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LITEN

MULI!I

LUSTRATA CU TEXTE

CLlPRINS VOL.

:iI{n

STUDTU INTRODUCTIV

XXII

{..lnranisrnul

Iie?nllcrea antieiriti!ii. Antononril {ilrlogirl,


Slril'ilul cl itic. gt1i111istul
Alfo;romia ;;tiinlei
Atliuiiitii ctitice ale umrnismului ..

xx,
xii.\rn

Lllrianisnrril ;ci Rc{orma

Crrni(lcnltclc a-xiologice alc

IJmanistr:'rtL:.i

,,

nnri

T,XX\-XI

icc" Pcr:sonaju1. 1'cmc 1i rrcti.r'e


isls: convenlia nebltnrllu i" ft"-ti[n;i

specif

rc,na:ic[]nt

tra'ri1i:., ca::pc dicrn, lumca ca

teatru' Litcre.L'tlr;i
LXXl'TN

molrttristir
Estetiqa !iterard a Renagterl'i
Rereapterea

Rema;terea

a erel

L
LXNI{

ai Rena;terii
Strueturi iiterare in Rena;tere

&.larili precurscri

Cii

XXII

aonceitt

gi

etaPe

c.x'trrn

CXIN

ontinuitate, sintezi, prelignrar*

rrnoderne

C X-}rrr"X

Crtvi,nttt!,

caitaru.lui

cxXIX

I],C

:\

Scrisori t1t'sprc rncditatiile

il. l" SlinL,li

,\Ir.rlruirit.

de lllarta Gu$u
Carrlrrnir:r'rrl

};XX]

1.

l.

nrele

. Cltre Dyonisius

(1'ragnr'ettte). In, tottti;tc;te

J'rrr qtttc;itr:Le

in, rorttin'este de Eta Boeriu/

I
1l

XXX\T
XC

1.)

L',XXVI

n3
n5

C.\XXI t
Ci]LXX tI

_tb

16
x7

CCCX

CCC]XIX

C]{XVI II i l't (.t!tncti lt )


l'riurr ftrr ilc. '/"riutrtl'ttl tirrrpulni (fra.gntcttte)'
totu,6;te;i.c

r.fc

GIO\I,\NI I

Eta

aolgqct0

17
1n'

Boeriu

Ela Boeriu)

Coluccit'r S:rlutati. c.ritre f,uclor.ico c.lcgli. Aliclosi


(ft'o.gttte ;it) . i n y,Ltitt?,ne ,;le tie Marla Gulu . .

GrO il lt.,\(_tLtIail l i\ I
Cirtr:c (irrrriro Yeronczrl

POG

a'a ftlarta Culu

Discu!ii

!11 ,1;,r1rr:Jr-:

omoro r ski

A*

(fragnte

ttt). In

ro'ntdncgle
-it

(frd!:nr.cilt). in, rontfute;!e tle hlafia

jii'.:ilit;tttt).

LOIiET\ZO VAI-I.A

Illcganfa Iinrbii krtinc (fra.ttnenlttl


I)esprc clonaf-iulca-1u

(fi,r'-il;t t.ltt,' itt

i, Con sta nl'in

I,,ur.ilttilL rlc C. D. Zeletitt) " "

'Lcogcnio (fragntertlttt irt t'otnfrnt:;


'ritfrr Ltrl rlcsplc farn il

C. D. Zeletin)
|

lt '/r C' D" ZeIetin]

ic (fra unt tt lrtl i it r" tttti titt t;(c

\'iznt arn lrrPliltor-, ilc slirlricirrncl.

1n.

tL

59

62
63

ratttitit;tt

t7'e

G5

66

l i i {:l tl }l:l tl(rllcttr l

itt iotttitt;1lc t/u Nina

56

i\t\lrslLlo rftctr\o
Acru) r'rr i trl

55

61

LI|,ON BTT'TISTA AT-RI]ITI]I


'f

52

57

Marta Gu!u)

1u

i 1'llr tt'n

{j

rt

ltr; tn

t': ! e

G6

Faqron '

clo\rr\NNt I'lco l)lil.l..\ Nlll{,\Nl)()I'\

75

l)cslrlc tlctttnil;ittt,:t ()ll)lrllli (.f'ttr';ttt"tttttl itt r'trtt'i,ttsit

r/, Mar{a 0u!tt.

,J9
\'

54

'

75

.15

17

6utu

Frcctiil,r

g0

45

s.\T-tr-i'f.\-II

IIL\\TIO BIONDO
rege A.lfotlso ctre
Illar.io Biondo, ciitre setcnisirnutr.
iL'l' (lla';n r':rnnn. clcspre csttc.lilil iittpotl'irlt lrrle
i,,r,,i I .'i tt rittt,it,ctl,; dt Nlatta Gu!u '

tlb Mafia Gu!u)

C. D. Zeletin

23

JIOT]C,\CCI.O

Dee arrrrrrortul 1'.{rn.gnientele trt.ronLdttc;le tlc

VI

n0

N-XI

62

ronrineste

LITERATURA U*MANIS]TTULUI 9I RENA9TERII IN


ITALIA
FRANC]!SC]O I)E'I}iA

CIAN,NOZZO N'IANETTI
ornului (fragmcn{tt'l
-[)c-qnre
-i.ti noblctea qi superioritatca

L()liliNZO DI'l llttDtcrl


Comentariu ;-r1 l{agnilicului Lorcnzo tlci hlcilit'i asn,-,r"' t,toa,, tl irr s,lnetclc salc (/tril;rr' tt'ttl in r"t;iti'tv;lt
llr C. o. Zetetin,si Cornelia ComorovskiI
Selve (fragntentrtl i,tt, romdn,ertle r1r C D. Zele'tin) "

50

7'ritttttIttl Itti Uuchtrs t'


C. D. Zeletin

78

80
8Cl

Ctntece cle carnaval.

Xri rttntAneftc r/a Cornelia

78

u,1

At'irtnei

I'tr'

r"or;z1i ti

tlie

tle
81

\TII

ANG]JX-O POtr"IZI,\NO
Povestea Lui Orfeu. .. ..

aanjotrii. ftt

8.t

..

roni,ii,ttcSte tie C.

84

D Zeleti n

85

Ealerle qican!,:nete. Llrl. In vot:tdnc;!c de {.D. Zeletira


. l rL r".t;,tl ;rr':!:
Iiispete, risipite, mris'crliri. \\\\'lt

66

de t. D. Zeletin

o-,

I.\ POLIPFI itr,I


I'oliphili tbi humana omri; non
nrsl s.orrinium cssc docct, atqnr: obiter plurima
scjiu sanc 11u:rrn tligra cornntcnlorat {frc:metz!)
l;t s tt;tt'i.;t:jlr tlc Pelru Cre!ia .

S8

H YP};Il] ]3O1'OI{ACI{

Flypncrotomach.ia

Grtr1()]-.\llo s,\\r(f ]iAr{ol,-\"


P:redic a asilllrn in i l{aggai. (lr n g n itt t,}. f;a
ti,

l]$

97

t,oiltdncrt{e

o7

lrh6

letin)

16,J

"r\rnintiri (fregn*tttele in r,ttttti:.teptc r,li C" D" Zeletin


,si Conlelia Cornorovski)
0-U]-O\-\ZZI
Dcspr-c r-lcstin, libcr ltlliit:.:u. ltrcrlt:'si ';tt,11'6' r'i"; rrrtu,,titc irt, r'ottAnLtslc r/a Alexandlru Cizeli]
(l;1 1'l g 11'-r1 r'r) ('.'l lr2-cl L' tn inruri Jrtt l ilatr: irt liltrtrii san
<lr.'sqrlc iirtarrt:rtii (l'rcttrtc;;i"), i;i ;'"tittiiit'rr!c,.itJ.

n01

109
r'ant.dne;le rle e " D"

:il09

l;.1

(,urtcrrirul ( l-rti;ttt"tiltlt iii

(;ASl',\ti.\

; -rriiri,/,:.ilLl ,;,: Eta

l,\ll l'.\

Srrttr'l.ilj \l,lll.

1;5

l;$

$,,\Ll )liS.,\ li C:\SIIIOLI(INll

i.r

Boeriu)

17J

l9

l11,v,tttt

'i

i,

C. D. Zelctin

rl

li)rl

x'-r1

f\rcrsnri] XXIII. fu

ratn(itzr;le dg C. D. Zeletira" " ".


"{rcr"clia {;rr.:ntent'nl in t'ontin,erte da C. D" Zeletin}

DA V]NCI

xi.!i
t
)L

Ilnsernni"ri]. ( f:.a:nzente; /in, ramdre;te da C. D.


Zeletin)
fiSonet] in t'tutti,ne;t.a cle C,. D. Teletin
f\rlei si.ni,tate? {'ine aceast5. norrnd. ..1 in, run:d,nt;tc
tla 8. D. Zeletin)
}iTCCOX-6 IN.\C}trI,\\rtrLLI
I-ui Franceso \,rettori, prca ihlsl-ru antbasaai.dri
f-il9111.Naj. pe ningd. Ilarclc porrliricc {{.ii,aL;iut.,;:i;tL!
i,t: t-ct;,td;:c;it r"ia Niria Far;on)
.r..tr

VIH

SCO GUICClAITDtrNtr

Alexandru Cizek

T,\COtrO SANN.\ZAITO

N."EONAII.DO

C]E

?n ror:ttitztf lc ri'a

rl{1tr

C. D. Zeletin)

n)

I;R,\N

llllll ltO

J,:r

l\X.\T'X'lro

Ze treti

164

l\,Iitriiguna (fragnt,etttele

l1':'

i.)
r'ir;rri;,r,:,.:

&no:rg"rnte {it.trrlttulu,l iit, t'omiint;lc rle C. D. ZeXetin}

LLiD0\,rnco -\RxosTo
Orjant'lo Iinrlos {-t'ragntenlttl itt,

l{. 41. Toseafli

Fagon)

Nina

140

fstori:r. Ttaliei (frcgrttc'tttcle tt ratitd,i:,.;!c. ric C. D"

XlUl-L-'n

l{.\n Ll llol'\RDo
Orlanrlo lndrir.gostit (irogtuctttcie ill

139

Ze

e/; eorlxeiia eelfilerovski

T,Utrrllt

l)rincipctrc (fragnzeutele i'te t'cutiit't'eSte de Nina Fagon)


J)iscursuri a,supra pr-irnei clecaclc a Iui Titus l-itiu
(lrctgntcntele iit t'ot1'rtine;te de Catfielia e 0ft!0r0 vsl{i)
nst,rriile florentine ( fs,egmentcle i,tt rrr:126'1rcile C,c

-f)
Al

j')1
rlt3tr

152
t-

tJ

vt'l"t'()litr
tr\rt'zii.
l)()('lii

-qi,o,

C( )1.().NN

tttll,\\\ll.

:r:r('l'(l si lttr-ttlllt:

i'ti t"i,iri1;,'-1.,1, C. D"


S,rrrr-'ir.ri

'r't.s!.r Lle C. D. Zeletin

X,\X. in

!r,l

l$l;3

r,:nt,i194

Glll"o lf, 1,'r),-{ -\ lTlTo I


iliirnc]. fra r,);rrdntsic r,'u e . D" Zeleti* '
5LI\'i
}---.\XVIII
-XLIX
l-XXlX, Lni 'llourti1;s,t (';.1."'llie ;l

tr{tc I Iti T-.\ -\

Zeletin

n-

[$'.6
I

98

11.98

19S

x99
100
tV

LXXXiII

201

XCI

201

CXLI\T

202

crx,

92

202

CIX,

95

203

crx,

204

105

CXLVII

204

PIIITRO Altli'I. Ir\O


fsint r\rctino, bir:i.. .1. ?n ront,itrrslt: tle C. D. Zeletin
icitre Gianriantonio tla lrolignuj (frartttent) 1n
i'oittliric;te ile C. D. Zeletin
FIT\NCI'SCO RIJIRNI

\IENI]TO C]]]LI,I

Yiafa lni

247

208
209

?rnpotriva lrri llietro ;\r'etino (frttgmeute.). In rotittine;!e de C. D. Zeletilt . . . .


T]}i N

206

T\

J'lcn'n'cnuto Collini scrisil

(1:ra'gnen.tule liu, romiitte;le cle $telan

tlc cl

insrrsi

Crudu) .. . ' i.

Anrinta (fragntentttl itt

ttre

oJ't.

Zeletin)
a']

cit.;

r,t'tt,

Ji'agmertl,

246

tla

itz trn.tlucet'ta lu'i C. D.

2VV

1O}IT,I,\SO CAIIPr\NIiLLI
Cctatea, soalchii.., (ft,agm.enltt,I in

neliu Vtlt)

z.

el

e in,

t.

rtrtzd,t,res te

f7g
!81
t'onztttcf tc

tv"e

Cot-

Cnlcscre de poczii f ilozof ice. ( Itr l,outd,ncate cle C.D. Zelet i n)

t33
286

Nu cstc rcgc acela cc are urr regat, ci accl care stie

sii

clontucasci,

Citcva sonctc
'J-'r'oi ruglciuni
urtrtc, Cantonil

!87

!sE

II

Q('\

oQ.\

!lE9

290

poc]i

1$D
'1,11')

1)90

259

G{ORDANO BIRIJNC)
Cina din Postul cel n'Iare (fragtttentele: parlialti reedi-

gnt,e nt cl e : p ar

ii tyadtrctiea'liald.
lu,i

Zeletin)

Ci'lt.r'c

romdnesfe r1i, trlomulus Vttl-

Ierrisalimul liberat (fragmenle in rontdtze;te


Aurel Covari)

(fi,

eloiccle avinturi (fr agnt,et

de C. D.

2t2

25V

pcscu)

I],,-esprq

212

CiIiOLAITIO C;\RDANO
Car-te clespre \.ia1.a m*:a (fra.gtttttifu). 1n rontdneStc

triunrfitoare

Zeletin) ..

ILrrlriga.l
r\larlrigal

215

1'OR.rjLIAT'O TASSO

C. D.

l\rlir.dr-igril I

221

Gutu

garca bcstici

rceditare,a,p. c,it.; uu, fragtnent

210

GIOITGIO \T.\S.\RI
Vir.l ilt'ccl{)r' rn:r i tle scernii pictoli. sr'rrlptori si atlrir(.c!i (frtr,;:tttttle). !rt rotrtdnt'1, r/r' $telan Cfudtl

clc Marta

A lun

263
272

214

l.).iirl(l:j

rl.r's1rr c <'t:'l<: t'lrrrrii.

sis{.cntc pr.incipalc a,lc

lrl.rrlt:rrrt:irr si r'r)rlpcr-rrit'il..l (Jtit.qtttr,ttit:lo in


ul)r/c (lt Ilonrolo Ottolrc)

lumii,
yorttd,-

STUDIU trN'IITODUCTI\T

(Lr ir-lc

sr:rrr tclzir rctlo-.;pcctiv evc.rlu!ia. :lu ltnrii


si ii t:crccl.c;tzi"r, s;rrrstl,t e.jun11c, rllcrgin(l irr ur-m5
1rl lrrrii ttrirrlrlr-rrpto, lir, t:otiLur;r t.r-r:ptlt silrrirtil.ii, in lir-rrop:r
:it:r'olcfrrr' -\l\/
-\\'1, Pcrioaclil simfiti c.r o rcragtcrc ti
tlc cci c:lrc a"u tri.it-o. Iipoca insi,;i in.,
irsl-lt:l ttrrrniti clriar
col)u:ic si-si ;rrticulczc llir!).tale. Jri;ntru a caracteriza vrerrrrrr ilc lor, orrnrcnii tlt: rrtunli an "[otrosit imagini ;i termcni
c;l : (r,')ittl lrrrirtr, (r'o)invicre, (r't)rrastere,
l,r)t-r'lr:i() \";r II:l rtl>Srrrr.':lSc ,l rcxla;tere ilitii rnai intii in
rrrtr'lt: ;rl,r:;1ir:t.; irt prt'l;r1.rr, lrl Elcgnnla limhii latine e1 sct'ia
cit rr.rlr'fc irtlrr'lit.r: r:rr r:clt: lilrlr';t!r:,,rciuviit" (rettiuist:t1n.t),
a.stlcl irrt:it. l;tr::;i,,,ittl l,rtr:;tst'ii," (,'lli.trtscrrnl)... ctc.,c|o, Lrolizirrrr,r vorlri sl.c rLrr;Pl'r: (iirrtLo ([:l(jij -* ll]1i7) ca despre arli:;t.rrl,,plirr ():rr(: l)i(:t-rrr,l rlro,rrt.i it, fcill!'iitL", Ca si P,;liziano,
\/;rs;rr i ,,'c'lc irrt:cPrrttrl ,,irrl'[orilii'' at't{]lc}r plastice in opcra
lrri (iiotto, orrrL:,)it, reinviart arLa picfurii".

nt,) l('l-lro

llrr Lrgilrrri"r. cn tra.rlucerea sa Fi c'-'. -\cad.ernia clinFlorenla,


Iiicrilro vorj)e)te dcsprc o renagtere a lui lllaton (di"ttn Pltto
rc+zttsoelelu,y .., resut,genii Fio"toti,i,.,. iil su.oitLt'n(1o Pl&totae,..) $i despre rlcademia anticA ce rein,,/ic (a'ntiqu.mt .4ca-

qttnsi

d,atziam tcsurgetlitt;t). Potrizi:rno sclie d':spre o cpocd, a


,,istoiiogratiei reniscute" { i;islcr iae reiwlcre}.
fntr-o scrisoar:e din tr-{99 }lra.srnus vorbea clespre ,,lite-

ratuia

ce

tola iijn

reinfiorette" (Iittettctura retlorescente), iar in episX51.5 citre }fa;rtiucs l);ririus, clespre ostilitatea

XiII

ignoranfilrr care se tem ,,daci renasc (si rcnasoantttr) literele frurnoase". Incheindu-;i Arta p0eticf,, I.C. Scaliger
il arnintea pc Erasmus: ,,lIare a fost renumele lni Erasmus
mai cu searnir, iu Renagterea literelor clin Germauia" (pra.esertina i.n Germ:nzia li,ttevis ipsis renascentibus).
intr-o scrisoare cilre Anc1r6 'I-iraqucau (Andrea f iraclLrcllus) Itabclais elogiazir ,,aceastir. lurnini, atlt t1c putcrnicd
a sccnlr-rlni uostrn ( in ltctc tanta secttli tzoslt'i, lztce ) , ciwJ,
verLem prirniie la noi, priLrtr-o rlcosebiti, favoa,rc a zeilor';
toa.te disciplincle ccle mai dc scamii".,. In cclcbra epistolzl,
cirtrc Panl-aqmcl, Cargantua isi ruirrturiscyt-c bucnlia pcnt{u

cir,,in tin'rpn1 meu litcr-clc au {osL ascz;Llc in lurrriirir, si


c:

ns tir-c-r".

in clerlitratia, ceitre Flcnlic a1 II-lea, a tracluccrii Vie!ilor lui Plutarh (1559), Jacqtrcs Am\:ot isi exprima ni,<lejdea cX, sub domnia lni sc vor silvirsi asemenea fapte incil;,",
"ve!i {i prosli.vit pentru a fi incheiat si incununat in cltip
tri.r-rmfal opera pe care mareie rege Francisc, pi,rintelrr nostrn stins din vialf , o incL)pusc pe {ericite ternciuri, sprijininii

si inl.lorirea (cle Jaire venailre et Jlorir), in acest


nobil regat, a litcrclor frurnoase..."
Arlescori sc vorbe;tc clcsplc lumina vrcmrrriior rroi in
opozilic cu touebrclc cpocii antcrioare. Asnpra etapei care

rcnagtcrca.

precedart Ilenaytcrea

* a evului

rncclir-r

* piirerile

au

fost diirtoldcauna impS,efite. La fel cu Boccaccio gi alfi orrmcni ai renayterii, Erasmus vcclea intre alltichit.ate si epoca
sa veacuri cle ,,barbarie".
In 1860 Burckharclt aratir ,,accasti, conceptic strlint&
;i ncclreaptl"1 a umani:stilorcare crczuserX. cii o dati cu ei
inccpea o erd {undamental noui. Pc ascmetea, umani;ti ii
nnmea H. llrdmond ,,copii voinici ;i bine hrir.nifi care i;i
bat propria lor doici,, evul merliu".z
I)ar nu tofi umani9tii irnp:irtir.;eau conceplia cca,,sLrimt;i".

De piklir, iutr-o notoric scrisoale <lin 3 iunie 1485 caitre


Errlolao Btrrbaro, Pico della l{iranclol:r ficea, in favoarcra
celor dintii, deosebirea inLrc nerafittalii ginrlitori rncdievali
;i retorii clin zilele sale; primii pXcirtuiseli prin stingir,cii
stilistice, ccilalti p'ici,tuiau plin lipsii de cottliuut. ,,Putern

, Jr1*b lllnrckharclL, Cttltura Rena;terii. In .Ttalia., Dclitura


pr.utru litclatur;-r, col. B.I'].ll., 1969, vol,I, p, 29ii.

[I isloi : t Ii!lr vai rc d rt scnI in,,nI vrI isctt.v en Fvancc drprt is la


tnz des Guevres tle lleligiotz jttsqu' d tzos jours, Puris, 19-19, vol. 5
2

XIV

triri fir,ri lirnbi, scria cl, chiar claci nu e u;or; dar niciclecum
rtu putcm trii fir,ri, inind,. Nu este un orn cult acela care nu
soprcoctrpit de eleganla litcrarii; dar nu este om acela care
sc lipselte de filozofie".
Dcfinind, Iiena.sterea, Dic!ionarul Acaderniei (l7l.S) gisea ci "termenul cste nedrept f alii cle evu I mediu", In schimb,
in Eseul asupra moravurilor (1753), Voll-aire scria despre
,,vrcnrurile barbarc (tentps gt,ossievs) numite cv rnediu", iar
in Prelegerile de f ilozofie a istorie i, Hegel afirma c5. ,,aurora"
cpocii moCerne se rirlica ,,in sfl::;it dupi lunga ;i teribila
rlorlptc a evului mediu"r. In Cursql de istorie a literaturii,
J,a I'Ialpe incepea cele trei volume cu antii:hilatea gi le
inchciacu sccoluI a,l X\rlll-lea; primul volllm, cLrpi, ce
lnclrirra circa ,{00 de pagini literaturii anticc, znqrivea irr
tr,I lragiui (pcrrtr:u a trcce apoi la epoca lni l-urlovic al
XIV-lea) o pcrioitdir. dc tranzilie cincl lnmina gi rafiunea
(rcirtvicr-cit cultur:ii arrticc) t.riunllilu clupir, in{"uncricul ;i
:iornnolt:rtl.rr. cvu lni rnccliu, a.supra ci,ruia uu -qe opre$te
lh:r:il pt:rrtr-r-r lr,-l c:arlrctcr:iza irstlel: ,,tcncbrele vaste si adinci
itt rlrrrc Ixlrl'>u rit cuf undase pimint.ul (..,) somn indelungat
(...) llrrsLirrl si noaptca"r.
1.,:[ a,scrncnca, rnct:rforc si anliteze sirnplif icrtoare, al ciror sir r;-lrr: putc:r lrrclrrngi, iu. Lrltintcle deccnii s-a renuntat.
()rr lirrr.rlr: v,-tzttsc l)r.: Sltttcti:; iu evul nleJiu cr:nrp]e:;jtatca
lrtlr:i cgr,tr:i rlc rtti,r'r'lir: si, irt rrtrcll;i tinrli, cle oprcsittnc a intlivi,lrrlrri: ,, l)csi1;rrr, ttrr-i t:st.c nirnir.ulr i ingiitlLrit sir, vorbcascS,
(:lt l)r'(:1, 11il{irt |r:sP,.rr:L rlttslllt: lt.tmca. acca.sta O ifutOI.itir"lii
(.,.) rrr,rrrtr:ttt rlr: {.rrllrrrrlt't: si t.lo ctttnzitsnr"s.
l.rrnlr:1, :lr:r'ls[.;r irrillrrsr,r cirttrtl.ralele gotice, irrlgmolngg
1l'irrr,:lt: rrrrir,rrr':;it,i.! i, i;r.r'in sccolul al XIII-lca. cLllloscllse o
crrlrrrirr;rrrLr"r si rigrrrr,rirsi dczvoltare a aristotclisrnului in
arupla sintczir ir lui I'oma din Aquino;i atiuscse rronentcle
clc inalLir. spiriiuaiitate clin opcra hri Dante, sau a hii frranl Hcgel, Ilrelcseri de {ilotofie a istoyit:i., tratlucere de
n\.{r'u Dr-iig}rici ;i li.adu Stoichi}i, Dditura Acadcn:ici, 1968,
rr.38{.
" , Clo,r,'s cle litlii'ature, Paris, 1870, vol.I, p. 426.
3

Franccsco c1c Sanctis, Jstoyia litc.yalnyii ikr,l!.en.e, 'lr*


introtlucliv si note de Nina 1:;.r;ot, ljditura

qlililr:rc, stntliu

perrtru literatur:i

univclsali,

1965,

p.

322.

XV

ccsco din Assisi, pe lingir ale ciirui si,lrrple, clar snave FXorlcelen
rlizertafiile lui Petrarca, ?rnpill;rte cu citate, par, 1n reiorica
lor, sirrace.
Dar tot aceastir, hrme acccptiise disproporfia: excesele

scolasticii, practicarea excLusivir

fia

ascezei, scleroza

viefii in

a generalizdrii, hipertro-

nnmele dogrnelor rostuite de


autoritate, Ln farnaa $eeyttis a omului medicl'al, maritre fervori ale bogatului spiri.t omeilcsc erau contorsionate prin
inscrierea ior intr-o lLtme ingusti. ;i ir:.chisi,. Cosmosul, pd,mtntul ;i cuvintril scris*reduse tra sistemnl ptolemeic, la

Europa cuprinsir, intre Atlantic ;i Nfeclite!:ax1a, Vulgata gi


Aristotel, de multc or:i rudirncr:rtar ;i gregit cunoscute
cran consiclerate ;tiutc pentru eternitate; difuzarea culturii se fd,cea ln ccrcuri :i:estrinse, dii.tclcil, rnan.ilscri,sele erau
scumpe si rare.
Descoperirile astronomice ;i gecgrafice" noi structuri econonrice si politice, ;i tiparii.tr ara flrurit o alti, fanna w,et$isl
antichitatea a fost altfcl receptati, ca $i cu111 ar fi relnt'iat
gi, incepini! cu autono&lizarea filologiei, toate dorneniile
gindirii 9i crealici artistice s emaocipeaai. dc teolcgie.
ILaliunca omerleasci"r lrtborioasi"r, gi care nu suferir indelungir, vreme apirsarc.a trnni spaliu inchis, a fost ajutatir, de
inr-cnfii si drscopcrir'r sir spargii orisonturi y.i sd, l5rgcascfi,
lumea cunoscutir, ernpit'ic" .Atu.nci gi caurenii gi-au schimbat
viala gi mentalitatca, Ln trans"formarea imaginii despre lumca in care ei triliau au contribuit busola, c?rria cor"rr,biei;
praful de pu;cii, prepnrarea hirtiei, tipamX si luneta, pind,
at$nci prirnitiv sau cle noc cunoscute" Sisfcrnul copernican
a lniocuit conceplia gcoee)ntricir cu cea heliocentricl. Corpuriie ceregti au {ost agezate tra trccuX lor ;i mai lndeaproape
cercetate; Gaiilei ,stia Ce existenfa petenor solare, & satelililor lui Jupiter, a m.ilntilor Ce pe suprafala nunii.
Pdmintul s-a ,,intiri" gi eX. E{egel vedea principalnl ferlomen al epocii ln ,,aceastf;, nlzuin!fi spre 6n a,fard, a spitittlui, aceastir dorinfit a ornuJ.ui clc a-gi cu:loa;te pilmlntul

'.
fn sccolul a1 Xl.'-I.-:l pcrtnghciii ce rcetau asastetrc Afx'icii. ln 1.{87, portugh.eznl fialtplo:mcc Diaz, care inconjura
stin

Op. cit", png, S$4.

KVI

Eunei Speranle'
[,(j!rtrri prima oari. A{rica, a descoperit capnn
it.,olin.i capul l3unei Speranfe, in 1'{97 navigatorul por'
iLrghez \iaslo Da Garna clescoperea drumutr cdtre Ind'ii, iar
A['ons d'Albuquerque {1453 - 1515) punea bazele stirpl'
nilii portugh"r" it Inclii. Naviglnd" in slujba spaniolilort
in i492 L1n colltinent
19,'nou-izul Cristotror Columb descoperea
navigator'lui
cinstea
in
ciat
fie
se
il,,u, ai cirrui nume avea
intrepr-inde
l5i2)
care
(1454
\respucci
,
Arnerigo
{torentin
citcva cillitorii in lumea nou5,. Cabot-tatAl ti fiul atiregeau
tn 1496 peninsula Labrador, iar fiul, Sebastian Cabot, se
apropia in 1526 cle Rio de la Plata. Portugliezul NIagellan,
trir"h purces prinea oari la lnconjurul lunaii, dcscoperi in
1520 sfrinrtoarea ce ii poarti numele"
Iixplordrile geograficc au determ.inat ,,noi forrne cle I'iatH'
modein5,;, oamenii cunosc ,,alt spa'!'itt; 9i o- dat6'
ir,..l, ,,oltt coordoeutte economice, etice ;i politice, rnai apte
i,n,,'. r'ciollzirri c1e naburS, giganticS,"i; precum ;i noi structuri
lit,,.nr"' cu insistenfi. se lnlllnesc de pildd utopiile constru'
itc in dccor exotic sau motivul insuleis'
?rr lunicer,

Furtuna lLri Shakespearc este unul dintre ecourile lite'


trrc alc uirnirii renascentiste in fala lurilii care se largea;i
,,i, inrtrog:.1'ea prin cirlir,torii. Prospe-ro ajunge sti'pinul unei
in,.rrlc indcpitrlate, c1upX, cum Sancho. Panza i;i dore;te o
irrsrrliL. lu c^uvintclc prin care othello ii i-ctocisise lui Brabanreale 9i fantas'
lio via.fir, sa, Shal:cspcarc a;a25, elerlenteleurrteazS'
ln chip
ce
ti,rrr.l" ltrltti (l('c()r creat tlo zvonurile
noi,
nrclcaguri
nnor
a
.de'-+pre
ii."*,,,,,,,u,";,;.t'ii't'':rs1-rctc
c:rre' at?l do jrLrlirti olrrrlcrri ;tirr atit tlc ptltin"' llrcruri;
,,Olltrllo
C(tit(rtit;'(tiittc;i Si li.ttctlc l'tr.;iiuri,
$i ri1,r',:;tittri,;i tntr'trli ctt l:i:;cu'tz c;;i
S-trtr' l,lrittilrtl in l)(tI cslircfl 2i!rdu
.,\i cart i,l,o'l ii ::i;;i attlro'l:ofagi,
Cc se rndtittlcti trttre ei, So oanieni
C'tt cnfu'l dfcictt llxdi jos ele uweri"'

Fiminturile aflate fascinau; mai ales ,,Arnerica, Lumea


cce nou5" pe care o nentioneazi ;i Fischal't ln l{0r0coasa
cotabie itin Ziirich.
- t EG"t Pe,pt, Ctild'tot"iile P.cna|tttt'ii 9i nci strtttftni fite'
Iirrr, nditura pentru literattrii tlnivcr atrir], tr9$7" nip' 8u9'
: c{. ibid., F}r. 185*198'
F{VIX

Tclleritatea navigatorilor a clltuziasrnat poefii; faptcle


Ior aveau rnir,refia si taina mifurilor. 'flnil.a care li ciliruzc;te citre fnsulele norocoase pe Ubaltlo ;i pe Carlo, imbarcali pe o luntre, le prcvcstelte eroilor din cpopeea lui 'IorErato Tasso (Ierusalimul liberat):
I tr i IIt:r;ttlc tt i tttIc
,pentru
acci ce gtiu sti pa*161
fi
Iut.perii fli,rr'i. ,tntnrc, mitri, pre,,:ic,

,,Coloa

ttele

Vor

fi iluslre prinlre ttoi odatii;


Lte, lti tttt, pio
L/a-nconjzu'a fc tt2alc glia toatti;
l"or

s,ipu;i unoi concli!ii c1e vialri neometrelti' 1n 1537


lt-l"tt cliiilel o bulit in cale aclucea la cnnoltin'
oanre[i' Cir'tre s{ir;;itul
I,i. cro;liniti!ii cir,;i inclicnii sinl
clcsPre coniporcu
amitriciuuc
tna
escla
i
\{r-rntai.tnc
llr
r.;r'r:,,lrr
Alrica

sprtriolilol in Peru;i l[c:;ic:,,r\titea oragc rasc dc pe


{,r[;r lriiruinLrrltii, atitea na$iuni nimicite, popoaro cle alitc:'r
,,,i1i,,,,,t,- [<lc oamclri] trlcutc priu szrbie 9i cea mai bogatir 9i
pcrltl
I rrrrrrorrsii prrrto I lLtrnii zrlruncinat;i pcltm ncgo!Lr1 cn
pr'inatlczilceput
an
r,,i crr l,ipr:rl" l)cscoperirilc geografice
i i.',1,,i,:,,t'.,rirrsttr.' l ; consecinfcle lor stirnesc inrlignal'ea ;i
rr,:;,: sccpticisrttrtl cclor cc ginclcsc la natura n'rol'ali a omului'
l'lxtittrlr;rclt sttprlrfcfc:lor rle apit 1i pitmint pc care olnnl
prinrtil
1,. :;l r';ilr:it.t'rr ii <:ri'i;tcit posiliilitir!ile de acLivitatc (in
ii aLr
inr"cnf
ilc.
L)trscoirerili
rlc:t:csitiif
;i
r irr,l tlc rrr';iot) iri
erart
lor
rigitli'1,
oirJattizitrca
t:tr
lir.,tslt.lc,
ilrvirrr.trl. Ir.orlrrr.{irr.
r, lrit,rlici'i irr lrrlrr t.r.r.r.r.ii:11)ot-it(] rl0 lrt.lit'lrtIi si a tloIin!.ci clc a
r, :;lrl.ir;l'rr, t'. l,t' i;t lor' ;rtotlrti. lilt ttt;ttlttl:t't:tttricri' l)lll'llilnlicr-lcsf;tIr l(, vllillitl(, rlinltr' lt.rrrl,, (()ll:i{it.iliirtl tttt olrstllt'01 in
o piafil lnai
r ,,rr.,r rn.it lrrr ilol l)l {rtl(l'i{'. St' sirltlllt tllvoill tltr
l,rr'1i,i :.ri ;tt r';t:,(tt tlt't't,itr tlI c"tttrltlizitt'c lr c"onLIibuit la Ior'rrl.rl(';l :;lil(('l0l ll;lli()ll:ll("
Trrf l,rlilt':r l,t orIttcl.ici ;i a cornerfttltti a fo:;t lcgalir' r1c
Irrllt.,rire:L orrtstlr.rL. Civitizefil cea nonii cra prin cxcclcutil
r.iLirtlirrir. Ircurlalii stiibiseli ecottcrt.nic gi politic; in locul
llr sc riclicau orl;ce11ii ;i se afirmlr 1lora forfir' socialil a
curlilc scnioriale 1i rnirnir'stiIrLrrghczici. centrcle vechi
rilc- ficeau loc altora noi, urballc' ,,Ttegalitatea, sprijinindu-se pe biirgcri, a frirt prttcrea nobilirnii feud;rle si
a intcmeiat marile monarhii, bztzatc in eserrfti pe na'fio{laiitate, in care s-ar dcz1'oltat apoi naliunile enroPcile

l:rrc.:r

1-e xa slit',ni un.na,1,i,!ct, t.rtct:t,.tyia


$i te-ot' sltl,ct,i focuta ;i istori* l"

In ciclul inchina.t ltalienilor carc a;teapti si faci poezll


pe subiecte grecegti Clampancl!a vorbea dcspre ,,Atiter.icc
Vesltttcai,, Jiorentino... (Madrigalul 3) si ex;rita fa,ptele lui
Columb, ,,spilit critczri.tor", care ,,inviuge reticenta rnatcrnaticienilor, viziunca poclilor", si este rnai presus de fiaicieni, clc teologi, clc I{crcule, Nr:ptun;i Jupitcr (Madrigalu I 2).
Conrer-rtar:iul accstui naclrigal spuuc:,,Cristolor Colnmlr
gcnoveznl vccle cu ochii ;i striibatc su trupul rnai nlult decit

au aflat cu mintea lor poc!.i, filozoli gi teologi, Augustin


Ca o
consecin!i. a cllii.toriilor, cfcsc dubiilc rcligioase. Lirrgirca
orizon.turilor geogralicc inseanrui o irnbogt:rtir:e a expcrienlei; iar espcrienfa cca nonir d,Irirni adcseori vechi f icfiuni
profane, dar ;i constr:ucfii tcologale, observa Guicciarcliui
in Prelafa la Istoria ltaliei. in Apologia Iui 0alileo, Carnpr"nella justi{ica necesilalca iibcrtirtii 11c inl-elcgere si conrent:rre a Bibliei, cc nu trebuie rccltrsii la un sin.gur sens gi nici

;i Lactantius care Au ti.gir,clLrit e:ristcn!a antipozilor".

sLrpusi, uuei" irrtcrprctilr:i litcralc; el arilta, de pildi, croar-ei!


snor pir,rinti ai bi:;crit:ii carc snstiuuscri, ci paradisul tcr-cstr-u se aflir pl enisfcrl opnsi: dc cind Cr-isto{or Columb a

XViII

qri

1,;r1rir l.tatrl ol

,\i, soarclu,i rit'a1., t'n sti rtttiseare


Ptintintu-ttliits cLtut Jucc .s.j iu.ttt I soare (,,.)
(Coluntb (...)
(...) f iarut

ccaialti crn.islclil, asomclcl, alirmaf ii pu tcau


i;lr.iifitura cre|tllii obieci rle i:aljocull al pi'rginilor.

1566) , al cf,rui tatil a participat la a doua


t::r.littrrie a lui Colurnb, scl-ie o Suscinti relataie a distrugerii
lnrlillor gi vorbegte clesprc chinuirea ;i exteruiinarea biltinrr;ilor:; injuughiau fclnei insirrcinate, ardeau bi'rbaf i 1a
[,,,: ll-ric 1i cu uu ciln; in gtlrii, asllrnlcau asupra locuitofilor
lr:iiir: clc ciiui lliLrninzi; fusese martor oculiu' Dnpii tlcscosecolului al X\'-I1r:r'irea bogirliitor diil rninc, la inceputul

i)irs;rrs (1474

l,.rr, a inccpttt transpor{.uI dc sclavi negli aclu;i cu sila din

Tln ont ce t(tlnt.n, 1t-o

!-l"c:icoperit

Strtcrinfctc popoarclor ctlcerite siut tln prilcj c1e medita'


ISartolom6 de l'as
liL. ilsrrpra istorici 9i <lesti[Lrlui omenesc'

f;rce

XIX

mo.lerne gi Societatea burglrezi morJersl,'1. Apir,ruser5


noi stfucturi econoarice pi politice. StatuX se fornlase
9i se inlil,rea irnl:otriva icrarlriei fcud.ale existcnte si a bisericii. Sc.olul al XV-lea coincictrea cu formaiea un;r state
ca Pol,rnia, Boeinia si Ung:rria, cu lupta pentru indepcnilenfii er carl';oeneklr elvefie*e; in l.i2g, clupi iniliati"i fs*ni,
si lupt.a croit:5 a lorn*i d'.\rc, Cnrol al VII_lea era incoronat la Jteirns; in ll35 ,\n,:{iie punea capit anarhiei Jeu_
daie prr'n victoriir ;i incoronarca lui llenric n_l Vil_lel si
,
tot la slir;i tul vc:rur.rlr-ri al XV-lea Spir,uia rtaliza nnitatea
prin rccircerirea riltimulr-ri cnrirat.
'Iriccrca tlc 1l cn rte:r-'l:t nuscr.is la
c;:rrtca

t.ipiriti

pniil

in',ro:lircerea caraLrtcrc.lor nrobiIe in tiPogralic, cleci putiriga


de a oferj, in timlr mr,rlt mai s.:urt, un nurni,r *r"re rie cir,r1i
cu un pret mult sr:rizr_rt, a crea.t cu totntr alt+:
irosibiiitl!i cie

studiu si aiie

cordilii schi'rrrur'i dc icrci gi clifuzirrii Iiteraturii" La jumiitatea secolului al XV-iea se tipirea


la nfzr.ilz orima carte, o Bibiie. iu centr"cle culturale
mai i'sr:'t'ate s* i'fiintau irnprimerii. f.ipogra{iile sint
in llcn;r;tere accea ce vor fi sirloiLnclc pcniru secolul
al X\iIJ.- lea saLl cirlrinctelc cle lecturi in sr:co1ul al
XVi.Itr-lca: un nut:lcu rle vialii intclectlrall. Acolo s_au
pus temcl iiie cu lti:rii moderne; acolo se intiltcau invd.!a!i din !:iri diierile, discui.au cu eru,Jifie gi pasiune gi
transmiteau oa;rrcililor gtiutori de carte iriei noi carc avcau
si, le scJrir'lre pe cclc vechi. Tipografr_il ei:a u1l. or11 de rnare

culturii; t\lilo Jlalruzio la Vcne!ia, un{e au publicat scr:ieri


ale lor lirirsnrus, Linarrc seu Ioan Lascaris; plantin la Anvers, liroJrenius la l3:rsel; listiennc la paris sau la Gcneva;
Josse lSade la I-yon, apoi ia lraris; de Tournes la Lyon 9i,
tot la Lyon, S6l-l,rsticn Gryirhiris, care e.-lilcazi, clasici yi ii
di adiir'.rst iui liiicnne l)oiet, sau Frangois Juste, prirnul
editor al Iui Gargantual tuturor li s-ar fi putut arlresa cu_
vintcle de recunolti rtd; dintr-o scrisoare a lui Wiltiam
Grocyn tiltr: ,\ld"o r\{zrnuzirl: ittreaga lunre le era indato_
ratd,.
1

XX

}rngcls, Dialealictt natwyii, Editura

politici,

1966,

p. ln.

oamcni se rleplaseaz5, se mi;ci, Omului prins de


lrrr:trrrrir inLrc cer gi occan nu-i erau tle folos disputele scolast ilr.; invingirtor al ulror foste ncputinlc, nlr mai plttea crecle
rrr nirnicnicix sa. Cu riscul vic.!ii a{lasc minund,!ii ;i atluna
(.lrr()r'i; vr;izr sir se bllcure de ele 9i nu tnai putea ilnPirti;i
r,1,ilit-rrl ascctic' Se crea o aTtL.forvxa ttzentis.
l,lir nn a ap:r,rut ins;i deodatir, in Europa lntreag'l ;la in-

trlli ;i

{(

l)ut s-a conturat in Italia, ,,prima naiinne capitalistir"'1.

lrezvolt.arca economicd, favoliza productia artisticii tsi li[{ r:tri pc ui1 pirnirtt care sulerise mai puiin de pe urma invrrzici gcrmanice gi care pestra incii bogate relicve antice.
Cilcutraf ia rnaritirni, care io lle rliterana conLribuise
rrrrrlL la iuviorarea timpuric a ora;elor iLaliene, a sci'zut apoi
<[in cnuza pcricolului turccsc. Cetllile italiene decS,deau.
l\orrl contincnl descopcrit a fir,cut din Arlantic un alt centru
<lc n:rviiial.ic maritimir; s-aLr dezvolbat;i pc coastclc oczllu'
lrri lror:ttrri, arsonale, bii'nci, produc!ia. '!-irile ettropene de
l,r rrrrlgirrcl .Atlanticului triiiiu o Renagtere mai tirzie. OriUn,l.() ins:r., ca incepea prin dontcniile carc exprirnau mai
rlirr:cL rrrrr,lilicarca ginrl-irii. ]furckharrll el1u11ia c1e alt{cl
,,1r-rq('ir ll-r)nrl:rtlit'

a Rcna;tcrii: mi;carea clrlturalS precede

inLrrlrlulLtrtt;r tttiltl:troll eirlisticil."2 In faza ei enrcpeanS,


r;r:rir: V.[,. Slttrlnicr, Iiclrnlttrrta,,cste indeosebi o milcare a
Iin,lirii, cir ptlne in joc totala do{inire a omului"'r
Conililiile diverse rlc aparif ie 'lau un prolil r-ariat Renagt.r,r'ii curopcue. ,,in iuLerprctarca gi transpuncrea in priicticS'
:, 1rIirtt:iPiiL'lr ;i a iLi,:alr-rlui Iienalterii italierie, cliferitele
{iir:i cnropcne au menlinut originalitatea 1or, fapt care {ace
Irrgil.imc e:iprcsiilc: Ilcnastcrea francezi,, Renagterca gcrrn:rr.rii sart

llartandii, Ilcnaltcrea sp..nioli"'4

r ll;1,st.i ;, Cd.tre citi tovul

tialian (Prelala clin I fubruarie

I:i.'r3 1','.lintti [,stit I (' r)]tttt ttis I ).


':;. llurclr-lrnrrlt, oi>.ciL', r'',1.

I, p, llU-t'
, "l.rl{r,r. in: \\:allirce 1(. I:erguson
datls
-c1e , La Retzais:attcep3113,
l,; [,:ns]t lii,loviqttc, traduction
Jac<pes [Iart1',
[1r50, i'. \Ill.
a Vlctor
- Lucien Tapi6, P'ai'octtl, traduccrea de Alexftticlru D:;!u, Iielitura ;tiin!iIici, 1it6!), ir. 35.
XXI

Ilclnvierca
rnia f ilologiei,
nistul,

ilntichitntii.
Spiritul

critic.

AutonoUma-

Autichitatea nu era ignoratir in evnl rncdiu. Dacir. au


f:ost perioade tirnpurii in care s-au cornis chiar acte de

va[dr]ism irlpotriva rnonumentelor pdglncl, apoi iu mf,,nlistiriie mcclievalc s-au copiat manuscrise an.ticc ,si, de,a
lungul uuor vcacuri in carc nll s-A rupt continnitatea trarlilici anficc, au cxistat chiar clcccnii dc rcinflor-irc, ca o ,,rci;astcr:c" catolingianir, seu o,,ronirstere" a sccolu lu i al XII-1ea2.
,,Urnanismul este o filozofic pcrcnl" * 561-io Tof{anin3,
Dar in cvul mediu trarlifiile antice fnsescli"r, subordonate
teologieia. Cultura antici. cra indcobgte lnbrir!i;ati. lntr-o
interpretarc falsificatoarc, datorati pc clc o parte ignoran{ci filologice, pe tle alti, parte :nnei fornta" nrcntis structur:rl
inconrpatibiie cu rncntalitatea piginir. Nu se recurgea la
texteie originale, nici la operele complete, In Occident
scricrile greceqti erau privite cu suspiciune: ,,este grecesc,
nu se citettc" (graecu.m est, not.z legilur). Se creclea ci,, opercle 1ui Vr:rgilius cnprinilcar,r anLicipirri proletice, Satirizln.f ascrnen:a catrdori, llirbclais inscrie printre sfa.turile
rlate dc l?ilntagruel lui -Panurgc, care vr-ea si aflc daci e mai

bine si. sc cirsirtoreasci, oli nn, si pe acela t1c a desclr.ide de


treiori cu nnghia operele lui VcrgiliLrs si <1e a ccrccta in versurilc corespiinzaitoa.re nnni nnrnirr, clinainte conr-cnit intre
ei, soerta viitoarci sa,ie cdsitorii. Bucolica a patra cra cititi,
ca o prr:zicelc al f,tcarndrii, iar antortll ei ca nn profct.
S:nsul Metamortozelor oviilienc cra altcrzlt prin cotlentar.ii
moraliza.toare; le ironizcazir liabelais in Prologul autorulul.
Apropierca mai strinsi dc antichitate se fece, iu;riute cle
c;'rilcrea, Constantinci)olului, prin dcscoporir:ca manuscriscl()r ca.r:e z;iceau de s:cole uitate in minilsiirilc occiclentale
J3occaccio

ilui

ii

clau laci:inrijc cind vede crir!ile clin biLrlioprifuitc, rupte, abanclonarlc intr.o

tcc':l cLr la llcntccassino


1

CI. 'f . \riarnr, Anticlt,itate,z

I i i e y a t t t t, ti rr

ni

L,

c ys

tt

1r. j10.

ti

o ui./> u r a

.si

i.,

Renaltet'ta., ?tt Sluilii de


liclitulli,\c;rtlemiei, 1903,

llrid., pp. lt-l-l .


itt tlt.l!'ttntrittcsiuro, \rul, I,

S!,tt

41bicl., p. 35.

XXII

clupil, 1453:prin imigrarea cle invi'


{rrli si itcliizitiolrare de manuscrise.
IIrrizir"rga, ]Iocire sau a1!i cercetir,tori fin si' subliticzc,
rr';r'nrt:ni lui llurckhardt, cL Rcna;tcrcl nt1 este cloar o conr,r'r ittt:it :r dc;;teptlrii intcresului pcntrir artichitatc' Iluizinga
1';1111r:r'ii.

UMANISIIIUL

EolLrgr"ra, 1952,

p.

