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America: Pathways to the Present: Cambridge Ed.

1900-1910

Copyright 2005 by Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as


Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey. All rights reserved.

America: Pathways to the Present: Cambridge Ed.

Theme 1: The Origins of Progressivism


Progressive Legislation
Theme 2: African American Response
People on the Move
Theme 3: Progressive Legislation
Theme 4: A New Foreign Policy
Debating Americas New Role

Copyright 2005 by Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as


Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey. All rights reserved.

America: Pathways to the Present: Cambridge Ed.

Theme 1
Government and the People

Copyright 2005 by Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as


Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey. All rights reserved.

The Origins of Progressivism


Chapter 18, Section 1

What were the key goals of Progressives?


How did the ideas of Progressive writers help to
inspire new reform movements?
What reform organizations and what women
reformers took up Progressive causes?
Why did Progressive reforms meet with resistance?

The Progressive Era


Chapter 18, Section 1

Rapid industrialization, immigration, and urbanization


in the late 1800s led to national growth and prosperity.
The rapid growth also caused poverty, unemployment,
deplorable working conditions and political
corruption.
Many Progressives believed that political action and
reform, not private charities, were the methods to
bring about progress in society.
Historians call the period from about 18901920 the
Progressive Era.

The Progressives: Their Goals and Beliefs


Chapter 18, Section 1

Progressives were not a single unified movement. They fell into four
categories: social, moral, economic, and political. Some common basic
beliefs were:
1. Government should be more accountable to its citizens.
2. Government should curb the power and influence of wealthy interests.
3. Government should be given expanded powers so that it could become
more active in improving the lives of its citizens.
4. Governments should become more efficient and less corrupt so that they
could competently handle an expanded role.

Igniting Reform: Writers and Their New Ideas


Chapter 18, Section 1

The ideas of many writers and journalists influenced


public opinion about how to reform society.
Journalists investigated and publicized conditions in
certain industries, slums, tenement houses, and
sweat shops.
Theodore Roosevelt called the journalists
muckrakers.
Upton Sinclair, Lincoln Steffens, and Ida Tarbell were
respected writers and muckrakers.

Progressive Reform Organizations


Chapter 18, Section 1

The Labor
Movement

Employers discouraged union membership.


Courts often issued injunctions, court orders prohibiting a certain
activity, preventing workers from going on strike.
Unions continued to fight for better working conditions.

Socialists

The Progressive Era saw a rise in socialism.


American socialists hoped to use the ballot box, not revolution, to
end the capitalist system and distribute wealth more equally.

Womens
Groups

The National Consumers League (NCL) investigated how goods


were made and sold. They discouraged people from buying from
shops that employed child labor.
All womens groups agreed that womens suffrage was an
important cause.

The Pressure to ExpandAssessment


Chapter 18, Section 1

Which of the following was a goal of the Progressives?


(A) Government should be more accountable to its citizens.
(B) Government should curb the power and influence of wealthy
interests.
(C) Government should be given expanded powers so that it can
become more active in improving the lives of its citizens.
(D) All of the above
Which of the following was a Progressive reform organization?
(A) The Labor movement
(B) The Socialists
(C) The National Consumers League
(D) All of the above

The Pressure to ExpandAssessment


Chapter 18, Section 1

Which of the following was a goal of the Progressives?


(A) Government should be more accountable to its citizens.
(B) Government should curb the power and influence of wealthy
interests.
(C) Government should be given expanded powers so that it can
become more active in improving the lives of its citizens.
(D) All of the above
Which of the following was a Progressive reform organization?
(A) The Labor movement
(B) The Socialists
(C) The National Consumers League
(D) All of the above

America: Pathways to the Present: Cambridge Ed.

Theme 2
Who are the Americans

Copyright 2005 by Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as


Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey. All rights reserved.

