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Scientific Inquiry

Scientific thoughts and processes

I can statement
I can use my senses to make observations

about things in nature.


I can identify and clarify biological research

questions and design experiments.

Vocab
Hypothesis- a possible explanation that can

be tested by experimentation and


observation.
In simpler terms a hypothesis is an educated

guess.

Observation- The act of noting or perceiving

objects or events by using the senses.


What we did with the objects in the paper bag.

Experiment- a procedure that is carried out

under controlled conditions to test a


hypothesis.

More vocab
Theory- a system of ideas that explains many

related observations and is supported by a


large body of evidence acquired through
scientific investigation.
A highly tested generally accepted principle

that explains a vast number of observations


and experimental data.

Law- are simple and obvious statements

about a phenomenon that never require a


second guess, or an experiment, to verify
them.
Example: What goes up must come down.

Vocab Cont.
Control Group- serves as a standard of

comparison because the group receives no


experimental treatment.
Experimental Group- Experimental groups
are identical to the control group except for
one factor, or variable.
Independent Variable- the single factor
that scientists change in an experiment.
Ex: your mom or dad.

Dependent Variable- the variable that may

change due to the changes in the

Practice
If a scientist conducts an

experiment to test the theory


that a vitamin could extend a
persons life-expectancy, then
the independent variable is
____________________, and the
dependent variable is
______________________.

Independent Variable - the amount of

vitamin that is given to the subjects within the


experiment.
Dependent Variable - or the variable being
affected by the independent variable in this
case, is life span

More Practice.
A scientist studies the impact of a drug on

cancer.
What is the dependent variable?
Independent variable?

Independent variable - is the

administration of the drug.


Dependent variable - is the impact the drug
has on cancer.

Practice Cont.
A scientist studies the impact of

withholding affection on rats.


Independent variable?
Dependent variable?

Independent Variable - is the affection.


Dependent Variable - is the reaction of the

rats.

More Practice.
A scientist studies how many days people

can eat soup until they get sick.


Independent variable?
Dependent variable?

Independent Variable - is the number of

days of consuming soup.


Dependent Variable - is the onset of illness.

Bell Ringer
What is a hypothesis?

What is the difference between a theory and a

law?

Explain the difference between an

independent and dependent variable.

Learning Target
I can interpret results and draw conclusions.

Graphing
What goes on the X-axis and what goes on the

Y-axis?
X- Axis: Independent Variable
Y- Axis: Dependent Variable

Example: if you are looking at the growth of bacteria


under various temperatures, the X-axis would
identify the temperatures, while the Y-axis would
provide you with the information on growth

Y-Axis

X-Axis

What can we do with data?


When scientist work with data, many times

they make predictions based on this data


There are two ways they do this
Extrapolation
Intrapolation

Extrapolation
Extending the

graph. Along the


same slope, above
or below the
measured data
Mathematically
predicting a trend
or number outside
the data set

Intrapolation
Predicting data

between two
measured points on
the graph
Mathematically
predicting a trend
or number inside
the data set

The bar graph at right

represents the
declared majors of
freshman enrolling at
a university.
If the enrollment

doubles, predict the


number of freshman
that will most likely take
chemistry
If the enrollments is
reduced by 1/2, how will
this affect the number of
freshman taking poly
sci?

What is the CO2

concentration in
1975?
What was the CO2
concentration in
1955?

Bell Ringer
Two students each design their own investigation to determine whether
resting or exercising beforehand allows a person to squeeze a
clothespin more times over a certain period of time.
Student A squeezes the clothespin as many times as he can as he is
sitting quietly for two minutes. In a second trial he runs in place for
two minutes and then squeezes the clothespin as many times as
possible.
Student B uses the same procedure as student A. She also asks that
the other 25 students in her class carry out the same procedure and
she records their data. She then calculates the average number of
times that the clothespin had been squeezed without exercise and with
exercise before.
a. State one reason why student Bs investigation will give more
reliable results than student As.
b. Student B states that exercising before the second trial will always
have the same effect on this type of muscular activity. Explain why
the statement made by student B could be questioned.

Learning Target
I can revise a hypothesis and/or formulate

additional questions or explanations.