17.

ncincuiatii)

nn rnai cxistir asti,zi nimeni caLc st"t' vadir' in rciu:rltichitit!ii singurul motor al llcnaltcrii' Itcna;Lereil
nu cst.c rloar irttoarcere la antichita te, ci ,,1i airilr if ia
rrrrrr i spir it notl", scrie l{oclie carc ili intitulcazii un capitol
,,ltL:rurytcrc *- clal ;i na;terc"1.

,'1',',Jqr 1:i't
v

io[clt,

l\'[unuscriscle nu au {ost clcscoperitc ca o comoarii neitiutit"

intimpliitor cind sapi pe[tru a sitcli u1] porll' [ilc au


in(rcl)ut sii Iic ciutate pcntru ci oatncnii aveatt lcvrtic sii' Ie
y;;istrlscii,: ,,t)orinla dc manuscrisc ii c1e trccut ntt a ct:cltt
rrrrr;rnisntttl, ci a fosL uu efect al accstuia"'. Acunr intclccrrllrrt.iL

Irrrrlii piLrcatt pregi,ti!i si intre in contetct cu opclclc antilritilii tlirccL, firri. intc1.mccliul corucntariilor tllctlicr.alc,
,,1i|olrrrl oirttttrtriltlf ll.ena;terii nu cst'e sir sc infortncze clesirre
lr'('{rr1, r:i sri. il rcstlulcze ;i sir ajutc spiritttl onencsc sri se
i rr lolr lt i Irr izvo:Lrelc lui vii"3.

()ttrtort;tcrca antichitiL!ii prcsupunca' in prirnul rirtrl st;ilrirrit't':t. lirrtiriloL' vcchi. Iiormalia clc Iiloiog estc con<1ifi;t
rrtcs:rti ;r. ot'it.ri.rtti sttrcliu. ln prcfala la Carteaatrciaa Elegarrlci llrrrbil latitte, l,ort'trzo \/alla atrirgca atcnfia ci' ntt sc rtriri
i1.i,,:rr[,,r'i rrr{;r. Iirtrlri. lrr t irri ;i t-:i Pric:irur. crorilorfiicrttc dc filozoli t.r'clrttil crirrl:riij. irt r[,'lit:ictllt'ltr Iirtrlrljrrltri lor' [.'mani;1ii
irtct:rtrt i s:i sl:rlrilt':rst:li, :rtrt(.ttl ir:itlrl.crt ttrstclor, si irrlii'trrrc
irrtr.rlpoltr.liiltr, crorill' llt: (tlttlst t ictt' ;i rlc {r:t<lttccrr-r.
Lrtt't'ttt.o \/rr ll:t. tLrvct[t'ytt', lrrrttittrI lritzclc cr-iiir:ii {i1o]rrgit:c si istot'it't', t:i, lit itttorts;t Donatie a Iui Constalltin csie
<.r irttlroslrr';i. St: ltliIttutsct cli irilllilr:Lfirl COnstantin, irotzirit
sii intctttcir:zc in ()ricllt o capitalir lou;i, a cedat partca r:csticil a, in'rpcriultri sirl papei Silr-cstm czrre il cre;tinasc. LoIcnzo \ialla atacil Dona!ia lui Constantin ctt argl11l1cntcle

bunrtlui sirn! gi ale logicii, ale psihologului, fil()logului

;i

Itcn6 IIoclte, Dic TI/elt l-ub1'viv1|,, \'[iinchcn,


::l'rr[hrrirt, Cltr cnso ftr I'rttttnnesiirTn. pi1np76'. 11129, lr' ']'l .
s Ii. lJrdliicr, ilistoirc tte lt Itltilttsoflic, I'aris, 1948*
1959, r o[. l, p. l-1'
1 Gtrsta,r'

It)67, p. 21.

XXIiI

istor:icirlui. De pil,lii: elte greu


virsea oricc cruzimc p:nlru

cle crezut (_-il L.'x,);11 c.:l.r: s,ll,-

nuiiiL.lc slirsinlrc;r sJ lic ailtor*tr nnoi i-rscnrenea cl.c'a!ii; :rclurili'd ipoteza srh.r'r:rbiirii
saic irli:ale pr-in convr:rtire, nil sc r.elle pentiu ce, ill .1*c sii
o lase lib:ri, i-ar li clat acestei pirrii a jrnirrr,j,ului un ent ;t;irp?n, si nici cun:r ar fi rliruit-o cu atita,,d.iscre!ie.., lrrcit ea
a*:qj.

si tre:rli, n:tl--.;:rvati rlc istorici; c1e cc se r.orbeite rJrspre


Cotlsta:ltinopll, i1 tirlp ce ot:lstrl se nlrme;i at6iu:i ?.3ieail!?
pe rrrnczilr: lui con;tantin se r{iii insc'ip}ia canctv.,ill i}ii,;i..p
iar pc :Drtrrr:: ilc p:rp;r,l'J rr,.r scrie irrlnr ic r:tc. , etc.
Sr crirsLli t.i. ci tr:x|clc ar.istotcrlicc liu iost 1lr3i,_1i11;':.r,1,
de ts.:'.1,.t':ll. cr:lc Lribiir:.. -f-'t l-orc'zo \r.Jla, f,:nrn:,-i_r.-luX ll,rticii i;iblrcc, rcler':r in ^A:!notirile selc grc;iq"lilc cl,: r..lildurr:;:e
riin tcxt'tr \rulgatei. 'il:xtelc carc alcitui;*r sitj]1:,..r, :_utori*
tir.lc ;i p3 cere sc bizuia, carlr:ul cl.o4lnatic atr ginrlirii -:i iuviifirmintului ** Vulgat"t ii Aristo,,cl * sc :irat;i a fj sr_:rbrcd."
O ilatr'i c: i*lrcdcren in erje sc cletin:i ::r::;perii:l
lpel.jrtr-u
itr,o,q.r::

c.

Urir:rniilii sc inlrcapli g{lrg qufqe- a.i fonics" lrr., rm:lca


nor' <lr: iilciog-i sc il,:rzvolli. spiritri.l criiic, *oitri.r.nrii. a
Ii:nrltrrii ; 11: li'" iririri::lri:a Iui asupra cr.i_rriiol- clr: gr"a:t,"i.tl,ri.,
tr)ellt.r' il clrr-,tt.r1ie'i, rlr*colo tIc clc, un tc:;t:i,titcltic ri nr-illtr-o
trcptntil c:;l.irrclr:rc a r1,r'le'iul.i sI*, spiritr.rtr cliii; r.uir,tr."g.e,
cn ll.rntaign,:, si d:scoircre dillio]i.r de iri:t:judci:i,_fi, ,i,:nve:r$li si crcrlinle cu ca,racicr tcirparar, pcrrtranenlelll rir.!-rrit.n!-"
S:m,n. ai cp,;cii modci-ne. spir:itutr critic a"pa.ie ca ,r rn ltijijg
atr {iiologuluj. al lr,ri. l,,cna g;.a.trc.rlaticus.
trtrri u t r-

r:li s t u

rna re n.l ii step la t i., f i l o l ttg ia,

cliirtre ;tiinle, tle a


'.utonornia"
priu in;ti.tu

Sc

ai Ii

ince

t*r r;j., r: l i :,rr :r

mrcills, llteologirc 1i i;i cail:iii


pcatc si:ilne chiar c;i rapor"tul lor se i;ri,.erseazi.:
ri.

irea dc c::,tre !-;r.lla si llrasmus, a ce rcer$rji


;tinlifirc rl. textc le,:trogicc, mai d,.'grabil lcr:rlogia e s"rlbordon:td, f ilologit:i, infrur,:it se cre, iit slutlierca ei, ci;,:,:aiter-,l,1,
grameticii. 1[a,rsaret Blau&:rf, ccntcsi, d,e ntichrloltJ, J_,rcrby
;i
{1{i1 * 1509) inscr-ie in Statstele pentrLl ehEist's eo!lege {Carr irr:iil.gc) :.".,,i_[crirn ca ficc;rrc r] jnr.re ci (:tit,.1t-:;rj:i)
si f ie iuifi:rfi gi instr:*iti, conio'1. obicei'r:ilor Ulivcr:.sil,itii, irr ,\rtele li.treralc, prin carc sc poatc lace a.propicrea t_te
t,rologi* ;i f:'ir5, de cerc ea [tcolo,qia] nu po:rtc ti irrsl;rtir..,

Vorbind r,lesprc trecerea c1e la cleuism la crr_:lt:'raisrn. (De transittt Hetlenisrni ad Christianismurn, I829), Guill,rr,,:n. Ltr:,10
a- \-Tr7

srrlrlirijai:i. c:i studiui liloiogiei pr"rginc estc o contlitic oece*


a p:itruntLe in filcilogia cre;tin5..
l'lin couscciirlelc ei, munca f ilologului
levcrluf ionarir.
"utg
I )t:srnintind Donalia Iui Constantin, Lorenzo Valll scri:r:
,,\'rlcrl"nic cLe a fi namil crator n,.r estc cel ce stie si. vorbcasci
lriuc, ci acel clre iuitrrizncste s5, vorbea,scd.".
l:'irrt{.rrr te:nrriLatci-r, sa, l-orenzo \,-alia, ca 7i ottce

r;:r.ri, llLrni.rr

^lt,cnzo
privit cu s'Llspiciunc dc tco1o11i. lntr-o
st;risr-r:rrc clin 1505 Era.smus rx.irneazi cu ironic mini:r teo-

!r'(tint;titti.tts, cste

lo;-ilr.rr': ,,)i,:. trebnic s'-lpcrtatii, r'or zice ei iteologiil, cutezanta


lcoslr.ri fiioiog, carc, dripir co rr. iovit toate Cisciplinelc, nu
si-;L 1;iriLrt p.rn:r s:t
sl'i Iri.c. "
i\.l.rrnca,

*:obl'irzat:i dctrrarte nici md.cal

fil.:Xogrlo;: i), gcjlerat

spiritul critic,

c1e

;qi

scrieriie

el a impli-

t::r.t Polerinica, iorrni lilcrar:i, a luptei. Iletaforcle fi.lologiior


izlr::;r.r 1;L'iir accoiul coir- ba+;iv: I"o;:cnzo \raila scrie despre
trrrrrrpr:l.clc tli: i,-.itaic care snnil, Erasnus alcilr.iiegte un ma-

rrrrrl prrr{-nr o:llll,;nl r:;:c9tin ;i i.ot Erasmus vorbettc, intr-c)


Colet, clespre lir.ric c1':

:;r)r'i;,)irr-(r;r1lr'osa,til, ir1 tr.iS9 1ui. Jq]11


lupl i, rr.lnratii sl. coinairciant.

lit rl o t:pr.rci r:r:oici, iil carc J.il;:lca se desch-l.le:i pe toate


pl;rrrtrr-iltr -'.- qt:,l.gluJic t:ir ;i fi.lotrttgic * clorintei c1c cuno;r;.
Lt:r-r'. l,rlttt (lrrllt c:it:lltttr.it cu dclicltir, ulnirc intr-o Scfisoare
rlitr I ;l l7 , ,il r ,r I'l r'.r;rllrrs: ,,Iitir:lrrrs, ;tinla ;i cirrf ile rru au
Jtotrtt'".
IJlrt:uti;1ji 11;1 , ,'11 t'lrt,rzji, r1,r:ll' l-cxt.clo :ltrticc; I-orenzo
Vrllllr, r: ir)t.i't't:-;r{ ,[,: P:tlr,r,:ir';riir", l),rggiil Iilrt;ciolitri, care
sLrrrlilrzii, itts,'r-ilrl.ii qri ,1.'rr;r't-i,' ) uilxi', :ir) {)cul.)ii,, cir fi (;lljllaltlrre
Iirrrl.{:, ;li rll Itt,rrr,',l-r: ,, r', lri.
lilior';r irt li,^ii,:;l.rirliiic lil.rr:r',rl,r rlcoscbitc r1c tcologie, clcci
r:rrlLrrr'.r. plol;rn,'i

, ll';i.Lrr.iLi in prirnul riircl diir

cercetarca

;urtir:in1-i.i ii gj:L)co-latine, pt'in citeva formule:


li.tlLtt'Lrr.: /t.ttuttt.iti,;i,.,s. :jictliu, It;tiusnilcttis, lrr.tjjx(&,tt&e liiterae,

trxtcl,n'

str:lia. Stttdia l:tnnnnitutis cuprincleau: gramaticir, r:ctolici,, poezirr, istoric, fii.ozolie rncr:rlii. Klisteller
atrage ins;i atcn!ia a.rupra prr:1'-r5.rii de citre uuani;ti, c'le
Jntnwtt;)ve,

la profcsorii medier-ali

rtrc

grarnatici si rctoi:ic5 (tiictaf,ores),

a rnnor trailifii.r-

l1larrl Oskrir Jiri::r:l:ller, Sl;er{ios itt. Ilettstssa,u.ce


*rttl l-cilei's, Xl,lr1rr, I*5{i "ir.24.

}.'ltought

XXV

Forrntlclc clc mai sus intlcbuinteazir cnvintul latin, girsit la Ciccro , iunr,anil,u.s, carc zl\-c:r sensul cle cultur5,, formale
plin erlucalie ii ele exprim:i nirzuinta modcrnii dc insuqiire
a spiritnlui a.ntichitirtii. in litni;aj studcnlcsc, pro:fcsorul
care prcc1i accste .sftlrlz.a lru,tnan,itatis cste nnrn:it h,tntrutisttt,,
pr:in analogie cu al!:i terntcni ca lg'i.stao jrtr,is!a,, canotzista,

in acesl sens, in docuir;itu1 sccolu lu i ;rl X\'-leal.


tn scrierilc latinc I:r i,1111rpnt, in lirnlrjlc rra.!ionale mai
apoi , tcrmcnul sc intilno;t.c srrlr ilivclsc fornre, a c;iror utilizalr: ii ptaciz,alrr,1 scttsrrl. ():r iLtljcctir., <le irilrLi, in statntnl intocrnit ile llich:rltl lros si in noLoriit scrisoa.r-e din
{l iunie 1185, ardrcsatiL dc I}ir.ro rlcll:r i\[ilrnclc.rliL ]ui 1:]r'mol:lo
Iernrcnrrl lt.ttntarzista aparc, {olosit

nrcnte clc

la

sf

cultivlt (/r.rt,nauu,s) .rct:la clrre nlr se


iitcrarl,". in cpj;iloia irrtru lauclil Arrglici riin 5 rlccernbric 14i')9, I-irasrnrrs ii scr"ic lui llobert
I.tishcr ci in Anglia se a{1i.,,o cultur':i atit rlc alcasil si atita
ci:rrclitic" (tu.ntn,nt alt.teilz lttt,tnanttatis tt[qrtrz entditionis)"
fJ:rrlraro: ,,1\u cste om

preroc:upii do clcganla

intr'-o p1e61i.ii Savona';okr r,orlrestc cu irrtlignlr.rc


tLrr: i lc

cJcspre

prolauc :rle contcuqroranilor : prctu tirrcicni, intre

lec-

crers-

t.ini, in cascle lnarilor prcla.!i,,,sil. nn tc;r;tc,pf.i la:rltccva


1;r poezic si arti oratoricir. 1)Lr-tc totu;i .1i r-czi: ii vei
sirsi ctt cirli :rle sctiilorilor antici in rninil" (/j trouey*i co'liltri d,'runattitti i,n. ntnno) ' [,in pcrsolaj diu Curteanul lui
Castiglione isi exprini, clorin!a c:r ,,trccst curtcan sir aibi,
nai mullir, ;tiin!i. dc carte dccit :Lu oarncnii inrlcotrster, rnii,car in accle stiinfe pc carc lc nnmirrr umanistr;". Zugritvin<1rr-l pc i\liclrcl rJe l']{ospital (1505
1573), Piertc cle Bourrlcillc's, scnior de llrant6rnc (1510-*- 1614) scrie ci el ela
,,dr-.siir.irsit in litcrcle plol'ane" (ctt Icttt'es hu,;u,nines ),
irr cc prilc;tc tcrmt:nLrl ,,unanisrn", c! p:Lrc a Ii fr:st crcat
in 1808 dc Ir.J. N.ii:tharnnrer pcntru a ,,inclica tcor-ia clcspre
crlucatic, care inccrca si apcrc lc,cul acorrlart rlc traclilic stricliilor clasice":1.
Ircntru a relnr.ia atticlritatca, urnanigtii au iircepr.rt prin
a {ace criticii filoiogicri. ,,L,'narisrnul a fost 9i :r rtiinas o
t1rcit

1Cf. iL,id., p1r. 21, 2G2-261 ,


lbirl ., Ir. 57 4.

XXVI

574.

mi;c;rrc cultura.lir. ;i literar;i legati, cle intelcsul ei pcntru


r:lasic isur ;i lctoricii""l.
Activitatea, urnani;tilor nu poatc fi reclusd lnsti nnnlai
lrr, un f:rpf tlc cmdilic; r:ercetincl tcxtele, ci au allat in opcrclc 9i lrcrsonalitiLlile lLrmii vcchi moclclc noi dc scricre,
ginrlirc gi viafii. Ilontaigne lnirrturtlsea in Eseuri ci iclciie
srtlc, rrir,scutc din uieclitafie, a.u fost statornicite gi intir:ite
,,pr"in piklclc sinltoase ale cclol antici cu carc m-atn aliaL
lscrniiniitor in judecatii. lji m-au in.crcclinfat ci tin in mirr;t
:r,tlt;r,'r"lml ;i nri-au clir.ruit bucriria ;i convinger:ca cco rtriti
!ltrstrii rnutiitit".
.in accst a,tlevirr cl,escopcrit tle cpoci ;i confirmat cle rtnanist.i intra iclealul fcr:icirii tet'r:stt'c si increcLcrea in e{icicnfa
clor'1r.rlui ollrcncsc tle a inlbunitS,li viafa cca efcrrte]':i.
Astl'cl, reconstituind antichitatca cn sprijinul f ilologici,
rrrrrnrri;tii minuiau spiritutr cril-ic, rirstnrnau valori vechi ;i
irr'i,ll a.rr a,ltclc, innoinrl ctiltura unci epoci. Umanismul ;i
.lir:rrrslclcr:I, nrr pot fi ginrlii,c scparat; iar la minfilc cele mai
I r rrr i nrr l.o l lc tiurprilui,,spir:itu l umSnismtllu i se confunclil cu
r

t.n I licrnastclii."e,
l.Jrrii dintrc urna,nilti, ca, Guillaurrie Bucl6 san Olaltus,

spi ri

irrvllri singuri,;rllii stut-liazir 1;r uua satr rnai mrrltc dintle


lilt: rrnivcrsitiil.i. Jii cautiL tnantl-ccrise ;i, ca Pctt'arca3
s;ul .N it t:olir N iccoli, isi irtt.ocntcsc cu rivnd. bibliotcci; bilrliotcc;r lir't.iiii. rlirt rtritrtist.ircl telcttlifilor, unclc se al'lllu
,,t:rir! i irr lirrrlrr. gt-cltr:ii , irrl-irrli,, c'lrrllicii, lt:aucczt"L, toscanir si
sirlrniolil," lc ilrrstrc'ltzir dczirlcra,lt:lc.
[]rnarristui Niccold :\iccoli (1363- l'l{i7) aclLtnase o prcl iorsir bibliotccS. clc ll0tl rnarlrscrisc. l)upi, rno.tftLra ltlj,
(losinro tlc .l\Ie dici clotcirzi. in anril l4-11 Ininirstirca San
j\'l,rr:c:tr tlirt lliorcnfa cu o Il'nlnoztsi sa.iir. cu clout-t rinrluri c1e
r:olo;rllc, clr-a lune'n1 c'.ii,r'cira, in 6.1 dc ptipitre, estc a;czatil
bilrlioict:it lirsrrt,i cie l{iccoli;,,f{arciana" tiil l)lort:nfa cr:a
1rr:irn;r bililiotccii prrblicir :l cpocii. IliblioLcce persotral;'r a
fa,rniliei l\Ierlici, r-lc;i nlrlt tuai rtricil lir. inccpnt, eriL si ea
nr;r

I Ibicl., p.

2{;-1

Arrgrrstin licnauclcl, Ilunmtt,isttr,c e t

Rctt cr'i ssn rtt:r, Gctti..'c,


tri),iS, l).:ll.
r (,11. l.ri.,)frc ric Nolhac, P,..ilrtt,rqu.c et I'l'"tutttuti;nt,e,'tot:inr>,
I959. lSturliinclu-I pc liL:t;tcr<,isco .l'r,'irarcr", artl-orul ili propun c s;i r-cfacil pr i nta b il; liotoci:t :r, llcn altcr:ii. )

XXVII

cerceta,ti de umanigti celebri. Cu tirnpnl ea sporelte cu


manuscrisc pretioase gi ctrupd mriltc vicisitudini e instalatS, lingi biserica San Lorertzo din Iilorenla, intr-o
anume clestinati, i11gi:puf5. cle l'Xichel:rngelo 1a 1525
si terminatir. in 157 1 dupei mo;rrtea acestuia, ,,Laurentiana"
cstc cea mai f rumoasi bibliotcc6, a Renagterii. invifatLrl cpis'

clidire

aop grec Basilios Bc'ssarion rliir l"rapczunt (1403'1472)


arfuce cu cl 1a Florcnla o fntmoasii, bibliotcci. El o spore;te
tl'cptat prin achizi!ii clin Orierrlul Apropiat, incercind,
clupil cii<le rca l3izanlulrr i, -.it iuai salveze clin scrierile clasice
carc circ'l;r' ac()lo. 11 I'163 .l irs:iarion d6ncazi ccle 746
cle r',;lumc zrle salc rr:publicii \rcnetiit, cct'inc1 ca elc sii rdnriui 1a clispozifia, tuturor'. lnclcclinfa{:iL miLnii.stirii San
lIal"co, ,,Ril;liotcca ,l,ilalciana" cliu \'crlclia' rlucc o e:;istenf:i precari lriniL cind cap:iti un sirlenrlid lccal prcpr-iu' ridicat c1c arititectril Jacopo Sanso."ino intr-e anii 1536-I553.
-Biiiotcciic publ.icc clin cpoca llena;tcrii se adrcs;tu itci ului
prrbtric lcstrins. Iubitorii studiilor se sprijiue :ru irr tnai mare
nlirsut'ii 1:e bibliotecile particrilarc, care {5ceau mindria. prinu-ipilol' si :r l.rrrrghezilor in..s1-l'tiiii ii clomici s6'1i p'rrnit colecrlea
f iilc 1:L c-l.isprrzif ia nrnaniltilol clirt pre;ijnta lcil'. ,,Cartca
s1 ir lrlicltliiol' rnci" Sibi t'! tt:tit:r.tru'ttt in dil.eritc vari:rnte
lir:crst;i ilcyizi"r Iigulcazli. itr r;r- /r1.,;'r-i r:i' ciritilc mLrltoL: bibiioLlci,

Aliil:hifrtea c1cr.'irrc urr-'r.ltl t1': af !-.i., dc vi:lf:.i.. Comploti;iii i1 inritti pc Catiliua si il acloliL pc Brutusl, oalrlclli
pol iLici iniprrunuti clcnutrtiri dr' {unc}ii, ckr inr;litLrlii ;i
c,":rrcrnc11ii, ia,r pentrLr paiiitlull lor titulalLrra p:rlticlcrior
:ilri:nane?; copiilor li sc da11 1111lii| gri)i:elt-i -cail latir1e, eruriilii i;i latinizeazi"r r:::i i;i grcc izt':r::ii {rtr:l i lt}ult' in se colnl
;r1 X\-.I-1ca) nuirrclcs prit tlarlr-lccrr sau :rdiugincl tcrmina!ia;
."[oira-nu XIiillcr i;i zir:c lLegiotttotltalus i;e ttlu ci cstc nirscut
tra 1tonigsi:crg; lleat Rynollcl sentneazi trieaius }Rhcnanlts,
lc;r.u .[.clivlc

11'Ji

taples--.]aco1;ti,c F:rbcr Sta pulcnsis, Johann

Ilontcrus, Jr:.ltn Coi.t'-Joannes Coleriirc Ola irrrs. ir l Sch g';l trt;u crc1 *Ilelanctiton.
,,Rcnaltcri:a a fost o pr-irnejdit pcntrn cLrgctare, aiStur:i.t cu o mare bil1e.faccrer. I)e::co1-:ct'irea col:orilol t{imrite
t ]f...l.ft"rdt, oP. cit"" r.'11. I, ]!n. 7{--?5'
.['Iontcr'*Ioal1ncs

tii,.

2
3

"\ia1itllu

clc

lbid, pp.

tr04*-105.

1bicl,, i:P. 297-- 2f)-r),

XX\iIItr

al.ita vrcmc alc cugetirii altice" a dus la c idola.trie ,,nimit:il.oarc inanr.tea a*estor rnociele cu neputinti, cle ajuns"r.
SLr

rr,jutrgi:

ciliar ca frecventlrrca gi orna.gierea lir,'resczi a mo-

rl,:lclor ailti{tc s:i :,e sribstituie asirnii:irii airtcliice gi transpr.rnlrii ira r.rla'id, a ri;llorilor ps care lrccstr';r iu intruciripeazli.
,,A tr.'ir.i i:r tovdrS;i:l eroil.rr gi a inletep!ilor, a sentinfeior
si cfigiilor l,or 3i dil iurlrnislrr-ihiil i;n;rresia reconlortanti
t:i sc irnpSr"tli;r:9te riin infelcpliun::r gi r-lesivii--siica lr:-r.
J,ll crcde cit ruilltcl r:uriors,i gi uluir:c;r sini un t;ii-rut ii.ldcsLuIIrtoi' ::d,ris perfcctiunji"l.

Il:rp:c:tutr exclilsiv pontl:r antichitate compo::ta peri,;cIrrI de a intr-orluce rin alt text dc ar.utoritaie, aduciuC ast{r:l
lnI rrr)u tntt,gi:;i.ti, ;i cleci, ci,: e subciJou:r gin:.lirca inci oilati[
rrrtrrr c:ii-:-rte. Cariano montion3aze cu trist.cte sp:cuiatiilc
iip;itc 11: suust;r.n!5 1i eruclifia lirni1-at;i 1a ir:r,rcrrrgcrea unr-]r
[csLc, nir poiltru a ls asimila, ci drrlr pcntru a le rncrnci':l
s rrr a lc citil. lLr:p:tind. p:rrci irieilc lui ltrico deila l[iranc].,:la
rlirr ; :r'is,r.rrc:l ci.tre llrrnolao Barbaro, ilontaigne rcprogca.ilii,
lrn,)r';ls()r)'trrrr.'r fii{rl{riii Iipsa cle participarc autenticX,: ,,}{u
nr: nrilll.(.)irn ttr,ccit si. n: iucirrci,rrr mintea, iar ?nfelcgcrca ,si
r;rrgrL.rrrea, Lc lir.sirl goalc. (...) i\ioi :lirn spunc: <rCicer:o zicc
;r.s;r,, iaLi ir,i,rr:rca lui Flaton, Siut chi;lr vorl-;elc 1ui,\ristotcl .r.
I);rr rroi ilr;illr-: cc si--"iiircm? C;rre-i jiiilecata noastri? Cc faceir,"r
rroi? l ot rr 1.i{ ;r r :;[-]i.u.rr) cn u;;urinfiiu si un pepagatr",
llrn rtt i;1 ii, tIr:;1)r'c a 1,.) !i"rr()r crc-'ri, culpe si nelc'rj.i:iri scrtr:
.l:irrrcltlr;rlrlt.i), tlr:r'ilt llrii.lL;Livtrl trrtrrr yragini satirice. fn c:is;,1
ncllnilor', rli;rvolnl ;,rlrio1> rr.l iui J,tris \liiloz ile Cuilvara ii
;rrrrtii. Iui cllnl Cico{irs, 1:i:inbrc ir.1!i.i, trrr grinriiic car-c;i-a
lricrr.hLt minlilc ,,ciutin.l g:ruuzitrl nrrui i'erb grcc" gi. ,,u.ll
isl-oric cc.rc A innebunit clc mihnirc cir, s-au pierclu-t trci tlecirtlc alc lui i'itLls I-1.;ins". l)ozifi;r sui:ordonati clc curlcui
ii arlrrcc uncoLi pe un:ani;ti in situelii umilitoare, care ll:
sLilno:;c r:cvr-rirn, ca diin,-l incompatibil: cu autontica via.tir
a unni intclcctnal. lfltr-o scrisoare clin 1530 Olalrus ii rnirturisea cu ,ii:jcl.i un.ui prietcn: ,,toate sint rninciuni. ;i prelil.citorie. Iht:5. nn ltii s5-i migulcgti gi sd-i ci;tigi as|fetr ire
1 N. Iclga, lnctpi,tktil.e vonzattti:rnu,lu.i. itt
Pagini, d,e ti,nercle,Ii.P.L., 1!)68, vol. II, p. 211.
? Luc Dicttich ct I-anza <lel Vasto, Diuittgua

Marseille, 19{9, pp. S2-63.


s Cf . op. cit., ricl. n. pp. 323-.330.

N. Ior:g.1.,
dr l'ir,titiii..!o

XXI]{

cei mai puternici

;i sir cleuigrczi fairna., orloarca ;i nui.nele


altuia, zadarnic te mai str:irluicgti pcntnr ale tale (...). In
vrclnea de azi, urechile principilor slnt clcschisc nutlai spre
a asculta lingu;iri..."
'Iot un act cle sulrolclonarc unui {cti;, unei convculii
pedante
este folosirea iimbii- lalinc in belctristicS.. ,,N-a
o siluitc nuti mtrtc, in nrateric literalir,"
existat niciotlilti
sclic Brrcl<l.rarclt1 dcs[rre iLa licnii czrl'c colnpnneau in
-latinc;te. Ia,r ca cxcmplLr rlc sitrircic a econriior, datoritri
folosirii unci limbi nroirrt:o, zr.iiitnr:i de Pctralc;r,lorga il d[
pe l)rasrnns: ,,LInul <lint.rc cclc nrai aclinci spiritc filozofice
care au f<;st vrcotlatii, un sc riitor crr Lr vcrrvi-I, mu;cirto:rt:e
(...), un humori.sl-:unar;i sccptic, cal..c ir zgucluit int:reaga
organiza!ie sociali ;i irrtclccturLlii a tirnprrlui mrLi putcrnic
clecit Lr-rthcr (...), Erasnr., autolul Colocviilor, s-n osiilclit
si-9i imbrace spiritul corosi\., aticismul siru {in clc cul3ctarc
in haita fosilir, in mrrnria unci limbi moattc, sfirrimind
astfel clc bLrniivoie inriurirca colosal;. pe care putea si o
aibir g,:niLrI siiu r1istr-ngiltor asupra timpuiui":r.

c1c csprcsic latinir cnnoa;te


stirr siL facii <lin a,ccastir lirnb:i un instrunrct'rt aclccvrrL pltttrrr ve lrit rrlir.rclr irl,cilor 1i sinrlilmintelo:;

Plin rmani;ti litr:ratrrra

totusi

<.r

nouir viafii.;

<-'i

1or. Ironilr si p:rrarlrxclc Itri I,irasrnrrs, pasiunc:r s:i metafoi:cle

lui

S::crrn{rrs, sirrctrril-rrtca irrtroslrcctivi i;i aft-rrisrnelc lui


ii dlrr o str:ilucir..c nouir. \'aloarea scriitorilor: nu a
schzut prin Iinba ccir. t-noartir, ci nnmiri difuzlrea accstei
valori cir.tre o catcgoric rnai lalgiL clc citj.tori.
Cu form:r.!ia 1or clasicistir, urranittii pot face tleopotrir.e"r,
Clardano

comilntatill critic, traduccri, c(titare clc textc, cerccta.re


istoricI sau coresponilcn!ii. P:rpi, monarhi ;i principi ti
folosesc ca s::rctari: T-eonalrlo Eruni, Poggio Ilnrccioiini,
Giai.nozzo l{rn:tti ;i Lorenzo Yal[;r au los{, sccrctali. Coluccio SalLrtirti ;i I'Iachiavelli inclcplincsc irnportarite functii
prrl,licc.

Atti;tilor, poefikrr ;i urnar:i5tilor inconjr,rrati clc rcspect


ia inccputul Ilcnaltcrii, 1i se <1:m inscmnele
tirlpnI viefii3.
.{:::::ldiu
r Op. cit., r.o1. f, p. 300.
I N. Iorger, loc. cil.
(l,l.J. J3urchharilt, (rp . cit", r.o1. I, pp.273*2V4, 175*
_ -3
I ss,
2.11
- 249.
XXX

9i recr-rnoltinfir

Ci,rtur:arul ;i artisti.rl au un puteruic scntiment al clemnilor: si cred c:i pot rivni, conform scd,rii de valoli a tirn-

ti,lii

prrlrri, lo gloria supremii: ,,$i oricinr: poate inlelege;l)u nl Crstiglione in Cqrteanul * afare doar de acei
nt:lirr:ici!i ce n-au gLlstat niciocla,tit, din ea, cL adevlrata
lil,rrit-- c ilolr accee carc tra'ricitc prin comoara ucprcluiti a
:;i:ricrilor. (...) Dar cinc nu cunoalte dttlceala tlragostci de
(r:r,r'LL], rlu poate mirsura nici mirrclia gloriei care prin ea
l.r'i,ic;tc clc-a lungul atitor \rea,curi". Sctca, cle glorie , spcci{ice
rxr,nrcniLrr ltcnaptcr:ii, cstc e-!pl:csia uu.ci clorinli de implinire
irr r,'irLlir. ,;\Itrnl:r rescmnirii cste inlocuitd. cu morala orgoI irr lrr i, care inscamni, colritiiDfft valorii pcrson:rle."1,,Dorin(.;r, rlt: glori.c rni-a fost ti ca nu rln Lnai rnic i.rnbolcl, la lcl ca
:;i vt:rli:rea, cclor care izbutiscrii sit tlcvin:i macitri de seami,
51;;ig \rasali despre sine.
t:iyt igintl ranguri ;i oirornfi"
clernnitiifi, umanistii
I)illrrn;i clc scntinrctrtnl pr:r:prici
(l)r:t.r'irlt:u,llachilvclli siltt Ronsa.l'r.1) sc sirnt egali ai lronarlril,rr'; t'i r:cluzli ofertc car:c le-ar stinjcni lillcrtatea mirscilr ilor-, r';r. I'rrt lrtrca 1i Dresrnus, crarc 1-Itl rror s5, f ie sccrctari
P,rl)irli, isi srrstin opini:r in {afa principilor. Cincl i se obiccl,'rrzi, t i, r'rtrrrtli fcciorii clc dtrci ciili"rtorcsc asa culn p,relirr,l,r cl, (lr:llini r,lcclalri cir uu gtic,,cuil cirlittorcsc acctlis,
rl:rr' , i l'r', iolii :Llt.ci rtttlc tttt citliitorcsc tlccit a;a cum ic"ant
:il)lrii .u." l),i.rril rl(r r'('l{(rlL} lrr';ttr1.ci. ciL rtr-r clii ascultarc clorilll.l,'r':;,r 1,' ,ji lrr, rc,rzi. rlrrpi pr',rpi'irr.-i r,oic, Ccllini li rirspullcle:
,,1rcrr1r'rr ult r'(',{r lr1il. rlr: lrt'tt-(l (ril ttt;t.irlstltt.cl r';o115ff[, eu .(.:t. llD l)iC{. lr r.ti:;L co rrri. lrllrr - ;rrrr tllrt,|-i;r. sa'r. cxt]cut -- intru
rSl,rli:r ;rrrtittrllu-()ri[ -- o sLatttic pc c:t.t't'r,'ci vt-'chi llll rltt avut
Prrllc s'o lilrir,". (la. si (lioltlarlo lJrtttro rttai tirziu, cl sc sirn{r:;r rrrr ('g;r I iu}tir:ilor, ci cltiar nrli l)lcsus c1c ci. Dc alticl,
;r,slr)r('r)i ;rrrt icikrt', ollmcnii Iicna;tcrii tl,:vin, trePtat, 111orlr:lr: ;r lr ;gr.rt,,r':r.tiilor urrtti,totrc. Scblst.ian l-i:artt scric in
v,rrsrrlilt: intru laula gi intiietatea lui Francesco Petrarca
( De Francisci Petrarcltae laude et praestantia) cii glolia
ir.ccsLr.rin, pr-iu ninric ,,ttu pl:rtc fi sprriti ori scirzutii". Poe1.rrI c conlticnt cl: vaLr:rrl:r o1i::t'ei s:r-le, [)etrarca, lionsard,
ShlrlccsPl:irc itiLr cir, l'ersurilc Iitr rl;it-Lrii:sc ttcnurirc celor
Jio carc ii cintl. in ccl dc a.L treiloa clintrr: Discursurile asopra
Jroemtllui ero!c, lorqtlato li-rss'.r i!rjol:di'i. atr.ibtrtc <.lcrniurgice
1(.;.. Saittr., ll .!5ansiL.i'o it*.lirutr; ti.rl.!'(.ltn,,r,tteci.nto e ti.cl
lJolornr,., t$trt)--1:l5l,vt.ri.I, P.5-ll.
Ilin(r,sairtt ctt.io, vol.I'.-liI,

XXXI

poctulfii, ,,care esfe fi.ur:tit dir-iit liu p.,nt.r'u rrtrtrcra, decib


pentru cf . asemuindu-se prin faptele si,Xc creatorului stprern;
ajung* siL participc la divinitatca accstui;i,'. Fen.Lr.u Visari;
Michelaragelo este , ca si Lcon:ircl,o rla \,-inr.i, ,,o fi:ptuiir clum-

nezeiascir.".

Erasntus estc aproape ciilinirat"

['1.:in lr.c

o,.el";urilc carc

s-an inchinat se insclie 1i iurnuX X,qi Eraernurs, celul mai bufl,


celul mai ma.re de lfeianchton, proirlLr{ ;i ortra lui Olahus
sau a 1*i I{. Giareamrs. rr)1nglilc
in.kosebi rrrc, u'ranisti- frr scrisoatca
llor germaui * aproapc il excciL:iu.
din lSlE
ciltrc I{a,rLinus .Dor:pins, Iira_*ri:us [:F j.lncft: ,".i],.[i se aduc
z,iltir: rnultc s;crisctr-i dc ir bii r-baf i c.ruriii.i carc iili spun,

ullii"* porloabii a C;lrln'anici, ulrii -* ir(,i|ri,k.. ultii _ 1una,


;i carc t'ai clcgral-ri mlL copicsr,,sr ilcrif nliL i't;r.rlobesc cu
ace-cte titluri prca strirluciloa'e".
lt,lLr Cr:.,1ct ii ctrcclari l'i
Erasmtts in.[r:-o scr"isc-rare c1in l5n6: . Clrirr ".rflinclu-ml in
cll mai rn:t,rr: miz.:r'ic, t1t-:li ccin-sirk:,l.lr fer-ir.it rlltcir a; avca
a inia pe::tc dilr 1n.,.ir!:itura si infc,lr-irrinn.;l fil,," fntr-o

si-;iiso:ire rlin .153? llabi:ia.is i si'a,:1rc.rcn::ii a,itfctr lni llr,asmrs:


,,"lirirrinie p.ca iLrbit, i;ir,r.inlc s,i poiloalrl a p:,tl.ii,:1. c,l-,liLrl.nitor
r.l 1iti,.relor, ap:iril".:; r1c.ci*...ius;i1 rtrr.cl:,tirfi,l,,. Si ii miirt'-

l'irl.5ic: ,,lot ce.clr rc r,;i*l si r,t i.l lnt.i..r; ;11 llr,,u, tir,ar c1c la
ti.r l-lir*lri.tit {...) tlai:iL 1r11 ai r.'t.rlri.i:,!a.-{, lilt flrf;l t,turor,
a; fi c11 ltai iugrat rlintlr i,ripilii t'[i r:.i,'-rzi si t1:i'r r-iitor.,.

u^Enrcrts Y*epr:fr

Incl.zinrlLr-1 pc lir;isnrls in liIlr;lllt,i;L f t.;tllce.z.i a sccol'lui

il X\"tr-ica, o c,''scnlir. l..r.iir1iir.:'iri.. ni'iil'c:zii astfel:


,.Fru plrtca li crclns, snb pr.lli.-stll l;ie.r'r-tul.ii fi.iiltceze, ltll

:iirfor: stririn car.e, in :riiir.i lt_rl lir-npuiul, t,.i.,

r.trc lr.r1,t.

iun :rntorl

riiit'r'natiori:i.1, Dc irilt15, liLasurLl:s,,1.


Irlaza lui llmnclj.irr-c"--,.c.t [{ir-l:;lJ]ri,l a,rrlf ;lL nc,stLu, rrl:
r:t:iirnnit, ci inacrcas.i ntri:rrri t,l rl i:-.r.--_iiliurirpc- arr"ont".,t
-- poatc fi ro-ctiiir si .<1crpr.i. rrlii u;ii11:i,;;ri, ()renifglo in
gerc3i.sc_ fiiccau ilfclcyi li: drpiilo;t.n c.ll.l
pc alt pr-opriei

}c,r!irri. rlcoarccc li*rbr leti*ri

".,,,,ilt t*lurcr oame:rsigLii.;r lr-iritLi.re


cuitivafi clin Tiui-cp:r. ,'\r,-ntcni trri \-i;rs, cnrc, originar
e.n,in Sirania., lucre a:.;il. la 1.;-t i.i-, LotL., i,.i" I-l_nrgt,l si Oxiord,
uma.nistii dr scamiL pr,t Ii. irr rirci,l r _: "-.-,1, rcl-ciriiicafi c1e
ni.loi-

-; r\k;;;h'e Ciliianc'scn, .FlilJir..::.::ri;i: tlt t,tt l!tt,jrlfttre


f,.'tliqaist ritt :;ii,:i)tnc s;.'1'r1 . (',,1-11;r,.j l, :,.,. : 1,r,{,,[.ir,i *; f;.]L.
5:iu-ini['t'. I)aris" i!).ii], p. ,\.
2 [:{isltitt tic l{t liif i1t:irlxti":
i';t;trc.i :: ,1'.1,:',,1;y;- { i_;/j -1gj63,
('. ri.. l1rllr-..i'r.1" r.r.l. {,
1,. *ir,.
XXXItr

Mi

kolai Koperni k, 1 473*1543.


{Partret din secolul XVI).

rr

Platorr si Aristotel
(Detaliu din fresca
Iui Rafael,
Atena,
din
$coala

150g

&!, {

tw

1511 Vattcan)

trf{
l{

T::$t w
il

i,

lfl?'ffi;
Irry
li$liffir''rffi
t'apa Sixtus al lV-lea vizitind biblioteca Vaticanului, pe care
o iniiintase in '1471 (Frescd, Roma, Ospedale di Santo Spirito)

Biblioteca laurenliani din Florenta

Adagiul socratic
(cunoagte-te pe tine
insu{i> insolegte in chip
semnif icativ portretul
unui barbat (Picturd de
G iovan n i Battista Moronit
1520? 1s2s ?*1578)
( F rnrlaj).

}.iOSCE TE AP}.{TON

.T

{ii i,ri'ligrrr;'r711 r''r:rlr'(rJ)!)lili:rt':tltl ;::r'i'''


ii rrIjrr l';i
l;rliLli li1 -\\'.1 i{-1'":r. iirr "i't,'ir'lr1'ri:1F?:l i'llr"tr'Ilrs
(llriir;rr-it
lLrilii"'
r1
rcl"irtt:rll
( iLir,ii Z$'ingli:.,l)uri:;r- rrir iiLr
ltrlrti:'
ttLt crl'' siriLiir liir'rl'tlr
a'ir'ili!lri
cjnl
turniirrl,,Numr-i
i..Ll;cliiirliatir'c,iciiiLiL lstiii;r;1'rii\-.ti,ir,t:lr.iur..iir;-:i 1,i'r.:*
(Jlil:lIri :i ;.'"ri' 'lr'i'r I '
i..'ni, r1 citc ccli{ilrn ;11 iritilt'lr
r:'iir:r' r'l' i'iittiiiiii' ;t slrlii ''
{r,,r

tl
!
K
is

plx1l..-. lii.rylrtLLr-i1.

:"i irrl.l'tlntl, {i'lliL t*r"i'lr;i

l1

Ilruili,;i'931;il11ic.lr;iiiniiisillfti.iiril'1li.rs.lnl1ilir.':'l
irl rrlir-ii:r1''1 lirf i ir Iliinrtl';t iiii'1 '
si
t,,,lf. (lar alii,i;en t:sir'ill:'li. inlt'i'r rtlilsltl:i i1t-igLrr'' ":i'i'
r ili]rr llli'
itt
clt
ttl-'ili1'ttitllt
Ltt.":'il'l'i
gltl':rt':rr:ii
ir,;ri:t. ilrLl:rcii
a tli"' .il,.:.'
, ,iiiui i llttcit.i. c'lttlllii iil"i'L:lt n.'.lir i1ii. l)l'{'r.'Lrr11
'[] ilt!il](lll-ii' tl' iirll'r'
lli'i;rlllirlr''
!,:., nlriiLo dl Iillri -t:L',t -\ilt
li,. luLllc't'ii. -st d,isliii{r114

,1.

tl

r'll|.rili,, tl't tit.;li .i,,,ili. li ttlrtllllril:'::


:, ll. t[iri,;i.i a]l c.li.liir.i
irlr'ii'i11 r ': ''
ii. :iir,i', i:iti ilrilr ttriil' {.|i i"i in iill'' rlllrrliiLtlL;z:-t
t"
ittr'l
1'
lr'1
ri'
i]lI
i
lrll
1;1';
i,r':;l;-''rjt-ii, Ccllirli "[:j,r'
"i''lli
'r
;"
:'i
li ll l l irt'Lr''l
rLlli-Ltt'li
-;i
pilirl
l'r
'l'
"'
li,i .i i.Lti
r'
:, irli;r .,1)f()t(!i11ilt1 r:rllrJrtl ttl"il tll
LlrLlr"t
'r' t lilli rL
.iiittt Lttt sLrti,'i r1r '1 l .;lt'. 'i

ti
ll

tl
v.1

ll

( t, i,r, ;.

',

jii jil/,i.

i i

.\i

(,'j lt'r'ir

l,
J I

Oo
*o
6o
.2
a(J
i6aeio)
oc\r<C
vi()
-c;

i
9i

e$isslc
3+56**9q
#;?sSI5;

,,,'

i;t,r

,.'i
i r

- !

\' '
''
nLl,ililr: r'.i . r 1r ' 1l. -,r'1.
'- -T.
T. l:irre1,.!tr.r'il 'i'. (rL..
I.1,1ii., li1| i'-xl:

s"':,:'r..1 :11;r

I t'r ' i'''l


il :. .i

liii'

.rliillr'i',i.
ri,]. {

5X:i,iiI{

5ai:i

prirru ourir cir xccast; i<leic rcvolutio'ari ap.re iix cirl-

diil;1 r'ir,r'i, r'rri'r.

()tr'r:'*ii ILr:n;lcrii era. inconjrtrai.i clc o 1*'re rtrcschi,sii,


dc crr rinr1, pr:o:rsp:i.tir si irubietoarc, ofcri;xl.-sc curiozitlt-ii
lltror ttrittti tr'-:sirtulc, cirrc n6 nai treceal 1;ril filtrli tl,tg*rC1{)r: ir)[()r'lnatiile;i solicitiirjle itmuJtitc; cu lrtit rnai inti]t
ar..c:nr ci rlcci ne '..oic, pcntru a intclcge cu mijl,tacc pr6prii
i)-()cllstl-r l*'rc, sir, o recclttcze pe or-ice plan acce sibiJ ; in viir,{;l
de.ctirr*"^ c. si i'cca clc st'cli.. plrrrii':iienli ca irrrcrest,
crPlrrinrl cit.rai'.rlte cliscipli'c c. puti'tiL, ci au tenta.fiir
rr rr i lc rsa I ititti i.
lilu<liti sau s,'-r-iilori, ci sint, r-n:ri itlcs irr firr:iJc de r:oirst:j,
11;lf ig:itor i si soklati; r'ictiruc ale riLzboiului _- rtj.riil i cll

Cc^'a'tcs si Ca'iocs, <_'ri cirzuti i' l'pti:r c. Sicl'cy, sari


fitcind c-xi>e rie't.
itil a sclartici, ca autorrul Jui.
'crbis.u
Don Quijote; r.-ictinrc
alc intrigilor poliiicc ca. Jlalcigh,

p'ratc ;i ;\Iarlou-e. Picrre de llr:rnt6me cstc prcot


si si.ilelat,
cilitior, ar.cntnricr, tnentorialist. Oatncni ai cPocii, ctt \-;ls;r'i, l':rc si.r-i.si"r, i'biogr.liilc si portretclc ar-ti;tilor, rrrri*
vo.s:i l i ;i i.c;r rlt' P rc0cu Pir r-i, crr no;titr j:r: s i r.ca liziiri cl i::1c1cr.isli,'i lirrlrLrlui lo1'; l lllrrrirrirrrl cu [,(]onl1.(l() <ItL \.inci ;i II.ii

r'lr,'l;rrr3t,l.,
'(';ts(.llllritt'gcltiicrcltLo:rrt-, irr fafa. ciLr-r)r:ir rrxpt-e_
si;r lrrlurit'lrlici rrrr P:rr-c rriciorlat.li Jril_rcrbolicir, unil,crsaJita1r';r, lit' si r'ntr- o rnlisurL truLi micir, rirnrine o tllirrcz't :1. ccllr

rl;ri

rrrrrltc llintlc pc:rsonirlilitile ltcna.;tcrii,r.


