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term project part 7

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term project part 7

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August 5, 2015

Math 1040

Term Project Part 7

SKITTLES TERM PROJECT

PART 1 & 2

Table for Skittle Project

Skittle Color

Red

Orange

Yellow

Green

Purple

Total

13

15

14

7

11

60

703

709

750

732

752

3646

When I observed the data from this table I kind of expected the

numbers to be a bit random. Everyone bought their bag of skittle from

a different place at a different time and I didnt really expect my

numbers to reflect the class totals. However, I was surprised to find out

that the mean number for skittles in the bag was approximately 60 and

that was exactly what I had. I was expecting to have a lot more variety

in those numbers. Here in this table you can see that the least amount

of skittles I had in my bag were green, and for the class total it was one

of the more frequent colors found. Red and yellow were more

frequently found in my bag, yet they were the lowest in the class total.

As you can see the overall data did not agree with the data I found in

my own individual bag. It was in fact quite different!!

PART 3

1. My findings about the variable Total candies in each bag were as

follows. The shape of the distribution started out at a minimum and

increased to a peak and then decreased again however it was more

skewed to the left rather than bell shaped. It also had an outlier of 80,

which is hard to believe that that number is accurate. Maybe that

student got the wrong size of bag, or made up the number. The graph

peaked at 60, which is surprising because 60 is the exact amount I had

in my own personal bag of skittles. I figured the mean total of the 61

bags had to be close to what I had in mine, but it surprised me how

exact it was. Because of this I would say that the overall data (61 bags)

collected by the whole class agrees with my own data from my own

bag.

that categorical data is data grouped according to common properties

and quantitative data is data that is measurable. For example

categorical data would be things such as race, sex, age group, and

educational level. This kind of data you cant really measure, but you

can count the number of members in each category or group, whereas

quantitative data are things such as length and weight. These things

are measurable and you can compare one to another. When looking at

categorical data you would want to use graphs such as tables. Since

this data cannot be measured you would make a table to coordinate

the property with the number of members with that property. Since

quantitative data can be measured you can use graphs such as

histograms, which compares measurements and the frequency of

those measurements. You can also use boxplots, stemplots, or pareto

graphs for quantitative data. For categorical data there isnt really any

calculations that make sense. I mean you could find the mean of the

data, but it wouldnt really make sense at to why you would want to do

that. For quantitative data you can do several calculations. You can find

the mean, median, and mode. You can also find the range. The 5number summary is also something you can calculate; the minimum,

first quartile, median, third quartile, and the maximum. You can

calculate the standard deviation as well. All of these calculations help

you to understand the data better. Although categorical and

quantitative data are different, you actually need both for the data to

be complete and meaningful. The quantitative data gives us the

numbers and the categorical data gives us the labels that tell us what

the numbers measure.

PART 4

When we have an estimated population parameter, instead of

just having a single value or point estimate we have can find the

confidence intervals. We use these confidence values because they

give us a range of values that we believe, with varying degrees of

confidence that the true population value falls. The actual definition of

a confidence interval is a range of values so defined that there is a

specified probability that the value of a parameter lies within it. When

you are using a confidence interval, say a 98% confidence interval, you

are first examining your data from your sample. Lets say we did a

survey of 987 people and found that 98% of them know what Harry

Potter is. We could then find the confidence interval and say that we

are 98% sure that the interval actually does contain the true value of

the population portion p.

PART 5

1. A hypothesis is a claim or statement about a property of population.

A hypothesis test is a procedure for testing a claim about a property of

a population. So when there is a statement made, or hypothesis, about

a property of population we will use hypothesis testing to determine

whether or not there is enough statistical evidence in favor of that

statement. By doing these tests we are able to see if these statements

are true or false. If they are true we can reject to fail the statement.

However, if it is false we can reject the statement.

not sufficient sample evidence to support the claim that 20% of all

skittles candies are red. I was able to come to this conclusion by

comparing the p-value to the significance level. I got 0.2802 for my pvalue, which is greater than the significance level of 0.01 Therefore, we

have to fail to reject. In problem 3 I also failed to reject the null

hypothesis. There is not sufficient sample evidence to support the

claim that the mean number of skittles candies per bag is 55. I did this

by finding the t-value which is 8.22644. This value does not fall in the

critical region of 2.660, and so we must fail to reject.

5. For the first hypothesis test that claimed that 20% of all skittles

candies are red I got a p-value that is greater than the significance

value. We presume the null hypothesis of p = .20 to be true. Since my

p-value was greater than the significance level it means that we cannot

reject the null hypothesis that p = 0.20 because there is not enough

evidence to support the claim.. However, this doesnt necessarily mean

that it is true, just plausible. For the second hypothesis test it claimed

that the mean skittles candies per bag is 55. I got a critical value of

2.660 and a t-score of 8.22644. When comparing the two on the chart

we come to the conclusion that we must fail to reject the null

hypothesis. There is not sufficient sample evidence to support the

claim. So once again the null hypothesis is plausible.

PART 6

The Skittles Term Project helped develop my problem solving

skills in many ways. While doing the project I had to think of the

Skittles as more than just a bag of Skittles. I have eaten Skittles

several times in my life, but never once did I look at them and consider

them a statistical math problem. It opened my mind to see that a lot of

things in my daily life could be turned into or looked at as a statistical

problem.

Before this project I knew the basics like how to find the mean,

median and mode of a data set, but I had never heard of a standard

deviation, z-score, hypothesis testing, etc. All of this was new

information for me. This new information also helped to develop my

problem solving skills because it took me deeper into the data set. I

had to analyze it even more. Not only that, but because this class is

online I had to teach myself how to do it.

I think this is what helped develop my problem solving skills the

most. I didnt just have to analyze the data deeper for this project, but I

had to find out how to analyze it deeper. I had to teach myself how to

find the z-score and what it meant. I had to teach myself how to

calculate a standard deviation and the significance it gives to a data

set. I had to teach myself what hypothesis testing is and what it does.

When things became confusing during the project I had to use

my problem solving skills to figure out a way to help me better

understand. The hardest part wasnt learning the calculations, but

what the actual meaning was behind those calculations. What those

calculations meant in regards to the data set. I think this project

definitely helped me to develop my problem solving skills.

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