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12.

1 An overview of the periodic table


The periodic table:

The chemical properties of an element are determined by its atomic number.


The elements in the periodic table are arranged by their atomic number.

12.2 Group 1: the alkali metals


The alkali metals:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Lithium
Sodium
Potassium
Rubidium
Caesium
Francium

Trends in alkali

metals:

Softness increases down the group


Density increases down the group (except for potassium and sodium)
Melting points decrease down the group (as softness increases)

Properties of alkali metals:

Soft
Low density
Low melting and boiling points
Good conductors
Shiny

Reaction with oxygen


Alkali metals react vigorously with oxygen to form metal oxide. The dull layer of oxide on the
surface of the metal is called tarnish.

(Alkali metal) + (oxygen)


Lithium

Lithium + oxygen Lithium oxide

4Li + O2 2Li20
Sodium

Sodium + oxygen sodium oxide

4Na + O2 2Na2O
Potassium

Potassium + oxygen potassium oxide

4K + O2 2K2O

Reaction with water

(alkali metal oxide)

Alkali metals react violently with water resulting in an exothermic reaction.

(Alkali metal) + (water)

(metal hydroxide) + (hydrogen)

Lithium:

Fizzes
Floats around slowly across the surface of the water

2Li + 2H2O 2LiOH + H2

Sodium:

Fizzes more than lithium


Moves quickly across the surface of the water
It melts as it reacts causing it to become spherical
and shiny
The hydrogen sometimes catches fire, because of
the heat from the reaction

2Na + 2H2O 2NaOH + H2

Potassium:

Moves across the surface of the water very quickly


The reaction produces so much heat that the hydrogen burns,
giving off a lilac flame

2K + 2H2O 2KOH + H2

Reaction with chlorine

Alkali metals react vigorously with chlorine. They burn brightly forming chlorides.
Lithium:

(Alkali metal) + (chlorine)

2Li +
Cl2
2LiCl

(Lithium Chloride)

Sodium:

2Na + Cl2 2NaCl


Potassium:

2K + Cl2 2KCl
Uses of alkali metals:
Lithium
Used for batteries
Alloys
Submarines
Sodium
Street lights
Table salts
Cleaning products
Potassium
Explosives and fireworks
Food preservatives
Fertilisers
All alkali metals react in a similar way because all alkali metals have the same valency. Alkali
metals are very reactive because they only have one electron in their outer shell.
Why does reactivity in alkali metals increase down the group?
As you go down the group, the number of shells in one atom of the element increase, which
means that the outer shell gets further away from the nucleus and is shielded by more
electrons. Therefore the outer shell can be easily lost as the forces are weak.
Alkali metals form ionic compounds. The metal ion has a charge of +1.

12.3 Group 7: the halogens


They have 7 electrons on their outer shell, so they need to gain one to form a negative ion.

Properties of all halogens:

Form coloured gases


Are poisonous and smelly
Form diatomic molecules
Do not conduct electricity
Brittle and crumbly when solid

Trends in group 7 as you go down the group:

Colour gets deeper


Density increases
Boiling points increase
Reactivity increases

Halogens are the most reactive elements in the periodic table. They react with metals to form
halides.

Reaction with metal


Halogens react readily to form metal compounds.

Fluorine
(Halogen) + (metal)
reacts
with
metals to form fluoride (F-)
Chlorine reacts with metals to form chloride (Cl-)
Bromine reacts with metals to form bromide (Br-)
Iodine reacts with metals to form iodide (I-)

(metal halide)

Reaction with iron wool


When a halogen reacts with iron it forms iron halide.

Fluorine:

(Halogen) + (iron)

Fluorine + iron iron fluoride

3F2 (g) + 2Fe (s) 2FeF3 (s)


Chlorine:

Chlorine + iron iron chloride

(iron halide)

3Cl2 (g) + 2Fe (s) 2FeCl3 (s)


Bromine:

Bromine + iron iron bromide

3Br2 (g)+ 2Fe (s) 2FeBr3 (s)


Reaction with hydrogen
Halogens react with hydrogen to create hydrogen halides. All halides are gases. They dissolve
easily in water to form strong acids.