I,lxistir nn om ca.re, prin univcrsalitatca lui,

ar p.irea. c:r
vrcl s;i cu1lr:inrl:I, acc:rsti lurne in intrcgirnc: rnir ginclt:sc 11
l,cou l3;rttista Albcrti, pictor, arh.itcct, poet, elrclil., lilozot;i liter:;Li"r. Pocta Louise l,ab6 rninuiette spada ;i liiuta ;i
griti:yte tlulciuri, cilireste 9i broclcazii, frecventcazi salor_
,.

nclc, ;tie , pc ling:r. f rancezi, incir patru limbi. Agrippa, tl'Aubign6, priccput iu constructia fortificaliilor., esic sol(iat,
corlsilicr rcgal, emdit, poet ii matcmatician. Istor:jcul lli1.oh; Sarpi (1552*-1623) Iuscse pr-cocupat ii rJc ger>nrctrie,
algcbri, ll1ecalticii, fizici, arhitecturzi,.rstr()n()llli(r, (ir.(.,lit
c:inotric, tcolrrgic, {ilozolic, Galilco Galilci, rrrr l.r.lc Iizir:irln,

I I t I et ltul,tt, ttisnte i l:lorrttcc ou lt'n,1,., tlt I tr ;t


tr.i r !
)l't.;tti1i,pte, l';rlis, 1959, p. I{12.
I t'|.. .1. lirrlclilr;rltll, r,P. r.i1., r,rl. I. DD. I (;ri l7 ,I
3

ljr;trtrtSuu rlc ;;rngtis,

,YXXIV

,,11.

t it., l'. ,t.t.'

le

sirtrlir::e mltematic,i, latitti, grcacS. ;i logiciL, il\-ca talcnt


la rnuzici, 1i la, clt:scn.
ltc,lccler-ea in otn, convingerca cir ci poate fi con.strnit
plin cultLrrii, transfornult si for-mat, intcrnsifici 1i c;iiirLlzclLe
p|eocr-r'X):Lrile pcrl:rgogicc. Scriincl* destrrre burta c'r'clte re a
c()piilor, Erasrlus noleitzir c5, spre deoscbirc clc pomi ;i
rJe c,:li, carc (1c Ia iur:eput apar pe lume c'.r pomi ;i cili ;i clcsc
{iu':i nici o interrveu}ie, ,,oaurenii nll sc llltsc, ci se itrrtncazit"

milti cretle, il011. nascttnlttt' scil f ittgttttlur ) unlaniiti stnt tr.rri dascitli si pcilaeogi: \jittlrrino
r1;r lic.ltlt-r (11197--14.16) , Gnarino clin \iet'ot:tit, Iincir Silyio
I'iccriltimini (1395 - 146:l), Irier Perc.rlo \rcrgclir:, Jirasuttts,
pftir)rln-r ;i m[l1i ailii'.
O;rrnenii llcrraytcrii pirrean a. crccle posilriliL :ttolcttnoas'
tct'ca; ilupir cum sint e\rocali in Tamerlan cel mare, si,,lrot
inlelc,ge coustrtrclia acimirabilir a lumii, pot rnirsura tlrttrlul
pt;lnetelor 1i tintl sir sc inalte cittre cntloa;terea inlirritir".
Arlr:seor-i c,i spcl;-r. sir-1i satisfacii clorin!a dc a. clcpili
vcr:trril.e orizontlrri pt'i.tt aventuri, ciiiLtor:ii, ;tiirllcr i,rcrtlte.
lintuzia.smrLl ltentru octrltism ttu estc tttlitttittl. l'i,-ro cle]la
I{ilandola scr:ie. inrpotriva astrologici; prin l-[clr' lliriplra,
liabelais i;i batc joc clc masiie ti .rstrologi{j: in sr:r'isoarea
cille }-)antagr:ucl, Gargantua ili dcclilril ncitrct'ttlcrea in
asLrologic; Cuicciarcljni proPullc acelui prirlcipc carc ar
vrca szi-i tliscrtrclitezc pe astrologi, ca, ittunci cintl 1c-ell
trp.l-i.r-i prczicerilc noi Pcutru arnul viitor, sir le irul3iilc 1i 11*
ccle 1'ecili pcntru anul trccut.
.lLr nnir.er..sn1 merlicval inchis n-ragia cra consi'.1eratir. o
ttu.ta!ie du,tlan,icti, apcl lal forle stririirc alc intuncrir-:r"rltti.
Aculu itt llenaltcrc, rirninincl tot o m:i.r'tttrisit:e <lc sliibiciuno a;tiinlei incir in germene;i a ratiur:rii catc i$i \-ede
Iimitclc, tettafia, magiei ;i alchiniei este ti cxpl-csi.r aspiralir:i neirnpl.iLritc a omului spre o comunicale cu intrgg
unil'ersul, spre descifra,rc:r totali a rcalitiilii2.
l\{agia f:lcea parte clintre materiiie preclatc la rtuir,crsitatea clin Cracovia, undc se zice c6, ar {i stucliat 1i prototiful
dqctilrului Iraust, erou care practicit alchimia si magia.
--t C'f nurckharclt, op. cit., vol. I, pp,250-- 25G. Cf.
t.
L'edttcazione u.tnarxistica fu't. Italia, Tcsti sce.lii e illustrati a
cnra di Ii. Gatin, Ilari, 1953.
2 c{, E. Ciarin, Altdioet'o e Ria1lsciillelzlo, Sturli e ricerche,
fiari, l$54, p. 109; c{. yi pp. 158, 168.
(r.tt lsonti.rtrs

Nururetc.,5i

XXXV,

, PL: sr:naiitiifi da;cinirnte prin curioziiatea lor n.cs{tioas$


ful fa!:r L:tinclor n:r.turii pe care vor sd lc descilrezc singur.i ,
ln afarir de Cardirno, Bruuo sa,u Carnpanella, au Jost rnedicul
german Cornelius lleinrich _:\grigpa von .''l*ettesheirn (14g6*

f535) ;i mrCicul Phihppus Aureolus n'heophrastts Bombas,


tus von Hohenheirn, zis ;i par:acelsus il4g3-l53l), niscut in caruton',rl Sch',r'yz; -spirite deschise, amincloi sini ostili
ideilor:, in circuiatic, alc scolasticii. Irasionat cJe alcirirnie
;i ir,:tr*ologii:, l:'.l.lacelsus studiazi cllbatra, sc inifiazl in e;:rnetisrn, se intcrcse;rzd clc crcarc:l ]roruu.nculului.. El cr.ede in
uoitalca hrnrii ;i o ccri:etcazi, rrnlt;irinctr natura ;i sufleteie
omcile;ti; cildtrrr, chil-tr..g, botanist ;i cliinist, prin remarcilc lui, Parilc,::lsus ct:ll, intr-o nri.sr-rrJ., si larmacolog, Ilcl:reopat. psilriatrrr.
, S:Cuctia ira.tionalutui. r.Sspriilderr r-lnoi dcrinti tjiatice
de a ;ti, c;ircia mijloacele e-sistcnte in ;tiinla vi-ernii nra-j
slujcau inCeajuns. }{ulli clintre oanxcrr.ii trtenagterii ar f-i
putut scmna urm[iorrii rinrl clint':-o tritini.oasir scrisoare eclrcsatii de Bacon lorcluhii Bur-krigh in anul I5g2:.., ,.mi.-anr
luat dr:ept tlonlcniu intlr:aga cun,rrs.tere,i. lle altfel Eaccrr
crr:ilr: il'r progrcsul tr:,lrnic; itr \irtlrl ,\tl;.illidi, c,sistil ai:arate
ca[c lrlDls- in rirrl qi. srrlt ll1ld,.
ldinl-cit, r,'uil-iriz.;l.terur:c, forlil s1-rili'"n;,"Id;i gcniul art.isiic
sc tli:;fitso:rril in l.imnuI itena;t.crii ira t:hip neobignuii: univi:r's:rtritittca, pr:coluirit.r:iirlr ;i titanistnul activitili sini i,irccifir:c a.ostci tr'1-rr-rri tle t:xprlozie a cr-eat.ivitdfii.

,1 tttt)t/,{}i.i.i,i!t, ;liittie
i. lliltltcia este prinrutr i1ollr:niti ciibcrat rlc tntcla tlogmatilii prtn exercitarcix spil:itului critic. Crlclalte ii urnlcazJ" ,,$tiinfa cu actr,evS,:rat
dcnrnir. r1e .cesl llltrlt-r.c t1t[ itr:ate tleci elista ttrccit clt c{)n.(,[,itia
celci nrili clcs;i,vir:;ii.c alltotonii. Criti,:a nu cunoa;tc r..Dsjtcittu1; irsntru ea nu e-r-.i:ti iaici prestigi.u, nici nristiru., ,,.0 .tr*rfacr tu;rtc {aliLrclc}e, c::1, r:upc toatc vilLt r:ilt:. Ar:t:lstir, .X:rtii.l_&
in0i;'r'Crti:iOltsi:i, clrre 1lr:ir.e9tc toili.c cil url't.lri t:;r,1r,g,)l.rc,si
sr'rui.:'i.tor', t:st.i-., ir-r c:c1]t11 ci insj,i, r, i;trr,,.;q{i 1[i; 1,,r,,;i,,;,-.st:r.tc <lir. irrir, ;i llnl;rtrJ,."1
I l;1. li.r'iL;t n. ,/,',{lc'tr,;J, rlt itr, .t
irr lrrrr,"t l.t r:,lr,
()trrir',tS (.t)itrl)!t ii..:, '1'rrrrlrt I I l, l,.rr r. l(fl,l.
l'_ ;{jtl,

D{.\XVI

.ll:ilcri:;r. g'indirea poiitiLi 1i sc'ci:r1i" liiin!:r :i {i1o:;cr'l:a


i;i dr.,iriilccsc cle ascrnenea autcnoneia {afir cie lcr,riogic. Iiirtlirr In-se pe obsen'aroa naturii t1ma1]c, shicliinctr epoli tie. utc, iavdfdturile lul l{eagoe, Maciriarvelli, Guicciartliui ;i
l';Lo1o Sarpi ela,boreazir o gintiirc politici' pe brrc obicctir-e"
clecliv
, lrun.lamtrltul ;tiinlific al accstei luni este lucrul
c'bscrr-;riiiL'"r
expcrien!;r
1i
;r concret, a;a cl1m !i-tr alatit

ccle soci:rk:;
$tiinlelc rratr:tii evolucaziL nlai grcu tlccit
irlsccolul al X\f-lea, antichitaLea trecri pt'lrirnu1 plan'
l.loiild.]Sc}]isiiirrveclriulsistcmclevetriflrr.clrabililiiczl'tll'.
{arii gerrcrale a tuturol cerijetirrilor ptofat-tc, lttrnlti cti ttrtrr,,irr-*.ii :ltiasc sprc sine ccle mai b,nc i.r-!i:' tlirtr.inrL iLstfr"l
ak n:Lttlrii "'
:,!ijqtrlor
" j'Iox'to emiririce
grttnzntttittt:aritasc ;subLcz'"nia argrrrrlcnitrlui tle

. ,: iqrl,

:Lratori.l;rte cntitnat clin tuxtc. ttcconiornle cri-igilralulLl

i.

OtlLtl

rLc;tiin!11 reiie{eazi clisctcpanta clintrc act'le'L)i terL' ci'"


;rritorit;iie ;;i {aptele cutlciscutc pri:r olrsciva !ir: ;i ra}iLrn:i'
rntrrt. -Ei opun; acclc1'tt:ite obselr-llrea cr:ltli orii;irlal' lr
iextului aflrt in car'rr:l lLimii. inclrr:plintlLr-scr astfel ci"itrr
sursi:le ii-rl,lti rle caicttal',', 1:rcrginl clcci' ca li {ik:logii' rlc
stnsLri Eibliei spt'c a-1 potr:ir'-l
-fi,:t:{.:s.I}r acti cltrl ' {lrttrrii
estc tL1]'lf'''lc..:1or s;-.rt-*r, t-Lc ci, ii 111 i[ ;r'ir;lrrpic rle ttal'tt;'ti, car.c
tui Gain
Apologia
(i:rrt;ranllir
ii
condallniL
Dt';t:tt-:t.':ti",
Calilla
1.i
ri
1c
scrie
cir
atri::r,'re
,.iLt
luc'arc
acjlilli
in
ilieo,
el
clccralccc
1>t-l'L'ccdc r1c la
iltr sJ prta.te 6l['scopcri nir flllssonef-'
n
lt'ri.r-un
)!"itntii",..
irL
c:tt'i::i
{sub1.
c,fr:.:,rviii.ii {icutc
Ca:rpanciln sptln?a: .[,tiru'il esti: cartea in c:al0 il'L!c1t:pciun":'
cle r-e1:riciL f $!a iilst;ir; ploi-:riilc iclci'"
(iinrlin'ea ncilor" filczofi 1i oan-rel'i ilc ;tiinl'iL ili aie sLris:"
i:i cb.c;:..';lrii cattu'ii, citt:0..{i}ozc'fic rr:itnrlLl:i'"3 Fjlozr,fil
desclLi';it'
e ste scr-isir ,,tn ace:s'iit uria;il crrlr care -ctir nccontctrit

in f aia ochiicir nol;tri {cu I'c;'besc clcsprc unir-cis), dar carc lttlL
inrii s;'L lnlelcgttrr
ir,:-ate fi pric*putir, clacli ni1 in"'5.!5"m mai
iirnba ;i sti curroa;tern caracterr:1c iu care a fr-rst scrisi"L' Ea
c.itc scris:l 1n iimba matematic5,"..' sp1111e Ci'iileo Galiir:i ill
Fre!uitotu1.., (subi.t.) Spir:itu1 gtiin!ific noLl p1'3srlprllle coil'
n'-iclarca experien'9ci ;i a r;,lliunii.
Iirancesco tic Sanctis, cp. cit., p. 56$.
tr. lirrrtliliertlt, oP. tit., r-o1. trI.p ,15.

(f. l lance .co tlt S::ttlti., oir, cil., p. ?1S.


DdXXVltr

1jru'', Crnrlra'i:1lrr gi Galile i , c.'<1:trnn,i:i l)crntr* ii{r_.ism


cle ci-rtrc aut()ritij.tilc contemporrure , {ircean rlo;rr. distiri, 1r;r,
intrc:;l.iintrlo n:rturij pi l.cologic, sustirritrcl aulononrii.i. ocl(,)r
clirrlii; nstlcl inct'tc:rzi si elc clc ir mili tt cutcillae l/t,t:6!1;..g76ls.
'l.co[ikr.l ]rri (i. IlrLrro co''L.rr.te.zir in cina din
miercrlrea
plresitnilor - r:unoscutir cititoruiui ;i sLrb tiLlul Cina dfn

0ostul cel nrare - r:ontraclicLii lc cxistclrto in Script:ur..:.i,


il crrnsirlcra, c;i clirnin.c:Lzit irrcstigi.l. rrligicri, clo.rlL.et:
aceste crlrrtrlltlit t:ii i so t)lr Iir-c;ii in rn:isnrl in care r,orlre,sc
rlli)l:r l'oric rli.;Prr lL.p.i nr.rr-alc; scricr.ile silcltc nu pot itrsi. r-:r..rn_
stifiti o attt,rr-i1'rtr l)rlltlt;iiirrti.
(11 ti Ili1111, Cllrppartr:ll:l
flrce tlisl.inr:tilt irri 1.(:lltlr)itstprr)il stii;t;ilicil ;;i lrr6Slcrtrcic 1cologici:
'citi*r ,,in lorr,l st.r-it: cl irr Apologia lui Galileo . _ nir
in li,"':L'rgirllie c;i Ilr.ist,s lr. <lisc't;rt rlcsPr.c j.izicir s.u
de;1lt:e Astrrirt(Itric, c:i cl::sirr-e 1lr-olrlcnrclc ntrrr-lrlc si (l{-}-sllr.r}
{SilidLiiutiric vir,.Lii rrcsnicc". Clulilco Grrlilci sustinr: si t.:l
autonorrril stiintirr: intr o scrisoar.c tlin l6ll] afirtnu. cir. llibliir ;i gin:lirca lt1l1l1tll"L se af lil, clr_ra.r ini.r-un arntagonisnr :tltal-ct1t; tlliitti)u .'rrrltri 1ro:rte clablrra. plrirciPii tonrr:inicc, iar
llilrliir. sl)ln),'ll rl
t'rrPr-irrrlc:rrL.t.iir.rrl lllrsolrrt, l.irrir I Ji
ittsi'r'rr'l<: rl. sriirrl.ii si rlr:lrr:cr.:r i,:r rrir.i rru tr.brric i'tr'rPrc[;r1r'i. li1r,r';r l; irr :tr'r,.st.i. sL.r-is,trt.r,, rlcrrr'ri.irtir i' l6lJ lncili_
zil i<'i, r[,'r.l;rrl,iirrr[ :tst lt:l 1r,.1,.,,.rt l)r(]c():j ir-npr_rtriva lui l]a.]iIco, invirl.tl Lr I rr;iriitgc rlcci ar,.4ir;ne ntr.r l aLrtrlr.itiitii. lnti:-Lr
:tltli. sr:l'isoltt'c (]eIiL'.o sustinea cir,,i* disc.fiile ils.prlr
llr-r)blcmclor n.tur:ii nrl ilr: trl)bui ltrarr clr p*rct de prccurer
autoritatttir tcxlclor Sf inlci Scripturi, ci e xpcricnt_a prin sirn_
luri ;i dentLltsiritii".
Sustragr:rca gindirii stiiutiiicc t1c sub irnpcrir.rl rlogm:rtic, s,pus argLrr'culrrlui clc :r.torita.tc, clucc lrl r:'.flit:ilrl
dcsciii.s irrtrc
''ii 'ltrno'i dr: stiintil si. r.cche:r gi'clii.c sculas_
tici:r. ;;i tcologalii.
. ,,livul rnl.liu irvc:l r.lrcpt temclic snprilnatur:ahrl si r:str:;1._
muu,.lannl; ilruno i...) cautir, di,,,itritatcir nu in lrllri.;r, Iuurii,
ci itr lr,rrnc. Iisi.c in fitnl nu,gerca ccl, nlri. r.lrtlii:;r.l:i ir, its{tcl_is_
rmrlui si a cr.tiltri nrediu"r. in pcr-ltcl.rrc r.:'i,rrtii r-i si rrt,lilri;li
in{.r:ittr:1.rurlc, (ii,t'rllrt, Ilntrto rrn..si 1r.;r{.;rll;r Plrr.. in ttir:i
o lirr-nti olrlltttizlrt.ir lrlt'i':tistcrrli.; r,:;lr. r,rcornrtrl(.rl rlr) r rrlyiniyti, lrrtr:r'lrui si r.:;rt.olii i. (lr r.r.r'litrr[ ;rrlr.r.irrrl, r,r: iz]rrlslt]
fr"rrir

1.1)c Srurr:t;s,
',1)"

XXXVIII

r.il., l\.7117.

c'le

ligirlclcr regrrli ale institufiilor omenesli, tcmpor':rre, dar

pnternice. Irnpotr:iveL intoleranlei lor luptir el, prerncrgind

asl{el,,{ilozofiior" din veacul luntinilor'.


[)cnLrrl a rnai giisi thtpir. conciliLrl din '] retrt.o ln It;rlia
,,{ralneni cir:rc szt aibri o conitiirli, 1i deci r-i via!L, c.tre s5,
ir ibir asa<1rrl crcdinf ii, convingeri, iubire :r oalttorri[or si a
binllui, zcl al a.ticr.irului ;ii al ;tiinlei, trcbttie si'i. plivim
ir11.r-lrr:rilo, sprL- r)un)cnii noi ai lui.Bacot,3i)rc acelli cei tlinl"ii slirrf i ai lumii moderrre"l.
l)ir.r autorit?ifile itl;rbuiii adcvirLri ti, ata c11n1 scrie
(l:Lrrrlrarrclla intr-un sonot, ,,Sfin9ii sinl" ttci;i" (l'i s,trrti
trt t,isi )

1n l6l6 Congregrtlia Inclexultti intet'zicc, piuai cc ca lra


fi t:orcctatd, (lifuzar'.e:l cilr,tii lui Copclrric Despre migcirilc
de revolufie ale c0rpurilor cereqti (l5llil lnLr-o scriso;ti:e
q.lin l6l8 ci.tra LeLrpold tle Anstria, Calilco ili ilte zinlir cu
tr"rslrtc ;i irorrie lucr:lrca s?[ dcprc rtti:icirl-<:a ltiit-rtintrrlrri:
,,[)coalccc gtiu cit trebttie sir, asculti 1i. sir crczi ir-r hotililile
cultit'mai rnari tlecit tine, 5i fiincl cirliirrzi!i cle ctrno;tin!e
xrtrl inirlte , 1a car-c josuicizr inteiigcnl;ci tlele uu a jurrgt pr:in
eu, singuri,, socDtesc scrisoatea cle falit pc care r'-o tr:itnit';i
(:tro s{: lutenrciazi po rnilcatea pirrlilrtrrlui, siltt estc unttl
clitttlc argumentelc pc cilre etl lc adrtcelrtn spre a sust.i11e
lniscarea acrrl asta., o -soclrlcsc, spurr, tlr:cpt o lrltczic s;itt ttll r'is,
si cra ataro s-o prinle:rscir inilllimca voa-otLil". []rtrto, (.'am1':rncl1:r., Grlitci eratt numiti, in crhill pcjr>r:atir', ,,itmoitori",
sau reprezentan!i ai,,r-roii ;tiin!c". Tet'ntclrtl c {oltrsit clriar
t1c. ei ; Cirmparlella scf ie clcspre ,,1tiirt!a. rlou'i" irr Apologia
lui Oalileo. S:rierilc ;i vic!ile ior sitt aLe ulloi: ltrptritori;
ca f i in lncririle unialliitilor, 11ota poleltlicir lc cstc specif icir,;
ea se alli in clisputepublice, ca cclc tinuto, dc piltlir, de llrlrno,
cn teologii o,\onicni, iu dialoguri, a cirror structtlri, iusirsi
irresril)tll1c dir.ergcnlI clc opinii, in tratatc. irr viat,ir ei iuliunt[ procesc, tor:ttrri, co[damneri, lut:hisorrc :;i fli.citt'ile
riigului. ,,$tiinla cea nouit resare ca o r{-:liSie ncrLtir, inso!it6,
ile crcclinli ;i cle martiriu.'1!
op. cit., p. 700.
l)c Sanctis, op. cit., yt. 7t7.

11.)e Szrnctis,

XXXIX

i e v i l i e e *L: :,!!1::x.i;r : ; ti,, ;il:1 i.. l:i,l_:lpl4j.in


istoria ginclirii rlmcnesti, sr:i.rn'l:stica l:n,:r:ilerraiJ, it:*rlr:Llna,
ca orice clirccf.ie a filozof i.ci, un eliljnefljLti r.io Freo;illliir.i sri
totodatd, o naett>cl5 ctr.c i-ucru" l{ea;rinl al c:1,,1:;eiu_ir il,r:t:r:,r.X.iice
alle biselicii catr:lice, l_iloz,:fi;.t .qcr:Lashci et-;.n n.nc.jlJs,
fi*,tlcgiae (sluji.t,rare a ,ur:otrogiei) ; e.l cr-g. ,.lcr:i :i_1,--;ojirl
in:linte de a-;i rcdollin(ii autol:olri,..ie,
Scoiagtii. sc spr:ijincau i:]e cii.cvirl :Lc:ste ** Biblfa ;i ,,{ri:totel ir.l PrinrLr'l rinrl, altoi gclir.:r:l iratristice -ii ci,gi.;ir qror:rientatori * cifu'ora li sc lic-r,rrr'X.ir;e Jrrc;-i-iqiutr ;lutoi.i.iiij.i,r" Sc
"4

incerca a sc trarluco,,trit.crlr" 1.oiir:1ll.,i-:i ,.1,: r.riltoriiir.tc: t?,i;is.


f,ty dis;il criL arl:grulclltu I :ltJlrct.].rl i::s;t,: ,t,,1'r:viii il.t iiii,qi:i, il,l ,Je
aitirparte, cEmt-'ritcle r:r:olrt:,trcii :r.ix 'lr1:t'rr,'t, to:,:ulai cir t.,ccasii;ii,

llirnitare

a sa ia f unc!ia ile il

,L:,olliluz.ii: l*r,n rlez*

sr1,1;-r-1rl

\zoltat principiile cr:nstrue:tici 'ucrri:c'rice, al_ra,:i:;.,itull ,.1,:Clr:.l,iri,


nogica for:mali,. Dar in corneilt;lrit 'uer;'icll,Jt: rel:c]ir.te -q.tu n,
Xui :\l'istotel sensui sc alta;lJlcna in .,pecria!ii l.iir-;rruL fo:r^
xnelor logicc; o [1afc r.'irtuozitete io:i:l:lir]J, r:r:icit;.tr Jli :fo:t
ca

cnc

subiiX.i, 1-rrin cxcltlsivitiite r-lil.ica .lr,'"1st.iicilril:-. \/olbjnd

dlcspl'c scotasti,

IIogcl

tatii rlc c:i il clrip

l c()u1r(,r|1gn ,-ix

sul.l1"i1; lrr.l

'fuitri, spi::itc pr:olunrL:,

..1;jiurlirr:a

clr:'u"it trrllrure

:r ;l irst

d.c;rron-

cl ilili;i.;l:-i. :1,:-

u'utliti. :ri

tr:'"ri')i eceJt inri.rag c:j-i,l o


jiintt:rofic cu ti-rtul baljrirr:ii" a intc1c.,.r'ii,llci, lipsitil" rJe _:nntc;ic
'ferrlil,,de con!iilut {. }" tr,r ililloz,ri!;rl ar:ie f,tr:nrii , ii-:tt:Xect
goJ, carc se zba.te in asrrr'.i:',tii cle ca'uc.git:i: i, rl.e ,.1rti,::ltrir,_i,l.ijr
ale intelcctuiui lipsi{:e c1e.j,,:ittl. n
f;n secolui a,l X\i-lcl nn r,l(,,rL ri.,- lr,,t:.:-.-.,tc:. 1:i:il..rl ,uttr

t i f'a tl i n

- ,r:^

Auein,.l i:loyroiclc Sr:r-'lrotrci s'.:li;


.1...', ,;' ,tt:l ..::.t!..,!)
t- t," .Jc(.:).j i,rrir;, i: ; it, )t ; t
Cr.t, ttrr,/utl ot t,cttnit ie:;t,X ;
u^" ttt r.cl z i.: ui. c or. ot n q,,\j,
;i:
tr-uiuri ;i pzntintl itmitte
N tt t ti

; t

Ai;,ip ut'
!..

i i a^

coJ

Jatcra

,..1

.iii

i. ;:-

ll

!,,

"r.-l

jr,:l

i-::',;,:

1lc,

uirlltitt l,tvlt,.1 (t1!,;t, l'


$i e(.tr: ini.cllccl,la ]e.

;a,.\!

;;,i

t!.

i rl i

usi- i r.l,'l t i

r:"'1,

i;i t,tt t

illoalila,: l.ir;1'"' ill{1,


.[cl1-iil:lt it':1,
.ql: ;nii:.rtil ll,
/aa jt,r agi.,, g,J !: sc &, itt1,|/ ei. ! ile
tr' t

J);;t !:t;'i:ttttti'r: .;': r: !itte,


:t ;i,:l;tttt l;i ltt ttti :
'!,;r,itrti":;
C',:ii!,' ;',.:;it,. i iit ttiii'"!c f:iitt,
L'i;i:i,-,ti,. ;: .lti.slaful ti.t l:u.riit.'r
I'l it rii .1.r, 'p'iritr.l.lr1i'uitl'l'-li s j,Lr rl.rill;ir;t1u, o'bstrvll't "1t:
lill.l:.inii.j, r\l'rsl,r-l'i-,-rl. i;,:ot-":c ittli;r;"itisil1- r}c cvul rrtcdiu: "Iln
snlr'1ii, s-a.iju;rl> lli:r.i a:,-r1,r ti in;iunl irr's-,l1i al leologiei a
Iol'L nrirniiti , irl :itlt.rr:qlllic, .\ri:t,lrut-lI bir incii, in aga Icl a trt:st
pl'irrlit, itlL: i'";lrlL'lrii-;li'l'urr ltli esl-c llt'lli -qiint:i cl':cit aceca i1
lliri (.lrli":t,r'r. ( iir'i, r'1,r,..;11 r'lll lt .1rtls c()\'il {-[() prrtin loitls vir:fii
nrr;r:f trr', r'-iir' I) r'r I ', ' .i ril)rl:i:I lt]l i .l'L Iio rlistihniLcitli ill:in

rt ';,.1 Lt: ,.:ri.:.: ']i-.,t;,1.lL,llllll, 1rr: nlc,:l.ccrllt,clrcaillrXr-iizill"r;r'ltriv:r r:racolcl.ol ar:isio)iXli'IlJ


. {}pcrei lLri A:ristolci
hsiluna
inexportfs,
t,cliir'',,Dullce
cti,l lilr 1,.:'1. rl,: ctrciciilp,S'jiu ii11 citi:c -:c Yorbea cltlsPr-e Pclczie
iili.L.rr.p1r'I

nii:, it;
.-r

r.ill'uirl:LiriL,.;11. 1r;1;i.-lii:e

i-tlnirlt:tl'.,r si ;ris'i li:: cr pdrcr si 'lfcre, iu lirnite binq


c,-ili.ur,r'"tr, .\,1,.ru.'it r.r i, ll ,:;trc sr-- lliltclrL clr:icinil fecurge liri a'
nr;i .1i.i Itrrrv:)ic oix ,).rnr,rrl ii sii girlrlllscir. J,undametrtclc viclii

yi -rt",it,

si slc ll:rri-urii. rIl'':J, c'r' ;l:igltra, 'rilrrti trrai 1rlillt' sistcmlxl


in,:hi::,;pecilic el:'li:ii. lle acccrl" iu Cina din miercurea
pdaeslmilon, Ter;Ii1o, i;: t;ilre (li':Ttilno lJntno sc Ilroiecten;lii
pe sine, li ipunc hii il:i'rrlutlzit-r, Li,l tiir:ui nutue insu;i' itr indiii
r-[e i-c:ctelc cle autor-iiate,
i,.e s:o]jr,siuX cc irs! ;r,:cun:.trc, ai-,i1'ai
iinc'.rplii'rl-lc:-.- tlc il sln'.1,i; ,,r\riislrllc.l al vilsl-f u"' I'ot ln ace-qt'
scrs i1 iili,rtiitJll:):l'z;, Ifl:il,,jrllus 6".1 illtiie itr Elogi*l nebffniei
pe .,.r\list,:ici, i:i:ac,,ttriiX ir:'ag;;t.i;ilor tlc:lrr".
iir, roirllllrr I saririi ;.1 ll.r.li Itr-bciais, locuit'rl'ii clirl ta'rn'
Cnriut,::enfei, ttlicti" i tf,liniirtliei formelor cxccsivc 1i dr:gr"a*
qlete ale scui.xsl.icii, rillrlrl l ,,Af i;totel, cctr rlintii diirire oa'
tnf;iri ii l;'l[rtrperrqa -1-si'''ir;iti, lrL i;l;cl*Peitrlrii, a {ost na;al
regirL,;i ilors't rs".

l l l.c!,cl. !!rcf.clt rt tlc i.:t,,;lt it ii.,.


ll .L. .1i,,,,,:, lr,l,.lr,;l .\ 1.. i, ,.. -:-c:
i\lT.I

;1

T,:-

)i-\\'l I

t
lrr

{trl

! 1li.t la .it,.!, iii,t r!, iir: illr,;t['tis '\ii.i1otl, .I]alaie


d'r'a;;i: , 1;; ,1.'-"-; ' -l - -[i,i.rx ]l{ti-xit, liSl'.!-.,\, X 05S"

;i

*trtd

lrrtiiLrl prolesor <le mater-natici dc la Colldgc de lirance;


Picrre de la llam6e (1515-1572) , sustine iu fala Liniversi-

t.r!ii din I':lris, tezele sale anti-aristotelice. f,Jernardino


tr.'clesio ;i Francis llacon merg pe urmerle lui ctncl a,lcg ca

ln locul texteior de attor-itatc, obscrvanaturii. l\,Iont;rignc i;i exprirnS. r'ezervelc {afiL dc e,ircesele
[t,io3irii lui Aristotel; de asemene;r Giordano Bruno, cars
in cliahgul Despre caurd, prlncipiu gi unitate regrcti cd
sialutcle univcrsiblfilor engleze cer ca nirneni si nn se indep,;i rteze cle f ilozofia ;i tcologia magistrilor ;i a doctorilor: ;i c1e
sulsele zrristotclice. 1u Cina din miercurea piresilnilor
Er-trno r.orbegte ciriar dcsprc ,,gre1clilc" ltri A.ristotcl. Carnl]allella veclca in Aristotel mai ales vcrbalisrn ;i gr-lst escesir:
pcutru abstraclii; de aceca solarienii lui ,,dispreluiesc enorrn
itl aceasti prii,rin!5, Iicleea cd. lumcit existiL cliutotilcaunal
pl Aristotet, pe care il numesc l-ogician, nu lr'ilozol". In
Apologia lui Galileo Canrp:rncila vorbe;te cu dispre! dcspre
,,acei care spun in morl categofic cir nu se poate c:igtiga rnai
multi. ;tiinfir, nici ccrceta cu rafiunrla :r,ltceva clecit :rceea
cc ilvcrn dc Ia cci cc tlc-au preccdat" ;i. ii blameazr-r pentru
cir ci string gindircr in chingilc lui Aristotcl ;i Ptolerneu.
Te.xtclc clasice crau rcduse 1:r o schcm:i sirnplificatoar.-e
pcttru a sprijini cu ele un sistem cl:grnatic. Astfcl institu!ionalizatc, cle creru s[rdcite ;i defolmatc, a.ia cum s-a intimpl:it cu opercic lui Aristotel. intr-o scrisozrre clin 151$ Iirasmils se pling:e: ,,Lumea este impoviLra.tii tle institu!ii omene:,;ti. Dste impcviLrati, de opiniilc ;i clogmele scolasticc",
De armirtura scolastici se foloscsc teologii: ,,Sprijinifi,
ca cle un zid, de o putcrnicir trupi dc definilii magistrale,
de concluzii, cle corolzrrii, tle propozilii expiicite, au l;r
iutleminS, atitea subterfugii, cir nu pcit fi pr"ingi nici cu plaselc lui Vulcau" (Erasnus, Eloglul nebuniel).
Coexistenta ignoranlei si a unui caclru clogrnatic rigid,
inlpurrclea atrtorit-5.tii pr:in cxigcnla dc a iirricplini ritrraluri
costisitoare care-i apas'i mai alcs pc crcdincio;ii siraci,
gr.ivitalia citre ierarhia clericalS a unor oamcni din ce in
ce rnai lipsiti de merite si care se inCreapti aici imboldili
ctre dorinla unei viefi uioare sau de ambilii., duc la clecdclerea
itistitufiei ;i, ln consecinfi, la o atitudine criticS. fafir. de
fenonr,ene apirute ln caclrul ei, cit ;i faf5, de moravurile
unora din reprezentanlii ei. O'asemertea atitudine criticd
:Lrrsii, a cunoasterii,

rr:a

XLII

uinani;ti, intelectuali care-;i fortnaseri spiritul cr-itic in activitatea filologici.


nu corcsponCentar lui llrasmus revine frccvcnt oprlzitia
t!'co/r.t:lia * btnae liltcrae. f n {airnoasa 9i ampla scrisor',r'r:
adi:csirti. in 1515 lui l\Ialtinu; I)orpius, care il acuzase tle
;r. ii atacat clogtnclc crettille, Ilrasrnrts i;i exprirna inil.igna;-ca pentr[ ci. ,,sc !ine scama c1e acegti oamcni carc sillt
cu totul lipsili r1c spirit, iar de judccati gi mai mult; r:rrr'e
nt au nici un fel cle legitttrd cu ittvir.laitura, rnai clegr-lli'i
infisgf1li de gtiin!:r lor sordirli si coufuzi; Si care ii clcicst;i
pc toli ilcci ce itiu accea ce ei ignord, si nu au alti inttl1;ie
tlccit sir cai.onrniezc ftceea ce ci nn cnttlsc..." Er:rsmus aflr'ma cii tcologii ,,se tcrn ca, cltrci arler':1r:tta irlr.ailIturi a,r
rcrrir;tc (si yenu,sosntttr Liott:te littertLe) si oamcnii s-ar rlo;t.cpta, sl nu p:rrl ci. nu gtiu nirnic tocmai ei, care pini aturtci
trcctr:rr.t in ochii tutLrror a ;ti totul". Doi umanisti sp;irri'li,
l"t-rr!i gr:nrcrti, Alfonso de Vald6s (1-190?-1532) ;i J'uan rlt-:
V;rLli:s (l{90?
15{l), interesali gi rnlluenfali de idc'ile ltri
Iir:irsrrrtrs, sit tirizcazit- verlalitatea clericali, practica irrr,llrlgcr-rtclrir, a bulelor ;i ar reiicvelor.
()rrnrrtl.iul trryfcrcl tle nccrezut a lui Garganttla pi'in
rrt,:r:lrcrt. slirrgli. rr ()rrlga.mclci, Iiir-llclais oputre bunr-rl sirrlt
atitrrtlinii c'r'crthtlc irr [l!;rL tkrgrtrclor: ,,'I'arc rnii tcrn ci trrl
estc izbitoar:c printre

crccle'!icuti'i.ric <cr.:cr,co-lrmspttsrlcsprr:> lrccastirciuclarti-,rni-i.s-

sirrc. l):rc[ nu-rni c1a!i ctezare, nici cil-uri pasii, insii 1lt'[ {]}11
curnsecatclc, un ins cuminte, crede inlott.l,c:ltlllil ce i sc spunc
si cc rflir, in scl'is."

l)utin mai titzivt, ?n Ilalia, Cellini nu mai fol.oseste antifra.za pcutru a setftiza prescripliilc rituale: canoanele::t:
allii intr-o ascrnenea clesuetucline, incit tearna cclor ce nr nu
respectat, dc pildl, postul, este zeflemisit5, direct. Un mitrancz care cilliltorea cu grupul lui Cellini gi care intr-o l:itaie ,,fusese ri.nit, vorbi gi el: Lovi-le-ar cirlna cle picatc;
nu m;i alegeam cu ralra asta dace ieri, avlnd altceva de nlincare, ltu mi infruptarn, cu pufini ciorbS, tle carne. Cu toate
necazurile prin care tlecusem, nu !1e pulurirm stirpini sit llr.l
ridcm un pic de acest dobitoc ;i de prostiile pe care le lit'tlntge,"

xLl'tI

Epoca este intr-o largir mi:urii nr,;rrrat5

r1e antimona-

lLism.1 Litcratura tlrnpuh-ri estc pcpulatit c1c cllLrgiiri mtrcll,ri si lene;i, care inlocuicsc osteneala prin gilctenie, ca in
prrr-estiriie lui fJoccacc,io; incul!i' fi]arnici ;i lacomi, cn in
Co!ocviile iLri .LilasttrLrs; rl scriere polcmicir anlirnonahaiii
:r lui l.'og,;io 1;1-;;16ioli:ri ':sttr iutitulatl Contra hypocritas;
?n pi;;:L lui '\hrlori'e , l\['rf !sr'l ii spuni: lr-ri lia'trsl' in legiituri
cu clil;i,Loria 1,1 l(oirtlt: ,,'i'e-ligtca'ir1-;i -- <l ceati t1e cillugitri
trrr-r1i I \1 ciror siti)tJti.1t.;)1 h t]t1l';tL t-'-tllntibllre;i'" r\II1-rifia

pai:ltrlr 1;ri.r1lri1r. lrlr p:tt-ictLiro silll c{::l lt rtrtl'31o1'estc st:urnalati


11t ()rrrtrltlLucll;r irt Cttatca soarCltli. itt , rrl'tt,t I a t'6tltirttnltti
Gargatttua ;i Pantagrur"l ;111lrrrLll cxlriir:rr, plin cxisionfur lor

1.r:rrirzit:rrir,,De ct sint nlonahii ocoli!i de toatd lu!nea""'


asa ci.Lil o spirne iusu;i i-ilLric:rpi1ri1 rrltri:rl \i' l':l in lleptalner0n se inliltr:lc Pr-c,rti si Ciilng;iL'i i.qn:rri, t.lr,.:irlliscctrfi,
inccstuosi, clti;-rr clir.tritir ij. l)r it(l{.'i.:a alltill)rirL;Lllistlrill scriitoriiL)r sc pi):tte trailrlcc pitrii ;i in tltllli]itolt'c;1 6111'!1111: atlre:i:itr (le l'':tust ltli i{efisto in picsa itri i\Iarltirlc: ,,Prelir-t': irL
cilltitilr f ranciscan: / [i straiui cg] ir;li lrttlt peuit-tt Ltn tiiar.o["'
Ciri:.Lr c[;tcir t-ltt sint lcr:t:si sau tit:lt:giLt i1i, Iri't:rlill ii cari-

1.'-"'ri lll,r';,ttti;' l(ll;r5rIllli-l'r,' i "lt -li :'


A llrolliillllllri, rll:ii
ovl11vjs1,qj,
:rr:r,rlriutti c1t irLe:r1ul uman ntcdicr.:11 ** sfintul -- 11ll ci)rosdtr
inrn'Le itlarilului r1c rrtn actir' ;11 llcnlr;tcril: crpi'rrator
a1
i:riroi"o-'
traviqlitor-'
atlicir
gi
cir-';i
Pirliut''rri, Lcorii
llar:lr ivacl li vcrlc i'r f lrpttll
silll cilrt'.riln.
srihlei ;i cr-,rriit
- ilic:lt miii crrritrrl l)c oalllol.lii -trlcl iti si
cir rcligia ,,i-a gior
c,r-ri.-n]l1atir,'i , rlecil i)a tlci activi", cil.'1zil sr:itLrrii ztlrtllri
c()llt'r1lll)rlt:il11 ilr 1Lr1rtl 1)r'11i1'1l lilri'rtllLr: iii itrvejerelrz:L
irntlr,.ji)trirrnlil irrt|c tlt,rrlilrl irl llr|irii tti ttlorltl'l illlitlirii:
r:;li'3ia i!i ccrc ',titlt'i cnr'ittil s:i lii in si:are :;i' '*r-ricli tlecl'r sii
iaci Lt n lrtcr-ri t1e sr:aLtrit" { Discursuri...) Atitu 1irr.-:r lcpro.lialii';-l ir r'p"L:ii ilr;iL i1l o r1l:i rc paltc clin
ar:tivitiltca cleir-rlLti este cl.^sigrrr prrlvoi:lt;"t si th: r:onrluiia
rnrrlr;lra rlintre Plrri. Jlrle itil:r'itrat cir tttii rlintre ti :l"u pliltit
c,)ilijii si tr:li1r"r:ii.turl. ilir il1liinl;ri biblioteci sl''il univei:sitilli (t-,ron Xt, orl tlt an3;:tjai utlrrliisti cil s'crctafi in crnc'.r:i,rr:irir lor; cir;rlfii vor'lrelLu ei in'i'ri gff{re:1e (Pau1 iiI,
I,iLul [\r] , ciL [)ius Il (irni:a Silvio f)iccolonrini) reprezint5

cllrrr'i,,.r.zi

iposlaza tle rrr.-r collclnp!ltlv

t Ci. J " Eurckharcll, op' cit', \'ol. Il, 1'r. ?:'e--117'

XLlV

striluciti a uma,nisrnului europcan. Dar pe


lingd acer<tia, rle la tr)ante ;i Pctr:ar:ca ;i pina. la, Guicciarclini,
scriitorii avnscserd in tala Ior ;i triste rnodcle c1e papi r,'eo personariitate

nali, simoniaci sau criminali.l ln Istoria ltaliei Guicciarcli.ni zu.griivclte bucuria intregii Rome la moartea malcficului pa;ri. Alcx:r,ntlru al Yl-lca }3orgia {1492-1503) . Patirna c1e pu"rcr-e a unora dintre ei cczaropapismul - ii
la, prigonirca, do
irnping:a pe mul!i clintrc priu,tii bisericii
pilcil, rL celor ce neglijau sau ignorau liotiririle papalc,
cxpresia formald' in care i;i im5rdcau ei autoritatea' l)e
accea, in romanul lui liabel.ais, episcopul Homenas diit
insula papimanilor ia m[slrri iurpotriva ce]or ca1'e nn citesc
tlecretclc papalc: ,,Pune!i-i pc focl -qtringcli-i in cie;icl
Tiriali-i cu fo;ilfcca! inecafi-i! Spinzurafi-i! Trtrgefi-i in
!cap5. ! liupc!i-i in bucili ! Spintecafi-i ! Irrnji!i-i ! Fierbeli-i !
Scurta!i-i I ltii;tignifi-i pe cruce ! Zdrobifi-le oasele ! Strivifi-i !
Ciopi;'l:ifi-i I -\relc!i-i tle vii pe ace;ti eretici ticilo;i".
I'rrnrlr'l cn int;lrircer, dc multe ori prin nijloace ca ccle
rL: rrr:ri sus, l. 11ll,.)1:.1, cliir reprczcntanlii bisericii, c:rre urn:i.t'r;nl tlc,:i , in lsil cn rlc c:azuri . tl.'lar interesc pe rsonille, al-e
lol si () nlis{rar:c ilc;,:ig"izriirc, c1a.cl nu ciri;,rr dc inibugilc a
v;rlorilor';rul.r,rrticc. ['c i"tlt:trttzo \-a.lla lranci.scaniiciinNapr'rli
cl,ll+r':'i -;i.-I rtt:ttu.r' ,lc ct-tlzic, tltlr sc irerpicilecaseri cle
t't'gllc r';rlc rl rrp;i r';r . ll'rtlr{r s'tti(iiilc srllc dc aultomie l'-coturrtlo r[ir Yirrt:i rlr:,,r'ni:.rr I in1ii, :t rlr:lltt.ot'i]ot'; itl :rrn{itc;,r.trul
nnir-crsitii,!.ii rIitr ]'rttl,rr''4, rIisce t.iiIt: so lit( ('irll i1r irscIDeilcil,
conilif i.i , ittcit catlav ril I sit poatir Ii oricirlrl aruncat in litll
irrr

cc crir:gea po rleclesub1., iar prerr-trsor ii ii sttldclltii si nu 1loai5


fi acuza.fi. ctrc erezie ; p: Iirasr:lus, a c5.rui colaborare fuse,qc ln
timpul viefii sol.ic:itatd" dc cirtrc monarhi ;i papi, in 15'l?

ill celnc'X.antni cel ei'eiic Pcntru Elogiul nebuniei;


invifalii care avcau tiilii:l clc a-;i srlstiue t-'piniile ei'au til;:tulafi ;i incirrcct:ati, ca J,'otlrrtl:lso 1iap1p;1nc:lla, iar nigul-iie
tlattsfortrlau in ccnuli, clrfi ,"li gilrciitori.
nnrloiala i.rl vechile vallri, cXic-tate <trc iclarhia unici a
Sorbona

evului nccliu, crclcte trePll"at t'n siriritele umanittilor. I{-veronimus diie Frl.ga, adcpt a.n lui Jan tr{s,s, esl-e victirna rr,nui
proces cle e r:r:zic irlstmit lirr. Coilstanza. tntr-o epi$to1e c6tre
Leoaarclo l.reliltc, Irr;5Jgio i:lla.,:ciolin.i, cal'c se a{la in Con-

I t.t. J. l:-'ulciiirrri-[t. i]p.

cii.,

r'r:1.