African American Response

White individuals employed vigilante-style violence to keep blacks in their


place, and even law enforcement agencies helped uphold the separate
and unequal society. Sadly, Texas ranked third nationally in the lynching of
black persons, as mobs murdered more than 100 black people between
1900 and 1910.
The NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People)
was formed partly in response to the continuing horrific practice of
lynching and the 1908 race riot in Springfield, the capital of Illinois and
resting place of President Abraham Lincoln.
Founded Feb. 12. 1909, the NAACP's principal objective is to ensure the
political, educational, social and economic equality of minority group
citizens of United States and eliminate race prejudice. The NAACP seeks to
remove all barriers of racial discrimination through the democratic
processes.

People on the Move


Chapter 15, Section 2

What were the experiences of immigrants in the late


1800s and early 1900s?
What different challenges did immigrants from
Europe, Asia, and Mexico face?

The Immigrant Experience


Chapter 15, Section 2

Immigrants came to the United States fleeing crop failures,


shortages of land and jobs, rising taxes, famine, and religious and
political persecution.
In the 1880s in Russia many Jewish people fled a wave of
pogroms, or violent massacres of Jews.
Steam-powered ships could cross the Atlantic Ocean in two or
three weeks. Most immigrants traveled in steerage, a large open
area beneath the ships deck.
Between 1865 and 1890 about 10 million immigrants arrived. Most
came from northwestern and central Europe.
In the 1890s, most new immigrants came from central, southern,
and eastern Europe and the Middle East.
More than 70 percent of all immigrants came through New York
City which was called the Golden Door.

Immigrants from Europe


Chapter 15, Section 2

In 1892, the federal government required all new immigrants to


undergo a physical exam.
Immigrants with contagious diseases, such as tuberculosis, faced
quarantine, a time of isolation to prevent the spread of disease.
Urban neighborhoods dominated by one ethnic or racial group of
immigrants were called ghettos.
Some ghettos formed because immigrants felt more comfortable living
near people with the same language and traditions.
Other ghettos formed from restrictive covenants, when homeowners
agreed not to sell real estate to certain groups.
Still other ghettos formed when ethnic groups isolated themselves
because of threats of violence, mostly from whites.
The goal of Nativism was to restrict and control immigration &
immigrants (by controlling their behavior, & limiting their movement,
opportunities, schooling, etc.)

Immigrants from Europe


Chapter 15, Section 2

Immigrants from Asia


Chapter 15, Section 2

Most immigrants who entered the United States through the West Coast
were from Asia. Chinese and Japanese formed the largest groups.
In the mid-1800s, American railroad companies recruited about a quarter of
a million Chinese workers.
Under pressure from labor unions, Congress passed the Chinese
Exclusion Act in 1882. The act prohibited Chinese laborers from entering
the country. It was not repealed until 1943.
The Asiatic Exclusion League was a white supremacist organization active
along theWest Coast of the United States and Canada through the early
twentieth century. Its supporters were primarily English speaking labor
union members who opposed all forms of Asian immigration because of
the downward pressure on wages that Asian immigrants caused

Immigrants from Asia


Chapter 15, Section 2

In 1906, the San Francisco school board ruled that all Chinese, Japanese,
and Korean students should attend separate schools. The Japanese
government condemned the policy.
President Theodore Roosevelt made a compromise with the Japanese
government. It was called the Gentlemens Agreement because it was not
official. It called for San Francisco to end its policy and for Japan to stop
issuing passports to laborers.

Immigrants from Mexico


Chapter 15, Section 2

Employers hired Mexican laborers to work on farms, ranches, and


mines. They also helped construct railroads in the southwest.
The Newlands Reclamation Act, also called the U.S. Reclamation
Act, authorized the federal government to commission water
diversion, retention and transmission projects in arid lands,
particularly in the far west.
The passage of the Newlands Act promoting the development of
large scale irrigation projects, southwestern agriculture shifted
from a ranch-based economy to seasonal commercial agriculture
using migratory workers. The rapid growth of mining, railroads,
and large-scale commercial agriculture in the late-nineteenth and
early twentieth centuries in the Southwest could not have
occurred without low-cost labor from Mexico.

People on the MoveAssessment


Chapter 15, Section 2

What was the Gentlemens Agreement?