M&Ms Lab
Purpose:
To closely predict the number of M&Ms in a regular size bag

based on data collected from a fun size bag of M&MS

Hypothesis:
IF.. Then

Procedure:
How you made your prediction what was your

thinking

Prediction: ______
Results
Actual Number in bag

Conclusion:
Can you use a set of known data to make reasonable

predictions? Explain your answer

Red
Red: If your fingers tend to gravitate toward

the bright red candies in the bowl, this implies


that you're confident, bold, and passionate.
Red is probably the most popular M&M color
choice, but you don't care. If you want red,
you'll take red. Let the next person who
comes by seeking candy settle for their
second favorite. You were there first, and you
deserve the best.

Blue
Blue: People who prefer blue M&Ms are

trendsetters. You like being on the cutting


edge of things. Many of the traditionalists did
not feel the need to add blue to the
preexisting M&M color choices, but you were
all for it, because you live for excitement and
the unknown possibilities life has to offer.

Orange
Orange: You don't play by any rules, do you?

Orange enthusiasts are wild, carefree, and


march to the beat of their own drum. You
won't often meet someone who prefers
orange, but when you do, you better prepare
yourself, because it's going to be interesting!

Yellow
Yellow: What is wrong with you? Yellow M&Ms

are not only unnatural, but unattractive.


Yellow is the least popular M&M color. People
who prefer yellow M&Ms tend to go against
the grain.

Brown
Brown: The traditionalist. Chocolate is

naturally brown, and therefore you reason


that the brown M&Ms provide the most
naturally occurring color choice. You like
things to be as they should. A place for
everything and everything in its place, is your
motto. You might have a tendency to towards
a little obsessive-compulsiveness, but that's
okay. Not everyone has to be cool.

Green
Green: People who like green M&Ms also love

the Earth. They love nature and being outside


and are conscious about making the Earth a
better place. You guys are the worlds nature
lovers.

Bell Ringer

**FREE WRITE FRIDAY**


Who or what inspires you?
You have 10 minutes to complete this

assignment, your answer should be detailed


and developed.

Learning Target
I can safely use laboratory equipment and

techniques when conducting scientific


investigations.

2 types of microscopes
Many organisms are to small to see with the

naked eye so we use a microscope to enlarge


them.
The light microscope- light passes through

one or more lenses to produce an enlarged


image of an object.
The electron microscope- uses a beam of
electrons to magnify extremely small objects.
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fToTFjwUc5M

Electron
Microscope

Light
Microscope

Parts of a Microscope

Magnification
Objective lenses increase the resolution of an

object in powers of 10.


4x lense will magnify an object 40 times the

size of its original.


10x objective lense will magnify an object 100
times its original size.
40x objective lense will magnify an object 400
times its original size.

Bell Ringer
What are the 2 types of microscopes and how

are they different?


Magnification
4x=
10x=
40x=

The Sterile Technique


This is a way that scientists keep unwanted

bacteria out of the lab to eliminate


contamination.
Tools used in this technique are.
An autoclave- to sterilize equipment
Sterilized dishes and pipets
Latex gloves

Lab Safety
1. Listen Carefully to your teacher and follow all
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

instructions.
Read/listen to your lab procedure carefully before
beginning the lab.
DO NOT take any shortcuts in your lab procedure.
Always wear your safety goggles, and any other
safety equipment when working in the lab.
Measure chemicals precisely.
Never taste or smell any materials or chemicals
that you use in a lab unless your teacher instructs
you to do so.

Lab Safety Cont


7. Do not use any damaged or defective
equipment.
8. Keep your lab area clean and free from
clutter.
9. 9. Pay attention to where you are walking.
10. Do not wear loose clothing.
11. If you have long hair make sure that it is
pulled back.
12. NO flip flops, only tennis shoes or rubber
soled shoes.

Si Units
SI Units- is the international system of units

which is used by all scientists because


scientists need to share a common
measurement system.

English Metric (or SI)


Length Meter
Mass Gram
Volume liter
Fahrenheit Celsius

Bell Ringer
What is the mean of this group of data
10, 12, 25, 15
List 5 safety rules that should be practiced in

laboratory.
Why is the sterile technique so important?

Review
In your book you will complete the end of the

chapter reviews in your notebook.


They begin on page 9.
Section 1 complete 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6.
Section 2 complete 1, 2,3, 5
Section 3 complete 1, 2, 3, 5.

THIS WILL BE TURNED IN AT THE END OF

CLASS!