I. pp. 126*155.
\tT

\t

;i citeazir fu'agmente clin apiirarea


reploduce cLr aclnriralie, fiinil iush, ia
acela;i timp tulbr-rrat clc scntirnettul culpei cle a-l ailmira
statrza, povestelte proccstll

lui Hyeroninrr:s; le

pe ccl invinuit cle erezie: ,,O, om vrctlnic de ve;nicir.

anrintire printre o:rm:ni ! Nu vrcau sil-l laucl pentru cele ros-

tite impotriva biscricii; ii aclmir invifitura, multclc lui


cnnoitinte, elocint:r, dulcenla vorbirii, finefea riispurrsurir."
Corup!ia reprczcutan!ilor biscricii cluce la tlcgratl:rrea
inzLitn!iei. (i. Brrtno atritscsc atcn.l:ia astlprit fcnoncnului
(Despre cauzil, prlncipiu ,si unitate). Ntr ptrtca fi srrportatii
,,contradic!il ctintrc un pr:inciltitr ;i {iirtliL corlcretL clltlc-l
siml'lolizeazii. Biscricii tlccilzutc ii rcvinc ccl ntai grea lis'
pun,.lcle cutto:;cuti. vrecldatL lu istoric. Iiir ar itnprts ca ade r'[c
erbsolut, slujindu-se c1c toatc mijioacele {or:!ci, o tloctrini,
:rlterali ;i clesfigurati,, in prolitul atotpulcl-11icici ci."1
Se sirnlca necesitate:r unci reforrniLri a religici. Se pctrece
cr1 e?r fenomenul, caracteristic llcna;terii, cle tranzilie de
ll inca.cl rrlea rigiciil intt-ur sistcrn inciris, 1ar acceptarea
caznlni p;rrticrtlat: clilcrcnliaL; cl'crlinla dcvinc fa'ptul utei
conltiinlc iLllivitlualc, il ca"trt:i;rspira!:ie cil.trc clc-'sitvirtirea
llorali-r. sc cxprimir aclcscoli in imagini poctice. Nirzuiufa
lui I'I:rrsilio Ficito clc:r sc apropia de L)unlnczctl uu nra.i ccte
nn r"nriliator; G. Saitt:r vorbelte clespre o rcnovarc a religiei
prin liicino carc iLtltLce o reiigic libcrir,'. Libeltatca cle ginilire
gencreazir, libertatca religioasi. pe care 9i-o ingiLcluie plato'
rrisnrul lui Iricino, al lui Le{ivre cl'Iitaples 9i ai }{argaretei
cle f{avarla, inclifcrcula religioasit n lrri litiennc Dolet, tiigi'
d,uirea, c1e ciitre Pictro I'ornponazzi (1462-1525) , a nemu{irii
1<.r

suIlt lrt lrri.

i istorici ai Renasterii, stLrclir-rl cpocii nu poate


ll':ir:rrni: ,,in llcua;tcre contr-ibirlia ernincuti.
a ltrr.liei uu cxplicir, totui,;i nici mai rnrilt dccit influenfa
trr.ri llrasmus, silu cca a lni Rcr-rchlin si a lui I"utller."r
V.-L. Saulnicr !irre si prccizczeci ,,Iloccaccio ;i I-ulllcr sint
ln nld tr::rclilionli reouttoscr"rti printlc cci rnai cirractelistici
si p:utr-u

fi

a.If

tlespr:ius tle

autori a,i mi:;crir,r'ii."2


licu.olllcne in ruerc milsurii itlenticc au clcsr:his ciriie unra.ni;rtrulLri gi lle{onrrci'}: m.ri rtrult chiar clecit clcscompune rca

iritirui a Il-riomrci (... ) er.r ,1,rer intcligenta carc dcvenisc


si lib:r:ii, cilre 11u voia sir rccuuoasci ni.ci un {cl dc
antoritate si cerea libcrt:rtca cle ccrcctarc"r.
I ii-na"niltii au ir-tr:crcat sir conci Iii:ze lumea a trtic]r iti"ttii
piiginc si cca cr:ostin;i; o lirceaLr Pclr.rrc:r, I{:rrsilio liicirrcr
crr -'\ca,rlcrnia llla.tortic:i <1in ]ilorcntit, irictorii carc infiitilarr
1'rc.t-srttr;t.jr: lrilrlit'c itt 1r'ttttlolrsc' t.r'LtPrrri ontcueSti,ltena.stci:ca
aelLritii

1r, rrr}()l'iric:tlrrri L:rczutc irrttagotrice. irrtr-urr


rlirrl,rg irttilulat Ospitul pietnlii Iilasnlrs sprluca ca-r.,,in t:orrlrrrrit:r.Lcl celor sfin.ti se afl:i rrmlti 1;e care noi uu i-ant trccrrt. in calctrrlar". lll sc referea la sinditorii :rntici.
l)r:i1 strrrliul lilologic si e-xigcnta c1e a merge la surse
(ud f ontes ) si prin atituclinea criticii f af l rlc illcolrsec\.cntcle
si ;rtrrLrzririlc biscl icii, ur-na nistii prcgirtesc tercrtul ltr:forrnci.

irr.;L':rrrtrri. sirt{r:z;i.

.l,iuia filokrgicir prcurergito:rrc ltcformci

ch.rcc

cle la

,A,dnotdrile lLri l,oren;:o Valia,, prin Iirlrsrnus, la Biblia lui


I"uth.rr. Ca profesor la \Vitteuberg, I.uthcr i;i bazeaz:i prel'cg*rile pe lucrirrile critice ale lui \riilla.In 1537 cl traclnce
lu linrbe gelrletrii lucrarco. lui Loreuzo \ralla despre Donafia
lui Constantin. I-ir, inceputul activiti!ii sale, Luthcr se con-

sider:ase, pc liniir f ixilrii filoiogice a textelor sacre, lrrrnas


al lui Iiratsrnr.rs. Iil altcpta sprijinul umanistilor. Intr-o
$.risorre arlrcsati lui Iirasruus la 28 rnartie 1519 Lutirer sc

snztt,l,si R efo r tn,a,,trrtlcaga lienal{cle;


al X\r-lea ;i in timpul secolului al
secoltllni
l:r s{lr;itul
[-i

tn.a,ni

X\il-iea, este d.ominatl de douir' f apte", scri:r V.L. Saulniers;


sint irnplimetia yi lleforrna, I)c aceea pelrtlu el' ca
- t J. I}*-.lihatclt, op. cit., \,o1, II, p. 219.
cit.. P. 511)
c'Opv:-L. S;irilnier, ,Priface. In:lierguson op. cil., p. XII{.

acestea

XLVI

str},tlnia, infifi;intiu.sc pe sine cu rnoclestie ;i elogiindr.r-l


pc ve;titul uinirnist, s'f-l cotving;i a se pronunta pentru cl.
:!nin,-ioi nutreau ri sirnilari, rremul!uruire si chi:rr indignare
1 Ibiil, p. XI.
I llric1.., p. -\.

3 I,ientr:r cauzelc Rclolnrci, a se vctlea: A. O!:ctea, Ren,a5^


terea 5i.ll,:forrn.a., lirl itura $tiin|ificti, l$$8, pp. 219,256.
aliralucesco

dc Satctis, op. cit., p. 612.

XLVII

fa!;i Cc actclc arbltrarc ale coracltleitorilor bisericii' Erasrnus gi Luther se deosebean lnsii ailtnc ln proble ml escnfiale'
Xretr'-o scrisoare din 16 decernbrie 1521 Erastnus mirturisea: ,,Eil am d.epus un ou de g:iinir din care Luther a scos un

pui rle cu totul alti natulit".

Eras'atns er:a fundamental in:livirltlalist. respectuos pentru cazul perticular ;i teticcnt in f afa itstituf iei' C-reltinismu1 insemna pentrrt cl o nlrrali a iubirii. Pe oltn:ni,,Hristos ii va itlt.rctra rlircl au lcspcctat inr'5!iitura lui (cirre st6
tntr-rtu singLrr cu';irlt) : tlra,gostca".
1n opczilia dintto ErasrnLrs ;i [,utlLcl sc conf luntir uevoia
Ilc,ior|rei rlc rcIela!ie ;i tr:arnscenclcnt ;i ucroiil tlnl,'ttlisintllni t1e cuncagtel'e plill rrrijloaceie ornen:9ti aic expcrienlei
sursit" :r' ttrlLrror
1! ra!iunii: Luther rruril3:r rafiut:a ,,prim:r
1l;te d'rcpt ci
t'r'
t*nlot'tt'tt').
amtti.tt
(Fons
rr1r1or"
Ji.tnlitttt
gr:tspcctiYa luterani dcsrhide calea unei scrutziri m:ti atliuci
a ormrlui., ciiruia ii ccrc sI se iutoarci' spre sinc c5utinrl in15'ur1trl1l si.u riul ct-: i1 lcrcuiegte' llineie lni;i el iI a;teaptii"
cllr prrte a. ha.r:Lr1ui C'ir'ir:" I;irlc'li testului Eibliei pc c:rre i1
pr-ci,ru ail Iitle ra;tt, pr:otcstanf ii an {anrtismui ;i irriolcranta
6';lnp 6alc se ctocl iu postsilt atlcr';irr'r1tli stlpi"cm'
Optimisrr-ru1 c:illtat, cilir vlcmo nn fnsesc inci mul;cat
ri,: sccpticisn, ii far;e pr uillil1i1ti si. creatlit. in bincle aflirtor
i."l orn, in posibilitatea dc atl dczvoita prirr culturit' ln pertier:tibilitatea omeneescJr prin mijloacc omene;ti' De aceca
ei aliirmi exisicnla iiberLrltri arbitfu 9i R]belais ia ca clevizd,
a lm:initiifii cLenrrc dc rcsp;ct: ^'fti rc i':i t'ci" (ft'is ce

*Ei!! Ii.o1].:.:.1|',(rs) '


Lirrircr"s'sti''se
ciL

tot

1ip:;a t1c lilie'tate a o'r'f i, socoti*d


ceea ce noi fitpLtlim cstc cunoscut cliillinl'e si rinr]nit

eter[ilate rlc o clir'irritatc omniscicntir. cinrl Eras,*-or r" anl4ajeezii tn dispLrli. scriitcl Despre liberul arbitrut
Lut'her ii m-'rrturise;te a Ii aflat ?n el pc singurtrl om care,

.1l3r.ti-r

fiilir,a-imaivorbiclesprelucrul:ilcsecllnrJare(inrlillgenfe,
papi, etc., etc.) a fil!.rrs direct ia esent5'
oprzi!ia intre url:rnirsti ;i llefornrir cre;te in ambele
clir'*c!ii. Crotus Rtlbcanus, care la inceput 11 inL tlr'rjase pe
n,,rLhlr, revine la c;,tolicism clnd inlelcge in ce cirip se dczr-o1,t5. migcar:ea

Pr..otestarlti.

1t cclcsptn,l nfzr ci1 i\'I:lanthton' Erasmus i5i e:primase


tr,ilcrea ca cli[ rcfornra sii-,-ir;lt;:-"', elc Lrltllcr s'I ntt apar[ un

XLvIII

8,1 r'eclea un aittagonism ireconi:iii.tbil intre


lute.ranism st botana l'itterae: ,,Ilretutindeni unrle domne;te
lLrteranismul este pieilea litcrelor", a{lrina Erasmns intr-o
scrisoere din 1528 c5.tre \Yillibakl PirckXr.eirter'. lntr-un
plnrfiet din 1544 Calvin dectrariL; ,,A; r-rea mai clegrabii ca
to:-Lte ;tiinfele umane sii {ie rase cle pe suptafa}a pirinil'lttl'
hri, clecit ca cle si fie pr:icini a ricilii zehrlui creltinilor
1i a inclepirtirii lor de Ilurnne;reu." Protestantii Xi acuzfi, pe

alt falatisrl.

urtani;li cle libertinaj, ial intr".-un tratat Despfe scanilalurfi


(1550) , Callin i1 anatcmizeazir, pe Rabr:lais"
Calvin, ca1'e ii apira cn fcrr-oare pc ac}-'pf i!., perlcciltaFi.
1n Iirlnla, ai re{cirmirii hiselicii catr:lice, cler"irle ;i eX uil
lrilsccutor:. \rinovat clc ucirle l'e;r lui Scn'ct si Gi'uct, el esls;
i:r ;i X-,rrtlrcr, intolcra.nt si cr:ut'l' NIichel Sen-et, mcdic q'l
clLrLlit, arttol al unot lucri:"i d,c geogra{ie ;i ttnlcgic, nri
lnrpiLrl.ii;;r'1;tc conccp!ia c:rto!ici clcsirre rniste,lrtn treilnii.
(l;rlvin cr;t.(l l)rins irttr'-.o tlisl:tttir conttrat[ictol'ic cn Scrl'ct;
l)(.:r(lvllr;;rlr1l 1[r: rrpirtii,()lIr'llr, c1 in:;tlsi cr:ctiu- llrtii ile tri:ielir',r r:;rt.,,licii, il ilc'nnttlii irlclrizifici frlttccrl Pa1ltrll ei-e;ier'
Strvct l.rrgc t1ir"L lrranla, <1ar iil tr:ecc1.ia p|ilr CLtl']1'a esti
pliLrs, arc:;tnt;i ars pc rulq (15531 '
l)llsL'rrlll.l!i c1o catolici, umr.nilii.i nn ilclcnit si l"iciime
ill\) l)l'o1('st.irtrliLrr'. LrtnhttisrnLll nu poate ni n1'rl'L cflc"ta.t
fiLcinri lbslnt<'lio (lo li{-rtorlui. n)c altlcl st:lricl'il* celoe'cloi
J-ut.lx'r ;i Clalvitl -- nn poL .[i c'rtisc tlin prn1'1fiip1111iLori
cesul tle evolLr!ic, spccific lictrr:;tr:rii, a 1 IiLnl'iii'i nif ic'nn1e
;i irici din crealia literarir a tirnpr"rlni.
i lllirf; c
,,Si'1. rcnr.rn{irirr sd d,egajirn:. tliir aceiL:itii e1i :
J3.enalterc, Ilefor"tli, ti; rr"Lris---l *
sirnpiir sclie c1c conccpte
consitlcletc clistincte, in chip mai rilrilt sltl mai. frlrli'n
arbitrrr, ;i itrtl'c car.'e s-il{ putee institui, intr-r"'n fc,l. ile psitrromahir', tot soiul tie reh.J:ii ,<i cle impXicniii: Limanisml-''tr
fiincl de pikii aliatnl llciorrnci, inamicul ei sar pitintene
putatir,, in tin-rp ce el este cel pulin tolte acestea triiate le urt
loc. Iiealita.tca este, ca iotolil'raula, rnai comirieri5' C*cit
{crmele : ;i mai cu seamii acesti tet:mci:li majori slujesc cr"ici
uneori pentrli a eticheta ni;te tsnCinle artificiaie detai;lbe
clintr-un ansamblu confns."L
I \i.

P. XI.

*tr,.

Saulnicr,

F;i.fit:i. f n:

Fr'rr(Li,:oln,

cp. oil'!

XLIS

Cooralonatele axiologice ale umanismului. Critica


peci.r:eumanistii o cxe rcitir impotriva mentalitifii mcdievale
i115galnni totodirt5, descoperirea
---scolasticc ;i tloguraticc
alnri noi lnnri clc tr:iirc;i cu:toagtele. De la uuiverstil inchis in
Ximile precisc si in carc totul se corrsidcrir ;tiut ori dccluctibil
sc trt:ce la cleschiderca citre rtccultosctltttl spre care accesul
nu eslc intcr-zisi: ,,nrarcA indatorire a otnrilui pe pimlnt, ;i

aLrcLra a clcscoprir ii Jtrnrii gi ir rcploduccrii ei priu


clrvint ;i ftrrrrr;i, a.bsorlrcit rll)r'oil])c trtirtc for'!c1e spiritualc
;i snlltrtc;li ;tlc t)ttru ltti llcrlltst.trti i."r
.\r'.cst trcstitvilit clat <lc r'rtvcstigltrc cstc clorninat de
ccn;tiinliL {ir.crsitirlii lL.tnrii, a jrltliv iclrrl litif ii cotnponcntclor ci. ,,liste o mlre grc;icalir sir vor-bctti dcspr:e lucrurile
ilccstci ltrnri firrir ar lc clccisebi irrtre clc, la ntotlul absolut, si,
ca sir zicc'rl ir;a., cupritlzitrrltt-lc intr-o rcgulir. gcnclald.;
ci-r,ci a.proapc toatc sint cliferite ;i constituic o cxccptie Prin
r,;lricta.tc:a circtttustantclor, carc nu sc pot f ixa cu o acccagi
rnirsurii,; iar dcosebir-ile gi exccptiiic nu ss ;1{1i inscrise in
c;irl-i, ci ttcl;uic sri irrr.cti si Ic discclni"' (Guicci;rrclini,
Apendice la amintiri).
trrtr,,1xlsirntc:t, ct.:r'ce'Lirr-ii cl;i lri.nrinirtrca. artisticii, dau
nir-;tcr:c', cr irccca;i ncccsitatc, u.uui spirit iu care clornini
irrdoii,rla, i trtc rogarca ;i c u riozita tca"'. SPi ritu l cr-iti.c inclucle,
ca pe o conitrilie neces:rrir, intloiala. Iia se oputle ccrtituclinitror metlievalc gi facc pritncle f isuri in sisternul inchis. N:rtura
a.]-l:i.re irl cliverse pcrspectivc.,,Conlornr perspectivelor, rea!itatca se urollificir,. Spiritul critic, eliberat cle baiastul
rcvel.a.tici, incepc sL cx:rtnineze accast5 realitate in rniscare,
si plima lui judccati, prirna lui afirmi,rlie, va fi indoiala"s'
Dcparlc cle a li ctinsidelatir, picat, intloiala apare ca rnerit,
cir,ci nurnai,,acci ce sint nebuni de-a binelca crccl cit;tiu
totul" spunea Giordano ll'uno in Cina din miercurea pire:
almilor. Itrtr-o scrisoarc din 1639, Galilci afirma cir intloi*la,,,dcschide calea spre descoperirea adevilului".
Indoiala inseatntti liberul examcn io ciLutarea ,,adcvilrnlni care cste un tczanf a-scttns" (G. Bruno, Despre cauzd,
principiu ;i unitate). Iu evul rnecliu intclectlll cercet'a im-

lr,nurne

r 1. I3ur-ckh.art1t, op. cit., r'o1. II, p. 329.


I .y. I3urclilrarclt, loc cit.
r jcarr Ca$son, Ccruan.tes, Par-is, 1936, p. 65.'

plicafiile aclevlmlui dat. Acum clutarea atlevi"rl"nltri, al


ciitui tezattr ascuns se afli, in hrnrc ;i nu intr'nn sistem

conceptual {ix, clevinc lln scop in sine, se arttotlontizeazit':


ca lncepe cu observarc:r I'ietii exterioale gi intcrioalc ;i
continui, cu liberul e,\arnel1 al clatelor oblinrrtc' ,,l)acir arrt

r.rea si. inrlici,m conttariul cel mai apropiat a1 f ilozr'rfiei rti


tcologiei scolastice ;i al proceclilii ;tiinfci scolas{'ice, ptitcnr spune cd, acest coltraritl este bunul sirn!' experienfa
(cxterioard. gi intcrioarai) , conternplare a nltturii, umirtriLatea"1.

tlmani;tii dau atcnfie cl.atclor simlurilor' ,'I|ilozr'ilul naturii ca re crecle cir o afirrna!ic este aclevitlatiL pcltru cil ,'\ristotcl :r spus cii este adev6r'atir ;i {ir:i a-i ciruta o altir e-'rplicl'!ir,
nu irre jtrdccat:i (ingenio) , ciici aclevirul nr-r sirlir';iuic;tc' 1n
gLrra cclui carc af irmit, ci in lucrul clcspre cilrc estc l-()rl)t,
.lrrr:nr carc sc aIlit itco]rt, catc strigr,-l;i chcami pcuttu iL-i
lrliitir otttttltri iiirr{:rr []() cil r('i-a <.llrt-o tlatttm si scoPul in
<::r t'r, i-ir ritttIrt it-o"j,
Srrlr titlrrl Descrierea celebrrrlui riu lrtici, Nict'lac N{ili'::cu crollstzlti-r, cit unii gcrlgrafi cilrc ,,:llt spus citt cci r, ;uL iusi ci r.lc la ;lif ii,
1;irat mai mult fabulc, dupii cnm lc-alr auzit
t"t!rr i;;7i1t
f;1t:ii
t;,
cir
pitlit
acolo
n-tl
nrcls
rla r nici unul
"'
(sulrl . tt.).
rlirr
ln capitrrlrtl Despre experien!i (De l'experidrrce)
Eseuri, Nlorrtai.gnc r.orlrelttr, ;lc lingl"L cvcnitrcltl.t-r, 1i cll:'r1t1g
scntimetrtc, ca clferin<[ (lc ilsclllotluir, cittrp tlc crtirlt:itllrr';l'
rucrlitr !iei.

cor-rjtrg:l1'6^ 111 {1:lot' trspcricn[ci ;i :t coLrt:lLlzi ilor a l'is(r ll;tstt: spilitnI ltiin!ific trtotlcul'
ra,fionllc
tucliuii
Ila!iunc:r. ost.(.: illlLir[j()nicir oricirei fortno cltr rcfrlz' a
l ilrotti,!ii -* rlt: lir pt'crlcstiuare pinir' la oprcsitrnc:r social;i'

I)in

I)c accLta urnitrri;tii, in fruute cu Erasrtlus, ct'ct1 irr ]itreftal


errbit|u;i ozlmeui ai Itenagterii, ca Poggio Iir;iccioliili, rle
piklir, nu il aclmiri. pc C'.ezar, ci il exalti pe Scipio' Spiritcle
umaniste, de la M:rchiavclli ;i pinir la Shakcspcare * pcntrri
citre lJllrtus este lupt.itor al libertilii - sint r-rstile cezarismului. Din ner-oia cle indcpendenll ;i libertati:, Iirasrntts
t I-I.'C.I, Pi:'elegeri tle islot'ia filo:;ofie i , op' cil', r'o1' 1{,
n.' 296.
" I T,r"r, tlrrrt'te tlc Sltr lr.tn, Dxatntit de I tt3ienin: purn lts
Cictriias,lST5,aPrrdJcrtrtCis.t,rt, Ccrtattlrs, ['ltrr;, ll]ili, 1'':l{'
Tl

retlcegtc, refuzE .")noruri ii se fixeaz[ la Basel, Patria um:lnigtilor se afld. tloar ln lumea libcrti'tii posibile: Montaigle
spu&e: ,,Arn atita trebuioli de libertate, incit daci nu rlei
s-ar iugedui si rlerg intr-un cr:Ifi;or din Indii, n-ag rcai trii
de loc in iargul mcu; {...) I)aci. acele flegi] pe care le slujesc rn*ar arneninta tll5car cn virful degetului, ars pJcca de
sd, gd.sesc r.1tele, indiferenl unde".
,,?n veacul de mijloc, ontul se cunoagte pc sinc iusu;i
nunlai ca parte: ca lllenlllrll al unei famiiii, al unei Lrresle,
al unci ,:omutiititfi politico sar.t rr:ligioase - 5i 1111 gi;:rdea,
nici nu lucra decit n.urnti ca, tot.r.rl itr. carc cra cuprins. Niciodatipoatenltr s-au mai v.izrxt, o& a.tunci, in istoria coiltinentului nostru, mase ata dc mari dc oalncni, crrgetind;i sinr-

indati,

si lucrincl in accla;i {cl"r.


tn llenagtere individul se emancipeazi,, dobindcsic anton'omie. Valoa::ea indiviclului, drcptui omutrui clc a cugcta
liber ;i d,e a tri,i ala cunl il inrlcamnl i:afiunea intri. in conflict cu ierarhiilc cxistentc. Concloticml, in care se afirma
,,r'aloarca personali a corltatldatt'.r l.u i., ildepcir.de-ut clc orice
alt coirsiclcrcnt"', duelnl'ile, r^n al ci.ror clezlr:rcli1.mint rlri se
mai vcrlca,,o sr:ntintii a ]ui l)urilnczcu, ci o biruin.![ a ptr!ind., trdind

sonalitirlii"3, siut manifestriri sociale ale iudivicluaiisrnului.


Onul I:Icne;1.crii arc constiiirla unicit5lii salc. ,,Natura

it ficu ;i apri sp3rse tiparul" - 5gri6 Ariosto.'


,,irr pragul Rena;terii, inr.pr:,ejuririle istorice

cicprirxl

Italia cel putin, sd, se considore pe sine insu;i ca


intreg, ca individ in infele-sul ctiruologic al cuvintului, si.
descopcre cd, ale -qi drcpturi, nil tlltn:li clatorii, si sai, cloreascd
mai presus de toaie libcrtiitca tlc a f i cl insr;i, de a gindi gi
lucra prin sine irlsn;i"4.
Un Giannczro ll:ureiti, d': cxcnlplu, n'; rrai disociaz5,,
a;a cu1r1 sc f.i,cea itl evul nlsCiu, trtipul ;i sufletul., ca, fiind
antagoiLice; cic alc:ll-uiesc o'"lilitzite;i omul este ginr.lit ca o
totalltate5. Viafa trtrpeasi5, rau nrai reprczintd o formd a
pe orn, ill,

naturii o:r.:ne1ti qgrtlpte. .,Cci calc vor si. rtr'espartir cele

It.F. }legulcs::u, Fi;lc;cltt I?c;wstet'ii, 191{.1, vul.


: T-iurrlihartlt, r:p. ci't., r,'o1. I, p. 30.
: 3.
llritl.. p. j:11.
I \-... "11 ,-:t rr (,!r. L it.. i .'! l . p, 19,
s (--i. (i. S;iitra, pp. cii., vr'1. 1, pp. ,174*464.
1

.{8*.+9.

x,rn

cloud

1.,

1:1'r'

si le izolczc una cle ce'all1Lii, gre;escj


rlirnpolrivii, trebuie si le ali.turim gi si le lnprcunim",
scr-ie l\Iontaigne in Eseuri. Este f.ireasc5, si uobilir triiirea
intcgr:rle lntru carne ;i sPirit.
1.).-rg:ua invierii trupului clupir moartc dei'ine ac{rm argurnrill al prcluirii trupr-rlui. Dar a-1 prelui insearnni a'i acorda
ilorjee ce e1 cere, adicir. pliicerca. increderca infr-o naturi. care
:r lost creatir l:uni indrepLS!e;te citutarea fericirii gi n plitcerii
si motir.t--azi epicureismr:l lui Lorenzo Vaiia.
[-.ucr':rrca lui, Despre adeviratul binen pui;lirat:"r inifial
snh tii-lu1 Despre voluptat (De voluptate, 1.131), si inriuriti
rli. li1;irrnr, conbate stoicismul. Ii.espectul trupulni ornenesc
r.r':r gi ci rc:Lc.f ie impctriva ascetisrnnlui meclicr-al ;i c, 6611sgcirrt;-L ir, ill;copcririi irumosului in nuclitatea sta,tlilol antice.
( ) rrsf rr I titrlcctitlii si volupt:rtca att irit.t":rt in noua -fot'tna
'tttr:titi:; tt onrrtlui rctrasccttlisl.. ,,Or-iil s-zti zji:c, riltiua finti
rilruiriti rlr vir'1.rrtt'l rllrstri irisi'.i c:;tc r-olitpfll{1x", r:rtgeta
['lrrrrlrr iLrrr' irr l]setlri.
,\'[,i r t.rrli::irr';r, (:i! ])D ult lr.rt;t-rr f ir,-rsc, lt i.'r'it itli ploprii
r';i,,r t:r ir,, linr c1'-r trccorca r.le la si-stlmnl inchis :ltrrf icval,
nn(l!' ,,(r.11'.il llLr sc rc11rt-loptca po sinr: cleclt ca r;rsii, popor,
1r;rllirl, (',)i'l)i)raLic., iernilic sau suJr or"icc a1t:i {orm,iL .Jrr.tcral;.,
,
',li:, ti.,.i"' lrr sisIornLrl rlrschi:i iu ci t'r-' se inaiti'L ,.rl toati
[,,r'i:r - sLrlrii..rtiviLirtLl . Orrrtt] 11i'r'ittr iuti'iz,id spiriLu:r1 si se
0,. nn(li[stc o1 :tturt:":. [')l rt ci.ilitrrt. rttr-,]riliL;tl-ir si rLrztstimpirr.
'll,rtliI i sc rl:-'.tr:]ritlc, int;r'lrittrl ctt sist.lrrtttl a(r:-;111{rlogic.
,,llrrrrro rlLr.;lijnL:llz;"r" r'ocltclt 1x:;r;Iq11iq';"1 :Lt'i:;ttri.l:'lit.it, l;i ptoIt:rtr:rir.i a. r.rlti:i ILlrri Ii,titr: (...1. Norur viziutr; crlsinici a
rriri,,',-rrrrrl,ri rllsr:lris, PrL:rir':ti. r:ll tril nri,fir'tit ttt',rt:.iir rlc lumi
sr)l;ll'r, sr. lriliL csl.ririi, oLr ilcL)eltt!r di: ar:rplu pilih$:i promel..ir- , t lri r r irt :i,)r):rLn I ,l-r ll in::11;u lLil 11i:ri,,rgitlL:i'r".
1r"irli principale gi

,,Cu cit'ipi sigr:ra si'ribnt it'titf tul,


ri g a : r i il s cr i s Ia I tttt t tt ti- tt s.f: tii nt itz t li.,
lctr tboru.-mi in.t'ittit tt,tt, rtii st cit'ttzci.."
$i de t'e glointl ritctt n't,ti':rs!! spre al t'tt ! ,

Un cintp tttvic d.incolo tnti ci:t.tci,


ce-s.iiii z'ti,i nltia. eit l;ts itt ttrtititi l"

,Si

L,:
-J. Burcliharc.lt, op. clt., r-<,i. T. r. I6tr.
t l:rlgal
t'a1tn,{'iiordun, },}i'i.ti:), |''!ir jtr.;i rrltr;rr, n!t47, p. 82.

LIIi

si epoco noui cste insi;i


distrn!:.r tlintrc o lnrnc incltisi, alristoricir, al-cnr1;,rr-.rl;i,
imobil5, iip.sitir clc potelti.rl, rlrlimitrrti si o l.rme iniinilir,
dcschisi, to:rti nutn:ri potcnliai"l.
In antagonisnl cLl c1lo0a prcccrtrcntir., cincl o;ntrtr cr;l
cvul metliu
",1)istan!a dintrc

prr:luit rnai cu searnir

rlLririr or:i;;ine,

in cra

tnoile

rnit

acccir'cnl

citre in;nsirilc sr.le pJrsonalej, slrlc cccit cc


Dantc, Gilntlrzzo II rnllti, l)r.rg{io If racciolini s.tu I-,J[L]n.ro
Virila nuntosr: i:irlil" a,riicir nrcritul sltLt vretlnicia.

se t1c1;lascnzir

Vir:trrtr:rr;i rtistir::r inlririi sc stlPrepun lrt, Lr rrctrz,r \-,'ll t3,


rr ai a.irci la tr>utti, qin lii'ca pllttonizltniiL a It;rlici. .,ts;ii*
ra.fia ;i clauul cotrfcr-:1. nrcrit acttlltli dc cttnoe;tcr-c (irr rrq r'| 1.1
tiurp 1i dc iLrbirc) , clrt:c cstc vt"tzltt oa tcnsiurtc ;i trri':c 'rt.
Pc calcl irl:rtonistnului etica. ltenastcrii ajrrrrgc la i'..1,1:rlnl urnirn al irctinnii intlrr itrbile. Peutru ginditor:ii pLl1,t'

ial

nizanli activitltc:r. spiritulri nu se clezvilnie prr.rplitt-zis


in cunoastric{. Castigli,rnc, iLr d patra carte a Curteafiu}ui
spr.rlrca:,,-sullettrl, apri[s clc focul sfilt ai atlevirratc'i iuLriri
clivinc, zboarit, si-r se itnprr,lrrtc ctt rturtnr:l ingcrcascii si nu
nirnrli r:ri lrii,riLsc;tr: irltttt ttttttl sirtr!rtrilc, rlar nu tttai r.re
ncvoic nir:i rlc t:t"tt'intttl rafirrnii; cici, irrcscltirtrbat irr itlgtt-,
intr:lcgc toatc ILtcrtrrilc irtteligibilc;i, liLril nici un tii.l srit
urnbrir rlin:rintc, r'e de itncns:r Inarc a purei f rnntnsefi clivine..."

Spiritul ss rl:sfiloarir in iubire, carc prcsuPttnc tcnsiittle


si elan. l)e accea rc-vin ca nigto constante alc scnsibilitnJ:ii
;i stiti.sticii rcnx.sccntislc ciLeva irnagini: avintrrl, rirpire;r,
cerctrlt, .in ,,eroiccle otittttt.ri'', J:iruno este Jttrat c1c r-rn chip
in crre Vcde durlttczei|c;t, i..rr.\ctu'on portzegte cu!c.;ittor"
Pcntru llar:silio ljicino crcafia insearntril iul;irc;i plitl eil
,,I)untnezeit t,ti.fiL:ste iuruca, citLr-c siue si lumca cste r'ci;ffdr!
de ei"B.

La Ificino cercul, sclrn al coiltirtilit:l.fii, in<lici. ascctrsi-

citrc l)untuezeu, ulmati .rpoi dc coLrorirea,,


in lume, a suflctului unit cu l)umnezcu. ,,\ccr:r:i.1i
--ilt.,g.,:rJo
G:rrin, jllctliocitc e llirtascir'tzettto, t,p, cit..,
p.
l58.
- ri ( L .|. T}rrci<irrr',1t, op. cit., r'ol. II, pp. 99-101"
3 CJ. (1.. Saitta, op. cit., pp. 2,13* 2.tr9.
a Cf . :\iira l.i:rgon, L-.ttncef iitt otttului ocrr..', il').16,
Pp.

nnca sullctului

flin

rrrtr-r,

30-31.
6lbirl.

LIV

t;.

Saitta-, oP.

cit., ro1. f, p. 5!6,

:ri,nnificatie o are irnaginea cei'cului 9i la Castiglione : ,,Ce


gnri dc mutitor e vreclnic a te proslirvi, Iubire sfint5, a;a
lrllccurrl o rnerili? 'Iu, preafrumoasir, preaintelcapti gi prea-

lrunl, tu ce purcezi din irrrpreunare:r frumusefii, a bunitirlii 1i-a infelclrciunii clumnczcie;ti gi in ea sil?iiluietti ii
r:;itle ca, ca irrtr-un ccrc, tc intolci. Tu, dulcc cingirtoa,rc ce
Irrnc:r intreagi o incingi , mijlocitoare intre celc ceregti g;i
;r;irnittegti, tu ce prin blintla-fi :Llinate inclini virtulile su'
cirlnllirca cclor cc-s rn:ri prejos ca e1c, ;i, inclreptinrl nrirrfile muritorilor ciitre izvorul lor', cu cllc int.preuni
(,;r:bl. ns.). (lercul sugercazi in scrierile lui Pjco ttella
l\'[ i ra ndola , IJruno sau Campanclla, ciiutarea necotltcnit:rl.
N[ont:r.ign.e aicerzlr va]oarc:l rnorale mai prcsns cle noblelrt'crne spre

[{.;l lno.itcnil-ir prin nutne. Pcntt'u Campane).la ,,nu estc rege"


onrrrl f irrir. clc nrcrite ntrntli tiinrlcir poarti o coroan.i; rlria.r
irnirruLlclc apaltin, pritt rlcttuclc ctt ca.rc sc ltirsc, unei spt'!c

r\ilnr)lc'. ln nrtr,clit Xl.,ll-a rr. Hcptamerortululr l.i.rartcisc, r'ii1;o.


lul rt'gr, ;rl Irrirtrlt'i, rln !'rcrl.,,sii ittr:;tlcc rclgttllr irrlr.:r'iiratci
lrlit,Lt,rrii, carc lacc cgali pc prin!;i pc ccl sirt'ac". itr contcn-

lrrliile cu care so inchcic pcx'estca:l I\r-a, Gebttron anltnti


vl istorisi o intimplare in carc sc va veclea,,c.i iIrlclcpcitinea
:-;i virtntea fcmeilor nu sirli;luesc cloaril in inimilc;i in caPcI( lc I)rilrcipcsclor".
Virtute;r poate sirli;lui it orir:e otn; ea. se mir:;oariL prin
;rspir;Llii, sirnllminte ;i fapte. Pentru Cellini sau J,)aiissy
r,ir consti in rigoarea ;i abnega!ia rnestelugarului 1i altistutni. Castiglione r.eile meritul ln bunitate gi in <lragostca cle
curloattere: ,,in afirrit. cle buDltafe, atlevi.rata, ;i cea urai dc
sranli pocloabi a sulletttlui socot cir este la oricine rlragostea
cl': carte". Pcntlu conlocutorii Heptameronutul oam.enii
rrr.t sc pot ier:Lrhiza dup5. naltcre, ci, ccl mult, dupi. cnltura
dotrinclitii.. Cultura nLr constituie insS un critr-'riu sulicielrt
in plefuirea meritului onreresc: ,,;tiinfa fitrii dc coqtiinfi
r1n este decit ruini, a sufletului" ii scrie Gargantua liului
siLu. Congtiinfa morall trebuie si {ic, priu definif ie, permanerlt treaz;r.. Amor'fitd,, ea devine opusul ei.,,A ierta
l'irul, inseamttir rdu a face" (Parrlonner au ittctl , c'est n;rutr
faire) - scrie cle B.rif iu Mlml. \rreclnicia e doveditit in
actirinea motivati. etic; ea este marc.tt."t de lmpletirea intre
r';i

i C{. Nina Fagon, op. cit., pp. 30*31.


LV

si i,-rl;i::lttlt inl:le ltc * c.l, ill lli;;riil':l: * :,'- 1;!llrii


oiltrer1o!rr, i-;l.n* llili-lillt ill ,:ll ttute IirnitcL, inl-':le5t'r;il ;:i ,r1e
t,--nlpolrIrt ii;ii.
lir,.,r"c,ll,:rc:i ii-l i:1...p:tr:ii::rtt:a r'1,: in.NcLcg;lt ti cr.:;,.}jr: a 'rl'-t. -'lri
tc iurj.rinl ilijr irilari{trrr:,Ja in irtr}ecti}rilita.i.ca llrti iini-tlr:r-i-'r;;,i:-:r
s! laor:r l.;1.. l)c;iel rlc lic ll.',;ihispiciui Ll;i:iri.lirii r;lirr:ll;:-;ll:le
:l 'l':trcrliiil,rr, .,I::ri.- cil ve i v'li ", cspliinJ, convi'n.l;,:rea ill l:-rstcnf:r ..,ir-',.utii it.,'"nll i;rJu ;.i r'tL:tL.ttrli ;li ir,r air'"'j.ltlliin.r J.-i i ',1':'
;r-ji li jLlr.lr:L:r"l:-,rr t.trrcllrr.
l}: LrrL :r;l l risl.ir ir.iir,:ter' rlirl tlr,l')Jl)l 'rl \\i l,ll-' :l' l-rirli
-{,rir:L
'1;L
ln'ry rrri.r'l ill L,ar;rlnrile Ilui D)arild I li:i,31)
l'nghr;rtnll
rcl,jill iiXr,,rl' l:l;iiltci ,ltttllltl ji inz:cslrntr- ,:n Xllrcr ::'j::1.)ii-l .:l '-ljj ijt
:i{l .i}l:r.-rir !liiltl,lc, rs irltei.vi.lu n r.[intr:c lrlge r .i il.r,i:i..
.trt tl ,,r,t ,ti)l1rc!,.rti* rxiit.:ittlii{.i, si rcrlll.:r:cl:Liiiili, rl;ll .li 1li1.e
ir.lLl,rbii,r-t. trli,.,ii.fidii,i, zcif:ltlt. lt:;raltelrc:l 1).j,i{,1 ;i,-l (l'r:lr-'llrtiil
nc LJl . li:.ri"lrt'iti ir',iitlr':l lI i Shlll;c,li:,,'1;. 1 ,ntl;t F't-llttlrtr*, '. 1 i:
* r,'-riiriritt"
TJlillr:ii-.;.",,r,l,rrlltllllri l jl;{}riliilr'i.i, iL!t:,t,1-''ill,.l. L:,t Ii'-ltlirlr:
lluttliri i,l'. t:rrr ,;i;ilr1t,-rl-1.,.) lll.r.1lrrrrti sltl .1.'ii,-l ri,rli;l ]nilirrr-.1,:li;r",.
.l-lur:lr.li;r-.r i .i l. (";t:tiqli rllrl Jr,rtltc rXr,'1riir;i. 1l;1.1l.lirir r;rll:lil.li lli
ilolr,ltt li ar-rr.l1, rl. rtlr,i rli'.gr:,1.1ril, ilttlti sr,:titir.r:ll '1,.',:itL'';l'itt l:-lr-:,iilli,rr" In iXpologiil t*i GaliXeo, Clilr1l:r.rl,.:lla,,i;-rirlJ,'l';iitl|:'11e
-li riltitt:tr.l. ltllrl,litt.i {lii ir',tl'ili:'lll 1;i:--rrglnl-i',ll ill !;:r".'.}1':1:;ll:ll':a
r : tlr
tLivilLi'1 . ;li il llli;,r.iis'rliz:fi Pc rl1l1 i'LJr-rlllcl1i lui Ir''t' L'l
.-1311',;,] ,,,1',.:ir ]ill;j.1,,ts ' :-r i.lir:, ii)il.]-ir:r 3,-{rlll;.rr,"i'1,:l i llui l,l;r . r..:1:',Ll
Ii pr.irl 1i.",, "i r- '.
j.l
]rli:1,,i .:rirur-J:; rli,, i';iitir!i t.l. clttLii".li rlll.. ,- -r!'rr'lliiliesciltiii,l:r,iq,i i::,1 r..,!illirlrli. irlt;i,:{ii ll:ltf; tr.i1li, 'Lti-ri I'ri'l-':
611lil ci:lrllii irlrr'l;in" lii,li:r-?"c):r,rl, i;lsii, cr:r:'-1,,: ilL:lN;';'; 'r'lrt'-il'
llitait ir j11',.1.- jL ,11;.i:,i.r.:lrl-,1. ir:,itlri:rictn:l . ilirrijillitn i'll'-z rl.i': .:.tr
,:ctlr-i.llgl'ril ill ii'lilLii jt;1"li.r If ill1ilila:lli..i a I'i i:r!r-:i !"itr1'r1'l:riLlll jiic
il ai.li :i r,liil-,,:ii i;l ,.lliir.'i.,,i1, irerinl;cle tr'ii'lzliil'1,:", ':::;-l il
jlui'rlcrqtr- ll:l:'':lii; .1.;ir-irl'r lil rit:rll.ca1 i:i, r.'-.1il "l n"'r:-' ll;r'l 'ilt-'
,l,-[e'ii,-,i,.r fe+l'giei pl,3to11ice. {,'rr:r"lici-r:l-nl '.1i!i]1 ;'l 'i-:r:iil]iri
nrtl-)l,Jt{-:.-1

..r

--

ouleilcsr-

j11 ;-lal'.-'iiti.li
-ila ,irii.-ll!i.it cJlil l,'

r-leri

jt;'l1ie, ':"1-t -';lrbji-

,iilil.llli1. i,litt '.'llr.r;';-l iiri l)J i,t^,:tl:


g11iir]:riil'r 1l
{
l)'i.iittiti;rr.:t,111
11.
ir':,;-lr.l1
'1i"::r i:
,,crxi.l'.t1.
r-ll-;l'.r.:ql.il;:1
l
,-.-r
f
ri"ii
{l
l
;1,,:.':ltit:-i
i:l
r::rl
':
,
tcl(lf :

lliiutii if lt
viali:n .i

L\in

,.1.,.;ll:i,

111

jrr:,rblrnt tl,.:

'- "r'riii il"e".

,.i ,11,, tisiunl lil t-r,r,lir: ir ilr:ip.Ir.r.it ric platoirisrn', obscrvl


1[. .li.:r.i;ilr;rr-dt. Insr;ilu|5 in rirare l]tisurd. cliu scoala lui
tr)lctilrrl dc ' .lr ;\-[,i:r'"ra,. sill:]lixca plutonici 5i licoplat,riric$
'lir\ii.l:r1lt1l;1., !rd {r0illi"u} iil -\i:lr.lcmia platonici, clin Iiiorc;rta,
:'i;ilr'nl 1r:'in:i;llla oljcntarc f,itr:zoficS a Rcitalter;i. llurq:liillr:rl'u ii ll.icr:i1i'l iui Ll,tsirrir rli: lrr--dici ..p5illia dr:*s*irii,i
'lc a ir tc:..trt,:s,;u'r in iiiirzo{il hti trll:rton cL.a ln.ini !rlrni,:ls&
.tic;ri:e a ;pi{iliulili uui.ir, (}o it -ir.- fi piLtluns cl insu;i, si il:rirr.'rnii (:rrL cl. iriii-L.tlg:1, t:lit.i tliii.iurul sirn, cle ilcoast.i lilozc.lir.: si rle a Ii r:rc:rt in si'.r':ii rrnlitistnultri o a, rloua rcua;tcl-e
rr.rtriirliiti.iii, 11: .r i,rr.:lul5 rt.....1.i iu:rltii"t. llin lrlor-err!-e trl1at'trli.jrtr.lli ii;rliiin i:ci"i:itz.:lii;Lt- irlilL-{iscl,}i prin llar-si}itr Fir:i:rit,
lli,,.,r, r1::J.l:l;\trira:i:1.rlr, l"c,r:l B.ri:ii-<ltr,,:\-1ber"ti, Cris.roI,:r tr-.:lilr..tril,'o, rrtttri;-lzi, ii in;iJ'i:,: tri ;L'i.
,[n l:r:;:r-nf:r. rl i;r lr.i.i) r'r't ,, j,-rl,].1,,1 iri Pi:r't-c rL: la ll.ar-.,1,,-"
l"a iltii;l1ilutr,\l,l.l'r,;ir:,:i.i rilrt \rrr,';rrlrit sc fiLc tlin tii;l1ogl.tl'ilrl lll:rtrltli, r Irrillr,,irt i r rrlrrirr i, \li) (i;lt-c st-- Lri:ltuI , intrg
Xil{} liiir}, rrrn, ni..ii , ,, r ,,r lii;,,rtrrc ljoii:t. .rau l}-.:ta*
V(lllLlri-(r l)r,; f.l1i1-ir1'-'" -\.ii-t;l r'llitr.r' tli: la irrCcpntul-jlClleirastelii

idr:uLrgi.l. t,,:cir:i'ri:.r'i,:i, r li:." irrr:, lil mod Iircsc, ii xntrojroCr:.tili:ic3, tLin utr:,nie:rt c.c (lnrrll prr:ticip5, la fiinfa. tliviti:t.
-[.ia.r r:i;lcrlul ]11{tbil i; ,l:.sr-:lri: lrl liena;tcrii ser a1li inir-o
,":'llliiur-1S pf,clar:*i:c" -\1. ir '.ll,t,ct incnlsecvcn.t sicr:i, <.laci. a.r ti

ltCmii Lr;llul ra rilr.latrl crnll:it lX i.rnii'ersuhli. ldcoa uuivcrjni ]rirli,:-:r:rLl:ii: Llir:i.:r::t. iu c;lr j:i:ll il, doria a ca1:o,:l,ipcrci 1ui
.\'ic,:[;ris (-'.u-c;uru:l il i01 * X l6 $l , Despre ignoranf a care se
Cunoftgte (De docta ignorarltia). l.-lo s,.rbstrat psnieist gcrle.
:n

J. tru i i,.ir;l ;.lr.l.s, ca ti pe :r l lir i Giorcla:lo


Erun,:. {l;nnir:cllll:isli1t,I- nui (lu-qilnns iine dc r:eli.iti\"1'srltixn
'unci. cp,:;ti Cr,.t'ir-1. in- j'rlct',.:i"'l!tj-ii i;l
iro1,cttialul altsolnt hl liet.rir:ci 1.1:.1:t:ictlc rlira uni..,crrs" irl.rucit, in cor-rrcPfia Jrri, fic.
Cilr.il llir rrt!:J:i c:te rri:.ir:r..','i;i i.n': llnrnnezcu, llcla1j1-1rr.tr'"1
SLeiltio ll nl.li .\i'oiltr ignc itlilr:r..,irp1ir tot spr-e o ..-iziune p'tlioa;ltirr'.;; ai1 rr.rr se r'lir-i-.-rirl;i-,: ?n:5 t:galci innobilli-l'i a ficci:l-r-Lii
segr.irtjlli,.'liirl r-lnivc',:s. rji rlr.llrc.trii :lircrcilerii in ouml. cie-lii;_ci:;r'i. ll:rtc ,r ret..fre irlirr:i:rii'a antropocentrismului cele j.
;l Fa.r:,1 lui.\[,'lrliaigrt,,r t:itiilq], at:i, c61rt o tllitrtririsc;tc ig
Apologia trui Raynraird eJe Sebonde: .,cinc l-a c..r;r.l-".ins fpi: r,;;111
, i1-13:j j j$ill,

reaz-L,:;r'lir-iccjilli-iil1rl

'ir . r.17.

;_ ir

-ti-j

LY;X

cir aclmiratiiia dinaurici a bolfii ceresti, lunrine etcrnii a


tor'lelor care sc depla.seazi cu atita mindrie dcasulrra capulLri sd.u, milcirrile inspirimintitoare ale zrcestei ruiri infinite
sir fi lLrat fiitfi ;i sL continue timp clc atitea veacilri pcutnr
confortul gi in serviciLrl lui? llstc oare cu putinli sii.-!i inchipui un lucru atit clc ridicol curn e faptul ce-r aceast;i si,rmani
;iliravi creaturir. cill'c t1u se poatc st;ipiui nici rnlcar pe sine,
oare este c-rprlsii, a Ii lovitir tle oripicc, si tgi ziczi stirplni
;i irnpirritcasti a uuir.crsului, cirrtria, ea nu estc in starc s5-i
cnuoasci nici cea nuri rnicir, pnrtc, ;i cu atit miLi pu$in si, ii

tlin seutirnentul lclativitirfii il tlctcrrninir pc Errslingii :nult discuta,ta lui pruclcnfi, sir nu arlcrc i:r
;i nici 1l vrco altir. grupare in lupta dc opinii a
tirrrr:i:lui. Intr-o scrisoare clin I5l8 c1 alilma, ccrmcntind o
epi:ltoll'r prirrritir; ,,1)i:;tinsc biLrbat, nll ctrnosc in ninc nii:i

clecurge

mus, pc
Itefr:r'rni

un rnotiv pr:ntrn cilre cineva ar clori s5. fie eresrrrial:ii detcst


iutr:u t,.rtul asernclrea nurne tle dczbiniri",
t--)arncriii

si

llcna;telii clescoper-eau valiabilitatca islcrir:i


a hinclui ;i adcvirului, cxprinratii poelic de

geogr:a1.ici

lionsard:

comattclc?"

