sUz irz P
Cwzz. PAid-PU g PUU KAl CAPU
Gzz GvgU AzU Pq JzUAzz, P iq Gzv
vgz, CAv GzPU Utvdg GPArzg.
z vUzPzzg, CzP Gvg 10!, CAzg, 3628800 DUvz.
(E g DAiZP aU Utvz gAi Cx Ez. Cz
"sPjAi" Jvg. n! JAzg, MAzjAz ngV J sP
ASU Ut. D Pg, 3! = 1*2*3 = 6; 5! = 5*4*3*2*1 = 120
DUvz) E, zz PAi Cx, AR, ZP, Uz v
zU v PU rg Ml J jUU iq
zs? - JAzUvz. PAidAi MAz g PVg Ezg Gvg
24. gz ZgAzg, Aidzz ARZPUzzt U
Ev gU avg!
sgg P Utvd iv; P zU gAUvg Pq.
v Pgt, z, vv, z, CAPg, iAU Pq
JAz Cg wAi Pvg. Utv z Ai
tAv z ir Vq P Cg Pz DzAv

iqvg. "Ez Utv C!" C zsgz,


AzAisjv sUU wAi vA PtUv. MAz Gzgu
r:
CP z A iwA Aiiv
T sU sAUPA
jA zzs gzA
wgtw gtAvA PAv ASA
"J PAv, zAU MAz z CzssUz Uz v
8/9g zAU iwUv vgz. MAz UAq zAAi
vgAi zsz Czg jP v QQPArv. F zAAi
ghAPgz zsU gUq Ez Czg evzA (t) wzswv.
J , zAU Ml ASAi !" - JAz Ezgx.
zAAiAz Pz q QQPAq gwAi gz, Czg
evUw gUq Pv wzsv izs z - E
PAi! EAz PqAi sgg MAz Ai Azs
jv, Eg AiAig q Aiig qAi JAz
tAisAz Cwv wgU Av, zAAi PzU v
iwU q VgQ qAiwz- JAz gAivg!
sgZAijU eAi z JzP GzguAiAwz F
z:
zizswzAi v zvAiA Aizv
vvAZAPqAZgtB Ayvy
zv Ai glPB Pw PzAiuv
vA Ai w v Utv ewA sUzsA
M zsP zz 1/2*2/3*3/4*1/5*1/16*1/4g zq zjAi
Awz qU z irz. C z Pl zq ! Jz Ezg Cx. z Jz DV Pz MAz zr g.
P gPjzU Cz 1/1280 JAzUvz. 1 z 16
tUU . 1 t JAzg 4 PQt. 1 PQtU 20 Pq. F mC
JzjlPAq P irzg, zsP PPU Plz 1 Pq Jz

wAivz. Pq Jz DV Pz PAiz CvAv P Ai


t. Pq Qw J iv FU v! DV
MAz Pq FV MAz U Uz K! CAz zq
zsP Pq, P PU (CzP z JA g g!) Pnz MAz
MAz Pq - J AU F zzz.
E sgZAig zU U DV Pz g-lU,
igwz gPU, PAiPAiz U, s-z PZgU Pq
PtUv. Jgqg Pgz 3/7 J , DV
Pz Pgz PAi Eg JAz vz. q
zAi 32 zg, 21 Aiz zU - J P
DV Pzz zzwAi MAz R zg rAivz.
Cz, F gz ivz CzsAiz. CAzg, Ai
Zv zU D zAi PAiiUv Uvz Jz
Czgx. D Pz Z APzg, P aPjgU
Cg ijq AzAi Egz. JAz qVAig F
jwAi aP zP z Cg z PjVgz
Jz HU l Zg.
sgZAig, xUg Aiz PU
Pvg. F Ai xUgVAv P g U
AzAi sgwAijU wvAz, zsAi Ez xjU
zAz PU v. F Ai B sgvz
vP J a Utvdg v PU MAz MAz j
Ai Ezg. sgg F PV P PvPgVz:
WvawAAivA AivgAvgA v sfvAiiB
vavgAvgW GrAiiA R sv vv
MAz gz Aiiz Jvgz Jgq AUU Pw. Cgq
z , gAz zgz z uAz qv.
CUAz AU, gAz gV PVz, tv Nqvz.
EAz Pl nv? Cz vg eUAz V, gz v
Aij, CAz gV tg eUP dA iqvz! Jgq
AUU KPPz t wg jzg, Jgq AU Kjz gz

Jvg PAqrj.
-Ez . s irP Pzg, AUU Az 100 Cr
JvgzAiAz, t gz qAz Lvr zgzzAiAz
sz. FU, Jgq AUU PPz zg 150 Cr DUvz.
gz Jvg 100 + x DUvz. x J Jz . F Ai
DPg Jgqg zsUAz r zsz.