A) An agreement to secure jobs for Russian immigrants in return for American
manufactured goods.
B) A compromise that China would provide more labor for the railroads in return for
American wheat.
C) A compromise that schools in the United States would not segregate Japanese students
in exchange for Japan to stop issuing passports to laborers.
D) A compromise between homeowners not to sell real estate to certain groups of people.

What was a restrictive covenant?


A) Immigrants felt more comfortable living near people with the same language and
traditions.
B) The labor party did not want Chinese people lowering pay rates.
C) A compromise between homeowners not to sell real estate to certain groups of people.
D) A group of people that wanted to sell their land to speculators.

People on the MoveAssessment


Chapter 15, Section 2

What was the Gentlemens Agreement?


A) An agreement to secure jobs for Russian immigrants in return for American
manufactured goods.
B) A compromise that China would provide more labor for the railroads in return for
American wheat.
C) A compromise that schools in the United States would not segregate Japanese
students in exchange for Japan to stop issuing passports to laborers.
D) A compromise between homeowners not to sell real estate to certain groups of people.

What was a restrictive covenant?


A) Immigrants felt more comfortable living near people with the same language and
traditions.
B) The labor party did not want Chinese people lowering pay rates.
C) A compromise between homeowners not to sell real estate to certain groups of people.
D) A group of people that wanted to sell their land to speculators.

America: Pathways to the Present: Cambridge Ed.

Theme 3
Economic and Social Change

Copyright 2005 by Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as


Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey. All rights reserved.

Progressive Legislation
Chapter 18, Section 2

How did Progressives wish to expand the role of


government?
What municipal and state reforms did Progressives
achieve?
What reforms did Theodore Roosevelt champion as
President?

An Expanded Role for Government


Chapter 18, Section 2

Progressives sought more social welfare programs to help ensure


a minimum standard of living.
Many of the earliest Progressive reforms were made at the
municipal, or city, level.
Some municipal reformers worked for home rule, a system that
gives cities a limited degree of self-rule.
Municipal reformers opposed the influence of political bosses.
Some reform mayors led movements for city-supported welfare
services such as public baths, parks, work-relief programs,
playgrounds, kindergartens, and lodging houses for the
homeless.

Municipal Reforms
Chapter 18, Section 2

In some cities voter support for reforms prompted machine


politicians to work with reformers. Together they improved city
cervices, established public health programs and workplace
reforms, and enforced tenement codes.
Due to natural disasters cities experimented with a commission of
appointed administrators to replace the mayor. This worked so
effectively that larger cities adopted a council-manager
government. Typically, this system includes an elected city
council, which sets laws and appoints a professional city manager
to run city cervices.
Reformers made efforts to regulate or dislodge the monopolies
that provided city utilities such as water, gas, and electricity.

State Reforms
Chapter 18, Section 2

Citizens fought for, and won, such measures as secret ballots,


referendum votes, and the recall. Citizens could petition and get
initiatives on the ballot. In 1899, Minnesota passed the first
statewide primary system

Under the progressive Republican leadership of Robert La


Follette, Wisconsin led the way in regulating big business. He
called on academic experts to help draft reform legislation. To get
it passed, he had the voting roll call read publicly in the districts
of legislators who opposed reform. He drew on academics and
citizen committees to run regulatory agencies. The Wisconsin
Idea of a public-academic alliance to improve government
became known nationwide.

Roosevelts View of the Presidency


Chapter 18, Section 2

From Governor
to Vice President

Unlikely
President

View of Office

Roosevelts rise to governor of New York upset


the Republican political machine.
To get rid of the progressive Roosevelt, party
bosses got him elected as vice president, a
position with little power at that time.

President William McKinley was shot and killed


in 1901, leaving the office to Roosevelt.

At 42 years old he was the youngest president


and an avid reformer.

Roosevelt saw the presidency as a bully pulpit,


or a platform to publicize important issues and
seek support for his policies on reform.

The Square Deal


Chapter 18, Section 2

The Square Deal became Roosevelts 1904 campaign slogan and the
framework for his entire presidency.

He promised to see that each is given a square deal, because he is


entitled to no more and should receive no less.

Roosevelts promise revealed his belief that the needs of workers,


business, and consumers should be balanced.