Ornul, care crezuse a cunoalte un cetltrll fix gi o pozifie


irnuabili, nu-;i mai poate pistr-a vcchear linilte intr-o lume
t1ilde totul sc milczi, iar centrul se afli-r, potenlia1, prctutindeni. Dispar ccrtitLrdinile olerite de echilibrul anterior al
uuui tlist sistem lnchis, Apiruse indoiala; ea atlucc cianul,
cnriozitatea, dorinla de er gti, lansarca, ci,utar-ea cinstiti,
clezinteresatS, 9i dcvoLati, respectul pcntm cunoastero; dar
tot cle aici pcate sir se ivcascil nelinigtea si n,:irrcrederea
onrnlui care, avirtrl trcvoie de: cr-,r'titrrdini, cle onliLrc;i sta.bilitatr si, totolll,l.i"r, o acccasi nr,-voic <lc ntiscaro Iibcri rsi
orizont rlesclris, pct-trltrle:,rzii trirgic intre elc. Spiritul morlern
:rlegc in locnI fi-sitri!ii libcltatea frirnintatil clo cirutiri chinLritoare, clc iluzii 1i rle indoieli.
,,I\Ii se r.a obiecta c5, e riru si te inlr;li. Dirnpotrivir, cel
rnili lnare rbn c sir nu te inyeli nicioilatir. Gre;csc ns,spus
aceia carc cred ci-l {ericirea stii in lucrurile inseli, Nn, ea
a tirnil cloar c1e p5,rerile noastre, cdci in lume e atita intuneric
si schimbarc, ci. nu sc poate ;ti nimic l-irn.pede"... spuue
llrasmus in Elogiul nebuniei.
Pd.risind vcchile ierarhii, omul conclucle cii ,,jutlecata
arc ulr caracter particular gi experienla este lir:rritatir. $i
iati. cd printr-un ciud:rt ocol, accasti realitate, mui l-rine
cunoscutt, este mai pulin sigur5,"r.,,
Adevlrurile sitt relative. ,,Car.e lucru este oare fiLrri .ele
gleleali?" (Qr,t,id a.rltent aacal et'yoye?,) se intre:rbil Iirasmus
intr-o scrisoare adresat5, in l5l7 lui
Ileuchlin.
' Convingerca cr-r. aclevi.rul nu poateJ.fi exprimat decit de
uilicitatea cazului particular ;i spiritul de tolera.r-rtil care
1

Jean Cassou, Cert'au.tes, op.

LVIII

cit., p.

64.

,,Pe scutt, a.ceast/r, ltutrc

7"irt.:tiIe, auttptirore

sr,lLitnb

;i

ttn

tl0a.v

ifltntftt nc,

;i

ti,riyttre,
..1a c c a.; i fu J.t ti - rr.,.1 trtt tl o j u.ttri s oxL s I tiu i t' r,
Cc-i {tittL: 'i,nl.rLt ltarlc, e crintd itt!t-slt loc".
i.

irr rliscrrIiilc lrrrginllrr, nurlLolj i Heptameronului r:nlit"


in :rr:r''rl;i prolrlcrrri, oliirriilc ccrlc ntu.i tlivi:rsc. Cu pul..lrtric
sclr t i t)r'll l. ;r l lt:l;lLi v iLii !i i, ltrr rt:ir srrgc l j;tcl, cu tolcrnnla.'rrn:rnisttr lrri, ci"l irt rrt'icttrc tlintre cle poate exista tttt gririlte <ie
:t.t.L:viir, itutouLerl nu isi cxprinti propria piircrc in rnr-ril percnlpl.olirr.
l)r:sprr: grclcula.

l)c calc, procetlind iistLrl,

lfargar-ct;r

sclic: ,,liitciirrria i sc plt'e cli


ll nlrtrrrii sillislrr ic;tc irr cl , cu ca, lc ascltriic

dt: Nlrr,,u'r':r o t:r,'it;r, ,\l.,rrrtrr.ignc

fr)frnl s;trplcrrri-r
si l:r r-',r. l{) r':l.l).)l t.(';rzi, pr: trr;r t.r,: t:clt:llr lLc frrrrrrl:".
I J:in t-inl.lt. cu (r:lt o lilr,lst;rIl' rosLolol,:)t.c trIirruatii cojttl"trlirrt,rrii ilrr:r1r"rr;rzr'i. P:r,r'r:i.:.ii l:rtil'tr. 1.r:ricnlolsit a rglal.ivi:z,irii,['.zr:t:lrililrlrl l;r. r';rlc i.;(-] lloate ajungc pe accst tllnrtr:

(iurll ii dicte:rzit mo;nentul, orice afiric g,rncra.li, Irai:;taff riruine cu pulbslgl anarhiLri.
lt. i\1.. W.'J, i ll yard vcclr: in lialstaff , in u lt irnir instanfi"r,,,principinl vepicei revolfe a onrului impotriva eului siu mor;.rl
;i a lr.lr'fclor oliciale ale clrcptilii ;i ordinei"r.
rrr'1;irrrl, rlrrp,-r

In:r I

Din pluralitatea cle cotlccplii a persona.jclor shakespearicne nri se dcfincltc o claril conceptie Ijlozoficri a drarnttrirgului.

Shuhcs?eare's History Plays, Loudsn, t1959,

p.

289.

LIX

sclia: ,,Shaliespcar"e nu estc fiitizoJ, gi inctrina{'ia


r-li spilitualir este tocmari oirn;ir celei a filoeo{ului, care dosniniL sentimentul $i spectacolLrl viefii ("..) si, cu un princi4,iu unifa:: sau altn1, rezolv;r contrastele in chip diaiectic"l.
lFicce conccpfie cste iudcoblie legatir <1e un pcrscnaj,
li taolaltir cil e1 alcetuic;te o trlrnc. Kent rcprezint;i fatalismLi1, ltrr-:i';Ltio-stoicismul; Loreuzn este poncler:rt, trirutus
ir-ir:a list ; Clauclius are o lnc) r:r lit ]redonicil. Intr:-o accca.gi
trli.csir se sr"rsJ-in punctc c1c r.c11i:t'c contlar-liltorii: mirsciriciul
[-.rocc

L'ociliL obscrr-ii cir, or-clc trcc, ial'oamcnii sr (roc li apoi putreuc-1r; asclrlt]lri lLri, nrolatLcolitrrL] lariucs ar';Ltii clc,grrclarea

1i in{:electuali. ;Ldnsir, ctc virstii; iti totrlii corncclia


Cuin vd placs se inchcic cu patlu clsirtolii, il Furtuna
sc"sirrbitolc'tc logodna ;i se pLrnc la c:rle cii-{iitoria cclor doi
tiucri il:c1r;igi.rstiti carc igi ck:r.esc copii tlilrnoli; <le unirea
n'.,r sc bucur:"l L)rospero, r1c;i ci al"ilm:i cir. r-ii.Lfa (rleci gi a

{izir-:it

cc:piilor'1i a rrcpo!ilor hri) esi-c, ca $i r,.isnl, iiuzie. l'ortinbr-;Lr mcrgc la, acliunc firr:ir, sir ginilca-scir, tr{amlet courlifio'l-rii::rzi, actiunira clc o in'l1c-lnngit rlclibcr;rr':. libaliespeare nu
tra:;ir lL sc intclcgc ci. ic-;Lr t"l"a i;rll;-Jral ilrcptlte llno[-ii i]1lunle
dinti-c cL'oii lLri. [Jncori l)i(i l)o]:sonl.jrrl shrLiiesl;trrirrtt. lttt
cstr cor.sL.c.,tuL cLr sinc; t;i11ir',.,lll .['o]c;ttiLrs, picilicirrel ctica
e1e
1-,i:r

{lLrrtcalt irc carc


tc

o ;i

pra.clioi'r,

ii

<1i,

JiLrlui.citu, alirturi de

siaini'i utilitare dc comportarnenl, si nr:bilc indlumiLri:

minli pe tiilt, I $i-a1a cntl vint noaptee


tl,Lr;rir. zi f Nu vci putca minfi p0 nllrlenl".
jchn l(cats nnmca viLlnl cJl inccrtitLrrlirri c;rre il facc pe
Sll;i,kcspearc sir, nrr-9i prccizczc Jrozi!ia ,,ftr!6 de a ne33o'
{}iti;niitt ca}tttbility), Bielinsiri renlar.a impar}ia,iiitatea
ttr;rireturgtilui:,,E1 nrl aLc sirnpatii, 1111 are dcprinileri;
su:;rcptibilii:iti, nr-r are idei sail tipu!-i prcferate":. Croce
,.Si, rnai a1cs, nu te

esirlic a apa rcilta ambigu ita te shalicaperern:i p::intr-u n ptiter-

nic scntinlcnt al viefii cunoscnte ,,ia toatS conttarJicfia ;i


conplcxitatea ei". Toleranfa 1! relati..'ismul eare clecurg din
con,rfiill!6i complcxiti!ii, din gettcrozitalta clrarnaturgrrlui
\ Arioslo, Shahespeare e C 'r,:tili:, Llali, I93$, p. 93.
: Dr sl're lt.tt'ileLl ,'llsri ,ci ttu;.'lt !t da:;::t.il;:i Gr",o/, iii.35'
^ 5.1,n7,r.rrarrt;'e
,,r
;i ofcra ltii, t*:;i'; cr jlici:, fiai" pt,-litcr';Lti,lr6,

unilcrsail,
L)*

1964,

p.

687.

;i rh* gintlirc':r 1.i r{o*taig*e , sc opun rixitirlii


sis*
rlctu,
gi chiar
'\. L-.unrptun-Ilicliett observa cJ, variatcle ''ui
coulra.rlictoriilc opinii clin r.rpera rui shakespeare a'rintesc
inte lepci-"lnea T)Dpu la ri , care intrunegte gi ea aiiturate,
,
provca-l:e yi zicarlc cc preeinti acelcasi {aptc cle viafd, il
ltcr_
t-ra

sireciive oivcrsc.
I-ip.la ullrii si-*'cem filozofi,: este in.locuitd insd de o cla.ril

pcrspc:tiyi, etr"e:i a scriitoruiui; o cloveclestc orclinea moraliL


apdratS ln toatc picscle sale. -l:tefuzincl si ziboveascd. asupra
raportului dintrc orn gi ab_solut, Shakespeare agazi, absolu_
tul lLl rclatiile dintrc oarneui, iu om si in cele omene;ti.

Scntirnentul rclativitilii, cu latura nobild, a tolcrantci


fngirininlci,
c'l.ir ;i cu po_:ibila consecinti. clc amor"tirc a
;i
forfcior ele acfiulre , generei:.2i. s:cc-pticisrnul, cincl e asociat
cu nciuct:t:ttrcrc"l. in condifra uurani.. llachiavcl.li si Giorc.lanr_r
Jlruuo' crlcau., r'r.1'oritatc sta tistic6 pci:r'c rtitd mor.lmcntc.
)\Irr,la.ig*c giiscrl. ti princil:al. crt*cluzic c:trc se poate t;:ag<:
rlinl r.,r lt.r.trstralir, rru cstc corectalca cc ar inilrepta-o, ci cc;;rvirri;r:l'ca cii o''rl cste *n iz",'or dc crori pei:'ra'e't posibilc:
,Sir ilili cai ai sp's sa' c5 ai {ic*t o prostic,
insea't*iu
'' prost,,.;i
:nai llirlric: trclxrio sI ai'1i ci nu e;ti clccit un
.rr:citsti'i. ir,,ii.1 iitrr-r'i. rra5lc ccltrbra irlrob:rrc;,,L.c;tiu r*1.,
,troi',i""1 t:,,,:,,1,,1;rti'i.,

int

it

\'ir'i,;r'

Ilirnf rrigro

srrgrrrcrr,z.i'i.

pr:in ca iipslr

r.rr.i-

rIin lr.r:r.i ,,(.c stirrr


ell?''rrl lrri lllrnt;ri;1rrr ;1 ir.sil. lr,rrul,'ii,:ul,..\ ii slrrr :r tru Ji.,..
'' trI:uliict. Itlt irr'() irt, r'r.'l,,rc irr r r11 i11{1 lr' ;rrr1ilit9ltr.c, rlirtll.itt
:1, slilrit irrrlii, rlrrl,.i l lln nu , rlrli: irl vrlr:hrtiic senreni.l,lf:
,,1);r, l i r in:,li l) . lilr,,rlr. rlirp;'| rrrt'r.it, cinc r"r. ntai sciipa rlc
lri, it' l'rr ,lrrrrrr r i,lririr:'i. lr lLri Shakcspearrr, uciclcrca lui
(',,.,.rr ,1,,,lrirr' llrrrtrrs t::lc inut_ilI : un tilan a Du.rit, j\]si,
'Cir,rr:ui

r.ls1lrrtts.

lrrp;,r ,rlr:i.r'\'trst) t.li,

rrilIr,i.r vt'nit.;rjtr_ul si Lirani;r r.iminc. Dar nn in a;tr:p_


t';r r l'i'hr l iniilrr:nt sc a1lI scnrnul sccltticismuiui cu cat:c
sc irr,ellcic clloca.J inreputl criLrizi:.rsl, a umanistilor, ci in
f11 lr,r

X.;r

ri

c.gal, plobabilitatc ca oruul si,si desfir;oare


'irtualitirr:iie
srrprcllti, ori s5. tlilj.asci ;i sX noar-i. r:i_r o uluscir.
lui.r-o operX in care ap;ire au S.efiltclti dc gintlire retli.iscclltj=i;. -* tnvdldturile Iui Neagoe -*- r*vcneitJ ca sintezii rnc*
dievl I,-r, lttia ii.tttlctrto tt:",;.i iusrrgit;i tJe irrtlcmitul r_,--tro

n-]{I

ascetism. Automl lnvi!6tur{lor cu3cta ,,c5, omul in lutnca


:rceasta;ac1e intre viafir gi intle rno:rrte", ci accastir vialil e
,,scurtir ;i treci.Loare" ;i cir clintrc ltcrul:iie ,,ace;tii lumi inselirto:rre (...) vom sir nc tlccem c:r o urnbrl". l\{otivul /orttur.a labilis accentna rcliLtivitzLte:i siLualiilor: inillare ;i
smerenie, indestulzlre ;i sirric:ie,,,fiLgirtluiale rlincinoase",
'r'eselie gi plingerc; cle la o ipostazir. la ;LlL:r 11 poarti pe om
roata de foc in timp cc triLiclte.
Hamlct sat Lca.r l)a1'curg clrunnl invcrs lnv5liturilor.
Prin sufcrintil ci tlcscopcril't lirnitclc cortclitici tl1rlane: dnrerc,
ncdreptatc, rnoartc. Ncirgoc irkriLcii <lc IIL ccrtitriclinea acestor limitc si ajungc la conterrnpkLlia strninii. ,,Clil mai intii
dc toate iaste t5,c6rea. I)eci tiic6rcit litt:c oprir-c, oprir-ca face
urnilinJ.ir 9i plingcrc, iar plinge r:ca fzrt:o {ricir, ;i lrica face
smerenie. Semerenizr face socotcalir rlc c(lc ce vor si. {ie,
iar acca socotealS, face dragostc ;i dlagostea f:rcc sufletele
sir vorbeascir cu ingerii. Atuncc;r va pric6pe omul cL nu
iitste dcparte cle Drmndzeu". C;r si iu capoclopcla lui Dante,
pornin(l clin ,,fnleln" sc ajungc ia beraLituclin.ca comun.inrrii
cu rlir..initatca. A('crst lerl suPrcrn a1 1ui ,i\cagoc, inspirat de
cloctr:ituL isiluLsiiL,

ii

in.sr.rf

lii

solirf ilL cottccrttrittii si:L rncdi-

tafieri in rngircirrnc.
De la stabilitatca mcdievail,

pliriit[ plin lipsa c1e liberirnobilitllii ciogmaticc, se ajungc la nelini;tea Rena;terii carc ili cunoa;te ignoranta, gildtiudu-gi ast{cl liberta-

tatc

ar

tea de a gindi, inilepcndenfa. clc oricc sistem inchis gi fix.

fl6616 igrtoratttia *
Ignoranla ce nu sc ignori pe sine
cstc scmnril mindru, dar in care sc intrevid previzibile tristefi, al epocii noi. Aflincl priu exper-ienfe existenfialc ceea
ce lnvtrfdturile preluaserd. clin Ioan Hrisostom sau Efrern
Sirul, eroii lui Shakespcare ;i oamenii llena;terii nu simt
ciremarea cle a renunla la cele lume;ti, ci clescopi,r llcvoia
de a sc angaja in acliune. O esprirui. Harnlet:

(...) ,,Cel

ce ne-a dat
Desl'uIci ntinte,-'u.ci.t ltttleut, tte tlea
Ce-a fost ri, ce va fi, tzr,t ne-a-nzestrat
C-u,tt, cwget cu futeri tlu.wne::e'legti

Ca-n. noi ne[olosil

IJ(iI

si

mttcc:easci''.

MARrr FREC[.JRSOttI Ar RENAgTERTT

It cr.ul rncrJirr lrLtilt 1;oczia cr:L filozofic si tcolr-rgic; ,,in


l-tuntcic unci poczii in c:rre sc girsc';tc si sc proslirvestc r-itnrrrl
f i intci univclsa le"r sc rcsp inrca. lroczi:r,cl i r.ertisnrcnt.,,[-)lnu I
silisluia cu spiritul in via.tl ccalultir. Si culrnca per:IcL:fir.rnii fu socotiti| a ji in cxt;l2, itr nigircitrnc si in contcrtrpla.tic.
Astfcl s-a niiscrrl ljtr.r';L1Lrr'rr tr',;cr:rtirii, astlcl s-au nir-qeut
Icgctltlcic, r'nistclclt':, r izirrnrlt', alcguriiiu"l.
in ltct:.rsl.crc Iite r:irtura. inccte azir s:i :nai slujcuscir irlcoIogia biscricii; rlobintl.intlrr si eutotl(rlria, opora Iitc-r-ari
cstc cotrsicLr:rtrtir clr tlxl)r('sic :r rrrrci r.i;uir.ini tlcspt.e hin-ic,
|rollrii si rroi, e -sr:riitorrrlrri r.iilrriir, in c:rlitaltra su ric crcirt,lr, i st' r'(\(:un()s( , irrl l rrrr lt'1, ;tllilrult' tlt.'ntirrr.gir:c.
lrt l1;rli;r scr'olrrlrri :rl \lV lt.;r. sc sivilst,stt: tt-('cct-r.,il liI
c{)llc('lrlirr lrot'trrlrri clt';rtor-, :r. Ior:1.ultri,,clll-c l}ll cste clirtor
sir conicnrplc o ortlinc rLrt.ii, {...), r:i carc alc inaintca sa inlinite posibilitirti;cerc x5|1, el irrsu;i, o inlinitatc t1c posiltiI itii ti]" .
Noua oricntar:c sc obsr.r'r'ir. in cnvintc:lc lui Coluccio S;rlntati dcspre inrpollanfrr lrocziti, pcntlu oanrctrii ltcnasttrr-ii
$oczia si magia inscrrlnllu L:unoa.stcrc insotitir clc t.r sclrimbare activi :r lucnrrilor-: onrnl ,,sch.imbii lrrmca si sc sel;inrl;i,
I

Pe sinc"1.

Priu ;tnrrmc rczonantc clin bogatil si cornplexa.-i crircri,


Dantc cstc Lrn pr:ccursor :rl ulltanismulr.ri. lilogiui culturii
allticrr, al clomnitifii ;i rroble!ii orncncsti, al rncritului, 'al
cunoattcrii, vointci ii :rl a.ctiunii, fac ca, indcoscbi Divina
Comedie, una tlir-r na,rilc sintezc crcatoarc ale evului nrecliu,

si

in ,,'orbclc cu cirrc Ulise i;i inclcarnni


torrarirlii de ptibcgie, cinpii ce au stribitut mcrc:u altc
meleaguri cnrelleili, s;iL I;rcir un drurn ,,rlincolo cle so:rre"

pref igur-cze idcaluri noi.

1
2

Iiugerrio Garirr, llettrioet:o e I?.inasciutento, op. cit., p. 50.

De Salctis, r-rp. cit., p. li?1.


(i,rr irr, r)l). (it.,
l) 38

r li.

'Il.li,.1., l). lju.

LxilI

Fi'ir,,1rllncai ccal fiir'<li


e

]L:rcli"iiz:t

|1111111

1'1ioca

fiirrlr:", i].'illra\';:'i(-l iLilii alr-l,'\-ox


il llllliltti.itiitlLri trrltizi:lil ;l ilie'e"

v:lit,t-:

,,1-,; Jii Lilt[7t!i i1i ;'r,i,ij, i

.ii';iij,']Jr'

;i. iiit iListrt.{i;ltrt !;'iri i; ti''!,ilt't


t j-ot!i&]'e s(i, aitt.( !; :\1 i tt;tr);1j;tri':1

trlLl'rr:li1iurr11. afla ir"r .f iltli.' ,,r' l',ilrili il. lrL'1ir'; jnl.r'.i' c'i-irtr
l:rr'.1iLt si iiirrliuriic l.1t(l!1.rt il,-" r.
Ascnrcuca ,,pictlt tll h,'irri' .cil1'a, i,l .iittr'-;Lrtr i..1 cle
ll.r1'aic1!a;1ctrc, fiir:il]rl tra'ct.'i:r'lt r;rl. ti' rt girrtii;'i' 1!i,rlii, {'-\:]rfiril:1t:r
ri^. lruLi 1lllLlii inci :ri pi'cttr'l cporii
!i n r ltc str:ui:i.uri liicll
ipfcfc,icotc .-- :rint si-rii'r:ilr lLrl f iilerr:4. ,,1rn111 tliu t'i Lli'ltti,
(,lnrrJri cu at1il1-itrat urorltt-t",i' r. ll.' lrri .{li)r. ttf l',, l'ic trlai
..[i,ir:rnnes \-on ]icLlntaJ:l{t. {1{ili} -.tllS0l- Jr,irrriiti'i 1.i:lr Siiiti,
sirii','on 1ii:pl 111i50--lrll4r, liiiil:is rr,l \\'','1,:, (l-tr1{t {17Sl ,
\ii.rlr..-is (lus:inrts, l(otrr'lrrL ('':l tls. .[irrr-lLrlf -1\,11'i,-r,i:r c,l':
iiri vifiturite lui l{eagoe BnsarBb.
{'i'{r'rrr-r'lr ct:t iltt i () l)tr^'rl)1)'llit;rlr I tttl,'i l'pr,,-l il,: itiill..

I li'.'i

il ()lrt'tlt

lttiirI

lilri:rfir-r

i! lli iiir tr l'rIlt-.

1.|r 11fi.i'i.'\il-

rrrn,rlirr. l)irlrtri:r rlirr Str:rrtItlttt,,, 'i ll, lrr'il Llt r]i["r'lrr i:]i'il:ltrllri ,\ttt'rr ,litt,r';tt(';l\tl.ri'L ir (lr,\.rlltll':r.r'i i.llil',''lr:';tt:-fliClril,,r'{L ri.rlrr'. iri rlirr loj.irrl D*spre iericir.r lltiit:'Lr'-.r lfilnr-ll
r,r,,trirlt ni rrrr vlr rIo]rinrIi j,,.t'ir'ir',::i innir-Ltr rli l pl"1i;"'.1 ,']:-,.r,=i.i rtrl.' a irlirigclii". Triuruirlrili' a!r'i-Ltri',',,t llil i r.', ;t -gil'rtsli'uil po vt-'ititaii srlrlirii a l'izilitllii,r"
1- ,1i11;
{)lii,.crrrl iu*rlilr a r;i irr:rlrlri s:i 1)iliililirrii in r i-r:Lrl l.li.
.:"i lil.,il dr.rirriiitll:1
1.,:il firts t1c al.tc clcntcirfr, frii'il t':r 1lrtt1rL1
,rii'iitrr:lir a acestci stlili nrri: al:illlri ihr {:r'r'lirlll r.i:tit
arii:.iLr l, pirginril. o:r:u1
:'ir l:i;.liiicsc iir el clLrcliiLrl. lil.lliill.
rl' ll;:ir+ cu to:rtc iLrstincii'l'' ii Pilr;rlir!lq ilLi n.ltitialt riite 1'or
:..r s. iilil'1r1r:. S: Io:rurca;:ii in ti o f iirt!r'r clnir:iliiiic,'lice".
11;.r|3clrrl inrLir-iduaiitii,t.ii-"'sirrciiit lLeraiti::ji--s.c:,L-{-iin:t
iirL r'r,rirtiirrl:r vliloiii prol,:ii. irr I-LirzLrin!r ir r. riilLlt'iiii J:rimi;.
i .'riri. l:r'irrtcci.jLro I)r'itit' lt t''ii' s:rt)s 111 gi'. ii', il.i,l'lltl
It.)P. t i'l ., r',,1. 1I, p, d[t.
:rllrirl. p. 21"
:, l'r.rrtr-ri (;lrirctl rislilili'
:r lt'lol'ir.'i trti',il.l"l'11 s:r11 Xr:'c.leIt)a'liiiti
trur.rlt'rtlistlil.\'t't'lr('ilirr..it,
ji . j,lir.i rrrrirrr-:r li ltr,l'r ,'. "r.-",r'.".-;.'',i,,.[]"rliiLr:.':r
{trl It;l l; :1 Lri 1.;tr.
i "Lrr-ir6i:t,st.t, i.)., Sir rrt{i.. ,,i:. tiL., p. Iii{"
ll

L-\IV

5i in poernul ciiic Alrieo i-l f;-Lce pc


sir. p1'e\'stcilscA apal'1ria, pexto
l;itiu.,
r:iilorul
.l,lrrrrirr
priini"
rir t llt', ir rt rtLti poct cnrc il r'a Proslivi pc Scipio;i ta
poade
haina
Petralca
acelagi
i;
dar
1,, li.orrrr, ctlnuna tls lanf
de
a
devcni
o{erta,
repctat;r,
Itc{uzl
auster:itelii'
a
ru)r'ur[].r1:t
si,rrrt:ii: papal ;i, entllziasmat de incercarca lui Cola cLi
iiicnzo clc a lntemtia cir nou irrlpclit rorlran ir:' pcirin;una
I'r;r1ir:i, ii stigfiratizcazir pe seniorii Italici; <1ar acccptir cspl'
sii

t1,

r'irr.i

r,

1,,'r't. litLtii.r.lr

r.;L:

t:rlitatca accito,r scnic'ri' Cautir,;i crialtir soliiuilinc;r; ('lar a


fc.,sl urr tinirl cicgantl si cste urr adnlt 'mo.lern, oln aci.il',
cil l"r1isiu1]i tiiirlcrlatic'-r (ambasaiior l:r tr'ilig:r iu n356;'i
X1 l.'rir.is 1;l 13 1). DLrlLlitiLtca suf lctllf ii siril csle inli!i;ai5,
tn $ecretum in clispr.r'i;r di:Lrlrc SJittnl Ai:gusLin 5i poct, cl*
{:rfl intr.c trndirrlelr tlir.crgcntc a1r sl,jril'u1iri .sihu. sfir:ltiln.
A',rgu:.li]:t ii rr:ploir:rzii iu pl-ilnul rinil ir-rlrjlcLr' plrltrlr failir'l
prntru L:ruln ii l'rcc ril cirnt' cr
1i irlirtnr .X.,alia. l-'rragostca
,l.cri,.i,,* lrr.rstr-iL; f .1i.qij i1 ionvingc iu:iir clt ziriiirlnitilL cr:1r'f
lrirmintr'1t i.

cirliLtolcasciL pcntr:u a irrli.lnj a)anlarn;


cl cstc iir-<ir. in acllasi iilill',;
clasicc;
ir-rr-irlali gi rnlttttsc.r'i:c
noi 5i al irtbogirlirii pri'Lrllor
olizonluli
cl,)r'trl
clu
hrlpins;i

Iirud,itul:iir

L)11|litir

sr'L

e.'il)cricn1.c. truilc 1332*-13Ii3 flcc pliuia citiirtrll'i:


iic rr:ii lungit dtrratiL, r'izitind trranla, I'lardra si flcnnani;r,
tntr',o scrii{)itrc cill.l'i:r fliovanni Colonna, in trii33, sltLnc e i''r
a {irc1t 6i111"1{oli;r irr l:ur rll'r. llin dolin!r clc a' crtrtolt-rtc; c;i :r
slr:dia-t cu itrtt't*':; lrl,ir r ittl il(' l()( llitoliiol :ri s-lt lritt ttrat sii
\"ac!.;r o !ariL rtti:tttltt:,r. ttti. irt Scriso:lt'la clitrc po5tcritnfe
afir.ml cliu nOu cfi 1,li Lr:t:rt' t.l itt tlr'litil;r r it llt :t r llll(rj '1."
{t'ern tatttc;I ctt'tl:(r ttttl. tttttllLr i'itlr tttli ttt'l 'v "'' :ltrrii't;:t)t-

pliilol

nubitot tlc nlitttl'i, tl t':;tt'tt'll:;irlt't;tt rttlrrl rlillili (r'i {lilliil


a1piili;ti ai Drri-o|i,i- l)rrrrtc r:i.i. :;irrl lriPt'll,r,lizirit' rliliL Lrlt.ll .
t;ttt 1i \{r1l)t'-1
f trc asccnsirrLrii 1rt'trtttltl.r'lt' \'t'tt{ott\, (l.L':l)l{
'ut bir.tr'lu ciolrrrit pr,t'tttlrti ;i l|lrtIlrri:;irt (li I'lltrlt' ittltllLlr' r..,

; clir r clt clisLrltt.


Cincl poctul {acc clogir-rl sit'tgLrlilS!ii {De vita s0lilaria}r
ii sribliniazir, in:Ln-titczir' cu aglolrrerii!ia cilr{ini"L. ar-li,lt'i;:'
jtLi,. IicLragcrca p,lsupll1lc lini]lc, iiLrcitalc, cttlitii'nii'., i:r,f

rlcitl-ii.L sir porut'lrrciL [;L tlrLttn

1 inli:-o Scr'isoat't cii'.rc {r'lte1.: s:"Llt nltrilrlt.;i,-' .:i lju


{.i:rrr'.'jt Ir. lil. lll t 1l:..'.il Yt:titnt ittltr;-t,

$ * Lircrrrril

unLr':5ii1!1s.r

5i rcna;rcrii, r'o1

L.

.--

-.-',-

v'iata 1a o{il; *.-- rgii:ef ic, convcntii, rnrrrrlirr_ie.


Il aliir in
izola r r t--'*tli i i i i'a, i pri ci *ice c. rro,r
;i,-,,,i i. Si-rr i rri rri n ca 11,.,,r-i ti
estc ;rctiv;"r. ;i nu irur- contr:ntplatir.i-r., *slc
a.cj;1(ionric;[ ;i nit
asceticir. .lli-lti-:r,gcr.cit sa la \rlLuclusc il.scenrnil,
bucuria ?n
mijlocLr I lrirrt'tsctii *trtur:ii si a.tivii..tc
rnr-'ril;rlii
in stur].iu ;i e rcaiic; ai,.ri c,.,trccpc, yi in lrrirc plrteintc'sii *
compnne
opclclc sah: mli irnporl;rn1r.. p,.ir.ril.:a g,i:;t,,stt:
in singnritlrte
nu contiirii.lc tircct-ii, i. pr ,r lc ,I.i,ri,,,;ulLrl:
cn a.nticii. ,,Aspi_
r:a!iilc iltori.r.lta,Jc;tli: "e
lrri []ctl.urc-1.t. liu sirrt,l,,,]r"rt" ric alo
lui
Ital"r*l;Lis rrtl
r:jsirrrl

r.:trlt,Jrr-;1,,,;r.Jrllrr.c,,1.c.1.h,:,li:,trc.,t"

l\:tr;tr.t.;t tlsic i.o;rsirLi:r.lri.


1ll_irrrul tttltic.r:fnta.ttt al cnltulii
U_rnltlir;io. .l ),' 'llil'(.i l):)r,Llll
1rir.r,lr crirrslirr]t. (lC irccst nrcr:it al
siru; irti.r-t.r scr-isriar-c ciitl.c Il()c(.,ilr,,,i,r',,J ,1r,,,,,_,t:
,,pe una. clin
laurLe.lc talc rrrr c rrr.cpin-q.: r:ii, <1lrtor_i1ir.
,,liir,li, i urclr., sc aflii
astiizi, irr ].lalia si in st.r:ilirr;itatc, nrull.i
r.:lr.r,s,lru apucat sii

cultir,c:r.r.:.s.c sl..Lrdii

ti'tp

tlc ittitca, sr:c.1. rli:lrIs;rtc;

tlcviir, cu sint, J)oatc, ccl ciintii dinh.c toti r.ci ii i,ttr,_acc lu<:rcazil,
a,culn itr trclr;ic slur.lii,,. C:iutilto::
1;esir_ltrrt rlc martuscr.ise
;rrrticc, lri) c.ll1j le str_rtlirzij, lc rccoii,qtittric,
lc copiazii, in
scrisorite carre rnde
;i frieteni li
::],:,:,:l.l::.].1'1.,,1.',..,1,"r.,i
(]-Ou;t (ll{( til-iilr-t ;lir. j,ri (
i,.Crrr.

lrrricrr,
" .. 1llt,r,t
J,rilrliolt:cr'i,

t'rlnnir;t

r.nrnus(.r.iri(,,

;rJr.;-i

t.rrirrrl :rsifirl o

r.c:rlriii. l)(,r)tr.lr ur,11l tiruP, in g11-s 11g


cxist:irrr i'sii, r'ir.1 i tlt: tlr.c't si cli: Iilrrz,l.ic
s,:'lnsticit. Celc urai
lttult(r cr-;rrr o|ti-r\ irlc aitlichiti,.l.ii. IJc clc c.sl_c
Lritrunsi ginrli'Tit's
tl:.] 1)oitrl lu i. ,\ir1.orii plclcrati sinl f.icg1.1.!, \'crgilins,
Ljvius. jji sill ;i sLu..sclc sale pri:rcipllc rlc inspiratic.
Cclc
r.r,n.t;l

l2

cgl,rgc

din Ilucolicufi carmen irnit;i Lircoli,,,ric l,,i


\.cr.gil

.Iius, iro<:urrrl clric Afr!ca iinitir Eneida

ii cor.tstr.uiccte subicc_
lui llitLrs ivius;i alc lui (-ticcr.o (Visul lui
$cipio); Despre b{rbali irugtri
'
sc irrrr-'rc,.zii. eli* 'r-itus
l-ivi's fi arc ca m.dcl vietire paralere aro ]ui L)rutarh.
De
ta antitt:i iuval.j, Ilc,trari::r ;i pror:ctlcrrl eliaL r,guL.ri,
practicat
t.l .i'

<lirtc'lc

-p*rh'u lr ci.ita, crllrn jrpune "I.Lrtrii.us lCiccrol u)i ,..,irn'pr", .1.,s


,itt 1st1 (r:l1t't sl)lls), (iit ti)t.t:i,>;i 1tcni.ru a,,.,,,,ti,-,,t.,",a sii plt_i a
sc dc;[i:;rrra iu1-rc pcrrsoarrc prczclt,:... ..\c.:'si rrrocl
dc a scr:ic,
I-arn irir,iiliit rlc Ia Cliccr"o a.l rnen i iar. ci, I;r l.iltclnl
siru, iI
rle Iir I'larou" *- nrrir-tur jsr,;{.r-_r l:,cirrLrc:r
in Semeto,tr.

:::i:::

ili.r ., rr, ltltntr+ ,:i J,,.it,,t, r..,i,,,r1.


,t
^, _t.,i. l.,.llflli-;l
rt),[!;::,
1.:rtt.,t iiiut.,rtrrr,i d],i\U,-i.r1,.,,

irr.

1,r;;7,

[,XT/I

St:r

i.ilot'i

p. l?t,

'l

r , r{,'r,r.i lrr' ;rri.tit:i itr:spriiinul alirrllaf iilr-'1':;llc ctt gnstrrtr


r!,l,,,,rrlur l)\'lli.rlt ityJicar-.ea izvoarc[or,
,'\rrlr, lril:r{r'lt, mai itlcs latinir, ;i oanlcnii ei sill cvocafi
irr ,, r ir,or ilc in liln1>;r trlrlinir, ca 1i irr vcrsLirilc: itiilit:ltcstii
r,,1 lr,riirrl IirLinrci ilin Tritrmttlri tlcvinc prilcjul *rtunlci;"trii
plc]r'ritc <1c l)rtr:arcl'
l'( r,()nirIitit{ilor- r-uilitarc ;i culturale
clt iirlrttltarc a
pt:ezentir,
fiinlir
capiriir;i
lal.iri
:;r.r.iitor-ii
l)rrr
rrrrci t'tiL:i rrtuiairrr.rpi:rtctlr:poctclccilceancottlt'ttlpriLanilor;
rlr' ;rr Ir';r li sc arli't,,r','azih. iliri:ct, in clristolc ;i scIit', cll' Llll(r{
sau (]rrirLlililt11l15' ;\cvoilL l)trrnlil1rr iIlcrri, lrr i L'itcro, Sclicca
rrr.rrlli :r rrtotle,rlltlLti clasic ii fiicc sir clca altc 1]l1l'llc Lllloi:il tlitrtle
pr ir'It'tti, citrot'lt lc sllrltttt, Socratt, I-ac]ilrs, Sirlrotit'itl'
irr lrolitllt sbrilrlLriniclof sxic do a inviLi:r lirnlr;r' 1't'lriii:clt
si' i1]lLrrfrrrr ',1i.'
1,ui,:t c:iii gt-cco1ic. I,'r:o!rrilr litlratura 3.,rcltrii
,;,rl
1.r'ttrlLrctlt'ta lLii lloltrcr in liinb:r' llLtiltit, llt' Fl''-il'gtif;t;
rl,irli';r s;l:r [.trr:i jrrtlicirlrsc. $tia cir Arislotci tslc clcforurlrl <lc
pLr!in tt":r'illrror':rttilt, rtrr<,t:t cLinLre cornctttaLrlli' I)c I''[lti.ilr'
,i.,, , i,t lirrri,,r lltirtir, il crlnoaltc plin Cictrro ;i SiiutLrl '\ugLtslin. l',r.lttl;ttt iitt t'-'tl,,tr"lili'rf'c 1lr:inLii ()jllllclli di: ctlltLri:i"r
r,rr, , l.r ;lit';ittrl t'r ttlrti rni:tlitt, i;i cxlllirnir t-t'zerrt'l" crt Plir irt' l;r ,'\r'ist.r,1i l ;i o atlllriralic nrai lnarc leliL rlc PlaLotr;
r,irrri,r ii:;i irrllrrrtii trttclrpil-o1 tlir-rCdr!i aletirptelof ileseattrd"
l'r1r r.1( ( l'liil1 rrltll ltlttt;tl(', ciL 1i in Iiri:a -sl croticir' [)*Ir.rr,,r' 1,1,,,,f11'lilllllllrlrrtoltizlttttltIr'rt'tLlrli-iirrt'ttt'lilcrtlc'
( iliL: lltl sc ittlii
.,,,r1;r ,lri ,r rr l( l,rlirr'i " \" r rli lrtliil.ir"
I

1[1' 1l1rli[r'ttrtirt,r ttir t,,,l rl r. ,t 'lt rlr'1 ltr r{ lltl"t ' r' ttl] lrlllli( ilt
t['i
trllrit'r'ilrL
lrrlrr'lr'.1"'i
(ttl'rrll"rlIrlr'
't
r..t
.r
trrlii, t;, lltlc
lrli
rrrr i(i
tltt rlL l)lt (r'rlt"rt{'t'
1,,,,t,,' ,lr 1ittl, \(,llirr',
rlirt;rtilrLi;i
rl'
trrlt'l'1
l,,lrt.rr,
1rr'\l(llllrrl
:.,lirr ,,,l,r,rr,rl
tittl'ttlL:;Lt1
t,,,,,,,, ,,,, rl,,,rr ,l, lllrlll 1 r'trrttltti, r'i rri ;tltttvlt'
circi
r'1i.rl r. rl.tt I llt'l II" i lttlti rl' 1r;1ltt" s( \il lltt:c lrniftc'
cur-iu'
c:ttltzanla
trlttrittt:L
i-:r
tlit1;i
rl,r, .r r,l,i.'tttr irrl.r tli r1'rrtt i
tl cttntlltlltlIirlili, llrllrl itt r'rttr'r't-'rllcitc] r'a c1o!et'1i ciL ttu irLc
Impolliva ai:cstrri spccii
.r.o utlcvtiilLt.ii:r l,lric'::lttlui clclinit'
clc iniilil
tli: oatttctli:rt.it. tl. plitrlicos t1e supr:L'Iicilrli 1;i aiiL
**
ntir:ri':itikrr-'
l)c
strigi:
siL
tlilcpl
iirt.cligJt:tti, c,stc
.cr-"
,,r,,rt.i;i in g,,t;i r:ii t:utrsttinal-i intelig-.cLrfa in zailarnir:c stih-

ilr
tiiitirfi? lJc cc, 11itiiril rualitat"rn lur:ruriiIr., ir,.rbiLtIinili r1r:
itir
iLrr':ref
nir'tta
f
rLi1r.li
pirlrl
ri,
cn
nijlocul ctlvinLt:1i-rt',
zbircitut'i, r-i ocLipali d,t- iulp!ii coPil:rrcltii" spLiu'r Siinlu{
AngrLstit in Sect*tritn"

L.\

\',r r

;:irirrl,rtii reo.litriji.le gi r'a c'irvin{-e1c" l-.}e o,:cce


si nu ci :,utoritatc ii dctcrmir.ri, clnviugclile. ,,iI*
igaoi: cr,r::r, cl spun dcspie acest 1uiri,l ,\ristcr;cl .ii ialliir|lr,
dar airt,rr:it:ri6n {ii51:ofjli:r nn irnpieillii ji.ber'calc:r tic a jucXer:a."El. a.drtite cil ."Ar."is'ictr:l a Jost iin f,.-it rrrarc.,ji a itr::.1.e
gt,ir.lcr, tl:rr c:"r a L,rs: irn crn ;i, clcci, c:rlJ. cii a ;i pri.ill
*lrui
ig*ole rci': yi cliiri:i: n;ultc.
sp,l.i.e rn;ri m-.rit. iiitcL i:.:i
l:;giiihii.c c,.ri. ct n'.i :.i:-ii ;rtit pii,:tini .;i;,.icvilirl',ri, cii ili;:io
a'. 11 r .
Lrit'a]'itf.;t llil li,r,'i i.ti, i.1 lii crli't'irra,:i r"'. ltici .-illiij j] Siir-.tr1Lri ,\rr1;rr,.;t.itr, ilt lr')ii,l,t :t,iirtr:ii 1ri'i'1r;i; i lr. r3.fc i-l; 1:tr;,ir:tii.;
a'ciri:,:ri, ril I;ildi,irrtL'r'rn'r:trlrirt lrrrct,li';ii ir ]i'-it..r, irl:i VcigiJiirs
Ca pc o lriir.r\,-il:1tjti.r l sr,lir'Li lttj..[[r: isl-,:1.
S,.,.n.i-jirltiiliii i-,:l:r_iir,itit.!ii nn est{-},,irleiiic c,,"rilui:tir,,l,i',r
dl]g.'rlr:li-,lf . ci ritt.ari i'r:c i-loi c:-i.re, in cl=ii l-rit-il.e salc-', lilr'r:'iic*Nr:
$rrobal)ilili'tiie. l)i:''''.riiltr1 t1c:ipic Lrr,--rL.rlin.ic1c:cii""uriir'tii,
Fclrai:ci:,Iunc cii lr:-lr lrat:rt, r-ril ca lu[.]'ir1 c:ir:c.,-::ci,;ii" ltr
clc-ii;lr:-:cil, ci clr. inr. {}t ca.i:c inlci.t.;tc "ir Lc clrlr:'rineze :l:iL
3e st"iidi,:.zrt'.,,{lii.ci rlriilitia, c sp:ciii,.:X..irri:r:icpi:riiLri, irr cn
mr:,ii:t;:!ci iitfr-ir:}li., ititi lirlolti:it {la ilitttl*pciirri:il; ci. !rix si
int-i-Olruirilr'z r':.:trrr.,i;r lrri ('i{rar(),,.::iill I,rrrIfr-:,l,ritiir-::i-l-rii.
F,:l-::;l',:::i,

r, ,, I i,'il; l):ir| ciai{)nr,ro:l [,ar-rrci, paste veaicllf i, in vcl''r:rl l,rr ();Lrilucci, sugcrirt,J fruntilstrf,:;i, c1;rr'ne;rr-tcizii:t1

rii-li'ililcir,

r .'rltttrtl:

;. t i;t l:rc!t i.r(,.!.stte-i .ilut'ttrti'e


Irt i ir le att.t' vetiivsfi/, itc soiiltt:'i
1tr' .sll., cllnulti ilr. lt'ando'ji'ri cti:iitti..,.x

.-:,1,

tr

ri irr [,lrirl Fo*tu1 contcmplit frtti:,losii1. ,,InrliriilLrl nu


, ii,r ir)r:ai: c:;isbii grltrl. in lini;tc:L ir,cciNstil a inf:-l1i;ir:ii,
irr ;1,rrirl"rllLtl:r {ortnc.i.. iricalu1 fcmini:.r estc lnctr. rlunlcz;iesc,
rl, ;r::rrPllr 1i:tsiunik:r, in :r{ara intfunpiir"iior, ncatins de rrli; , i;r rrii nrinr'i:ra:jcil:" de iicoea, Sclie .n-)r Sanlli.s, ezl c'stc o
;:r rlri, , rrir {,slc ?nri;, c, {t-mric". irl setilir,rnttLtr,,{orluc{or: frr' ,r(iir:i{', all fci-n,:ii fntmoiitii;i al nai:r.rii {itmo:rsc, lillr dc
r rir r, trrllrtirL':rrc': ;Lllaier aspiraJia. ciitr* fet"ilirca unl:in[
rl.r,l,irrrii(i pr itr conter.pla.rea flutliLsliii. J."rnilusclea nn
rrrr i r, ,l! , ( ii Iil ! )t;rrIr', simliol; ,,elibcr:alii clc sitnbol, se ::!.irnri,
ril r.:r rr rr.i. :;ttlr:r1 ii1)li.tl:l . libr-'rii., iol1i'pcntlolctiLl."FilozoJia
r r ,1r,., : 1r,L irrlLri iiri. 1,lr-i l:r-ic plaltrricir, ollsar"',-;i pr cllt'pt
r irrl (1. ('riiiircsr ll,
f',,r'l rr l rlr si' 1rl;11,l itrtiriit tt clu {-1i-'sljilrl] :'t-tlt ' ,.tr'l '.'il* fttple"

"11-r

tl,ait r'tt rri"rl-('l(;i' (ilttt:,li!:; :;;t,;1

1ti:i1;11

,:, ).

l-i;i,:r 1'r'i1,'1, ir:.i:i.;r1r.rlti;t.rsi r':r iitii'i r,piiLrj,,[l triti;r:i!;it.


l,tir;r-',i,1 ,lir i'r',rlir ,l1r p.rr-tziL:i t:l-o1.lcr', trr-il\-eit:,irli-. si jLitjie;:c,
c:r ririu,.':. iiLrr:i i tr-r'.':lq::inili i:ii. '\(i::r-t'.-:r:i irttlrici iil,c::iii'i url
sulrlj;riat i.r1-trri i:ii i.:tt'.ra na tri.ti it:rr't,r i:i,L-tu;-;l .r-rB-l-. , -;
o t:::.lt-rrr,: llfczrii.iir,..,\.i'illn:ltiil csi-e inirirr:itr-a in'etlicil.Lui iir
lx;suri" i-rl crre c,Ilrp3"iit1n iirica. 1.;r-'ir-ltr:LIri>li, i]i cc;::, i-.illaiid),iri, iliii.i crr :-re:inrii ctt Foezia cl.olct'::tilloi'istI slit rliiinc:c5.
Frnl:1a iuLrrlir. :ri-r mai irstc ex:lli.ili:r. o:r gir:rbs.;1 ; t-jte {l
fiin;L c:irr:e care sc irrdrcrirt:i clcnrl li,:liirtl si n,: cat'r', rLri;lir
morr:ti:, o l:ci-onsiitli i* inch ipuirea. -,\rc o r:ristenfi concr:etii. ;
$iluetii ci sc clcser:r-'rzi, pe trunchiui unui copac; tr.npul. ci e
fir.lr'. bnclclc blr:n.-lc, or:hii adinci cu privirctr c1ulcc ;i ser,-;r'rii,
obr..a-::ul ii e uucori iur-bujor:rt Lra- pal'a, ;r.:rlna ei e al.bei. .lltJ*i,
prcrlr:milir insl iu tl.,.r:crierera ci epiietr: coltvcnl-ionitic, cL;-rc
nu zugrivrrsc rin pcrtrct prognant, ci, nrai clciy:rb;i, er-,+-li
existenta f i'rr,rnuse'l.ii fcminitrc, a f rrirlosului: ,,loldlll11114os",
,,sinuI ingcrcsc", ii.unrosr-rl viL1", ,,atit dc flumoasi"l, o lirri"
.,l'I,-.a,rtr:r fi;,r^ca IiriinoiLs.l f c ch;puI ci ii:rimos". -ccnrnii'ireti';i