xUg Ai , Cx z g ewAi PU
PAq F Ai rz. APdU vvU (RV
J. av r. E, AB+BC = AD+DC DVgzjAz, A v DU
MAz Wvz AzUUv.) Pq F Ai
MqAi zsz! (DPg Aiwz. gg 100-50
CrU U Gvg = 20 Cr)
E ZQAi ZvsdU (Cyclic Quadrilaterals) sgwAi Utvdg
V . EU Aiz U qz AzsU,
qz vU dP CwAizAz P. Dv, ZQAi
ZvsdU PtU v Ai PAqrAi vU
Pnz. Azjz, zv PtU Zvsd ga MAz
zs Pq Pnz. C zjAi E AzjAi
sgZAig, ZQAi Zvsd ga MAz g zs

wAi Zavg. Czg Pg, Jgq AP wsdU


vUzPt. CU z v PtU PV (a,b,c), (x,y,z)
DVg. FU MAz wsdz Pt JgqAizg Ptz Jgq
UU UtzU, az, bz, xc, yc JA UtU Uv. E
Zvsdz U! F Zvsdz PtU ax+by, ay+bx
DVgv.

E MAz CA UP. sgg Pq gu, Aiiz


Jgq AwsdUAz gir Zvsd gaz vzAi
, FUU Png Zvsdz PtU CAizP PAiiUz.
(CAv U jj gAi Dz vU Cg Pqvg).
M wv JAzg, F Dl J Pzg Dqv
ZvsdU gav Uz. wsdU U
uAPzg, D P ga ZvsdU U Pq
uAPU DVgv. EAv, DlzAv Pt, PU e,
Dzg D P Uz Utv vvU P AUwU EA
Utv oPU Ptg. zU oUU Pj

zsAvz zz oPwU, sgwAi g


AiUU vt Pn. ZQAi ZvsdU Aiz "m
Ai" lg, Utvz g E. U Cx
sgg gU C U. sgg wAi g
AUwU, lz qUjU CxUvzg C
PqVz. U, WU PAqrAi sgg
wAi Pq g zsU Utvoz E. qUg U
u rAi PlPzsAi E. J C eU Gz MA
fZjvAi g gz gz wU PvzPv.
PAid-PU Azjz sUV g "VPgt"
(Partitions) JA sU z sgZAig Ml VPgtU
AS = (n-1)!/(r-1)!(n-r)! JA v wAi Pnzg.
CzP gPV,
AZvgAPAizzUAiz
Pwsz sAS Ai w UzvA
J P wAi gvz. MAz ASAi (Ai gvV)
Lz CAPUgP. D Lz CAPU v 13 DUP. Ml J
ASU F Pz Pg gAi zs - Jz Ezg Cx.
sgg vz Pg, Gvg 12!/8!4! = 495 DUvz. CxP
sU JAz t Ai Pzg qt. v 6 gAv
g CAPUg J ASU gAi zs? -g
JwPAq J ASU gAiv V. 114, 123, 132, 141,
213, 222, 231, 312, 321, 411 - Ml v CAx ASU.
(r: 204gAx ASU jUt; C 0 gvz J
PgtP.) v GAiVzg (5!/3!2!) U Cz Gvg Uvz! F
v aPVzU Nz gid J
svgzgAzg, Ez Pvz Azjz, PAmjP JA
UtvPvz Cgz vg vU PAqrzg.
VPgtU sUz Cg Gvz gtsU vUz
v Utvd EwU E. CzP Pgtzz z Cg Nz
wAi Jgq zU Jz iv !

Utv j euP, dzPU rAwP vgz Ut


sgg PU mg? sgvz Eg Jgq
zU sgg wAi gv. CUAz Cd Pt
U PAz Jz jAxz. "Cd Pt zsUV z
tU Q, Czsz, Pt AiVz tU vAqjzg
RZz. Cd, v vPAiz Ml tU Uz
g Pt PzgU, Dg tUAz Pt gy
PAz. PU, Pt bw, zsd, zsU MAzAz t
Az jj, PAizAz tAz Pt gZz irzg,
Cd vPAiz Ml tU?" J Ai
UPgtU sUz sgg Pvg. (F U Gvg - 100.)
Azg, F Azs sgvz g. v
wAiiV sgg !
EAz zz Zg gPgVz. DP A sgvz
"vr sw q.." JA MAz gvz zsU gvz.
sw zAizs Aqw. DP v, CAzg UqAir wz.
vg t PqP J iwU Pjz DPAi PwU Dl
Uz PQ w gAiv. D i Prz vU
ZAiiUv. DU zAizs, "z F vU Q Pq?"
JAz Pv. PtU dg , Aqg PP jP
Az PU, vB Pt F Azs j, "EAv
zzAiiz UAi l Aqg PP gg" JAz
v. Pt P F z " swAi
UqAiqwz. DP vg t wj J Pz
DPAi PwU PQ gz. g Prz vU Zz. DU CU
Az zAizs F rAi PUz, UAii, F
vU DAiPq? JAz Pz." J Cx Pqvz!
E A z zg, sgZAig wAi gz
z r:
gggu zsP iQPA u
si AiivsUB AivUvB AZiA zB
B B P UtP zPB AUvB Ait
zA lA Z v PxAi PwAiiQPg gB