Roosevelts square deal called for limiting the power of trusts, promoting
public health and safety, and improving working conditions.

Progressive Political Reforms


Chapter 18, Section 2

Progressive Era Legislation


Chapter 18, Section 2
Sherman Antitrust Act, 1890

Outlawed monopolies and practices that restrained trade, such as price fixing.

National Reclamation Act,


1902
United States Forest Service,
1905
Hepburn Act, 1906

Created to plan and develop irrigation projects.


Created to manage the nations water and timber resources.

Pure Food and Drug Act,


1906
Meat Inspection Act, 1906

Banned interstate shipping of impure food and deliberate mislabeling of food and
drugs.
Required federal inspection of meat processing to ensure sanitary conditions.

Department of Labor, 1913


16th Amendment, 1913

Cabinet department created to promote the welfare and employment of working


people.
Gave Congress the power to levy an income tax.

17th Amendment, 1913

Provided for the direct election of senators.

Federal Reserve Act, 1913

Created Federal Reserve System of government banks to supervise private banks and
provide a flexible money supply.

National Park Service, 1916

Created to administer the nations parks.

18th Amendment, 1919

Prohibited the manufacture and sale of liquor. (Repealed in 1933)

19th Amendment, 1920

Granted women full suffrage.

Womens Bureau, 1920

Created within the Department of Labor to improve the status of working women.

Authorized the Interstate Commerce Commission to regulate railroad rates.

Progressive LegislationAssessment
Chapter 18, Section 2

Which of the following was a city-supported welfare service?


(A) Playgrounds
(B) Kindergartens
(C) Homeless shelters
(D) All of the above
What was the purpose of the Sherman Antitrust Act?
(A) To require federal inspection of meat processing
(B) To outlaw monopolies and practices that restrained trade, such as
price fixing
(C) To authorize the Interstate Commerce Commission to regulate
railroad rates
(D) To plan and develop irrigation projects

Progressive LegislationAssessment
Chapter 18, Section 2

Which of the following was a city-supported welfare service?


(A) Playgrounds
(B) Kindergartens
(C) Homeless shelters
(D) All of the above
What was the purpose of the Sherman Antitrust Act?
(A) To require federal inspection of meat processing
(B) To outlaw monopolies and practices that restrained trade, such as
price fixing
(C) To authorize the Interstate Commerce Commission to regulate
railroad rates
(D) To plan and develop irrigation projects

America: Pathways to the Present: Cambridge Ed.

Theme 4
The U.S.A. and the World

Copyright 2005 by Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as


Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey. All rights reserved.

A New Foreign Policy


Chapter 17, Section 3

Why did the United States want to build the Panama


Canal?
What were the goals of Theodore Roosevelts big
stick diplomacy?
In what ways did the foreign policies of Presidents
Taft and Wilson differ from those of President Roosevelt?

The Panama Canal


Chapter 17, Section 3

Americans needed a shorter route between the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. A
French company had bought a 25-year concession from Colombia to build a
canal across Panama. (A concession is a grant for a piece of land in exchange
for a promise to use the land for a specific purpose.) Defeated by yellow fever
and mismanagement, the company abandoned the project and offered its
remaining rights to the United States for $100 million.

Roosevelts Big Stick Diplomacy


Chapter 17, Section 3

Speak softly and carry a big stick and you will go far.
Roosevelt used this old African proverb to guide his foreign policy.
The Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine The United
States will act as an international police power in the
Western Hemisphere and intervene to prevent intervention by
other powers.
Roosevelt in Latin America Under Roosevelt, the United
States often intervened in Latin America.
Roosevelt in Asia Roosevelt wanted to preserve an open
door to trade with China. He won a Nobel peace prize for
negotiating a peace settlement between Russia and Japan.

Foreign Policy After Roosevelt


Chapter 17, Section 3

William Howard Taft


Elected President in 1908
Taft believed in maintaining
influence through American
investments, not military might.
This policy was called dollar
diplomacy.
The United States reached new
heights of international power
under Roosevelt and Taft.
However, the policies of both
Presidents also created enemies
in Latin America and a growing
international resentment of U.S.
intervention.