TXVIII

rr ; itr tr1",': ,,', lrt tn0l'lt: i.'it tt tiit;":., o'.1:io:? tiailt{1t:rl


.t .t t;1,, , I ,t:t r,!, ,1 ttti ritn;t' {:tl( l'it, t It -it:i t;c
itt,rl I't ir,r:r :r1 tr,1;l rllrl Rilttt'- -CCLXXIl
.,1't/t . \ ll.r!rr ri ,
(r . t, .11 l
;r'rrlrlr r I irl,lttti.r rtt,'li, trl ll, rr tii ir-r'l<'rsllrilr
ttl ;r l)lllr, rl)itl,r,r 11 l|ll lrri l',1lllt'r::1"
lir,rl,rrlr i r',rtr r"
), )
l. ,

I
I

I't, rlll lr;l r rl, ;rr,1 1,; 'r rtl lrltltt;tll, lll ;rl rr''.irit it'i (^.t\rri,r
t,,;,) /,, , /,,, r ' t ,, tt; t,,, L\ltt t,.' t,'!,, itt lt;'l .s;'111 ,,."/
rirrr '!r'irtnrlul ritlrrittrlii, rr ,. r, lrrr 1l .l ti'i,tii 1)r-azcl'lt. tfcr 1..i rrr1,'r.
Ii ;r r |()i' l,lr itir.lritxttil Lanf i'i eiisl,illtic in nr.t;lltt:
: r rJ rr;ri : 'rrirt. l.:r [i ;ror:i1ii i318, hl 1'ri'11]r)1 ciiirllci' l,l;.rr:t
liii(,ir'l( j11 11r;1i';1rr't tl.l3lirrriL cilntP.litil pii'r'1i 1ii'irtcli ai 1r-ti
.lL'. LllLr.r:it, inr cortir-illrtal'Nx i)1..ntal:i {ll sJir)j:tlll ir:rp1iLil1.rit
i1 :rgr.rtlui.r pf il{ret, }rlpir-'r:t1c gtlslul trtlitlu I r;lfl dc Jrlill
l.r:..r ar.litL':i'lte in ir'li'::'.it'itltc. St"rilc:l tlr- iii)iri1 il':trr':lli;t;-rtir
(r':it.:vi!tili,g.-! ,b: E';i:rg'aal, ti:r.{l^ <lr' lllll'.lrLl l-ir,liri'"iu. irt
Edti-';ll;r 1)illtfll ]iLl'i'litill:'l {-llilt'l .lll,, l:)ijtr.
: tr.r;r.ntcsto .n-!l Strnr:l.is, o|, a1;., 11. i3i.tli.
1

,I{1,.r'lt';.t c:lr.s,:',

r.[i,i;ii.. l"

l]i]S"
-!-:- \ i- !

de scutiurentrle pcntrn L:lura sc schimbii. lla. nu rnai

cs1,e

jlor lilrpuL-ri, ;i nici iubirca lui nu mai cunoayte ::birt*rilc i-trcr:intci, sper:antei, dcznidejclii. Por.zir,

supusir, rixvagi

c scrlirl si pcntru c,i nu nr-;...i


hlptc iirnp,:t;'ivii-ei, nu rlai cstc olrserlat clc teat:t:.1,
si nir,:i los rlc rcrrru;cirrj. ,\utinttmi:r clint.re 11rr.r.gostca Ini pi:litlrr .[.atrra si r;orrvingcrcrt 1-rii,catului ttir-ccusc
lrccli: stiir:i r-lc sj:irit t:r:ntr;r,,lictorii, calc sc c-spriurit in gustui
peritru lln-tittzt, si a cirror analizii prosupurlc cc,t-tscll:tnitt:i.ril,
coc-risti:rrti:i lr ,1,ruir, r'orts{iintc iog-ir: inconr;lilibilc (a evu ir,- i
rrtctl-irl r;i. ir, (lrtri lltr)(lr'r-ttt:) rl.,:ci, l)r':r( ii.'1.1'lrit'ittl11strlrti. (r', i1
sonctltl CXXXII) t. l)octltl st: sittll.t-r rnr i liirr:r, 1rr.:ttttu cL
I-aura, ilcrlrlt {) lrlistitrrirc:r. inclriprrir-ii lrri, ii irpa.r'fine rl;r.i
nu lt eil nir,- ioilllir. Jia, se af lil in u uiclr. r'clr l i t u tc l)c ca rc poltLrl
crctlc cii. o stiirpirtc.tle pc rlclriin: a. imagil;.i,1 it'i. J,Lirrrclr vistiril{}t:
si irrriii'rtirilr;r arc o l;lindii nostrLlgic!.
Ca or"'ice pl;.r.tonizrnt, cl;tie cil pl.iisnrrririlc art,r:i Iui sini
,,clllrr Lrrnbr-ir. si aplrcntii" ;i tristclca Lrarc dccut'gc ric liir.;i
abeituir:;tc ,.lon.tl',rl or:ig-irr;rl si noilerrr a,l poczici pctrarcl]rrsti.
Jrillginca sc nr;tc tristir., (lcolr{rcc se trrslc cu constiinta, ':;1,
c irlrriginl, s;i tlr lti,'ru; r[;tr rltrri'r'clr, ;rt:cstci corrstijntc cslt:
'trllirril;'t,rl,i)llcct,r'lri:lrrl:,r'l'r,tlrlxislii. lttc'rtrl,orir;1.ir irtlrginc:il,
lui, si irlr rs;{rr nt)sy)lrs tlc Irnrttt.rrsii". I)c;rici sc uastc,,,aceI

dobin,lc;ic urtrca.lrtt clegiao. Poct.ul

trcl-rrr.jc sil
pirca,t.r.ih.ri

(dltlrr!r-il,ll1;.I r

r trtiltt iL tllollttculiu"li,

Vcrsurilc Jni l:)ctrar:c:t, alcirtuicsc pctczirr tlc clra.goste a


rlnui rrrr;i'a.li:;t. lilc nri rliru e.sltrr:sic spcrtrianil st:ntinrentt:lcr
sil.ic l)clrtnr J,rtitrn, ci, rtrili tlcglab,i, c()rls{,'nrncitzi rt:llec!iiit:
salc i[-{up] 4, rtccsttir sLrlttiineltlc, tisirprir, stirri Ior srrllclc,';'l-i
I l-ttt'lrlcjr isnrnl vrr inscnttvL nrarl iilziu jocul :,;rtrrant r-l .i-,rlr.-rtrrlui e.rcijrt, ()u t:{r1-,r'r'i(jil si atrl.itcza, joc lilrsit insrir dt- sirir:r.ritilL(ril si1]rt ilii, <lt'r'r'rii1. elci.:i rttrtrii:ri. l.)c :rlt.lcI lr.'torjt:ll,
ciccr,tni;r.nii., cliscclr stilttoviste si 1r-ni;arhut'sti, cj)itrlirrtr

c()t)vcrn1:i()niri,si aburttlc'ri1;r tlr: autil-czc cl:iticart u1r(',r'i si 1r,r,'-

zit.:i iui l)rr1r:rr:a r) Iio'L:r, dc nr'1iliciu,,,L)trret:i1r lrti .l'ttr;lr.,r


si1r1: Lra lintirilc tlirt llr'tna.;i i-rfiu. Apa c atlur,iirai.;i si t,irrr-r
rccc si i-r.rrtrnlt-olrsli, <lt: l:r rtri.rtrtc, l)al, cl.ptat-ri in lpr.clucto,

l:u-i Lisati, sri. sc pnivai,lla.st-:ir rlccit pc jghcai)uri, ci-n clrse:irr'e


art;liriirlc srlu sit 1isttclsr:i iu srts prin tnri dislrrtstr :,('()lr1(iLr-ic
i.l.c ,lririi..r,.:t si in j'ruur-i tlt'nairtlc cltlculnl.e" (C;. ('iiincs, n,
Jlctt'trt't* Ii Pt/i,r.u't:lt.i.sittriI, itt Sa:'iitori sit,riitti, p. l6-1).
I l_)lr.r. 1lici ltcurn e I nr1 si: poatc ljnsi rle {r)l'ilt1. si c,)l), tt Ctl.l{,'.\i./-Y, uItilrrr,rI vcr:s)
i:itrr,ii;ri: t.'. ]iiltc, ('1r1,.'f
's,
: l:'1;lll(:Lrsco f..!;
'3P. cit., irP. ii09- ii10.
.

LX.X

r riirl, iu ciut' c,,'lc sc lnt1ir,l.ci. I'i.:cc {1Lrci-tra{.ic L sl"iir-iiu.r


,1. .rrtl.lL,'t.i ;i oricc rttottlclll:rl zilci etslo tlttrttt sil iic,:tlr! , , il l ..r rtot.rrt-" Itttr:t.rspccliir 9i autc:tnttIi:r|l 1)f i'sllDli11 r{ist,, tr l l'r'llLru oln, al,ilt cttm estc el, si p1c" 931r:sc t) rrlctriitiLlllte
al 'tl,t

I ).ur1(' l)l()Lri1 ,.<1c l.:r rtrt trtoLLtl 1{r-'tti:ta1 cii.t't.ti:t olrlrtl :tl t l'*l,rrr r.i r s(. sllJ)nllii, ;i, in lLrrnilttt ltccsfuitl olrstLt'll ltiL:;rlltre
' r r trrlilc itrtlir-itlriitic. :li o ttluLr-)d;.-l itt cllrtl ntt llt'+ lut:

r.l'.

.lttll, it".l

I'ri,ligrrrirril inclinlj,iilc nr'lmli)tilor liert:tsti'r'ii,

l'*lrrt1'tra"
1,,,1,r';r,-tc irsllpra plotti:ici saio itinti cLt iiliii:r-rlca irlirt.rsP,-'rrlici"
'.,i,1,'.jrtilc, intlriiclilc si srrIcr-in1-it c1t:r'in obitcti: cJc cct-cirtrtt'*;

rrr r'(;rlisrrr Psilrologii.: c:i|rirnlt il-l ProcLr(Lrt'stilisticr.: ir':lttriI r1,u r1,.. Ltt lrrra Iui Scucca .;i a -scr icr-ilcr irlttristicc i1 f,rrrtrt-t:r,r I,,.ll1lu ()l)strvatiir irsiJrr-rlogitri. []rirt Scrisoarea citfe po!It r illtc, Se cretum, col-iitspoll(1ollt;i si clti:tr' 1)o('ziil sl liri(
l',,1r rli;r cr-ir llrt l)rccLlrsor al ljtclatirlii 1)l()(lilrll{l i1i: c,.rtlfr::siil rr,., ;r l l rr rl i tt i lo t' ltrt loiriogrlt] icc )i. c1o cxil ll){'ll tltoI'a l.
,,Irr ,r, ' rrr;li oPr'1;"q ;rrralilic-psilrrtlo{ir-:i"t-, rt'itliL.lr.tt;t. st lLiirlil
I r ,rr r.r,rrl linrlr,'r[,' si rlirett.ii, iilrclir.ti. tlir 111113 ct!rrr:ilc irt
r rr1. r,. li;i:ri:,t' irrvilrriti 1ri:ri. lr-:tittL. Jcsittt, in sIit-;;it, r.ii;l
rrrrlrrr r, rlirr :,irrrl,,rlrr,-i, lliir ;rlrstr::tcJ:itttrilc tcrtlogici-' 1i sioI r Ir,, r rr, ,rllrrrrr itr 1'lirtii Irrntirri, itr 1t'tttPl111 t--ort.'.irtttl:i
1").,

ltrr .r'ril.r!
irtli't'1ttrll,'iittt-c
ilillti,
,,lrr [, l1 lr, .1r lrnr Il.rIrl,
r,t,t ..t il,,r ',lllr,lrl
1,1r11
,1, rrt 't rlr I lrll r,tlrl lll,'
lrt,r)(lll,rrrl'
ttl'lt, rl,l.t
litl, r, rrl lrtt
irrr l', lr rL,,r
rill, lrrlrrr ,,[], [, , .r I ,l t 1 tl lll lL lJ.rr l, rz.r 1rr' ,rttl tl,' lll t:lr l, [i,, rr ,1, .r ! r r, lrr, lrr Lt irtllr',r :i;1, lt|;lt'i ltt iltt,,:llillt],i1ij."
r

l.,l r ,1,. .r\, ri,,r.1r ,,rr' .( r)i lll);rll rlc r,ltiirrit'li tt.rirll'ji .i ,rir'
. i\.ril 1,,il,)nr ilr Jr'r'\l, rio:rr'(l;r::iti,S|rilt i)ltt'itrt'a,clrlllrrilr,S
li liililvii::it,l"
.Lirrrr.rlrrlr'l,rr rlr':P1i't[it't't-sc vir'ttlilrl;tr.t,,;ttr ;rr li rk: rrir'i rrrt lolos r,it'iii 1tr-ici1r.:" (Despre pr0plia filea
iqrrorantd cit 9i a nlultor altora). I)i::tjr:i ;i rc/.r\'()lf :ii,ic
r,r r ,i rLu nrrdicirrii ca ir rtit, rtli,raalllic:r ce ctiallr i1)t'il;,:it .ll'.1 til:;-i
{ r irl,ir I si igli()r:i :rtrilitrrl.

r J.1I. U'lritI)'.:1r1 , PtIrrvtn t'iI .fiit:rrsL'irtartt,','lt:ailit::: rliic


(ia1>occi, li:rri. itll9, p. Stt.
tir Iult'rrtirra
j lrilitci.'scLr .lJi: Sarrr-:tis, oP. cil., p. iitil"

I-),rrlllll rl,l lnltlcrr rii-rl.,rtcre yi, i,)l: .tll i-L,tr::,tn , dLr ;t:fit;it.i,.jr:ara
a ;riri'-'iolti ',:ti,t;: lsc, i;i.': srilcrtl'liiatd. !1 ,:rti crii.r:i i'," ar]ii;,i";i;
ir': scrrcrii ltriici ii- l:l:1,::linnir c-Lit:e ir:(iunc, Lii:.t"c {lili_ir
i:unli,"'llclLil e;uiiij,:i:i 1i cuiii-rr:ii :liiit :t:,li.:::lIur.-i,:i:i]:i':r iltr:rtoltr:i., ci;ti1rr:ii brt;r.:i L.i:ri:ii. ,,Dc l:r, .r;.ll','.ti-i1., (li: lrir lli-;'_i,.1
'
:1,:l .r:ii cl scbrir:later lri-r ii.in c,Jr:ilr rr.ii.ct'i,,,
'le,:i; li:i ,:1,-..r r,l l-:lll,1''
(,,.) .,1-rl::.ir:u i."ijitii:ti!, ;i ii.i,l p,:11i.', ,.r.L,ri'L. -i:r.i:-1.1 ,ti";,.lit li

'

{Bespre Src[lria !fi,ra igrlrofec{d"..}.


iiiica rr1;;1i;t:i,ll. r, liti lii-rLli...

.:..11 ,1,; rf i1e,r;l .l: .:l,.rj..rr.i,:-r.


tilcr-lltvllll; r.i, r','iirjt,il,tr.ic r:."ili,tri{;t'i.,.,1: it.:t'1litl1itltae iiiij U.'1ji
clil:r',:iini.c. \:tlrii lJ:,i.nli,:lril-ifii lli,r,;ri giiriiil.,:,-r, i:ir_,ir.,_r*
t.ir:i1r lc i:it.,rici,:-rc iil. ,,',, l,rt::-,t -:r.r,: r:,.',.1c l),rcirlr-,..j;t.
ntrr't;:aLca r;ispiln'.1,:a ccl,-ir r:c ii r-,-"1_:;.-.rr.r,i-iir, cir, ji ll i.ril;:;it.,,:
ilc.il.ccfii Cre"r'il11s t'l.tlli tigu pli;iil" rrl:rirr;ii:r,.-.,:.riiili -\i:.il;lir.,
i *': it s l-ea i i.n'L rliil il l.l ., ti,riu i',-r l- u11itlal i,.-r r'd.
1l-'.i pui,i:r"rii,,: C,:,.:i.i l);trarca nr&rallt,r,,:d liir;ii.111 lri::r-.tlu,.il
li.rccr"tticc ll;,ritci.i,aLt,-), prirr Decalneronit I, ,,L..,llrj(liit, j-ri:ritilcasr:ti-.lhnte :c i::l',-iiiu"r in r'*;tir1l.r-:.:,rl slii: tie il;tf.:t:till
ri ti.i;paie tlirr ia{a lr::1',,iliicl nr.rastLc. 11 ,'iitr litcriiii, rll vizi.r:tt:lllo, largcLt'Lclic, it:I].tur-.i.'|i,: si ;1i'cllt;:li, ,:]r iLrLrL.li.' :; t:r!.tjtzuC

r,-

ti

1.llrr ,i;tit', r';'{,' ;tl(t I titl- ,llil

ii;rt.il:rI
rr,r."l
Jlirr'':ijlr'.'rl:,i.'irl r:-ri,r;rrllt tt,r|,il i,' 1r;r,i::1.r.,1u iI i. l:r.ltl',
r.r;lriiiirrrt,rir: ,i,,ii i,:,tl:lor islr: ,r:nr ,i,ilti-:.;"i.i. (li::iitL
lttlt.i;:lr
,rli;,1'it'ur,r'ii::r.ir. iu Vieinnea iutrtirirl .i Inaerttul rrilui. lelr Irri
;irt l,r,rrl

lrri. Ilr,,.r

Arrreto.

illlr A,:C:t :,,:r:i':,.1', !.rr'C ClllI :it-- . , irt ltti,ltf iitt -,r,:I itti.*
;itci'i.enlii clirrtiliri:t:ruJ. r-rnpirisi:rrii...i jurltr:lr.tn. l)r:.1:,;ill{r1.,,1,
-:pcciiii-'c Lr,:i:ilj.l:hi.ii cillrt:r:,.i::r1e, i;lt,-:,:")i, rlij'rti,,,itia dj.:ltt'"1
irliiri,'1"rirni:t ipr]";i.iri.,li rr liLi lJanic.'rlrgitiiti'i:;i'tr;;.-,r1ri.:..,
,:(ri:lri:pl-ie litrlri:r ,,-iLi:i; er'i. ,qirutc il:,,,ct:::: -i-gi. c:;1:iicr: 1lu llrljl
r:r:,runabil L1;it,-.lc riiu, Via{5 noui, dr:1tiltli., 1:.i'ltril ci l;l I'irsr.li
,Je i! rni]lln'ir
s;,: il-1r:ilgosiise ile 1i;::-lt'icc, ci.ire iilc;i :it
tit-'qlirlisc vir:;'rr-r, r'ic :.-l ani: ....,or:i tlttl 1-,iici;r:r 1riiiri." li:ii
:i'ir i.1,;r sa.tl it pirliir:ii,-ir', or-i Iiinr],,ir, vtico a]ltinli,) iirriuli:c
:r tcr:ulLri \:a 1.i l.irrr-tiL iit:rcr:a-<lJ, i;r:iu,llfr'i, uri iri,:tliu;J-,
rr.ii,i, {:Lri]tr \'Cil"r-'in tl:i.u,.':,.: b:ri,:ii;'rl, cr.l iti:ii:tjlrtr SL.,lLIr.iirtt',,1',it,ti!,1,i, L!itlti:ljj ;il,l:i,:li, i'csriiti .jil;.i'.'i ,:i i'i,,,!itti"Liii i;tli,.,i,,ii,_,;, ,si ;,ii:ttrilr];.. :uilctClC (r:i.11-11-.t:iti,tr'..-- r-.itjit.i ;.ii ,,.i,j
! iil-iir!,ti s,',) l.lt i:;ltc'iis, rtlr {.ii., rr,

LXXII

, I r ,ri'1.rri, n:: :lilitiii ;rl,: titt:r.;1,.;;.-., te ilr,.:rllitl si :,rjLrirt


, r
r rr-;,:; iui;ir Lri:a!. j--i'ail (jij jl t,,trl Iir_:rrt CttLc ltlur::c, i;r-.:,,
. ! ,r. r ,i .;tr:.r.:t !i,,.:i;,t,t: sri s;
-:l ili:!i..-a::i,i (:lul;li:r. :l l.
lr' , r. r1-J,?, tit,) t:':tl;le1te r-r:zlil-t.ltilli \r.ii.l:3,;t,:s rl.:,::tr,t rr
rr ,r.r , ,tlr'r.i)i:ir ,,'.ttrttii:"t. ll.t,:,-',r.:r i,-r i;rs;r:i :,rrl,iiit i:1,:li. ii,-.., ',ir,,;1 ,iiitr:'it l.l--i,-.,::i 13.11r1 i-,1,;,3;1:.:;,.:.lL,.ii::-r l-i.a]ir.irtii :ti r.,I.t.,i,.:,r
,l r't.t'i,'rti:il: tr.:r-,j;rilii:-'L Sl'.li .:l,t::'ri::..,r1, l.rll liti}l;llli:
.(): ic jr:,,:
p r,1 ..ri. ri il-'1 ::r:ti'r;;tat, (i i::n:., .-l!..'!r i,-,,tli-: ltu irr i.tr:,r:i.i,.;:
r r I , 1 1;ir,tC i...) c1,.:;.::l:;t..|:t:l, jt-ir:tii,,,St lir:liii: li i:l
Lr,irrit.,.
;rl,'.1i . J,ili -'t,t,:t.lr:l:it r-:,t:iti:a:t ;:.t:l,islir i'-r DtC;iirief$iirtllii
r .i lJ r, -: cv itl.::;..t;l'": ei ,. 1"1:;,:ti;t,ir,, itrr.iii.iit lrliint
ri:tiii, r!,.: 1lt
.,ir1 r, i rrr,'rt'r.'c. ii]1 iiilillt'[!l_ ]tii.L,_q sriii.,ti.ir:, 11," c.r,-, I rl. 1i, t.
irr,,r (',.ijltiinit11li:tli.tic.':ilit'.rl rli:r r-i:;j:t tr_i.lll:,r i;i lt,)ittil rii...i..lli
il[ r']lLr/:iiltli-jr,t t:ilXl j. t,lltll]i, r-:irLt ::'t:iiiitt 1;i.i|rttl rJtjtj -!lli-{)
,l, l.r(rr;-r'lt. r:i'rri'tr:jl'.)i'. :lii.il,lir_1.i..,:,il:t0,t.li il;1.;Ir.,{):.;.iiiilij s:rii.)
,,, , l r.r, i ;r rl,.,i'i s:i ailc lucr.n: i ill iril .::t sr sii. ciii(trarai. i:rr ri j;irrrrr(r', i rr i;:l.,ilii ;i. rl i;l ri,t,.jliLl 1ui ..- l,r i;i,ill;c;'r,.," .\{tcljrrii
r,rl, rrt,,' rli J'r,.1.i,.:;., jt-l.gil::,j,I- :..,1;rllt:11_ilr jjlt c:ji.it ill:iii (.itil itatr(,
, rrl
, , ,L ,i ,.r .i,lrilc l-..ri,{rjl,irila. }_irl 1,,,-r.ritr, e ic i;i itrg;i.rl,i;r..,
lrrrl,r,r r','. i)., Sl:6li:ii:'] ii:tit ri,tl':.i r:1 ..!,rrcr-i::,:l:ii :.tr.i.l.i ql:ttt
, l, ri r :r,rrl);.1. {tir1{-r,,:liir:i:i ,-t,ir;ri1:ii, ii;;l,trtt
eitlti.rtr cilllh.,,,c
.r1,,; rr1,1)ti
i:{l:li:r..l..i t-tr,r1t.1 l:11 ltir j-. \'rtrJri;i,i
,11'
, r.'t::, L. ,, . ..;
1 lr 1r.' f,ii.
r'
1r1';.,li.i:, si .r-ir"
r

..

llil

J,ri
rtr,l,, rr I ,.r
'rrlr,,, 1,,, rl
,l,rlr,l,l,,',,

r' i"

lrirtr

r,'lr
(

irilrt. rlilr rit:rlii.,,li.,lt


!lLLlltllc n]101 1-cgltli
: Jl. .\ ri, r b1".l! . 1/. , ....." ' ir. ronS-n.:,,tc dc T. lic;cifcscll,
l;(l i+il..a llcntrlt iri:n'rli-urii
"rnirci'salil,,' 1i)67, pp. f:12-1. S:S.

i'li,l.l'.

LXXiiX

cler cotr;lrtrc-l:ie . l.,Lr ir:i Rnsso obscrra. cii, incatlrar:ca


povcsl-irilol' rlil s{i llltr i :t:t;itr o tiirtit ct.l poc;lia insiL;i ca Ia
I)rLnLei. Ohi:ri citrrl cstr: ilcccplaLir ct tcrnir cciltlttttt-t, lllt oroLl
isi pcrmiic sii sc al-r:Ltii rL'l l;r ea, alil oLrm ctlc l)i'rrteo, 1;l

L::;te iul-rirc:r., firrii, <.1e c;lrc ..nll-i l.r1r]f it(]r sl poatii,


'1rrrr,',. I;t lling ori I?l fcl:icirc". Si, crr rt lorlii care a st.rt iu,1, lrrrrriii r-r,cme ojrr".imltir, ca i:illnir:r.stc cu zgrlrtotui itr.oprir_t
.l,r ,,r Lrrlui c:'oLir-', al liccnlirrzitllii. lisl:e, pc crh:r clc laici-

slir;itn1 pr"iLnci ziltt) m:ri rnlrc lilrcr:tt(! (i'."co11\ti'ttr:;ie r:r.':t lirc;-l.st:it iLrtr:-rl
oPei'ir, a1 c:ir-ej attl'.';r lLrrtttiii {) if iif i ltrulirlii l'sttl)rir ilrsiitrl-

si"l'icte

{iiior r.rclLi. l nstit.trf i;t, 1,1 111ritL tL'a'lifiorla I rcslrcctetil,


iar acurir izlritr,r'(r{)flliriii, csil, itl irl;r'cstirilr: lroccncco;ii,
'trrisct'icrr t:lilo!it ,lL. ,,('itLrg;i l'ii ilil l(tst 1)c yi:r-lrlllt i t'"trtlotii
cLrtclnici si tlt l: i'alri' , sl)iirtc ;111{ril'Ltl. r\cLrln s'ilrl' lilt{cl,
tlccl;rrii, ptrt.cstiIiic... l'jtirrI poVlstirii al s.lsaal <litr ;litt:l
inliia, nriu'htrise;lu cit <.lLr iurligrr:rt cste rttt.otnl tic ilirrl"at'eli'
clct'iciLri:, iiir' lLttlq-l rc'Plit:l--r lr lni 'l'crtrrl:'rkkl Iitt--c itn itrlcr';] t':lt
rcr:trrii:it.orirt cclcsiii;i.i1!;:- L'n 1rt:r:ititrlt,j lttt cre(irr sir lilr i clxisie
lrc {a.!.a liirnirrlulu i r-rtttn t;iilug;'li- ctlccrllic' rttl a1L 1r:rsoit"lj
spLrne c;,'t l.tiou:-tltii ,,rlin llttzttt- si Lrlli" rrtt tliL-i clcrlitrJ-li' -s-itu
giiL6it s-:rjrrrrgii 1. cirlugii.it", o tt;Lriit,rlrt: r-Lrrbcr;stc (lL'spfii
ir* c:-Llrrgiir fir!it..ic si tiilreli .,?rr isi:rtilircil ir''gi1.r"; cinr'i
rii;r1,: tillrtrr.i s,.irrlrir.,)s(li\zi si r:r,lr0illc iLiLr-rtn Iltrlrtltint
si'olt'r'ii itt t'lriir
s1'-r',' :l .it'l'ri lr"rll lllllli ( i)i';( {)l)' lll) l'rl,i
liri.:.;t s;i t, l;Lr,i. l'ltir lr :', l;ri, ri il rlr'1('llllilli l'(' Ili)tlr:r(( ilr
sli rtrt l,'l(ll)l().r\'.1( slrr.jitr,r'il"l lri:,:t ir ii irrt:iillLlt::t cclillatttllii,
t lici o';1r; L'r irL.ttL tlj il cot:rirli'ti, it.rfirlsr-: Lltrr'oIi el {):trtj
lr Lttr ii corrrltL|trr.aL nici i)t:iitni irrstilii,oriiLi' lil,ile r lL r lrt,'
izirulcsc si:. olrlilL:i tltl lli qrltttlt.rllil n:r ivi "1){rlllclri tl-t:ti g'-r;ist"'"
l\llii clci;ralri sinl i rottizirtr: ril a.itl-t'r, 1)i'rltrll 1rt'ostirr, r iuliinclc a;;Illc 5Lr lit:;iL tl:i()f il;rlir3;ltr'.
Cu pilill c;l (:clc tlt ttrlii siis lltr mlti lrot l'i illsi. fosi)l''ti{'le
tici pr-itrciirii.lr: r'icl-ii it-LLtii'-', r ir llit rl-i-ri llrrlt- t:Lt cil r''1':
slnl lli',rpol"ili1li;L() t()ciilili tL: c-r:i t?11'' lci itctt jl'i l )e ll lticl'
iirc;ti :l1iil;
irontr-r.r atLtot'iil. Decanleronului iiclsii.) lrrin'cii;ii,
i 'l):i{liiclczuf
lllL,'l
siticill
itl
lltsc;tt
I|ctner cit ttattifil tlil-lii11:l
tloltri
ntt
sitrt
c
icgitinriL,
piiillitlti:ltirii
viata
cirlil
llcuin
toa.si,
rrlrezcit.trtl;ilc, ci clrilrr ni.'ll.'giitil':, Pcltlrrt r-'ir I''r' ;rlr-1t''r fitr
dLr lL:gilc {it'ii. [,urtll:r jlli TIL)oc:lcLrio ll clir.;oolrlrtit 1i)gi'e ].]'l'
(li-- colllpl]ll[.rrra1;-i, si tefUz]L sit () luir i iilillrlirii' iil r-|'.:iril': r'gli ii
t.'rli:,. Clartonii :ru c1r"r:ptrt [ ]il l,llrjLtf ;' :ii plii:rre'. I)c a(ro{ril '
sr1.ltrclre setislac!iLr si l iniit
i^rorrt.r'it iulorrLl Decalneronului
a

I.t !lttrt ;r!iiritt' it.)l ir't it)tlti:r;:. I-lari, 1!t56, p' 2{i'

I,XXiY

, ' i, I ii

'r'" .r Iitcrr-tt.trr.ii, r,iolcilta rcac!ir:i imprltrir:l rnisti,:isrn'.rlui.

liir:lt lui'llan,.;rcili, ornnlailflatrri-rcstcfi"icut,,rlinc:l.Lnc"


r ,rrni.c rr:vo,i"r- sit c slrigr: iu.l,.rfa tulrrrrir, ci,r llj o cbscol-rlrile
,rrr lr'gc tloLlir care ii asigriri dri:ptiir:i nt.ri.
irr.ri.lcitrca princilriil.or rnllllc.-.arlLrllcrul, cie pildil **
rr r'irrnnl"t pirntru cl t:clnr-ul cqtlstfilrgsrii socialc. Cil,l ciisir(,rr iil :r. fr-rst utt :rct conr,cnfioi'ta1 si ncdolit dc nnul clin{.r:c
,, i r[,ri p'r,r..tcncri., ci"rruirr, i s-;r irrtlrus, ;rrlultenrl tlct'ine
,' rl,rr, lrlzj, tle sinr:critatc;i r:nr:aj si o ltilnrir (lc lr-otcst.
l).'.;pir! irca, rlir-t cauza rlilc-r'cnticrilor soc;ulc, :r tincr:iior
, .rr'(i sc irrlrcsc, l)r)r1o (luco l:L conlJiclc tr:agicc, Plitna viclinri
.r ;rrrtoritlr-isnrrrlui llrtcr-rr cslc fiice, Sitrr.atil |rccarir a
l,.rrtcii :;trpu.lc ltttrrr-rtt'r'r'lor rlitt.jrrr o ;rrrtirri.t'|tc [.]occacciri
,1i11 lrrirrtllr' p;l,irti :rl,' r :i r I ii: ,....1t'rrrtilr', I irrrrit: irt lt irr
,1,. r,'i.r. ql,.1r,1un(.r ()li rlr'lrrllrrl 1rl,rr;,tl {-,r1ilot', ltl lrl;tl[cl,tr,
.l Ir,rlrlr)l :iillr solilrtt''.
l)ir ir, ci':r, Pr.r;ltc, [<rnr,.rilcr sirrt rnri consticlltc dc cror.rt:i
lr., r irrriirilii olunr)nilol: tlupir critcliile originii sociillc.
,pl, rrrli,l;r rt'plilir a (ihisrl.onrlci o rlorer.le;te. Ilcspcctrrl
p.rrt, rr origiirgir, ir,rl;i1ii, rtu pil,rc i.t--,tal: Cisti brutat'nl n.u
,.;rs,rzii l:r ruusir ctr cci car:c sini. mlri plcsus c1c cl;i c-rte
,.r i,l, rrt r:1"r, p'rrlsti!;r..ul r,c:le in acclrsi,ii, r:czerr.ir, r.ul nlclit;
rl r,rt'r' '['orl-r:llo ii crc.1e pc clrLrnci ii intiini!i rlobili, ;i
rl r([i'1 u]t] tt..grrsirrri, ASit cL]t1t ci sc riir.clcet, si r]e accca ii
'rl rr irr;i-r:;t':. i-).lr arl.islr,rri n:rr:r.trtrii clcclarir in moil er;,iilit ci o:rl rl trcll:ric prcfuit tlupi pi'opriile sirlc faplc ,rl
n,r iI r]r."1 lo rlr l o::uprt ill ici'lti lli:r socialir. lJirlltcrl incirclic
l) rviiil,ri[ (]i:is:111:i sirrmin'.1: ,,c:i ccrnl lirrcluicstc ca 1i itr
, ,r'io:rlre si sl tr.rs,:ii r,1in cin:1 iLl. cin.1 sullctc rn rli, ;rs:r 1)l'ciurll
'-;i in p;r llr.lc s: a{i.p lsii:sc ail:s:.r;r:i snf lt-te rulri r,rcdnicc sir,
:r.rrl)i si svr p"rz:rscii p.;; cii, 11:,:it -s;i sttlpiirlascir Fi sir, tk-rmncasci
1: sti' o 'rr:iti." i]r lti:;tgrri li:r11:rficrii ]-]i,)(tcirC(liO pr(]clatni"r
srrlrcr-iorii..rl,r.r ntlritLtli.ri, in:tii.sr:lrt siur dobltilii:, asiti-lrll
l,rrli:i si n 1>r'ii ilr';liil,rr'. .\ccstc rlr,rritc lc ltot ai L-:r ii ri:ulcrlii
tl,in pollor: itr,.tlti,,'i si. iirgr:r-lir'r';i, ei g;iscsc st_'}nl.ii a1:ilc',
r'."tspLt:rsnli rtrne aliLe ,;r'r s1:,ir iitrlrlt'.
,rr.,i

Decanreronul cliigi:r.ziL 1-Ltura 11;igticiL

a intcligcnfci,

cllil-itfi c:rrc sint in plimr-r1 t'iud cer-Lttc de rclaliiie


;i c1c lcgiie scciabilit'if ii li alc bllnei convie!uiri: iti!irn.: cle judrcatii, dibicie , encr'.{ie" o urbrnitste
iii.r;raiir, c:rre prc..tlPiine pc,litcfc falir dc toii ce iirfeLlii, un
r:tri':tctcr curienitoi; apr-ri genero:itate. atit in dragoste, cit
sl it prietcnie ; in zi.l-t:L a zecca se l-a poi'lsl-i clcsprc,,aceia

a.cerlc

c,rrncr"cizilc

11: clirnicie s:lu <1e miir!nimie :iu sivirgit lucruri de


sci;ni iil r1i:ai1ostc, ori it'l r,Litl cllc". Pti'sc'najclc sint aclcpte
;rle ttn'li mlralc actilc'si c:rftlrinl:nlalt:,.mai trinc e s5'
f:ici cer';r rsi-apoi si-ti 1'elit liru, rtrc:it sii nrr f:rci ;i pc tilmS'
s;:r-!i p:rri litu cl n-lr.i f iiilii""
I)irrcolo rlc citci-a lrobilc piirll. eroii liLi Roccaccio
silj; o:rmenii ,,11[3i 1unli llitlratilc ;si suplrficialc, iniireptatii
rtim:ri in a{:rri, sprc trncrrr.-ii1c vietii."r I)cpaite incir c1e
ti i::rnisinul Ilcnaltcrii, ei {Ltrnicii i.itr"-Ltl.) ccrl:c cls itite rese
ilglstr, unile viclcni:L rnai po:LLe fi lnr:i-L mrmitil inteli'
g'.t,1t1, i,,u sufictelc 1.rr 1lLl sini s{1;iatc' clc incertiturlini 9i
i1: prcblcms, ;i nici 1111 cunosi elcla.tia' rnsritror aspiratii'
('nni lir:i.LrL trstl cr:rtt:t'ilt: ;i ,,rltt l jLrrlge pinir 1a o adcl'5r'at5'
lirlrlri irtlt ti,rilii , t;tt't' si tl"i;tt,,llt' [';l*ilrttiiI si cnliictcl'r:lc
1 ) irr rrri.iloL rrl ;rgit:r1 i i f r1'1''i'rr t'"ir'i it'ltr! !' nilitc astfcl

c:llc miira!i

{ r r, ."irrJi lr_ :'::iillci lriic, p;rn.lpiqea cere slujitor.iir;r:


r
, ,' lL.r'r:rir.Ljc a ne l,_icce vreo veste d.inaiarrli care s)
r r,'
Ir, rr rn clclit o -Jeste buni.,.
I ',,ii lrlitrrl:ig,:lc l,_r.mea yi:ratura a;qa cLtn li se infdfigea', r r ii vii,,L zi:are;:rie c:r.t:e puncteazii er.olu1.ia. Diutr-o
I' , 'Ij , ti., ll , iil:ri od:rt.ii a_crinirird.toare cu a 1ui De Saucti--,
\rr, rlr.i, Ir tti:sr:n-il, cai ".'_tiltanismul timpuriu nu poseill,
rr r., i r. r','a.'Lil;i.ii.i. -L'ir:iii, o forfi etici, constructivd,,r.
lr'r' , rrnsb'ni:lia i".rc-r".ri:nne ui] tcren iiber, 9i Boccacli.,t
.r r ,r rrr.\i lntii sJ crir:ife c.l.c prejudecir_!i o
socictate ca::e,
rrrrr;rl,' tli::r ii: itriolii cu ;il.tcct,a, tr.c,buie sir sc dezbare cir:
, 1, . itirrrliitar*l l.+r e sivir;itd,, ccle mai a.deseori, pr-ill
ri
,l,.ir:i e-;-Lr,l. ril:ii.iu iriit t-stc nir-rnai rregat, dar luat in r.is.,r"
).::ll;'.ris (liLl:li:ug {1,101-1-i6J) , scr:iilor. gi ginclilor cic
,r i: irrc r:r:rniaili ij c:;j.rr,;,,<ie latiiri,", ci.utiitor. fericit c1e rra*
rrrrr;,r iit', ll.tirlir_rii,ca"i; cu fornr;,r,lisnrill bisci:icii cat,riice si c,-r
i111'1yiiL,1';1, slljii,orjlr-rr: i,i, lr,trlgc atcntia, ip.ai'tca
iui I_c*
l.r:.,;,r \';rltr,r,;,rL;_r1-,,. li'.r1,.,.i ,,rJ.ttlr iii,. lt. irrrplit":tttrlLri Co:tr;l:rttlirt:;i ,,ti'luf it:,,1ro1 :i,lrrilor- lrl t,rlt.r.ilnl.ci t.clit.iglt:;rt.
,,('rr.rrr,r,' ; (,rtir: li'i r.'i, itrrl.ilrlii, t't trr[.rt.itator al girrrlii.ti
rrr.'rli,',, rrIc :;i rr;ru ll ,i,;:rii.c iiril.iator.ii g?nciirii uLor1cL.ric,,
r

.Ll i

r''ni. (-;i.il,tjirj,t.

o liiliyir' ittir't-i,r:t ri't".:


ll rr:< li cir ttLt cstt r.Lt,L f rc,l,ltnalir ' Srnl;rl"itatea sa, pe
( r r(, I )i Sarcti; o srllrlii,iiazi eLtit' iz-,'lrlir:;te 9i din refuzul
t isitlii sau chiar al grelii-i!ii' Nat;itcirii Decarneroflulul
lLr f,rg cloar dc cium:i. ci 1i cle ploblctnc: a sufcrinfei, a

sTi?ucnuRI t-tT[.RAltE

mr,rlii, a linriteior corrCi',ii.i or-rlclrlllir. ?rl p:rllrtul in car-e se


rcir.ig, ei gl:riesc or-dirre , cnr;ifenic 1i {lori; dupir arrliezile
i;i farc sii:rta, iar: in tirnpul ar;if':i stau pe o prjil;te ilmbrit:l'.
1)iirn:.o c1-:ciarii cit. ;:c{r,tzi sit'5i pun;i problernc: ,,nLr ;;tiu
cc ar"eti clo gitrl sir facc'{:i cu girlil-,lrilc ce r'6 apas:i, cu unnl
pl ale melc r:i1i lr-am trdsnt pe toate inapr:'ia por'!ii' in ora;,
cin,,1 atn pttcet irr:prcr'.nr'l na dr'nm m:ti aditlr;ruri"."
,,i,:r care I)am.pinea, cr.;i cutn a1.'fi a1iln8,at;si ditrsa
ginJr.riil.e n,:i;rc, rirspiire:c brlcrlroasi:
-- '.)a ciin carl-c;Li gl'iii. I)irrr.eol A;a e, binc zici: Sc cadc
si f lrn r.cseli, ciLci tor:tll:ii c1c acc.a am filgii de s:rpirilri."
I]e S:intii.. t'ir. cit.. p.
op. cil., p. 352.

1lr|ancescr:
x

t,XXVtr

3.5$"

Qenuri

spee

fn Rrnng'rEnr

itlee" FersgtiejuX. Terne

;i

ff6{:i1,e renasceutister

conveu!ia r!ebu$ul*i, ielrtuna labilis, carpe {iicrn? Iufilea


tealru. Literatura raoralist6.

liigolrer" 11* i:ilolcgi il, tlrani;tilor dulc Ia nn lespcct


spcrit pcrn'il'.r cirviilitul scl'is ori vorbit --- irJc,s si cullir.rr"

cu

gr:ijd.

lntr-un di;rl,rg, l-rr,:rar"rt1,: Dr:uni Ar.ctino ii a,tribuic 1,-ri


Niccol) l{icccli niil.it,larea frazi: ,,Crccl ci nir aiIi u;or sJ,
g5sim trcr.it cilrrl Ji ire -.t-uciiil,-ir tlcastrc mai folositor. dccit
1F. Ai-rcr'u;lr:h, ,it'jli;r,;is, op. cit", p. 215"
!'.ljrll,;ic,.rc,-l 1,. -;": t':-, ,r.'. t. it., rr, 320"
J ll r;._,.:,'_-.i: )... i :, i' :.;r:,",' igJ5,
ii.

],X}iVI]

clisprrir.". intr-rr eiri>1-llri rliu 11l6, I'o91il Rr'arciolini


ii poi,c:.iLc;iic lui Nir:cuii' \iccoli o cirli.i.ilr-ir lL.su, in c:r1'e
,,('a pl:t(-rrlrilit sr'L-rri Iir rlr-'lrlirrir irni Iip:;cu. lorn'ers:itilr /ro?.runleyci.il4)1, se], jtti)]1.'i5): car|c {',rlc r,:rl rlrli rlr scarnl"r tlinLlc tr,rtte
luclurilc".
Iirr Iirr:sc si s!) (1('r1.r)l1r'irfti. iorrtrc iit;:rurr.: {liliitrl 11e
altlci m r:lcli) arjt i( i'i ( ir ri: i)ieiliitr iiltllr:i tullrLjLt i plsibilil:iiel tIt a-:;i c\I'r'i:i ori ii,r a-yi Plttr': itt r,e-loari: afi,.i. crtvintitlri, iL rl,,rrr'iil.r1 I:r i it:i r;r1 i,;irr, ir:, inr.r-rsttrrtttiirt* itri r-o
pt'.:z{-'lrt,t|i' r',rIlr:rl) 1L'.rrrlii ( lr {1,,,!.i.lritir :rlcrrlie; 11i;liu51rrl;
tt'.tl rttt l, tl i,r)un{rI, r'lri:;{,rl.r :.;i :;, t ii'r'r'it ist.r,r j' i ijrilrirr.sL.
l)l,llogrrl ([:)\'ilt I 1; 1rp,r:i,' lit,.r';uri i)r(.lr'r'l{t; tl.. rrnU.rtisii
i1r
scriiiori .!i Jt,'r;ls1-rrii. ta li;rltierlr (lrr.sli(lioll.'{'lt{)i;i
lllilj i\l ).11:i, .f.:ftit]i'. (i:rrtrpiinella. ().rlilci ctr:., cir.. ljl cli
prik:jrri ulrrti i:.orrf rrrrtt;'rr-i r1t,' oirinri, Lrrrl:i i[r.zfr:ieli, in c:rre
sc cl:sl'iisoar:i, i:u toltc 1';]lirliut)fn1rlr., iirt;r:u'gunliltii'it.ii,
'iraLir.tul, sr:lis uncorj sril, {i)fin:r. tli: espLrrtr.lL, c.rLc lrllcuti
irrf f i;at ; i e1 ca d iii l r; g.
(lori:spottrlt:trla ovt';r frructilr prrlrlir.:atii,i ptrii){1irtr,'c;i,rs
tlifttzr:rzii irrt:'rlirri () ll,)irlirie, rrtrrli'si'inrlrirr-tiqrtst.it {.i.jr)t.nuni(iirc siiinlil'i' i (rlr' pilrli tl.r'-i rilr:r'ir'{.ii ul)lri tirilrrrsi rilil ,
it o{)nlr'('riltliri, i;t ( irtr sr.' ittlilrrr';' ():rr)ir..fti })lcr)i.,ri[);rli (i{j
lrrolrl,'nl' sirrril;rtr'. L:r inr ('llttltI ilrrir.r'ii s;ill l,llit:tirrrrs
o|iI (l\)r'llir's;-i g-;i:iIiLlici tLll lllirrlirr ( it ltr:Linr.trc cic triti.sp()ntIrirti: ,,1-;i tinna trf iltti ttLt irsi..rpt:liitt o scriit]i.tte, ci o 3;iirnar.1.l,i.
lrtiirs?i clc qr.'risori, carc Ipr-trtl.lrtl {iini1 | irr t'lc:,jlrtvi"ilil ljlnii,
si rrrt c:rtit' es{il)l"ra11. l):tr.:it st alla 1.'r.: :lit'i. ;r,rilttr.l i tri. iitcr,cior-l'nlll(r.t-qc. itlLlttci iii-li seri'iitu <11 :r -i stjilui;r. sli n.e:
scrir" ."- ii sugl r;r, iii';rsrrur:; liti 'i'lrr,irL:Ls ltlrirs irrir',ii clii-stoli tlrtr 1.|!tri. (loi'cspllr.rli'lr1a partir:lllrii:rrr
ro;tstii.1il,r:rtiL utr aet si)(int.arr in ri'lirli:r dirrir"c r1i'i irrclivi.z: i, ci rrnLrtr
intcgr".Lt irt nror{ ii.,:lrbirra-i: it! ;Ltr:iutubliri uciir i'Liig.ii rLritLlrale
11 eporii.
trr'.1cit:trrir:ir-,'ijl ai)i.i.lst:r rra irrtiiirjrrr:riii t rr g',l'ij;l <[t:.rri{ilirsirtrts sr ril <lil pilrl:i rrr t.i'alai
t].r.1.ii, in gr.lii,'ic lil.ralrrii;
l)entlr:r (1:r irt:lfurrriri jn:rlia cirirlLri:it';i. [-u::oii:i(]lis.)r-i.la
cralrlpracti(ii1i.o;ruiig,rri li',i.jr:rr,hhr-ii,zit. liirbliriiii;ilr-;rsrnrrj
s:,til r\.ri-tinrl i;i [:iilir:i"':r,-. {:{)r-esi]ot1.1lllie irt tirllrul ,, i,.:ii1,
ll;r:i11, sp:,c,ilr iitrr,L::li. cfrr;i,clfr:islilir..i{llulsill'ii, l;.i ;rr:e
sllrsa in glt.rtrti pilttru ilill{izrr r':rll;rli, ini:i.i'it. ii,. lrr. lrntL lLri
z-r

LX}iViII

I'liit ,,1, ' .r , pi.,l,ilr'lrrl lui Scflct--a, si rI:rpuutle c:rpacitilii,


r. , rrl rtl,rlr', rlr' :r. olrsr'fr"ir. t:u r";L-'l:.ii Proprii lunrc;r
--Ite
i | . .t, I r,r rr,r ,,ru irtl.ttritlali"
I 1,,1r1 1 (.r( 'rl)ulr(lc cutcz;rrtici rrnitscclttiste, desco]lcj,i,,.,r( .ur lrl.i5,ilrri1.o;lr:c tlcr lrrrni troi. L]<inscc\cnt arrrbiguii.rlrr ..,rf ,.. lilr;rLr':;Pr':r''() llllodiazi[ itt operl sir utt;pi:r 5i cre' .r t,,tr,lrl.r lcrr rrli $tta\r.i dir';tre utopiile cxistcll-e. l,ll
!r,,rrr'r,r ',r , rr',l.rrlrlrrt.qn, rntor a,utori de utolrii, irrrlircct,
;rrrrr 1,l.rnrrl n:rr\' { {)llc(.'llut dc Gonzalcl irt F'UrtUna: iu !ara
r r rt,r ,1, (,oltz.rl,r, \aLurtr, clar:uicii, ii lrr:.:rncSte pe oallteni;
ilrr, rr rrrr rrrrrilr:cs1.t-, nintctli tlLl fitcc littr, ninrcni 1ti.l conriilLre.
flr.11 lrrl SI)irliL:r1rrr:rrc c-stt-' itcclrt cftro crcilzii utolria sllpreln.i'r;
rrrr LirrrirtrI o cclaLr:, o j;:rsuii ttt:i o tarir lrine rintluiti, ci o
r r,rl,r :r li:r'ir:ilii, L)ilr(l sc aliii. ---iltticr,'a, prc,ri11{i11{1ni;i niL::i,, rr
irr rrni'"'crsnI ccir-lrsLliilol sale. l,ilsirrrl 1a o irartc .i:ar',1,', in corrrlrliilc Jrri Slralir:s1tcil1-c 1]u (lorunc)te lt:tzul, cart:
Ifr(,.;il1)Ur)c () r'iciirrri,lrr-iir ilr'rrrtl.c rlizlrrnr<.ruie. in cornedii|:
llrri r;r'ltll:i. o lrnrr<r:r sr.rtirr;il;i1ii. o Irrrrrr' poprrl;rtii tlcr Liitcri .,l, r'i itt' r';rrllttt i rlr' r, ir'1 i, nirit'j,li, irrliirt', j.r' )i ;trrtrr'ni,'.
lrrlr'lir.lcrr t lcrrtcrttulrri lar'r.'l.ios iir crrltur:ii iutr:i iu trir,ti{irr. ilrrilrnij{i. .l.,iccnli(.}zitatc,r, nlostcrlitir tle altlcl rlin
r r rrl nrcrlirr Lirziu , cra o l(r1ur.ir tlc cxprcsie a vitalitilii
ren.r , ( lr i:;1r: si de irtlmttllre
ostctrtat.ivri zI roslrictiilor.
ll )r.r,l,r .{r,:\ l)rll}tru ttrtrrrl ci.tr-cia ii ill}artin toaic :rctcle Iizi.t-lll,'1 r( (: lllltloazii inte:rrlictillc. .l)ctrarcir prr-rconizasc s1)if itrrl
1.rr i'i ir)s iu Cdrtile faptelor de searn{; il clogiascrii. 11;nterrrr,
(in ilrcf :r].a irt,-:cJ:ii lor s;r lc) si Itrr lre l;tis
I', r,ggiLr lllicciolini
irr r;i:rsurilc adrr:sai-c cjtitorilor la incePrrt.rrl llterellli sir,lr
r,)o);ll1 ; i1 practicastiii, prin{ rc ritii, StIagrarola, lIci]]|ich
liir.lrrl, ]:iotrr,\/enturc })cs l)6iicrs.
[)olzi;.r lirna;tcrii :;t.:i, irrlk:1'.rnga'r r.rcure sub scrnnnl cri:;rtr ici ILri I)cii:iriclt. in cirrrl:r sPii'itr-rlui 1)lirtonic dirr scr:icriltr
trrri llctrarcal, p()ctli inriLrr-i1;i (lc rccrsl:r, rlin urntir sc inil.rrpirlse IasiL i-rDlaii clc nranicrir. Celc
t.r.);l,,.ir (1c sursir iirltici;i
qhirrii iullucrl,tc .'- a. llil.L{iirisr)}ri lrri si i.r Iui l.)ctralea ,- srr
iliplticsc, in plr4rr,ir-!ii r1ir.t'r'sc,, in ptrezia..1.'leiad*i, a;ci.rlii
tlirr [,-von, ir ]Lri Sirlrrrt'si a ]ui Splnser- \rirg;r sonc:trrlrri
si i: r,rrr(tli.lltcllr rlr: iil)l)irie (lioniarcl, liu llcll:,rr', Siilnel,-,
Sp:rtrsci e 1-i.) :rc ,.[,rtr;i.:,r2i Iui 1)ctrii'e l, si 1,r)t tli: la l)etrarcil
1

t {'1.