AUwUg Pz t w g Prz v. g
MAzg z , Lz MAzg AZzrU z. Dg
MAzg DPAi v MAzg DPAi AiPg Qzg. Dg
vU gz Gz. Uzg gzz Ml vU,
.
E zP A guU CwAi Pgz
lP Ptvz. sgg A AvgzgzjAz, v P
Utv Cz PU NPArz JAz Cg
PArgzjAz, v P-bAz-CAPgU Vzg
Jz Cg gZU vrzjAz, sgg PrUg z
J zz. AiiPAzg, A F z FV Arvg J
ZZU lQzAi, C z-zU DV Pz
nv. AsgvP nP gz g PU F zz
Ai Pzg. VgU, P-vU dwz
sgg, Asgv NPArgz sP DVz.
gPdg PaAv nz z sgg vwU MAzAi
UtvAiiV PArv! dAiq, Ai CPPz Ezg E
gz J z Pq Ez.
Dl V z MAz sdjAiiz Pg qz AvAz
AiU vg zArUAv, sgg wAi MAz
Cz zzAU Vvg.
AiAew UtUsvAV
zT wB RPAoP
w gQ zgAw
vAzRAzwA
viAiAzg, Jgq PU rzU At gAiz Dz
Jgq avU vj Zvg iq w-r l Ez. F zz
Cx U: vvAi MAi UtqvAi Dz,
zAz zsgV ivq Ai (Cx wAi) qz
gU AiiU RAvU AiiUv Uv.

E, Ez z EAz Cx Pqvz. E ew JzP,


MAi Pz nz - JAx EgAvAi, g JA Cx
CAlvz! UV, D Ai CAi iqv zg,
"gU, UuPg, U Avz PUAz CAPvz, vz
UtvUAz Pr, gz Ai gAil w UAx
Aiig PAo irPvg (CAzg, irPvg)
CAxjU RU AiiUv Uv!"

"w" g U Av?
sgZAig, F UAxP w J jq K Pgt JAzP
MAz Pv Zvzz. U nz Azsz sgg DPAi
evP gzU, "F UU, zAiiz PU zs
AiiUvz" Jz wzgAv. CzjAz Tgz Cg, Az,
gj MAz Cvgz UUAi qQzg. Aii
PgtP F UUAi vPz, U z irVP
Jz Cg AiZAiiVv. CzPAz MAz z
dUrAiig ga, Czg P PtAi iqwzgAv. zAi
, F av PAiAv rz sgg U wU, Pv
vqAiUz, AiAvz wgAz q VzAv. Cz
AiP jAiiV, DPAi CjU gzAv, C Pw gz MAz v
ej AiAvzU z gjAi zgz QPArv. UUAi P
Kggv. z VAiv, DPAi UAq vV, wU
zs AiiVAi nv. "v EAz z UtvdVAi
Ai zgzz!" JAz Ptjl sgg U Ai
GPAq, DPU Utv P C zBR Pr
iq P irzgAv.
F Pv JAz Zg qzAiAzg, sgZAig v w
UAxU ev F PvAi dqAi PzAv AiV vP QPArz.
Dzg, Ez dVAi qzAi J Zgz AiU.
zAizV, sgg Cw Utvd v RUvdzg,
ew evPsU Az U Cg Aii UAxz gU
P. UtU U ePz gu Png Cg, g

PvU PvU AjU v PwU CvUV RAq irzg.


UV, Cg vB Av UU r U z irzg Jz
Mz PUvz. Cz, F PwAi g vg
U AUg s. gz Cs zAU,
tAiPz vqVz AU, ZPP, PAZQU, Pz
g PrzP U - U U Utvz
AilPAq gv. EAv gvzP AzsU U
oPz gAi zs sgg vjgg Jvz.
w PwU nP-ntU gz Uu, UAUzsg, Aiz,
gAUx, gPz v gAit Egg v PwU
z zAi PvAi iq. wAi zsz PvAi
sgZAig Avg Az Aiigzg j Zg irgz
Jz Z Adz ivUvz.
zU iv K Eg, Az Dgg U AiAv Er
sgvz iv, Aig v CgAii zU UtvoV
dAz "w"Ai gz, dAiUtv gAi Pz
sgg DAigU jV Awzg JAz Aii AAiz
z. 79 U xP vAf q Q 1193g Cg
E vfzg. Uu zd Cg "J Utvzg z
Ai gv" J Cxz "UtPZPZqt" JAz g
Az. "w"Ai N, Cs, Arv Uzg D iv
gPjgg.