Woodrow Wilson
Under Wilson, the United States
applied more moral and legalistic
standards to foreign policy
decisions.
Wilsons policy drew the United
States into the complex and
bloody Mexican Revolution.
Wilsons moral diplomacy did
not work well in Mexico. Many
lives were lost, and U.S. financial
interests lost ground.
U.S.Mexico relations were
strained for many years.

United States Interventions, 1898-1934


Chapter 17, Section 3

A New Foreign Policy-Assessment


Chapter 17, Section 3

Roosevelts foreign policy was based on


(A) the threat of military intervention.
(B) the use of American investments.
(C) moral and legalistic standards.
(D) the fear of foreign invasion.
The dollar in the phrase dollar diplomacy referred to:
(A) bribing foreign diplomats.
(B) American investments in other countries.
(C) being conservative about buying goods from other countries.
(D) spending campaign dollars to influence public opinion.

A New Foreign Policy-Assessment


Chapter 17, Section 3

Roosevelts foreign policy was based on


(A) the threat of military intervention.
(B) the use of American investments.
(C) moral and legalistic standards.
(D) the fear of foreign invasion.
The dollar in the phrase dollar diplomacy referred to:
(A) bribing foreign diplomats.
(B) American investments in other countries.
(C) being conservative about buying goods from other countries.
(D) spending campaign dollars to influence public opinion.

Debating Americas New Role


Chapter 17, Section 4

What were the main arguments raised by the antiimperialists?


Why did imperialism appeal to many Americans?
How was American imperialism viewed from abroad?

Debating Imperialism
Chapter 17, Section 4

Anti-Imperialists
A moral and political argument:
Expansionism was a rejection of
our nations founding principle of
liberty for all.
A racial argument: Imperialism
was just another form of racism.
An economic argument:
Expansion involved too many
costs. Maintaining the armed
forces required more taxation,
debt, and possibly even
compulsory, or required, military
service. In addition, laborers from
other countries would compete
for jobs with U.S. workers.

Pro-Imperialists
Imperialism offered a new kind of
frontier for American expansion.
A new international frontier would
keep Americans from losing their
competitive edge.
Access to foreign markets made
the economy stronger.
In 1907, President Roosevelt sent
the Great White Fleet, part of the
United States Navy, on a cruise
around the world to demonstrate
U.S. naval power to other nations.
American citizens clearly saw the
advantages of having a powerful
navy.

Imperialism Viewed From Abroad


Chapter 17, Section 4

In the Caribbean and Central America, the United States often had
to defend governments that were unpopular with local inhabitants.
Many U.S. citizens in Latin America heard the cry Yankee, Go
Home!
Even before the completion of the Panama Canal, the
Panamanians began to complain that they suffered from
discrimination.
However, many countries also began to turn to the United States
for help.
The United States was both welcomed and rejected in other
countries.
The American government still struggles to reconcile its great
power and national interests with its relationships with other
nations.

Debating Americas New Role-Assessment


Chapter 17, Section 4

Which of the following was not an argument against imperialism?


(A) Foreign workers would compete for jobs against U.S. laborers.
(B) Other nations might boycott U.S. goods.
(C) Imperialism is another form of racism.
(D) Imperialism goes against the founding principles of our nation.
Which of the following was not an argument for imperialism?
(A) People with non-Western cultures would enrich and strengthen the
United States.
(B) Access to foreign markets would make a stronger U.S. economy.
(C) Imperialism offered a new frontier.
(D) Expansion helped to make the United States Navy stronger.

Debating Americas New Role-Assessment


Chapter 17, Section 4

Which of the following was not an argument against imperialism?


(A) Foreign workers would compete for jobs against U.S. laborers.
(B) Other nations might boycott U.S. goods.
(C) Imperialism is another form of racism.
(D) Imperialism goes against the founding principles of our nation.
Which of the following was not an argument for imperialism?
(A) People with non-Western cultures would enrich and strengthen the
United States.
(B) Access to foreign markets would make a stronger U.S. economy.
(C) Imperialism offered a new frontier.
(D) Expansion helped to make the United States Navy stronger.