}1.

\ j;inu, ,litticiii!ult'rt li lltti$;ltt't'u, in op. cil., p.2ii.

LXXIX

1:rur11ifi:r rlrmr:1ui, cu o cclrctatie ir:.t.;nlionatl 1i cle:;cil


fl:r'lril:r. r 1. ils:>iraioarei: D,ilii: (.\[. Sci:r'c) , Stella, (S.icloci']
{-riii',-, il).t 13-'i1r3') sittt tles,.:rndelie iile Laurci.
lJ:ir Io.::ri.:r, d: s:atrrii <; irlrl.ri;:i;lg1:zir de seCuc!ia ,,pctrarcirisrluilLi". Lru:ori, nr,.ri mrLii: set rnai pu!in ex;-'1icit, poeiul
i;i '.1'l,:l,lli ac;:rsi-'i intonf ic chirir- in \:els'Jri; o {ac Llu Bi-'1.1a5',

vin:

ir:rktspca ::e.
pr-i,nui soflr1j din Astrophel

icln.-'.v,

ln

5i Stella, Sinch3- n:irturi-

sJite c;i, plilliu a-1i lLr:il:L ilr;i:iosl-o:r in rersn::i, a cirntat


r.l-,-inte 1tl1:rir.iLr.: it.t n::13iri s1:r-;'rittir, pin:i i,:r-'[i;rntr:zia, copild,
lt i'i;riirr ii., .l I):ts p:.) irrg;'t strr iirrl :tl1-,-ir;r ; ,,Nr.,bunr., irni spnse
prir-c,;tc il itiin'r, ll:;i si:rit".
in ;n:iqiir;l irt clrc izSutclLc :lli se i1i:l.lle zr-: ,-1t pltrarchi-qu;
T'r:=zi:" 6:i'ti3-i in autrni-icitlLlc', oritiri.iiiitrtc si ailincirne,
sr s: aprcirie mli i;ul,:rnic ti,.r s;:i;:iiu1 platonic. Astfcl se
i,irtimpli cu.D.Ll B:1111', cn iiiil;r:1r si cLr Silrlicspcere. $i
i:'l:,tr:cir.iirson:i,:lelniSh:rkes1.r:itri),!iinver'suiilc liri I{i,-rhcii l:{.1o se aflL snpiiln:r e:lri:esie po;tici a plaiolisltLrlui"
i{jchelalgi:1o cr"ln;irl:ri ci in cirirLer.trpi;r.rca frui:rr-rse!ii
lia.p,):i.i;c strrr:tin--Lcr;i1)sr)lLrtill clrc sij 1cfL1z;i cr',nrilftai'ii
l,rii()it:llr'i il, or',r. cr' :rl'1,-L pi-ir.inrI lrrrrtr,slrl olriD iLriiit c g-feu
tji.i;rii'les tl,'r'i1r'r'initt!ilr: i),r'r('lt!';ti. ,,('l'l tc';ii- \'fc;r sJj .;tie,
ar[' ti'r'L)Lri in'.ii sli. ttt,r:tr'.t. ... in ]-r,rLrsi i{ li t'l'c:rrcli, por,';ul
r...ri:':iliililrrl ctlrltr: ,,[)ulerell unr.ri clr.ip lrLiinos mil-nbie/
)1,ilrz;r,,

;:ii-{'t

f'.

['ia.toiriiinui pliziei lui [1[ii:heiangllo era tut.rt cle


T i.lncesco llerni, iil;i.turi de elogii, in ',i:rsurile: ,,.\ru r,'lizut
r;iii'a sc1.icri ale lui;/ eu sint 1lc)iiutol-. si totuli u:; zicc cir,
j ti].rLc / in plinir. op:rit-a lui l'latc,ri ir: cltesc".
.li,
I).rl;zia si pio:::r [i,:teglcrii -cc hrine-sc si respir-ii in nare
irr.:-i,;,rrir d i,"r Iin .lii-ea p1ai-onilzi siru nc$ir1a ioi1i1rI
,,\I':tivu1 plai.onic ;i creltin 2,1 n,spllrtiei suflctnlr-ri inri.,iiir-1'rt, pi-':rcc>t pimint opirc, ds sLlfsii de lnmilii diu care
c1 a i:rvoril -- iicc-\t motiv, in srne d.e o rnare elei.afie poeti'-r;i., ri:itoriiS slgrrilii unci 1'r;ni iliici-itc ;i l'ra i fruiloase
ti.r.rit a no:rstri - - e1'a u-n loc cttinlu in pr-'ri,:):r(1a. ilena.;terii"1.
I;rl Siritzer consi,i:rii ci I)n lSillav a .lir.t accsl.t-.i terro ce:r.
.. ri ,,ii:;in:rl.l c:..rrr'..;ie poetic;,..
l,r'o lil.'it;uel', f i:.t Poetit:'frtel::teilt 1t.i n Pl;1ltn!t-Cltyis:!i,rsz
i/'.r,rlrr,, iir Ilr.,ntt.r;tischt Lil,,,t !t;,.!t;,r;,':. (i:)ii6--1llJ$) , 'fii-

li,irScn,

n,XXX

15i5$,

p.

1i30.

i 1ii,r::itilri ai Rena;;te rii, ca Baldcsar Castiglione


c1e Nlvarra, aduc il1 scrierile lor irlci ale
,r r,r lfllrrrilol. plrr'r-c1]ice.
l'i:iLlrn arilirr:1ci, proicc'"area iuj>irii a-qrpl:a r-rnui parte'
r; r' rir. reilr:l;ii11ti decib par:iicll:llizare:r aspiralil'i c:ltl'e
I\L;i

r ,rr

r\L

ri'g.rlcta

. r'rr,)niil rir:iversalil.
Slistire e rcsului sc crprint:r firi cchivoc, atit in r.er:;itrile
n ,rai;r.ji c1c liavllrra cii: 1i in nu\/elcle ei. lJintre coiilocup ameronuli!i, in speci:rl Dagouciir di glas ulor
idei. Ptntru e1, clr;rg,rstea iD:llti" reviee la Inarei{ ;lrrrt:i iinui in'inciiriu spiritual univcrsal, care tlansccnde

tlrr;i

He

.r r..t,r"ilni-r:r,

li r)glsi)trlrlitai'::r f initi a cclui inclrigostii, cit gi ol-.itcttrn


irl d'rririlr'ior iilcrli:ilc. .D;rr gi pcntrlr Sinioni.r.nlt
, I,liri lrLi:-l"lilil,.: viizu're sinti:r-Li: illla;i citilc tlrugr,rsLca 1L-r:rur i, / i il.tYizu !9" ,
in nur-cla a opta d.in ltreptar-aeron' Dagcrlcin fi',cc eiLtzje
Lr in ilul a.lirlrc.'sinirhri, e.<prts in Banchetsl 1ui 1)1:'rtrr:r ,qi
j'.riitirt/tf i :rlc unci liinle ougi1, ,1;ir it cirmia- oi.L1l1c1iii sint
r: r:,., irl rulLrii,-il Crragosl-ei c::ic citut;rretr juririti:'tii c{)rrplirrr,.irt rrr. L,)otlrina aceiiliasi cc'lcirin cli:riog irlatorlit e
i.r'r',r(.ntii;i i.r n.rvel.r. a lilX-a, insl' il transJ-'rncre crc:ii-in5.
( rr;rr rir;r1:r:stl;r c:t,rla1ir e cc;n:ti,,1erati e.ci ca un iilstruilli'nt
. I 1i lr,;,rr.qi.'i rlii'in,:. Parla.nicnte sprlnc ct"r- ,,ni'.:io'-l;rlit cn
r rr rrrl,r rl ,. rr ir'..,it 1rr' [)ilnrrtrziru ,rrnul c:rre il-A iubit cltsirlirr.,iL ttttr tIitt , t,'.,lttlll(';l(r')ilri lrri;ri".
i'r.; i 1111 r[,r ri'.i trlL il,,, t i irr.;;i.i 1.r:ltttit:rt. r1.: in:']lt:::irc a
lii ciclr;r- e voc.i cli,rluilrtrile 1rl;Lt.t;ttir.:c. ,, ileptameronttl se
r;r., ;'ie asL-lri, prin ilvelitLrl sr-rbstanlial si unif ica.tor a I cor,r. rrl:r-ciilor, ;nei d::3rab5. in c:itegcriiit i.iterard {ilozo{ir:ii
:. ,li:rlr-::{urilor, d,: tiir plalonizrttt, c1'.:cit in aceea a nuvclelor,
,lind rnisui:er e)-y:rct; ;l rrispindirii ;i aclincirii platonisnLului
iri lite rr iirr..;,r f rancez;ii. a llenlsterii.1"
Il p:rioa.ih. cind idealurilc veclri decad;i altc1e noi nu -qe
r',ri1tLrr.,lz;i in rcalitaic, pce!ii it crec:izit it nnivcrsul lol
tl",: l'irlirrle. A:;tfel au ris5rit, ,,pe nrinclc evri]ui niclliu,
i) ii,liliI s;1.,.;il.-:ri:sr ;i ii1ila, ci,]le do'ii,.i lumi po:tice slru iilc:Lic
,, i

, rrririlic
,

;,

11 .[tr:n:r';i:r.rii.:"
1 Zr,iqr TI

L:

:';r

if r,:sc".r-Tlusrl :ng:,t, .Rena.l l ei r l, i !il1 (t, 1ii i,:ii1 : r /


]:lrliiuia :\l.blL1-r'os, 1971,p. tr i:1.

,i ;,,i1,.9t:. ! rjt i! !ot',


2 l.)r: S:iiir:ti:.,

op. cii:., p.

"186.

LXXXI

Virri'a r:itattrirl;1 5i tie cut.te ii apas;i, 1ir.i* coll\rc*tiile ei


pe st:i'iitu'ii curtc[i, a, circir lil]ertate cr-;r or-icurir ingriitliti

rle inicrriit:fiiie Llonlrarclor-trci $i de su.pravcgher:ea fnchiici. l\ir l-ii sc l'clLrgirzij, intr-o exislcnt;i irlaginarl, in
rnrjl<;r:tl n;rtulii unclc .li -sc impliuesc tirriitlc aspiral ii cle
lcrie ire, 1lc un tiliIiru .r I irrl, jrii, in car.c ,,1.rt ce te incintli
zi{

e ingiLrlrrit -.i rirr,'pt" ( [':tsso, Aminta).


J\: rlc ;i1Li"r 1r,lr te, 1rt'irrr.'iliilr.rr: i:rebuia, sir Ii sc olere 1u tli*
rrrr:1isnlr1lt, iil r rlrr r) l.r'{r'i s:ilr ,rl slrcctar:oI care sii i|I;if i:;i.z-c prr;l,lr';rtr: si siirr;rlii gr.:rrc t.r, Ic ar J,i
ltutrrt tulbrrr_a

tttt t.t-;ri lrl;"r.r'r11. (',)l]lllu,i;j, rIr.r Pr]rli, irr I)ril|i'i\-iir.t, hri lS7j,
lt:,)ti.ru u silrir;l.tu:rlit I;L t'rrr-ic:r. rIc.lis1r., r.ltltrtra. llrstol;rlil,
Arrtinta r.l li rr,iir-c;:t.11tll:i i|1 vanr acclrriusi arr cLt o inscl_r1al.e
llrilgrrii ici.
i"itrr-at.rrr::r ir:rsirrr;r)ir riislunil.ca rlircct c,sigcrri:clor pr:ilci'lr*.liti si. in cliip srrlrlint;r.t, unor nijztrinle ale
lroclLrJLri.
A'irrrlrr-si:;rr'sc {ie irr;1,irai.ie in sr:ricr-ire bucerJicc arc antichiri1,ii, ea itlc{'1.u;r.. c,r'ziu110, insi et.irzi.nea liimine cle ceJe
lilai utrrlle
t.rrrrlr:r-rnist:i,;
'ri ('i,:t!t'rr1t(,rrt ,.ca uu rlisctrrs fr,,rnos in eie_
lliilliil li,1'ruelor:
:rl rrirei r,ic,li mo[1ticc pctrCcni.e
iltlrrr sclir:irilt'.;ri:r rrlr.ilt.;i r.ilrr;.lrn.ilc irlilir.c_,iri<t r.urlik_rr,,r,
Sr' :rlilrrr';i irr liilr,rlrrr.:r 1r;rslo1.;11i. irror.r,rri.r r is;r{,i si :rltiIir i;riilrrlr':r
rl. r'rr.tr'. irr rl*r'r;r rrri 'l'rirqrrato rrssr-1,
'i.lii
t.r:i rlli lirr: r'i. ,\rrrilt.rr ;i Silr-irr, au <1rept conlcsori pe.J..ir:si
.i i).r Irrr,,;r,lrrJ1iitu csl,lticntii. SccJrtici, acc;tia din urrnir
:lrr cre'l i[ 1;ririt;r1e, ci io Iiitce'e, si si*t clt.parte dc iul.rir-c;r.
i.irnirl:i. si ,{ruilir ii t1c ingcnuitzrtc;r tin.rrilr_rr. ii itifrl,--11 iusj,
;;i-ilr si't-i;.rscrrltr: si lc clau s[:rtLrri.
Arcadia, i' a:r r. S;'r..;:a r' el.gi:rzi lii.i:r,rr trrra
ltastoralir
sl s:r.ei:tttlrtitst.:l l'i ccI tlirrLii scriitor (,-irre a cle$tajrtat
..lt;jrlrrlilt urloriirit-r", crr si ArCadiA 1t;ri tirzie (lJg0) a.lrri
i.'i;il i1r Srrl*r.,,,,, Dia'a lir i Il.'tcrtr.,\-., r, Cale,rdarul pist0rutrui rlr. :.tre
Galateea llri t'cr \.itlttes ;i Fistorul credin_
'srr,
ci$s (ic (lrr:trirri sitrt celc lr;ri cnno,sautc tlintr:c crc,lrliilr:
r';r trr l i i i lc i rr:ir i r-a tie p:i s1.r; r-e l:i a lr: Jlcn;lstcr- i
i.
lrlr:nicrrt*: ir:i:r1i)ralo sn;iiitcirzir si ir lter rtpcrtr; in r.iro1;t:ca !r:i
-.\;ii,5{' sr gii;.r,sii: r.|ts'rlul iuliir ii si}\.cs1l.c rlilttrc ,.\rrsr,lit,ii
:rr li.ri.,r'ri. il] Ierusal;rtlul liberat l:lirlirri;L:rilii dtilr:c.,. 1. r.r,,-

j'L.r,

rrr)

:i;tlt(tt.is. {tl} r:i1..

}.-XXXiI

p.6(il.

tr,r ( r \ r( li rrr-ir lc. in Don Quijr.rte sc ini'?'lncq{r c.iri[;qrri 6-,n'(.rlrr.rr, rrr j,il,,ri <tc nrrrzicir si 1rlcz.ic, 1rirs1.or.i ;i 1i,i:rlor.i|:c
r .rr, . ( ,t rristr) o\(;rlrsioniaiti tnOclerrui, iulplrrt'izt:ltzil tlIl
rri,'rrnl ;riir't.illril tlr: irrt:rcccra illti'-u1t ct,lt {rumos clE: r'xiirtt-it.
ln l)i, s;r lrri tilr;rlicspcirrc Cgnlt vd place, ellrrrci:tLr1 Irtisl,r;rl
llirl.rrtt';r, itl cltrc sit tlcsfirsoaL::"t crl lr.;,i t11;r]" 1'.',l.tc
,llr ;rr 1irrrrr., r'rr 1'risiorii;r lrirstoriteir: ci, arrl.r.rriir.a Slll tt'arr ,,.;l ilr.
lr I L'. { it yi cl'lrni:irtl I utt)pi(), o rlrr jrlli si :Lltrlrilluii
11111, I rr., ( ir(. cul)l.in(il, li,r:tr-cirt, o cotl.reilir.1ir. .tr.rr ll,: Ct
1, rrl. r,r riil,l rrl .sii:icsti, prilcjul <1: :r ir-lllze lrirr-e..rr{ili. 1r;Lsl,'r,rl,i, irh.:rlizirr(rir, l)rilr {lrlsiiica|r. I Iit,fii {-'iiilirr.llrrrsti;
r rolrirril;r I'lrclrr: irrc rtrin;r .,tiirilcit:-i I ii r,t:,1 r,1.;'1rii crr.ritr .e
r;in'i rrrir[;r". I:rr- t jrrrl 'l'or:ii:i ii ilyii':"r pirs'iorrrlrri ('r.'r.in tc;rjrrrtsrrri si l;,r'rrroce'it[o I'iclii tlr: ilrii si dr-r crrrl,t', rr vcrlc
,;i rrili rrrlr <lirr r:r'lr' rlrirrir ntt csil irlralli$i triirr:ri.l).'ri.r';tll.i [rrtr-tr', itt tttcclitil lr:l;r'i,,t';ri tlirr \rtlCrri
:,r' llr);tt(. irrlr'rr;r;1 r isrri rlrrci .,lrrrrri trr:Li lrLtnr"'. irr r'al'l e,r.isl:-t
irrlrirr', l)r i{ l( ni,. ,;rirrilr :.i illlrrr.r.. l';irlnn.;r \l-rlL.triii,r' lxtrc
;t lt ,ttt'irtt ttl l,rr rtttrlI t' r tt I,ul iill,i :rl-i :r| rlr'-l,i.,r,rii!r'l*{)t!-i1a.'t
Irr,lr,,r, l,,rr;r(li;i,rrti. :r unr'i irrlrtrnt;-rr'1. icri,-il- it't' iti.ialc,
irrt.rt: Irrttt' si l'irrr i ltittr,lr.r, cttrc inLlirirr-.ltrJ ijliiriirl)i,:irtrtr: si
Irrrrrru:;i'lr', triuntliLl riLnl nit:i rtu lii-,lrn.it stl i'" 1i, i:r'rrtrr: ci't
irrlr:{r';rzi. :;i trlLi c-,iistc, printi.'-o lrio})ir li 1l}ctiult{,tli!:4;:i. r\u
:,, iut(l{' ni,- i rrrlicar, c:r in basrtr, scri;ne tLrl rritLti llrl;iLrt r:lirLria
ir,rr t.;r ic tralrlltrlc; b:riaurr-ri <Jt,r'int siltis{r'u. 1al cciiirll.i
r'r'oi, t.:ili1 r'r:ftigirrl inlctc:Lzi sir l,.li .i iL. {r ttclrr5i.iltll., r'c., it
lrr viajii cir"ilizati, sc rrriirlcglrr;:ii so,riiiiriir. [,iri;,1r1['11
l),r\|or;rl din c\i:r'rcnlil cr!)il.ri'a iir-Lrl Ir,ri'l.i;r rio- tL,i Pii iltr
irr cortrlitiiLr e-\cci)tio1lillr' :i1c ul.rj j cs|i:riirllirl. I rr,,rtri.icali
<lc colvcni.ii, ci i;;i cnnosc rnlri bittc satrtinrr-'nii]if , r'rlicfiilr:,
rrspira!iiie gi gt'r.r;i:Ii1e. 1)upiL o iLtrti-. corrl'r'u,]i..t! r'{.c11 siirlc,
r{'g:riiirlrlLl-si arrtrnlic:itatca, ci sl iiol, irrllr:llr'ir jt (llrt.r,
circj, c1c acrLtrr irtirirttc, sirrr inr-rrlnr-rllbili;'r'ol uii,rlrl.r 11l;iL
{,.\lel-ior colivcnl.iile ci, ctt lrc o L;-t jli"l c;i.l'c; tc ll(-'{)1)ijt'f , (lar
lrn lfi schimliil Jiinia.
PocntLrl cpir.l a1 licnlr;tcr. ii -.- itrrilir:rX, iltr'-,r uri,.r.ri ir,
t'popcca clasicir, plin iul.errlcrjiLil ruLri n.irirl.iuli .!ll-lrii;itc
tl.in falttrla cposrrlu:i. r.r'ri:dic"-;11, 1:i111olr:11.r: L] {.tiruril,- ;r;rLi'i,;rritatc: ,,c1ispr-rzitia suilci.c.Lsci, it portlllrii r::stc rlul;l;i; irc de
o p:rr-te prcgiilir.pa, si cnlLLria iu I trrrrlni.;-iiL 1r]'.)i{ iiL.1z:i rrlLprrtr"ir-a e.:cnt*i :ur'r.liclulu o lnntii pe c;t ro iicl'iL it sri o r-lirlc-

hXXI(I1I

iu r';rr-c virrlu sc llirnifcste cu cllcrliiL:" * 5;.'!1

ei:rte, Lil'pe

tTe aiti, partc luplcle-. carc sirrl lil lgj dr: iir-i:ir..-.{ie Ia iullirrilile ,si ri.zboaie1c din tinipun :i.Lr, r,.i..riitrtr I
llprr'i-frnrl.:t'ri cirnca;tere a rn:rtcrici..."I .l)r: ai.:cei, a.ili.rlr_l.itrea
1:aro:1iri i:i ata?ame:rtlri Liric fa,;:li cic e.,'irn t:rci-li1 ;.;irgi.ir.it
:n'.! Fc criflrid, Cici in pocnul cpic itali.n ..hr;:iiil n.cr:rla:1,
,i"1,:;ai nLl sini in an'riiczii, ca Iit {.-lcir-ati::', ri-.:,.irj,_:;c;lj.j..tu:rj"
sc ilii,ilun-1 urlii pe a1ta, siirt rtirt"czcrri:;-l_-;rc. ii--ui..:iiii a. riilr:::L
di;r _a,,'r:slc lunti ca.;:c 1;rt:ir.tiL ii.tirl)j.al, ci p1r_-gi,;.11 ccjcilJjie. i.
trn :,rti'rir:L;ri llc ilri5rlloL cu,r:rllri::;r.i -- l.r.c1lLri-i, tiL;clrl,.:,,
rit.ttiiicir{ic 1':rrtlltstj,'it lr: t'.;jrl.ilnii,,.l ,-.,.,;i.iitijl-.;l,l,e iuclLrl:lt,ii,,
iit tl,r'r'r,lri lli{':.{il.lrrir'i l;r ,\r.ilsIo iii jrr'l'irr:r,.:f. fefusalinlil]l
libelat.sl. rr* i.r,r.r;ir t,1il,.: r.u r_r .,;tii. -cLriri.tL ri.,;i. i).,-t_i,.ii;;:ic,r
iiici;'irr-i it rLlL,tItlui lrL c1*-'str.'i rrr:rrcr. r ir tl;;:rrliil,ll: i.r.;,Jitit"
:;iu:..sc rll.t r i;r rn.:iiioi-a i',.gc,n.1,:i si i:iLtr jri,,:ri,,i jll itutr:ri: ic;,i 1.risi,,1ilit p:r'sll: jeIor.,
t.:ri;::jlnI i.iij.r:r:1.; .i 1t..ili -ri:t jutr_:r-L-.
"r,,:
{lr''l.ri
i.li it i il c a I i i i t lidc azii irrr:;:ci:,git .

l,

, i, . ,r i ,.i',;rl rrt i t ottli.t!1';!. Scriitorii !il scalne il',' g'"rstui


rnuli tLecil dl fi.ri:cp1, ;lrlr, rrlrri ,;, ' t,rt()r r]ririiil:,in're ;i mai
1, l, r rrlr r, , {1.'( liir;i Lopc d; \icga iir Arta noui de a lace
t'onrril il r..i \\.'lr:.tti ir'. prefa!:r' iir. Diavcl;11 alb, 1ln br'19tlg
,1, ,'r, t'litti 1r',1'llg1 fi o atn)tiito2re vorbirc al'ilta1:i irlarir r'( l)li, l!ir l!.'rsonljcior clin tcatrul clir'iibcLan i;i srir3"1!sl'
' itr lrili , r,i i, it clc lraitcplat3 i!r {i cli:. scl:nclc' r'io1enLe
,r .t,,,lr'.,ii, 1lLl -sinL dOar clemcittc c1e spclt.acol' cl pul't1"11,, r, L ("\lrr'\'rivir alc tlllor problc1rle exi:itcjllia1c-, s::l'uctrtri
lr i r rr r r irtL'ri t-r ll tt iri c1r ip autcntic cu {r-:irnintiii:c:i unci
r'.,, ,i r,ri rh",t rtiti zlst{L't ca{)ilbilc si l'iclir:c i.ntrc'bilii Nr'113ritl

I 11,-r

.!,,..;

!i rtti it i ;,t::i tt i i,
i.til; it!a iu;'.:-o j':t3f iiirl srI i'i:ti.i,;"t!
."i,1 ;f11[l.ty,f it" ct!tiii ;i .i>it:y i:it.itc;,ii !
' ' ,,1 1 [,r / ;,1 ,,; '1, ,i i.,,t.,
1,.:t 1' ttt,il i!,tr, lI titi)tti lt tt , tt'i .:: ,, ,j
.!,,Iit,: i ;;;,;f r' .;; li 1.1 i. ,,111,i),.,,
..(.' ;rt

i.Lr..::

i:ttt.

t ;[

!1

tttt lcltlitt rl, ,.ltlt'lt.l-t lLttir'':'


ilt I'liltliil .riiliL tLl'r tl:;l
t.rllllllr
t
ill
li{r'l,ltl1i
'l:. l) L'rr.
(, r. r.l .'ri l-iri,ilL sllu lpri putin fis, cz'" irr ltil.clor't,, tot;ttittdiit

I tt t!:' - - in:iilc,r-ii::tl:lc r1c rcplici intlc tr-rcrsonajr-r tllrtiif ior, ,1, l, s,. ir.ii'iul unci intr:igi coil\relllionalc *- prczitrtiL
i'l r, rrr ri i.tr'gr:;.irir P:'liri1 speJi:lcologic {iilcit ca lcliomen
I I ', 1 . l..itc'r':rlr,tr;t c inicl'csatii c1c t:a mai cll1-iD{:1 1.'i-in cr:oilli,
r.i ,i,iii., chi;:i lil -[ii-.r1?,cti]'ro, <lt pil,Ji. 14. 51ra1;r:pcrrc.
l-)ranalitisi tlin toatl !ir-ile cunosc si prcti-llcsc r:t':ttittcrlia
tl,.'i'o,t' t. I-irlt:ciii, cinC croi din piescle lol irnpl-li'izr-'a:;it,
l.ir1lr1 tr--atin in tcatm, ei o rncnlioneazit cn pe lllr illod'tr'
;l-' pililii iu Tragedia spaniotfi, FIiel-onimc :il)l!r.lc' clild inrL r:l:'rr,ilurili'peiitrlr rcprczelltalia couceput;it 3i <[ir:r.iatir ''it el:
,',

(',r :i (,tr','i'J lrri.\;.iLrsirt, Ierrrsalimlrl Iiberat,-:i,,r iit


lt:-ir;r.,-:L
tr;t l),ri,:tit rlLr
,-1c rtLtriit j:i ,:liu
irlt,_arr-...l
'lt:ri;1ostc, Dilc.r:cntl

: ;|,'.ir

a r.irr.-:l:Li rii a-.olo urilc irrbir-c:r atr1.irilii., lf ii:;,-t.i.,di .i;i. ,11;_


;;iq tr i,ri)iri1l ;i ir.ltrre,ptir, loi.itirri C iri.i;rrj,.,, j, c.in,l t; rr_,tiirrr,riii.c i.'iiui i sc rii:sface) , Iirrniilia jrii;l ir:i..,,: t:inilc lil j.
':l-.lu;r t-rii, llinllii.,r sc d:cla,ii r,b al .\r:itr,i,,lri. {-.:_-lli.e
sli;r;i,,riln
1,'.)it;ll:.rilri. .liinrl,l,r, r:iib:r:at l]trllrit cliLl;jil ,lri.:,riiti-iij:ii. tii-1.
,..1.lricca s:rptir-itatc;r. lrrigi:rci in:rilricc -\rritirlrr, ii ric.:lcrj:
,,"!-r-s ;':l;r.,' si carralcr''.
Ier*salinul liberat coll.ilittrca,ii; c:eta dir: a.sl:ir-:r.!iiic ri
tii:lia lirri I';rsso. fn plt".,n -sc af lJl. o I';mc cl.r: srntir;lcli:,r arlin.i
1i';rrrinii:ll, t1r vol:pletc;i cle mclancoll'i,,, lil cr.r.i-rt,,.lcr,ril-ln
rrit,r.io sc iilrhlc;tc r:u fr"ntasticul; sircue ii itijli.rrrctx.sc 1)i
i:rirtiyii lni Caifrcdr-r, iaine sc dcz\.itiui'i irl r.;r::, ijllte;i
::t-nvirrt(-.r'.zri o Iiipiur:il cafc ltiltiisc. Pocliir.tl I ii l',t::.,-r ,.:.ilt.,:1.
:,,r1

; !t! it:tti, ::lobii ltt rnitttc,


tltr !.tii' ttit ces,.s tle cLr s.t0']'t ,
trrt ! r.,Lii'I'i itt'.:ttt1t(, 't!']'ici f ii:sc" .
li::.p1iciniL ili:.-::l tr:agcili.i ifalienc in lk:naltl rl', i-'iLi:lk1i,r-rrlt .cribliniilzl-"1 nrclitLri scrii'to;:i1cr it:ll.icrri clil-l iiil al.it
,.Ac t,'';';

f,]uitr,tt,

r 1;ir. cii.. p. G23.


j c[^
Ciii.,'r:.1 l-,'cc]1,,Slttt!:r:s/r".tre's Trtt.:;tiirs
S !t.:,:lit:s itz S:.'::: itenlit Ct nlu,r't' i )!tn1?tL, Llrliilr-rtl,

l.).

tr,X}iXIV

l1 rlir nr ,r ri'ri itl l( tt't'ltcl,

r;it:

ltr'.t

'rrt

rr li 'rr rsL"tr', Lc,t1-t'trl il;rli:rn ;i lrairccz, c1l inspil":rlir lii r ,r .; r ;rlr';iirrii. iri'1,robc'l;e di;r crcaiii lilcralc t'irig'laice,
., ! .r ( \ ir.l ) Lr('il. ,lr.L'.n:rtLrrgici eaglcze 9i splr'nioic. Lii:lratlra
,lr rr. rli,.i :t t, l,rl Llr,itii !.iri rlc la At1;rirtic irlpiir:lii5e;te
l

.)t \ i
.[

0.i?i|. oil!!Y
l!!ili

iil'

-.')!\A

L}iXXV

yrr',r' ) ..i j,i ilrtct,, {r,r,:nr liil sr:risc i .ltii.]il t()jr iil.;:;,-rlut reillisi.'
-,
))lant;riurgie {r;iri:r-.;r;i;l ltr'riltr;it':rii. c{}rlsijr}d nr:ri rlirlt
riirl 1t-aduccli ,*i inriialii . rrir c!i* f iaJ.)ilij. Se st-;.irr l,r:rgctlii itr'rp.irate tlrin rlr:;unc irnlia{:', (lilt clriiira(le lri}rlite siin
siin rvcuir']tellle {tiin{{'ntliljl-:in{,. l.l;li.r:nnc -}l;liclie, f a.t.clrres
{ iri,.'in si ltnlrcrt: ( i.r rrrrr.r (.r-{,;i.:r;i o riranr..j iial oci. SrrJ.; j,l-.i'lrteriita contc(lici illljr'rr<.,.1,'rlr.'jie, Ijullr::.i,.r. (il.ivin, iie ].j:lit
;i i)ir::l'r'tt tlc I-ltrt ir( \' s, Iiu r'{111('(l;i Iipcilr 1'r. ();i.;.-;n:rlitattr.c.
,l:'.1;i. ittr;rt;irtr.;r lrri li,,il.,itrii ,i,,r1r|t. {t;r1r-ul ti;il1tului r:iiii:

,.1]riillclc (--.lrilc(lii itt

...f:i I'rl.r utl li,t',, t'.lt tr,iri, ; rt :i rtrir,'tit,ltIt.,

4 ilutiltuilt)] ,',:ttlri iti J,tttt! ( lti.l,t!t i rltt li.:


(iri f*ii;;t,tt a!,1 ai t.!ttli(, rr t.,.
,,,liri lrrittr,';,
t:!/ ; .filbtu .:rti t)t.i.t'u.l lat, t( ('titdliti r1r j,,.,.1
,4 lltliltit i.lrt tl.urtt t sr' ( iit'4.1)t(i 'l t rt.qrrlir,
1,".1:
fo.tt t'ttt,itl sitiii,lit..:.t (.lt;(tt.i)t,{i C,tttr',1 i,.,.(...)
.f ,,,t1tlI:, t! tr'I itr.iiitt[,:] i-n\;t.t.l jtii:il ;d lir:
t ;t'!.,t,i :t lt.ti,t.t ,,,i, .i.,.,:t.,.n 1 t,,.,,r',ljr,
,'Ihtli...lti,itl,itrrltt.:i
!t))ittl. lfti.irr {.?t,:ii?t, {trit}.;;li.i"
I rt (. iil t, ;t itt,ilit ,;lt. lta ,trt.ti. ('ttiltt:lii 1....1,
ltrt ltt, (it't, itt. l', r i )lti. (,t,:, itt itrl,jl 1tl 11,1t1,
(, /i ttlilr'.<li I,i.t i,ir,r iln;)ttttlil
ltrlttr,
t'ittt/. I'tinttr,.', ri. l-tt,.ti.srsi. tti.:t t!,titr'r,.Lci, .;i rl,titi'"
l'a-ilLt:iiat\i L!iit.i)( \lit'i tii !.c,,ti tiltts 1.1 ttttttti'"
-)rlrrc:i rir':irn:i elisirlrlirirri i:i lrrr, rrrr.lc,irl in t.rlrtliiil nlcrlic','rrir-t {irrisillc,
nlirar'{)lc si lili:tlitalil,
ill t.r'l}rL'?;c!1iiti-iilL:
.,1Ji[lriu!.r]sti rhrPll r:llrsir.'i llrtirri--

inclcoscjii itt grrsttrl l.)crli!l]


:i('llartrt, it.lltl)l'ri-isl)lillzift,rl.. rlr-'ltilstLlrcil {r':rgttdir:i sil1gcf i.}i.!sc
rylcsi r:uru se r:itr il.5. J;liot':, r)rlirinl.lL) r1c i;c srtni, sitrl lnli
ili':jr;iiri"r r1rllrit,i:n'c Llrlnrci ir.llicrir') ; {-... sc i}.tsl}irii. rlin soi'i,s't ii irt'r cotllr'{1ic
rit cu;rtc r) iui .f olrri !-i'11. (1,i5{?-, 16i}{i) , tt:rr
>r: rlr() l:laazi 1i rlrilli. grjslui ilulrlictrlrri Llrlg ill lnt()r tl"ritilr:
llr)liu llre , lruirlic irririir.l' ,il, llr;rrrl zqonrolo:i slrrt 11r' (,n'r(li;i
l-;r ri rl.ltoi'atc
llt,]r clnllir. tc :ii l]:t-siut]i Dirlltruicc ur.i t:Jr.:r.'r1i:rl.luL)lj i:tirtlstir'c- si lotlrl;t.t;-L l;ur.:rrlris sti,si vnrl,ir, liit st.,,ilii
1il'rt1rt'ia i"ctol'il'. i;si.c rritr Iulrlir: jtrrlr;liultlir', triiuia o til.rljr;r,

r
-[. liui'llili;rirlt, o1-i ',t'ii.. ',,,r1. il,
iiir. J:) 50.
: \'r:zi
t.'rcri I .sr./ir,r:,{.
i-,:: .ti, ,,,..i !'; :t,., ,.,,. irr: l'.:.
lI] i,rt, Sll,.r:ft,rj /;.s;l,i s, l_1r'rrrii. t:rli.

t_x)ix\il

T)t'iliril c1 se 1l::occtlll cil


rrr l, rl.,rr, ir ir;1',L r:ii';rir.'iitiiit':ll.
r',r\al iritLri,r, itr Tragedia spari0lS :i luL
i,.rir,rrr'lrl,rrirrl
I. .1. llt,. t,rttiirt,, ii 1r1-r']il1r.".i :rlli-'{-l:.it'i)liil'
..1) ir

.t,il

tt. ll., / lit.,.:.rrr,t it:lti:


i:t lt' t:|,t..;',

i:!il :':'t ii ii lll;

lr )t,,

l5$7', ,
It,rrr.i{rr':iiilrr-i,.ltiili'::ril'-lti-ii'ni.{;"i,r'.ir;!'1'.:i'1c{i55N?
I 'lr rr (,r, 'rr,' (1555 -l;giil , ir';ii 1i l\l.trl.rr"'e silll {"'li1l1r', rrl r Lri, ,l.rrrrntif,r:t rlr, ,,s1rir-itc ltlrivcttsit:Ll'{-)" (lt;t!'.et''
,1. /. ,'\ir-r.rli isi't-;i. (.)s[oli1 siill f il]l1bri(lg.' 1i iru ar' rt
"
lr'lttr:
i,,ilr ).,t ni( i l)r'r'si)\rctir';t. :;alisf i'te I'il{)llfrr i). rtn'li lltiliziIi
, |il[( r;rlL' ;t t'r'lrr[iti.:i lr,t'. \i,)11('(:]ll|oftr}isti, utr I,:l r[+ .,tintri
, rri ,.,r ;ri :r',rolttlrri, tttlcttllrji ,i irrpti.rtoii, ei i;i ilt;ii;'ralil. I'l ,.ir( ir irt rll1irrtr'lrlilrt rl,'1i;Ltirrri sj oltlrtiri.
lrr'' Pitt'l r'rr Ardelt dilt l"cvcfshaln,ll ciilr:i itil[')r it l'i"ilil1l'
i t'r1,- iit g('l)l'i't] o tr:igctlit' lt
i Ullr,,1 rrl, rlr,rrrrrr Ili;rlIirrit
r i l,rrrrrrtt ,lttl,.t ,,trit.,tt(,r ttllL l l,lrlr'l.lL'qi 1111111;1,i rr ilt.r l,r l,Lrtttlr',1 l,rlllllllll
,l ',t ,itt,tl rrll rr 5('li( illr,.lr,rlr,
li,.L, r,1,,,tltLt, t,l. tt.
:i., l)1,\ L'i1r'ri olo! i ,rii ii'rriit itt Didona, regina Carta'
1;i in{lr fit s1't'r-;iinci i.\l.rt'lo',,,',r. t|.rirstrr:iti'',i,ri.'rttcsal)il1.rr'o
, rr,,111,11 {Tragedia spaniol{). t'tr irliLt'crt' ii l'ai' l)c allii sa
. rl,, . li:rnrlxt:;, ot-i '{-;rn.ritiilr't). l)ari.r{)11:t.iui ;rlr lrtr:!;i. 1)r:irl
("r1'rr'{1-"r1rl,rgi1]i'i; lilr)!liJllliiiliil
lrri itt:rcittl;l:i
, rt ,-i)nilittc
rllti.tu'ii lli)ll11l{', t't:tlilst-'llL tr
r,r.:i l:riof,it:i ii siril;llilit;rr-,'ll
-iir.lirrir rliritL!it;ttil.i., itl r-lt-t,rti{lrti"t:,1 tli: o.l)iisirltli-'tiriiliii.
l.iirrl;rtiiri lrti rtvi:lt:rr.l i,rrtd il't,rl irt: lllisllra sitnJiLriritr.ll'1'-,i',
,\rrrolrr^ l.otilttt ntt rl.:rr tllolri::ttiLt tl 1,orl.rilii. L.tr pi'rsotlltj
-l'lLttti'l'llttl, riLstttiitr l
i.i,,niir)'ri-.;rzir rlrririrtul cttviiit: li{ lrii
ill Itf{)l{)g a'.ttotlll i;i
r lii:i.strttLrI (qi'r'.,r! tti:ti !ltttttr!tt'ttlll,
ii;tiiltl. I c['.r:rll.ili llilrlii til ,li i] i'e iilrtii i)i"i'ltl.tlcrial.t,,ani'lllillt rll l iLrrtr-'lr i11 1ii'rtt.'tc (t1l\,'illir: r'i' ii' itlli)ii)t.ilrJc".
St|uc:LrLIil.r sluriti:;pl:llfi$l'i,' se lrll;tLt itr 3cr111r'llc lll ili.lr*
ptrsrrtlltjtri.
tlitiltrrlicc,
irtr..'le l)fcdilr'j'rr-il1rr: {Ui:iL1 illljtillil
ollLrlctrtlr
\'ci-l)i1 lii,
i'tl,iir;t
irrlc,
pirl,.:l'rric i)fi1r [):lsilult.', \'Lll\';1,
cllilllliLL
tlc
J..[ur:rfiU
ilcllli
LiliLll ci'etrji11i'1iii:lo1:ia:i:iillllll?i!lil
r.ri
i1]ljr11\;l
ocio
1Liltit.ola
iir ${amlet, ciitii r-c:1.r'.ic
ir',rt:.1,i
sli:rrr
r-:li
uitzi:
i'.ri
i'ltil'._'- S|l.tf1i1,ri-ii

LI \ \\'NX

,.... ir.: lt tr lt

ti.t't,,7t:'tii,,.::

:i: scirtit:.,t:: 1i, ,n.t:ii:,,;ii. ila-ai.it,t.); iti i


j/Lrb si rIt: s!tiii:!:c ji::.!et:d!i,

.:\t,:.,'

.,i,.

..

'i,':.,,

cl,',r..,t.t,.,,

!/ir,ili, ri.:.1t f.isi';1i,.1t, i-,:,;1


'-.i.t:[:-otl ,l r:i,; ii,i .,: i.r:i i.!1 l;ilt.,-]".

,lir';,r l,;j

ilr

:.,,;i,ii,.

arJirr.r:

l:;.llc

{..r

ii.,;illrri

,-lt:ii.:lr,t-r--rt:.ii..i:t1t l.l_

t::: ::.], l..l t.t.l

e q:ritcl lir'l tl:: :;ri,'::1 r(.irl.l i i.rlrzjilii r.i r j.: iri..,, . ,,,..." I r. ; i,-:lr-ii:, l'i ,l' r''l',-i'l I,L I Srltlr.ltrlrri, rl:t rtr':tllj,.1t:1 r-l.r.r;'i,..r. :i il,-:
gt'i'.\'t'1i" ili-Lr11lq'1i'q, ;i l.r t.;i il, rrlli lrtrr'rtr',ii. ,i ,.-i:t l. rlil: t_l:ln!11 uit:i llitltll.rlr ,;tr ;ii inlrt.ltir'1r lii.(.lilili,l
.1,,,..-l ,,
i}ririllii Ciir:, llr.1.1i'r r;j.zi,,rrL'r,r'ii r[.ri ilt : {l -, , ,., iLr,:i_.1_ii.l,,i"
fti '-'llltli, clglir..zii r.ll:ii trruli rl:c?t rr:.irrl l.r r.. i,i'lr.r-:i_r:-;r,,,

llllfJ a izi;:iciti s,,iiltiin--n.tl:!I prlccarri :r:; i.i g;: ,',,, rt.i. fr..l:,ri
i.i *ql .iile i;r zl;uciui-nlrl ir;111j1,.,. rtr l.rr i.;l_rl"r,r:
si i'i ,li';lorli,;:iJc scci:Lie tlnr,11.e, viclcr:t: ri r.1,,.,:i,,.,.:: :-:,r,,,1r,,.i:::.1.
ccll'lL,-;'i.i:oze, prirlctl;rca. 1)i-oL.stantiLrrr yi ii.,ir,-ti rr ,..J_t,.rliit:.lri!', tf:rr.r:ifr)fiut'ail;1 p:pillal:iui ruraltl stato:n:,tr) iix lt.iitatji::i
{iiri ;,i11,,:rti-. tirt c.-;irl'.:tlli. lil:r1itr'i1.iir.t ,,;-;r.il r.l;tr-r.. Ardi:l-i di;t
FeV;rSh:i,lt rric irt;,rillrt.i. rlirrlr'.r> c r.it,r,'i, :.i., lr-ri;iL irr
.l:ril.'i.^
trlr..:r.:t,', r l.lrri rrl )r\"1 lir.t \i .alt,ti-i'ilii il.r ll :l'rr,,lr.rl; r|,:..i
i,:uitl,,,aj,r:til ile'' JLrt SIt:rlicr;1tilr i1,) :jjitL itrsl:Lr.:r,i.t liinl.r,t::i:;lr:
,,1.c ct iqrr'. r'r.rlis:rrll.ltr
;i c1u rIi. IL.rlilr.,tiirril, :.i .:.;.ir: ;],i.[ i]-li-;::ll.
ul.;r ire il.lrr i:lr-r111 rlrlgliei.
Pci.ttrit .LI ii:r:r-tttiino lrrni'a c .,1li! 1t.iiiil. rll s..: irrll;r.i.rl.i.i,,,
llli5iliri si.ri:c ltri.:r.1"ti), 'hlc.r:Lu:li:o i1ll.tlit irl ?'raglliif Sitiilii,rl.::
ci], e-v"i:i;':l!ii,

..f ir-rr:i l:tit rti:r :ti i:'1,'c tli t li:lt::t


li: tti't ir,il,'rli t'i.iiI t sIii,i:ttr,,,

tt:.,t.

sau:
,,

i,?