(Halogen) + (hydrogen)

(hydrogen halide)

Fluorine:

Fluorine + hydrogen hydrogen fluoride

F2 (g) + H2 (g) 2HF (g)


Chlorine:

Chlorine + hydrogen hydrogen chloride

Cl2 (g) + H2 (g) 2HCl (g)


Bromine:

Bromine + hydrogen hydrogen bromide

Br2 (g)+ H2 (g) 2HBr (g)

Why does the reactivity of halogens decrease down the group?

Atoms of each element gets larger down the group, as the number of shells
increase
This means that the outer shell gets further away from the nucleus and is
shielded by more electron shells
The further the outer shell is from the nucleus, the harder it is to attract another
electron, to have a complete outer shell.

Displacement of halogens
If a halogen is added to a solution of a compound containing a less reactive halogen, it
will react with the compound and form a new one. A halogen will displace a less
reactive halogen from a solution of its halide
Fluorine + sodium chloride sodium fluoride + chlorine

F2 (aq) + 2NaCl (aq) 2NaF (aq) + Cl2 (aq) (as F is more reactive
than C)

Uses of halogens:
Fluorine:

In polymers
Toothpaste (to prevent tooth decay)

Chlorine:

Antiseptic, disinfectant
Bleach

Bromine:

Insecticides
Fire extinguisher
Drugs

Iodine:

Printing inks and dyes


Antiseptic and disinfectants

12.4 Group 0: the noble gases


Properties of group 0 elements:

Non-metals
Colourless gases
Monoatomic
Unreactive
Odourless

They are unreactive because they already have a full outer shell, so they have no need to gain
or lose electrons.
Trends in the group:

Density increases down the group


Boiling point increases down the group
Size and mass increase down the group

Uses of noble gases:


Helium:
1. Balloons
2. Airships
3. Breathing gas for deep sea divers
Neon:
1. Advertising signs
2. T.V tubes
Argon:
1. Normal light bulbs
Krypton:
2. Lasers (eye surgery)
3. Lighthouses
Xenon:
1. Sunbeds
Redon:
2. To treat cancer by radiotherapy

12.5 The transition metals


The transition metals are the block of elements located in the middle of group 2 and group 3.
Physical properties:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Hard, tough and strong


High melting points
Malleable
Ductile
Good conductors of heat and electricity
High density
lustrous

Their chemical properties:


1. They are much less reactive than group 1 elements
2. They show no clear trend in reactivity. However we can say that reactivity increases
across a period except for zinc
3. Most transition metals form coloured compounds
Iron (II) oxide Black (FeO2)
Iron (III) oxide red brown (Fe2O3)
Copper (II) sulphate blue (CuSO4.H2O)
Copper (I) oxide red (Cu2O)
Copper (II) oxide a black compound (CuO)
4. Most can form ions of different charges- they show variable valency
5. They can form more than one compound with another element
6. They lose electrons and form positive ions
Iron reacts readily with air and water, causing rust iron oxide
Rusting is an oxidation reaction between iron, oxygen and water, which leads to the formation of
hydrated iron (III) oxide.
Iron + oxygen + water iron (iii) oxide

4Fe (s) + 302 (g) + H20 (g) 2Fe2O3.H2O (s)

Comparison of trends in different groups


Group 1

Group 7

Group 0

Reactivity

Increases down
the group

Reactivity
decreases down
the group

Unreactive

Melting and
boiling points
Density

Decrease down
the group
Increases down
the group
Softness
increases down

Increases down
the group
Increases down
the group
Colour gets
darker down the

Increases down
the group
Increases down
the group
The atoms
increase in size

Transition
metals
Generally
decreases
across a period,
except for zinc
No fixed pattern
No fixed pattern

the group

group

and mass down


the group