,ii't,-

i i. :t I

;tti

it- t:

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: 1:.:;

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i t

i, It r g,i i t
;t t t,cttlt t i !t!i, :rir-.t.,,*.r.'

i, g

rl!: a-

i.t, !

-q:rit rr al,reptiri.ii, t-erl;:u1

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.r,

I. rr (

', .

,1,' irt

r1'r)'"rr1i"ri s:la1l;.:i1 r..1calic\:;l-1 ;i lit:r:r.st',:;:1ist.


',i;,.;
',.-'t',.rrjrjiJi'ri. i, i:i-'pr:c:rc:rt ritii ait3'oricrl iri.l:-:-irl

ia ie lL:l;i:li taiua, i-it;irii'iilg:rnici. -"j.. jl;t1:;_riit,u,i


a i.ra'L;-.rillti tnedir\'.r i ;,-i,.ri, - ,:.
' .;rlir,i rr.risi.t.'utll icl i;r Spania pri11 i-olul asur:li. ti: lr:i:::.,,r.::,
irr,u i,l 'r::r1i11trt.i aai,i];oi:irirL:llti :li1;rtf1ti-a o;tir.-rit{)}: i1.tlt.,ijrrt r rl,: r:r,forll.irc. _\iii lrisp:rni.rl;, cit.[,. I]fant11 !.ru Ptl:liar,"
1.i 1,rri.rricsr: ]r'li,'lir:t-,', i;tlr"c i:tr:r,tj -{it.r;'.1;i:)t[-i!a:s ii
1-i.],'rtjirL
I' liL,i,is r',tr',i;lr ;tl.
'l'.;ill,., (il,.lill
rt r rr il' rri,r -rrlr litlril lilr,'r', .l i;::,1tit trt riirt , tri ;trlr J, i,iir', , t:ti1rrl,r:iii: :ri ir,1;i'n !i, is1.l i,-'
i ,rrt ( \ l llitrlr ,tlr. .r lr' ,i1, l. i ri trtrii rlLt rt'i,.trt:i Liililllttlill:iii ,rl:t'i::r,
rrL: lrrrrSri, | )1Ltii,'.,fiiiljtr drl titl-"ilil jic c1u cr:nticc siiu il-iti;rc. l
.t ttII; '.; .i.]ii (ti!tt;!.[:{.!,is.
t'.r -i. in '\:,..tli;1 , lc;,ii.:irl spar:rL;i {:'{r:!;1L a..'rr.rjrc,ii i-r r'[l'anlli,
.r L,l,:lriill;1.1.ii, ri:rr: ii;, i.tirrLt tr.: c::i;riJ. cli:;lbciailt ll, jlllrrli.e i:.1
:;r iililc riiir 1.t;-,11i"ic i.;rilirli-,-li" cirjt(i",t:l rie itoil .-ilt:lr:t'ilc ,-,i
.irll'r ir"tllntclc ..s:Llcr. j,-i:r.ijitilit jiti sFa u j{r j, {.1! j'c :r,: r-i;ti-'nrr:ll ;,i
,il irr r:rrinlirit. rra {tr.)]:-j:{lii;1iY1;:ii, r.i;1,r1 Fl"r:irrilt--cIji: l} :c 1lri1tlr.
:rt;lit;-:ri:\: il;ia,ii{,i ru11\irnfiurlllli.-, JJLri'r, n giriiii llipii0io -i
li-;i cor.trta j.rlr:ilc .,1 jlci'!ic\rcl'cii jili , cti intcnlia clc a cr.rrr:rurn.tlr: c(iDvcD'iiiior-, r.lhi:i.r'tllti lr,:tIi:l ;l:;i. itrca.lr:1, iiciltilnr.tll_:ol!,
tiilrd. inceir,: sJ.;o.,.iic i-ti:::r In{r{-lii-c;aLl, a.sa clrm sc iltirrp;l'ir
,1c pilri:i c,-l S.'gi-srnultrjr; dilr Viatg e 1r!s (i*sl tlu :r; aLr Iredrr)
Cicspo er:oul Aleadelui din Zatramere)n cL dcscopr'rt: zidij.i'iti*
cia c()n\-.1i.iiilcl si tit:.gc couciuzia rhsr:rtirciunii r irl ii. ,..i1-,:
e vis j cl se riie in:ii ltrin,,'i ilrir-u lirnc bar"ocir.
rr'i-r

Lrlr.,'

L] i'rj:'trii, ilr-rlrii

r li:_rrl:r..1_.rt.r

ii aci;i:tii onr-rlui luultia justifiari a r.1ii'i.nitilir. Jf:ier.,_-;1,::*


re n ci este ins5. iuscfili de ;ubnciura tragirr: e;riltiiltin,rrl*
si;r.t pu';crni.cc; oinul ailS c'.r clezn;:rdtjr_ie Ilnt,,ucie conilr,J.ici
sir.lo. tri.ii.buflt.tite ltncorj t:;,-,.zvr:j.tir.ea sa iltpr,-1 r.i-,.;,1 rrrri,"-r:l::tniri. Tir.ilr-.;:';i11 r']'c.i sir lrir-ca:;ci pimintcl irallr.r1 .j.;i lrtirjt

tr-:ilix\rIm

,i: .,., r.:.. : I ..-;...r. |- r.,:i.:ri.:.:t .{.l.t: !r ) r... l


i ir,. rriil. ('ilt. i ;,t,,.ril Co;:iltlil, I-ear cctc Lra ltai.Lii::i
' r i. r' .i. i r,.r' j.'.
l),r 1'Li. il tr:rl-l'li1 iui Shelic-rirll:r-c in.,-;rt,i olt.ll1 tlj,.,1
i,.rrr , i rir -!i;'.;[ ,,ilit il: t,trrriili'tn
ricnrtil-;t.t,:.
( .r .i i,r 1.:,.-;,rt, lf:ltl-iti-li.tnrt;'i::iji
se,jezvoltL ill iiir.r,:r;:r
rrlr rritl,r, i1:r. --- ri;ir'-liij, sr-u piin 1]rijio.rirc:l I" ll j:i
i
r I r rrrrri . r i i,', :i rirli.'.i ii:rli:itr, :r 1.1':rd.ifiiloc nl:,lii:."',',1,-- lr',:i,.;[
, rrir,r, ,iir', .i i.ri.cr].) ;i I ll.L:iiliiiri i:o1..riilrc"
ti

rotl. Litr clll.rl.u lli r-c nil ;tcitr. isl,c s c 1t1isc; dcziu\-oli i11t l:-l r1
rl i:iii:lri i.rerinreL"u itirgit nu il in].tiLL, ci c-.:tc
rlimpolrir'.i,, Uil iitli:r.il{l r itnll'r!. ii,:irVil.at.ca c1e piotie::at a
iljtilllii in.:,:rljir.t-r1.1tl slti'.ii jl.c 11{t,i pi} i,:e'rc r.rca s;i le cuno:tscji,
I1l c:trt(ri., Lt, lr.r,i-iJ. ;1. l.lil.r-tit{llii :ii.ir. llabcjtris ioloscgi,c ;-ri
E

cl;:rrnos,

I-)i.IX

T-Y

rlosc peririlc gtrogleficc cil;-, t:trti liLcittc -'':Ll,: ILri JacrSLcs


Cartir,r'.
NatLila nu rtlli cstc r-r ,,t'lrlir lr lrlingr:l'ii", i i ttlt 1t'{: t1c rccuhgm:c, rltsfitlric, ltc!irttlr:. rr'rtitt,l"ii liu L)lrlltll':i (lc coroiltl.Je
siicj:rrilor si gusi.ii riic{)itri it i'lf}iloilof '-* cli .Itr;n:;;i lr1 in. p:i-

tltr-cl (lllinci, lirnl ini rrlrt-il - clt .i,:lr-'lli;lLr,i, itlllelt{ll Ir'iltll'icr d.e lilii.
f-ar-ir
- coucr:ntritrcl , irr fiirrl;r tttit:tnii,;i :r ililL;giiilrr, i;i
f)ritt
d::{Plioii liottr-r;tu iL ;i ;rrr1 l'(,J)r)(:('ili ristllrli. lir:trasli'r-ii si I izittlrea.
crmirlrti c;r ttliclrtirti.turr)'i irl ( ir r'\' s\' l'rrl)i'll"l , ilt sc:tt;i li'tlttsi"t,
iililcroc():in)()srrl. irt sl,lrlirrl l(L ll'r::li'r'ii t 'lisii tttt 1'tt;tct SaLitrat tlt att:r lo'3ii. ,,'\t:r:st l)tlll( 1 (:il(' {,llllll , t'l t':;iL' itl pt.olrli:1 ic
cir cclilt, ca ;ictl allitniiL('l(-'t,i t'tr irlttttilii', t,t sitrr P;ilniltttrl,
cu nlctalol(r, stalactitclc srt.tt {tttl.tttliit'(...rill,;r{irrlaLrllogiilol
fste i11 fi.int-[ un sl)etilt dt rrltli;Llit' t)ttttrl r':'tt' ittitts rl ilr
toatc pir:lilc tler e:lc; clar actl;isi ()111 11illl:,lllil\' ''i itl sttts itivels,:lsi--|litniLrilc pe Lra.i'D li lrt'irrlt'slt tiitr lirtrli'. lil cst.er
rrlilfclc l:i,ca; al pr-optlr!iiior, ctttLtt: I itL r::t rt'l'itt:;ii-si giscescil'
splijin toi.tfo raprirttlf ilc si tlt tttiilc rlt si!ll llili r'iitl rtgtl
rtIlcrltirtt'.'t'
(, l iilrir.ii li('llrll( l ii llt, itl ilJli\';l1i li iri.iri ;rll,iiL)li l (rnllll;lil'()C1)\li)0s.
1l1.li\cl.j, (;1. l)( llll t;ll,'ll ttti' t'rr'r'trtrr
l,rti ('ttsltttrts i sr'1rltr-L'.irlrIi, ir)il:iil ([('llllllrili'it ,,tiIir'loti'rsntrL:;"
pJltl'Lr ont, tlcoltt't:r'c t.l clt pltttrl'.. itl liitt' IolLll,;liiititil"l-sc pe
1'r'trit ttt.ti
,,ccrr rttir.i in:ilt.it trer'.rp|ir il llilLllfii,)i'iniiiioltl-t':i
joa.:;ii tr:capti"i :t naltrt'i[oi sl!l)L]iri(]ill-(r" {l)*spre ignoranta
care se cfinoafte)' I)cittt'tr.l)illil(l('l:iLls liii)11 ] ui'iil tilt lttil:rtCOS11()S--i-rdiCi, tr11i y1ltSUl r;irziri itt J),'i)ij1,tlii litji'qlri.itir'" i:tr
111ri\:c-r'st11 cste llacr-rlt't.rstili.rs ori l.l\'g;}.ilrr()i)'.;s tli"-'i l iitrta
0,,r,,a,-t..,i1sc:ii rcprotlus;-i pl o 'qc?r i-i lrllli'iiir. ilirfol itli sir;rilitridiirilor, cLinoa;tcreli t-'tlttltti li lr tittilr'i.-;rltt i,:lu1ri;rii lllli{ do
cca'lal1.ir. i\IiiuIicc Scit'c scri,-' tlrsprt' {-'Iil llli lr"i:lrr I ilirzoiic
irrlitriiat Microc0snroS' Si prtnlltt l;i-411{'r)i'j t1c ii;tlcr,'oilrtrl
cs|e, c1upl. sFirsa cclor tlirr rci:llitlrr,), 1l 11 l'czt!illi'ii lri lrrttrii,
ciiri niciocla.i-it ei trLt osLr. ill accilt.,rt s1;tt't'; irr r itr't ' r ( ll)qc
pr :r{rt:;t ltimini. ca aIeltr, r;1 ltlrltrll iiltr-r.r li('i 1)i}it'iril-ir Icin|irnc 4c nli)ciit-i cttltr bir il 11i,.: ci'i. rri'asfi--t s|rr-'r'Ll'l'll'i'1i, Ira il
iirl-orc 1a draaPla, i'ri'in c'ttslrii1l i.., i);r. iii ri-i!;a Iiirt itrilrni|e
1 II ichel liorcatti{., /.f'.q r?iiJl",s P! lts fiti)\(s, 111;,' p.y;i,1:;'7'lgi,g
rlts scts;ir.'s lt. ttttrtti ttt.:, 1'.r i., tr,tiiit. plt. lt7 . illi,

1 111, l,rlrili rrr;r.:rinqrtri rlirt ril:lc sitJc, sail ln[car din or:c,
rr , .! | | 'iir r. r:rr vrui) iiltil" (Introducere in viata cucernicd).
lrr t Pi;1ll;r. in,:1yi113.1;. lui Ilhilip Sidr:ey, ullde autorLrl
l.rrrrrrrr..,tr. :il'rl.iilr iir) rLi;ilognlui Alungarea bestiei triunrtdlr);r(., ( iillrl;ulo ljnuro lliitnir cit ,,in oricc om, in licclrre
,rr,lrr i,l, :;(: (,)iit(rillr)lli (] lirnrC, ui1 t[11i.\:Cf:i".
\rr.rl,r,:iilr; irr'i.l:c icgi.ic astrr.it{rr}ticc si lindlric1iic socir.}Lr
:,r',rll.r ir)\,'lilc ln ltLri:zilr sltal;i:spurian;i din lairnoasa rcplicii
.r lrrr I li..r'r'l'16i111s gi CresSidaJ:
.,t)

itin.y t:t:),ll,

{t;It.ii ;i-rrtr'sI ct}tIr!r-{rI Iitnrii

lir .;1l,1.siri :iri:,:ltrl, ltrt f-tt., lat:it/, titttt/,


l;ti. ;tt.ctt !, ti tit fl/., a/t)iilti(t, J-orntrr.,
!.ti !tiiit(l.rrrfi ;i sit-jltit tiii,luitd.
i! jt,tct t (. )it.(t.,:t, ;lit()st.tI it:tl'1.t. stttrC

'l.tttitttt. ii in, itirti!,


tt

iur:ttpj11y11i

: !

{ ,,rr,, 1,i r.r lrri I li ,,


',,r, 1'rrrr,lc irr'.rr',l,.r.ii irlir.,rt rirtlirrC
t,tttr, t .rl,t .r l,rl,rrl,rl,r \ t.,lrnrj rrtlrlir,r,.tlr' .r trrtirt'rsttltti clt
Urrrl.rl, ri r,illrr./,rirr. l)r';rlllr.l:;l olrst'i-r'li1 r.:i irrr:r,:irtt'li r,rttttll i lrr i, l ()( ()snt{)s 1 irrt: tlc o tt-:lrlil ic iteopltrtoniCitrtrir, rt:atrirrr;r l.i. irr r.r'rr I rutrriirr -si ir" irrrtr:lirrI.ul Jtcnlrsicrii.l
l,-rorrl li(.nilJ1.l'ii ;i, lricrtiut insit f isita.tc.;r oricntiirii
t t,,illtti lllr(iit'rviil, rl:rr''e llrtllt:.ica Sii, .l ir: ilttru tOirrl asCntCrti.
r,l,';rlrrirri siirr. jic:lr:tts1l slint.rrJ,;rscclrrl satll c.tritlcrril. Pr.oi( i(', l-rl'i11 olloz;1ir: i r.r t.i, 1rrtl'slrnajul litci'lrt.urii lcnascr,-;riist,.:
rirl t.':.itr: <iuliulrr It'rntltncnl.ii r.le a-;i rlovrtli lrtrllir-:irr,
rrr,,r'itrrl l)ijrs()t);rI, r--;trt; iti:lt1r'rr r.l rtu sc 1tt-r:zinli int;--o |:rtl:i
I igirl. llrcr[e'ucrrrr iitlrtir ; irriruvizrrt in linii nenrt'cizl1.r: int-il ,
:ri'trst rrrc'r-it. s.l rl(-fr"rl tlrlinit;i
cl perc a collsLu, l.rcntlr.r fit'r:t:
irrdit irl, nLr (i.iji ('{)lti:orJilitr'::1 , cc irrli-rttrri zlrucirrr.ntrl, ll lrt
iri.r:l'1, ci rlirt r:i'rcctarc;,r. itlr.iiiositit, a pr-oltlcnrr:lrtr.. epotii -*i
rlitt ciiul;rrc:{ l)l'i)lrie i :iritl'ut.ie jt;l ti, oricitil lri-rririnlarc i-:rr
ir{lu0c il(cs1.clr.

{'ttLtr:attul lri,rli'l ;rJ lrri (-iriliqliortc r-'ste .,ontLr1 rie jrrrne


itLcll",
se r-ic llt;rciilritrilt- - ,.rf.r cum il postrrlt'lrzli cn[1"rrra, lr:(,iti ctiril i, {r:t {} i itint*iitr.tii, a ci, irt:it curtcil lrrtr-c si
{itl tirl:rriii 1};-'lliirl ri, iiLrl clr,::jIti.rii r.lrtr-'it cl prtltlil t:urtc. (...)
["r:rta ilkrli,:rirr';i, tirltr-J r':tirri'i - r]t'si lLii trilttl 1lt nc-al si)rr1]{J
i ( f" l\t. l-trrnclrulj;, ,r1r. cit., 1r. -i6.

XCI

-- nl e:.irl s'ir.r.iil..--a prir^L::iorirri, ci 1t:-oltria sl r1,.,:,.',_,,'ii"iirL-."1.


Sirlr il-:iriril:J nlriLu r.rlil.l'Lii l)J oi{rc iit cr-ri.tei]it tt'r.btric si
1.: ;iii;.i; intrrrs:riri-ii est{r, i! :lfara tritLrrr;:; act,sLor insu-.iri,
exi:1r.r:.Lia i:nei personalit:il:i unita,rc; clirican-.11 -- afirtli Ca.stiglioLr: ._'- tlcbuic ,,si'" sr,' lrcrrtc irl toete iLrrpreju;"irr-iie ti ia
tot ceca ce facc astfcl incit s::l-si riirninii cl'crlir.ictios sil insnli"
aiciri.ninC iir toatc inr:ririi'llt hri rin siltgrir trlrir ; illl-alest
cliip fiecr,rre lucru pcr c::rr-i'-I r.a {ac': n,':i iz-,-cri "qi la {i alcJil*it
ciin to:rte iusttsir-iir slrit:""
,,()r;trrl irIc;rl li l.ii'rr;rqlr,r'ii c:.1i'lrtt.l i.,irl;11,;,. c;iLc s:c 1a-q5,
.'ltt slrllilt tttrlci i,t;'r'il;r. s:r si r';ui', intl,irli ri('tra, isi crl.lizL
f.:rolrlilt L:l luttto (...) itt r,1:,r;:ii il t'rr sijrrtLrl liri,tii,:r-ai, el
su{ei:c c r.inoirc neoorlillrilii.' j
Iii se poati: nnini trrinlril ILt i - ( ir l'r. l)ir i i rl ll. ca.li'a in{.l:e
i:,''si:i,.i-, atit cle rlr;il,tc lil crr-r;ririir lrri Slr:Llilr;gir--erc *- in
crnl.rast cLl llotspur, <1rr-r'nil obi.t'cl;rl cli'r'.i.riurLii Ir'irr {iihiitltrir. lui ncrlitl.itir in fafa. irir.aluhii i:izLliiril.
lt nlL;rgoirism cu belici.-iinnl. rin',i1 FXotspur., cr-ou.l itirel
d"in Jiclnstclc estc pa.cif.isl" G:l'ari<lgciilicr, iliu rortanal lui
i[i.llrr'!u it. st' irilri:;tcr:.;i c itrii vL:r:riniti siil. i:,icri,co1. ,.culi.ijis
cIt rr,.],Lriri, ", 1rot-rti.'t.rjL' i Lt lilzlroi llrrrlrt;:.-i. .,'l olttil r'iela a-rn
I,.i r[o;1lir' (l(' l);l((." zl,,. t,j. Ililii]i.:rl1r,lt., t.inrlirl,-ir.il.r:rn
ii r,';tt't;1r'.j:rlrrlill srir i;,rilr tl,' l'i,;r',.,iirl. iil 1ti.t ci"L trcbLric
:..i-ii liPt ll sirPttsii, tIut :;rrL:tti': ,,],-:rr. di,li.-lr,rlu;.i, sir porriesc
[.t lrirl,r,i , lritir, nu r-li iLrcc'-ii:e tti:Ltl ciri]r irelti"l:r1 a altngc
1itri,"rllgrrrc." il! s!fi:talil.rf;:1 Lritf,a fitrl S:'lL1 , C;ligirntuaa
(

I;'iLnii,-lonsic1' m:r

r.f u

risir.rt,,:

,,l{-eu; ch ginil .qil. ir.i.i1 ri"r::l.rljr;1. t i :ii-l -ir:liil,irlt uu \-i-{r:iu


;.ri l':llcstt fr llimciri, ci sir rnii 1jr":i1'. 1l1i i1.. nf3r 1l b1uit1a1'"1ia,
rri '-l,;.rtsc siL r.iLflrlrr, ca- si pitri ii.{iriin, oi..roiiiillril su1iil;i1or
.r't'-'i cr'..ililr.:iosi si a1 ir;.irnintnlui si rr"rmi;;:c,ii, asupfa ciirnia
Iri.ro._ rll s-1 lirpustit r-;'ii jrliisrsi_,.r. f irr-i liri o pr"iciuir salr
l;:iui:i- stiilLr iud in lrollir',,-a lrri [r1...::lr:tiiii ti:siLr-ir-rsiutl tjli*
ir,;ii r--'c a:rrl lii.) i o {i.in1i"L iLll.,ilr:,lri'l rir 4.r.tl:,tatl r1n 1.-'iro:rt*

ir:iilui.
ilm s()ca)tit

cl..: a n'ir (1i11irii!' ri. lnleli. :rii ..i lslimpiir


JiLgiiclr irrriri- j ir,l cr,:rr rr.. tlrl':1 -jririr...;ata rnca,
lt-11..,.'l'], 1l]l-lli.,

r (ip. cit., ',"r-r1. .iI. 1l. iii3.


: ilii:r't'c .l-lizilli , i.tr i:it''t t!: lrt {lit.t

1,',i il: ,l rt. [r,, ,,' ! ' {. 't.


{ir:i.l , 1). 2:r I .
-'r(.lL

"

.r/:.r1r i7',rt

r i' /;.i :litirr

i.,.,;;r1,,r..,., l\ - \-I,

rr , !r ' rri ,;i-J rrrr;1i1111rgxl-\. tr-l.tr: tliitis iir tr.iei lntil:ii:


r .,,,ii{) l)|i.ri.rtLtrtil!l,tj:t , r1-tgiiijUl ;_.:l-r[i -<it'.ttt-Jt cine ..si l.ir
, I.r '. il'1 rnrit. l),rl'cl, in 1.;c clc lrricc ris..xns, a plrnit
! r! r.r '1,'i iit:r;rttli'.'i-;ni, lliiliipul;-:,,iir-i:i. lr;:rrr;-:itic c5, ti:o
,1, ;,i .i p,r;irilrcr,':.tsL.:5,311',':lr:r:irtll, qli;l,i'1, blr;ti.r1 Llti plec."
ti,. :r ll.i, uir:i, c:1. in ll.nrii:ii.ic lni 1irr.:tii:ir_rs si ?fivdldtrlr.ile
lui Ii l;{,,r1" lro',i1.r:irue r.1e p:rce,;icir.tl.n aiii:c, r.li il_itiriti:itil,.:
. , r,,il1,i ll'1l-;:uiir rtis.iliii.tir.lrtrlr]c'r_r;t;rintcltlil:l;itilrtL. (,'r:_r Lil,.,r,; i, r ii i:iil;ril:l;:ii Fo p.t_izoil-ir-.j:irl 'laicli:rrt*c {iitjr:...lir I
,Irr ri ;i ri{igrit!ral.n-i iritr-rlri--i.l-it:1, cll ii1:l,ji ji:,rli ca.l.c -.:.r-.1
.r;rlr,. l.'rtntXaiil ii iitrpirrl-J-it:sic c'tnL.piiit !;.i rji::rll-e ril.;,1 ,,,r.r Ir ri": ,r.1-tc'rr1, irrl'12i''t, r;i rri-.-iili;i:,i r.tran illi,tiir,: c1t-. lrr,ii,;ir-i
r rl,.ji,,; ,,i1.:1r noi rjlltlliilitl '15 c iiui:i.1.c si 1-rl,,,1ir:i'iile".
l,tirrllii eroLrl rclt:lscculi;,rr s; il;illitt ir:i.t'l.,ii_)1-lt1al., irirtt.: irirl rili t'i.i-iginll mcrite, li;:tii1i::.i. Ltri, chiui: rlrrrL cl l;,rr:
rl, .;tirrirt i.r <lovcli attrtailttr ilil aie irijl.ri.liili'. 1r. t;.:ntLit :".r.iii,)t-; () si)ulte ri11 1,rg1'girlttJ'tiil tltr,,Liyt;iir)1.]c: ,.i-'l_t 1I] >it1',.rij
rrllrlr'il"1 ;tiiL rllr 1rr'lrrriirL i,;ri:ii. rrrrrri .trrlic:rn. ,,i ,llLi:i lti.r:lrrtirilr;ri r i. r;1,r1:) r) rl()l,l;tt.', ; .; ;irLi,-c 1;ilrl;r i t;rlior oarl,,rii
r'.rlr', rr,i:., rrli tlirr :,irtllc n(,llil, ;',rr l'lst lrii;ti r.ri r,ir:ii;]'ll lilil,
ll( lri) llliii, liirtrl tjitrt:ullir':i i)it.itlen.i il in 1:n1;,;':i, si-iiri l'r-:ii.. it
rr ri:;r.ii, t.l.<,ri;ir:,.l.irr,,,i'.r-1i: r-r.jit:ii '.-crq:,:li, l:ii dar.'i al f i. :rr1c,, ir.r':rt , r'i:;l r-e spurtclri rlonrilri.r.-ilt i*aiitii:, r:ii acli,:.i in r_rr-i,-'c iii,:;"tr
?,!( r: t) trir!1-.1'g.r.311r;tsii, a si:Il;urcl.t:i Liitrti'li i-1]t.ilill., n,ti r,.ii
;l!)r r r l.ir lcl a.i:r;llii, c;l.ci r'l iliir,arir'lii.,ri iit{--rDilt ir:c tr.i:lr.nr :ri
lr ai-ii r>:r'. sil fic nrl:i lllrli. clli:it lri-i.iil. {"..) :::lcil|aic iri rtl
n l'i,licirc-..- {,iirtui i1i,- a tc ir;-..slc r-'.nzl.:l rilt cu i}1l1lllr"i ,,lllii:tc;;ti i;i i.r'u1;:1ti; ti.rlr I,;ri,:irr:l;r,c(j:r:jt:t o ii.r,:l;rr-::;1-i r.f.i,; ll,
nr.,iriii, eil; si ia oentc:rii dr::riiril, Icit.lfil ei'l n:i.i..li:r nr rri,la
tti:oseiriri iitit <l,e anriirniuliti:, ciirrlp,.rri:i-,.:i. i1.ri1.r."L r:iint irll
rua,i s1-.ris, i't:,.1cm a.lk:sea in *t'inrtllii cei l:ili il,c rinil lri:lrl.:tuite dilruri a,le firii."
I- tr il]rcJept ---- sr:i:;.r-r ]lt-asmu,; in Elcgiui Eebulliei -.*
,,ar arir1a rrir, urr olrri:care il{rirlurert, c{: sc lirr(li cu trli:.:.:onrr,tli)
near:rul'.ri i.i!i. rlu e t.ic-cit un 1team l]l-r.ist s:l li11 l]iisi-i].ri1, f ijtilir..ii.
e deptrte ca ccrul de pirniiil de L-i] tuta -- -;i;.'lttiuI i..;tiy :,_l
0't'irit,t. i ;tttb!t:Ii {irl-;1. n.)".
Ei:,.xrl litnastcrii il.trecc tlirnen:iutrijLr l"ii:,-'ri.i ;rle r)r_r-rrlti.
Tinrpul;i spa]iul in care sc ciesfit;irur:i. 1,crs,rn;ijt:1i-. rr:l.ltJlisicne a,rr, ca si fiptura lui, pi:oiroi:lii gigantir:r. ,rr-1;i1.1 i.i::;;i
d,e irr.,'ii.1.:ir'eri;:ii. rlin arlr'1cscr:ni'a. iui (iai.gantnr. -.{it scLrJii,)1111
I r!r ;r,r

\',.

, itT

a {XLrrat Si-l di: ;rni, cinci lrrni 1i tlouii


-,
siPtirrnini. iutt-o z:i birtc c,i'g:rniza{iL ;i lrr i (lnrgantua intra
c.!te cr-. nu se pottc sirvir;;i itrir--l viiliiL r1c our. l\lilliislirea
tr.Tttnifilor cupL'iuclca glill? dc trt'crtinlr: iilrlivitlnalc - ficciLre ali:illnitii <1in ial:rc, citm:i:r-I, t,t1a.ii-t r1c 1r:cl-n, aliar de
l'ug;icinnr: ;i un coi:itlor ciLlt'c sai;r ceil filiii:{r -- aiticiL 46 660
rtrc incirpcli. PatrtagL'Lrcl lrtliitrostcrjtc sub lirnl;ir. o oltstel
iri-rtolLrl cili,1-olcltc iLt grrl'lt ltri r.:a Trr rtn cc,ntincnt.
lnlr:-o cpocii it1 tr;trt ()itll){rllii vcili-)ir11 ci inccp si.-;i clcsdx1 111
{:,',1)cr'o l)lrltcLiL ;i rlrt'lrirtl tt,ttt (1() 1l -si nriil.ittrisi
cir. J)i) o trrsirrt' . 1t,t'ittl.lc tt-tt1r11 llqi ;i 3i;itlir:ca propric,
J,iLlrtrisprlrI cr-6ilt,r. litr;lLr i (.str' l1(.{iri1't'it ir,tiirrlstttiior' prrtel'nicc, rrirrhjtliior si ittt:ti rlct'ii ilt siltL'; illr. l'(tltrl'cll itl sine
{rr erl insii nernirgirlit"ii riir.:l irL cLlrlrlr tlr' r, i ittI iL ,lir:nastcriiSrrrtl prrrci"t zr1 for-fci, r:irtttalt'iii,;tl'' lr tittlttlLti li()tl , dimcrrsiri nilc', gigantice. at cr{ril{)l: rcbcl;ri-sir-'ni, l',rt iirzir. I'rotcici,
ca or-icc pcrsonalitirtc e,.[icri:r;lcl'ii, r.li ct't':';L: si scltl, dc 1ir,
inirl!inrca <lc rri'ias 1iL ccn c,bi'';nuiiir. iltrpiL I oilt cre atorttlui
tri;r'. ljsl:c o lumc itrcii tlcrlcz;tLii, it iiliniL e r-olLrf ic si cfcrvcsrrntii; instlrlrilitatciL i1i aili tln 1(){.r il!'{r:ic illcii din li.cnaltclc,
r.tl llu sc ir.ritrt rLr:r| l]t:ri Ii|zitt tlr rr ttijsrttitit, barrlcil.
l)inrcttsirtttil,: r't,,triiti tt'tt;tsr'r'llli:rl lrpltt' poattl, rlai
izlritor crr ot'itttlrlt', ilt ttlltrttii silill'\'sl,( l iiilli. Nlt pe:ntrtr
rii pi'r'"onlr.jcle ur ilvcrt i,1i11rLrr1,isllni tl'J';t'r':Llrclliisic'rre, ci
trl',1[t:it iitl'i'Li.isrLr-ttlt ]r)r ali c:iiii()l-li]ni s,:rilitncrlLtrl cit pil1cllrge
..111!1'c::rgil" r ial.;i lirLrrttricti .'L ontLtllri. Slrallrspi:arc parc a fi
sjjr.rs,,tol" <hs1li-': rLlirric ii {r;ig,rstr', rrel'cl'ir:i|c, in!clc.gerc
s.i ipr[r.riltl:"t, ?n glstitrilt' si r:ltyitlltlr., i:'rli.r l:l;t i cilr-:r'.'lttc 165'
:l,rlir VrL'otlliLir, tLD rrtil si r.li'ltar'trr;1 , lll.itlicli slltr crtrtoscLtli"i,
-{itlirrta, 1agcl, triarrr'
oiiit ciLrc i,.nrLii i.Lc o i)iu ti': c,'1,-'i loLirtsl
lit. rLriL-yi .\r'ill saLl .l Lltl.ttitit tiiir t'.'9,'h l.r';11".
Slliilii':ii)a:ltil'c clttlrXlstt.: sil t:r:lttt'll st:lit:iLriLti olllll'lcsC,
;r(l.iircililrtil- sitj't'rintClUr ;i 1)li)s1)| jiilr{rii l-rltrtLrre i, logicl,
.i,lrsiLrrrii, rr visulLti, tt strq,'-tit'i. a tli'iir'ilIrLi"
1'lroii siitt iitriiiir:i riir ii.lei ltililrt:i i'[l:tirlli.'t. i']ni1.tr:;) ,
1r;r,ituii ctir ir'lilitlrir (-\rttt,lLiil, {lli:olllii':.t:, rcsclLl.illttitlc
i1, i:ist;iiiirr;c ([ago, 1')rlrtiiliil'- 'I'il:ltLici pi'irt i,ilta giuclir:ii
.i t-riiirii, ei liinrjlr lilir;ti f ri!1 ,irr.()iii;,,tt';t. psiirologici 9i
lil

nbal llrlophcrrc

r::,1;ri.si;r 1)o0iicii,
J).,rl.r'll a ittiiir::r trct:{'ii]ir
j:.1:-;.rr1.iirt'

}iClV

itlr

Ll

ia iititr:lltii:t. r1;.'ia llittri'tlsirrnilc

tl.i)tllLri s.i rl: l;.i .ltltrll;LLll,.rl,iiiil('il [';iirieit

1a

;rrr

rli ,r [',rlr,lr;l- |sihictt, rlrir:ii

L1c

llriale rir fi clc,

fr.rJoseste

'l rrrl,r \ i,rrru It rrrrt rtrri


".,.j.rLita;rizt,ti.: ;t, t.lr.li.llttti,,. ln lrccsi

rlirr

rrrrrr;'i, :;i,lts: b,) 1l't{,te .lii,:ltrir iilltr-tdcviir cii ,,SJtalics1tC]re


.r,l,.1,iir;it { itrr,nisnrul""
lrr ;rrrll'rlPrrll3-il sh;r);r::til{11-iiirl;i, t.llt iitr-g s1-.af iu il o,,-irP:'i,
Irirtli lr: lr';."r.rrririLrlc tlc si.il.r:i con!licinlilo, dc ltroblr:rnr: rlt:
r rrrr,rliirrli. jrr ,r':r clisiir,, c:t, z;'r.rijrninlc r:rigirrar.0, I0r.1:r:i*
r,rP;rrt,ittttii vi1,;tlc r:goislt', si lritoillrtir. cn,-'rgiile sPiri|ultic
lrrlirr r[ic q{]ll:r,rz;i..ir il ri irLlrjlii. iir ti,,lr jircsc, jrrlrc ccie

rl,rrr,L liPi:L-i rb l'ilil.ij cllc inr joc l)iji'tlliilrotli.; c,:ltilibml irtr,


.r(li:i(';l l)li)ciu", ii a')i11itiiti7.,:i, orrrLiltri pr.lljirrl ltoLlrl. l,ll sirtir:,

ttvclt si"r, sirtrrri }:ltus1:, c:-r, iir lririrLu-i sc all:i, rlrtrll


lcirt, t:i ti'iit,'sie r,';,r riu;r.li1;ltc.

:r.ilt. ( nttr
:;trl

l'rrit;rtr:lt. uri|rlrri rijLu jl-ti.i riiit rit:lttil-csi:u'r;l t'-.:r:lrrsi', 1.: l.l


crinlrl,rr r iiiilc ii ,,'iri..s1r, sir;ili;1 , :ir;lr't.cncrrtil la ril li],1;r
:;ttlrtutt:nt; ltr) clillr i'i r'lrt'rrnri :ltrn( i {';rlilr;rn.1.-l ilu:tlc 1tr-iIr'.jrrl rkr ll ()l)1it ' {lr'';r('r'r'ir rti,'i rrri c r:rrlltirllil rlc rlirl })c it;ilL1
il sivir':;tslr';;rolrrili irt siric irrri'zir', (lilt si ill(r(.('trlir 1rl-i111firlio;r.;i ;r lrrrr)ri ,rrrirrr;rl,'. \ llr.or i r n(.r-iilr' ltrlr.;rlt' sinl. iltr'llrrr:.,ilr' ,1,', t r ttt(r'Ji i ii;rit ; rl,rr 1,, rri rrr r;l t |otrl 1l-ii(.:t(r 1illi]l:ii
irr lrrczlttt, r';t. lrrrlJt,ril, i:i nn cLll)o:istc o,,istoric" nl()l-it1;i.
{ liplle rlc pliicrrrc: se insit':i clr rrrii r.gclcit si intt'e elc lu jsi
:rlli loc rtto;ttlt'iiir] rirlllrr:r"iilii; rll lcccu si irr rn:--rnrnlt,lc Ilri
1ri,i:alc i;lrrLc;li,- ir:r ir'l tie in,rr:r'niir.
1):ici pllrrttrl :rhi:ulr.lic c,,stc rlcpisii., c.r'otrl lrt: l':r r';rrc:.t:-rll
inLcligt:nfci c;r r.'c iyi tlcsil;r-iulir io:Ltc ;-r:srtrsclc irr u]iti){
lrcuLru a se a1lir"it. i,ir irirlsl-lil ll rilntais 1lrit11'rr rrntl-rri a 1rr-i:tttilliilor. Si (,[C i].!'c()ii, lrstr {r ull olrst.it,:r I llrrJrtrgc., rllrcii lrr:;11;-lr
cl ortoalclt l1ri rii(f j'ii.i{ sji lic cistigalit prin 1ri1>t"li, cir lnt} ii:i
cci pLrJ:iit s;"r l'ic rioLintliti pritr rrrirrLiurrii.l
,'\tita vrr':nc r'if nri ,1i:l-rist,stt: existcl{;r. r'isccl-:rlri, c;r
llalstiril t.rt'i S:rrir'];i; l)irnr:!, iirli:,u ltlitlii-r, ctlLirfi, J)('rs()J1irj6]
rcriascciltist cstc c,rr;lirsir ,.:1,iJtif ; 1t'('(r't'ctr ltri iil lr lt |tgisit''r
se rllitrrrt:)ic irri-iiiril'ii trL -"rri,'r'irr1:r.,';lrr cir.Lrr(/i)lr'trliltir;1.
r

nrora

1i"r.

Citrrl inllc {.:(:i'ini{ 1t: ..,itlill 1i ,,111 n-rorlIt-'sc rlir i' Irrl',1 i,
et'<tul ponlc li i'r'inrirtl;i1. ri,," t:il jrr;t ir1(t (tlriitr rir, a iri:r :rlt l;r
urrttlcott ,"tictlt, tir: lt. ,iljiL,.,r';i, ( olrllir'tu.l sc criclioli;rr:trzl''i, .i:l

r,\. Ilarlbllg':. .i:' 1 t.,.,, !ii,tri r.!. \


Ittoriil llLj:t.r'1', -\1.,ir-\',,t.li- Jlri:i l, ;:.
.

s1.rrri.r,

ol !i[:.riir':;It:lrr: I

[]*sl:rl

spor1ii.rr.t, in ntanilc]lIrilr. psihismului zftis:r'1,


l. care
Shatrie:spcalr il ii:tuic;tc atlt c1e putcrnic. Sornnul, .,n.:inlrc-

i
r, { iL l.,inla si poaliL tlclil-r':'''rL ;i s;'r:.1-.-.:;1 tilt
tl, i
;LI,i.rL[
ri
r
,
I
:
1,r,it'-lc Pentrtl a 10 collirlilit:r cLi t":.:1:'"ril::
1
, . ,.,1 . J\lrrrl,t [']r, s{)liil 111i, sau Cl;Ludiits curci:ic zLtlcl;.:rn"ri
r r ,,r'.r ,i l ilt,t-, t1'-t,'. ti cc con;tiinla 1or, cal'c t1l'.1 a ar,-ul c::lr'ilai'
I t , Cl r ittii r';. I1r cr-rirl'gii1e spiritLil,lc, nu adirr; iiril';:r:lrl.
ri L l;r cliurir. rlt rr Il'ii. lc irnpicafi ctt siile, ii filnii li: c:r-"
I ri irtl,ri :"
S, r,ll;i irr {.',liir1 ILii Slr.alicspe;rrc;i r'':rltir' cirl':Ij': 1-l:''"'ii'r
l l,.,ir;ll: ,.('l\.i.irl;i;i" in nelcgiuirc, ci 1111 miri silj.-.it'11'rij--'irrir rl lLt'i. l:.:ulgiilc morzrlc sirrt slll:e, iar nillln
t
r .; ,. rL :ii,r:i. {'g-,-ri-r-t;'1 , gig;rntici, ii pccetluie 1t*. Ii s]!].t c'''
; i iiu!:'..i c, unit:rtr. lago cleclrriL cA n-a d.t"t ini::i ll:i* rii
{.'ii1.,,sii sr ilrl-tullci cle ajnns pe siur''" Xilillii'Ll l"i
J..r
{
se itt.ill^tiic:r.:iir ::cpetintln-1i cii sc irtl-'c'tt' irt : 1114'"
I
liL ilp-ii..iii'rlu ni,i cs:e uiteoli colllp.n3at!ri:i li-i:l.il" l
i ::r,r :;iilirlla 1:ru i-.tl'ii"ii bi'rlogicc sllu incclritr'ri)11ii ::'i''i.:i;:ri,',.'t, :rr-iciliXll , oi'.i :L'.it.i'tLrstrat piin c1.oilrtr:1 ile ;r'-;i ;li-:.rii:'
c,:iil:r iltt. l-lrii,, tri'l'iItCa, s;it-si ittlr,tLtilt'.;ti I'ri.Lli'j ilt''i::-:
l:t L.i,iirtLii. ri, lr ri.rli, pi-irt t:t1r'rltti';i lrtrt'rii. Irl- l r::l:
f,i,r li; r i ,.:.l,li'.r. 1 . 1Jr-g Pontrtl cc, li|sii d,:|ljrl|t'ri:: :ir''":'l:r I r ; . -.r r.i,iLrllr:r i'j Henric al IV-lea, I II; [tititatd sl -{l[-l{i''}.
iar tat5.l slilt, (|l"lli'-'li i. ii:-r1
lr ,ii.L;'rrrr:',fi c..iI cc'i'i1 nllrgitim,
, ,1,, .i irtrllii,;;it,';inraitli:glabiLcilnl]{i.'ltlcc:iii''irrl:';l'1';
ilr.:r
Ia- illin-1, p--r care,,de alit|a cli ttlt l. , .. i;;1i-r-'",;r L,r'.i,,r'tl'.rlui nciior-il (Regele I-ea:')l::-'
.l''.r:i-,:Lr ,:scltii:i1.i:ir. ,.r'li:;ii"r-irlil i"" nt'icglini.l l. r l,i"l ': l:: I
'i-. 'i,llriL -:til.ul :l:.lliillic. Iiigo il couiolc:tzi ;'. ( 1.'l ' i-"
1':ir,:ii;l i o itir.r.'-,iir,' prc-irsli ;i iri;liiili:':Llr"" -\i':i' :l- 'r- I
li L6tura i1 ?,1i.'i.i::ir-..ii-ti pc ScLrastian si-'i trciL'l.ii .[r.r.11I :]. r..irL:.iri:.;i {1 l':gi: 3l:i:r,'lian obicltrliziL: ',i}lil cr)il-i:ii: . ' :'
/ . .'. :-1.: ii :.ii:'irilllri;r I

culi:alsem" (Furtuna), i"L occ_rlc1tc pe ccl zgurluit cic faptete


l'-',i In'itIe s:lLt !rIi111nilc. ]I,:nr.iC a1 I\i_lca, rlspulziior cIc
'ucich:'ce lui. Iiii:itarcl
al ll-lca" nt 1-,roate dormi, clcli ai.clo.-i
sii-;i lrrocc ,,simfirea in rrit.alcl', (1, Henric at lvJea). l\{ac.
hcth atde un glas strig?rrrl ci }lacLrcth ucidc somrul ,,scalda
ctilli'i tntdc", ciL nir:ioriirliL liacbcth ,,nu \ra rn:Li clurmi'".
SoruilLtl poatc insir, f i zlrrrcir.rmrL c1c 'n i-*c carc si t.r'd,deze,

ea;i lipsl

1t.ri, in,.':rtr:rr.illtrrr <1tr lt rlclibera, a conitiin'fci sau


:rri'1. irr' lri; irr {trrrrrrl l.ontlli,i, rluccic ck- Clarcnco
esi'"r t izill'r" irL i i:; rlt' :ii)irit,. li' r'r'iul rrrrLn'llt.iili!i tle cl ; cl,e
Xru.r'lL-i tL:r-tlu'-:tr i-citrris|i"tIilr-'. i\1rtl]'iliilc rlirr r isuI lrri liicl;.aftl
Itr.ri drrgrrrbii c.'rplimir, pc 1in3.'i o inlinri tr irtlrii ilc ciLitfii
t,,.,.iiri1:i, arrlrl'Lcnsiirneir, fricn.
\:cthirii 1lot a\-c:r pcii;trnaji:1t si in stat't'ilc tt'c.;ric. Ir:i,rir a
i, i'ni t'a;:ice intclcsri I puirlicului cl.lsiibc'tan i>cnlrLt clctnonon,rgir'. e1,: clezr-liluie tc'mcri, snsi;icir-rrri, ambiiii, pesiuni
!il r'c i se .ir-rpuu eloulLri, fiinclcir sint mai puternicc clecit
rr.r i:i.{,tttur lui lrr,rrrilir, g-.inLiuli ]':c cerc iusrrl,;i e1 ;i lc ascnnde.
\-r-rijit.oalcic r1:rrr gJas irnrir anrbilii pc c'.rt-c }I:r.cbctiL \-lrca s:!
;i lt: il3ttrrte, (li) ll(('('ir l)r'i'\('\lililc l,:rr il s1-rrlie.
{,:ncoli llrrliirrrirj(r1o rlirr irrr rrit:i ttu obscrvir faritasmclci
r'1c airer'!irt unrnai croului f riiililtrt. C:t o conlirnare a
[,iLIrnicliLir il apare lui lllLrLrlrt llrubra tatilui. La inccpul
r, r'ie1 cloar c1 1i prictcnii iLri, tl*ci cci cilrc simlcr"u cir,,cela
ii:L lcr.r'o T-r:Lncuraici-i pLrtrcrl." Itl camela Gcrtrutlci, cind'
fiirl ii inligc in anz pnmrlrl*lc dojcrtii, iar umbra li ccle si
oiiiu1c pc r:cljini:, d,orr.. IJ;llulcl o ycclc; ilalna lui uu lnlelcge
ai.sc inlilri;li1, cledc cir {inl ci se a:i15. intr-un momcnt de
l:itrit'ii:e a min!ii. i)oar" llacbcLh vcclc dulrul lui Bancpro;
{Ll ucis rlin pcrunca lui: pcnti:u larll- }Iacbe'uir rsi pen'iru
ir..ll-crnii cl.,ema,i i 1:r ospiJ, el cstc ill.".izi'uil., nn e:iisti' Ilacbeth,

c.l'',,'

i'iil'.1lf

tti1i.r111';11,,

sirulc insir cit

c1tr1ur1

ii

t'[X,,'l;r'inci" clin scaun.

t
I

. 1., ::. .-. .- .:

li!i'c;.
nt !,i:S:

La<1y

mr-;i poatc spitla miirliie clc pt,t'llc lui;


Ilacl;'r-lir, c:1 tc:t iiir'ut er^itua penlru cit tttt iL <1clil;c.rat crr

t\irrbclh

1-*i1c singc 1i

ncicricili couitiilt!a i1 acuzii 5i ilIecc sit considere


i(lioi. Iislc trr'ft'Iicil prntrr ciu
rL sciltjr)rctltui !itro|li!ir'i;i pcilLrtl ci"t accst sl'nl.ili1cnb
rrl,irr^ p'-'r ii|zirt. JiIt,iLl 1lrr i5i illgltltli('llr llr{)l)li.rl1 tlc Ic.
r'1;li.a o povrsi,c s1;usii. c1e un

.rr

i'
I

il

,i..tt i: , l,.t ..i ,,

f afrtcii'" tirtt' :ti lii

intrc itlilntt;:i ;tiit::


ci d r: c ti tt i i i i it !,:" .

.t:-o sitrt't.

.f :r3.r. 111i,i ii )

r,r'i:r"I'.r-aL, e

\-r'\"7
, \\- t I

Dcr,

(;:,:Lrl !:t,
t r

ti,:

iii jr:i,..i;;ri11 rrll IIrt-jca lc sptltle sr:iil:ijiili: ,... 1.. r-'ir:r-ir,i


.i i- uliiri -cc i'rrit cle 1aii " , ."
[-,,';c":;.iLrr"li::tit cir, pr:intf-u11 rcfnz, atlrrani 11":;ltiii' t'i'':
g,:::lii:i c'ltlir. r-Ltr-ttlc, Julicta zicr,l,r; "{lc-: l'!:':li:'5Xll:}
i\i'\ Li
,7

-,n

li rc11x:tri;, rr1. {