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CHNG 1

TONG QUAN VE
H THNG DI ONG GSM

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GSM la viet tat cua Global System for


Mobile
communications
He thong thong tin di ong toan cau
GSM la he thong ien thoai di ong ma mang li
hoan toan s dung ky thuat so, khac vi he thong
mang ien thoai Analog co ien nh he thong AMPS
(Advanced Mobile Phone Service: Dch vu ien thoai
di ong cao cap).
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MS

1. CAU TRUC HE THONG


NG GSM
PSTN /
ISDN

BSS
BTS

GMSC

NSS

BSC
BTS

MSC+
VLR

MS

EIR

BSS
MS

HLR

AuC

BTS
BSC

SMSC

Billing

OMC

BTS
MS
MS: Mobile Station
BTS: Base Transceiver Station
BSC: Base Station Controller
BSS: Base Station Subsystem
MSC: Mobile services Switching
Center

HLR: Home Location Register


VLR: Visitor Location Register
EIR: Equipment Identitfication Register
AuC: Authentication Center
SMSC: Short Messaging Service Center
OMC: Operation & Maintenance Center
GMSC: Gateway MSC
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Cau truc cua mot he thong GSM co the c chia lam 3


he thong con:
He thong con tram goc (BSS Base Station
Subsystem), gom BTS va BSC.
He thong con chuyen mach mang (NSS Network
Switching Subsystem) gom: MSC/GMSC, HLR, VLR,
EIR, AUC.
He thong con van hanh bao dng (OMS
Operation and Maintenance Subsystem) cha OMC.
Ngoai ra trong mang con co cac thue bao, c goi la MS.
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Cau truc cua mot he thong GSM


Mobile Station

ME

SIM

Base Station
Subsystem

BTS

BSC

NSS

Network Subsystem

Other Networks

PSTN

MSC/
VLR

GMSC

PLMN

EIR
SD

HLR

AUC

Internet

MS

BSS

Note: Interfaces have been omitted for clarity purposes.

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1.1 MS (Mobile Station)


La thiet b cam tay trong mang di ong GSM,
thc hien chc nang thu va phat tn hieu vo
tuyen vi mot BTS (trong vung phu song).
oi vi he thong GSM, mot MS gom 2 thanh phan
la ME (Mobile Equipment) va SIM (Subscriber
Identity Module).

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a. ME (Mobile Equipment)
La thiet b cng thc hien chc nang thu phat tn hieu, no
tng oi thong minh va c ieu khien bi 1 chng
trnh ben trong may.
Noi ME thong minh v no co kha nang t ieu chnh
cong suat phat tiet kiem pin va han che hien tng
near and far.
ME tr thanh MS ch khi nao SIM c chen vao trong ME.
Moi ME co cha mot so IMEI (International Mobile
Equipment Identity) dung e nhan dang thiet b. So IMEI la
duy nhat cho tat ca cac MS tren toan the gii.
So IMEI co the c hien th hau het cac may ien thoai
bang cach bam *#06#
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b. SIM (Subscriber Identity Module)


SIM la mot the chip, ben trong co bo nh e lu tr
thong tin ca nhan cua thue bao va thong tin cua nha cung
cap dch vu.

Trong qua trnh hoat ong, MS se s dung cac thong tin


co san trong SIM. Thong tin lu tr trong SIM gom:
IMSI (International Mobile Subscriber Identity): so
nhan dang thue bao di ong quoc te. So nay la duy
nhat tren the gii nhng khi lam viec MS khong s
dung so nay.
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TMSI (Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity): so


nhan dang thue bao tam thi.
c MS s dung e lien lac tren ng vo tuyen, so
nay ch ton tai toi a 3 gi khi MS ang am thoai, neu
qua 3 gi th mang t ong thay oi so nay ma ngi
s dung khong biet.
LAI (Location Area Identifier): So vung ang ky.
Khoa nhan thc thue bao Ki: c MS s dung trong
qua trnh nhan thc thue bao.

u iem cua viec s dung SIM card ri ?


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1.2 Cac thanh phan cua he thong con BSS


a. BTS (Base Transceiver Station): Tram thu phat goc
BTS thc hien chc nang thu va phat tn hieu vi cac
MS nam trong vung phu song cua no.
Vung phu song cua mot BTS goi la cell (te bao).

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a. BTS (Base Transceiver Station(tt)

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a. BTS (Base Transceiver Station(tt)


BTS giao tiep vi MS qua ng vo tuyen.
Giao dien gia BTS va MS c goi la giao dien Um.
BTS lam viec thu ong, moi hoat ong cua no eu
c ieu khien bi BSC.
Giao tiep vo tuyen

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a. BTS (Base Transceiver Station(tt)


Ban knh phu song
cua cac tram BTS
la:

500 m khu vc
thanh th

15 km khu vc
nong thon, vung ven,

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b. BSC (Base Station Controller): Bo ieu khien tram goc


Chc nang chnh cua BSC la ieu khien hoat ong cua
cac BTS nh:
ieu khien cong suat phat cho cac MS.
Cap phat kenh tan so cho cac BTS va MS.
ieu khien nhay tan so gia cac MS e giam nhieu.
ieu khien chuyen giao,
Moi BSC co the ieu khien nhieu BTS (40 en 65 BTS).
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ng noi gia BTS va BSC co toc o la 2Mbps va co the


s dung:
Cap ong neu BTS gan BSC.
ng truyen viba neu BTS xa BSC, cac tuyen viba
nay co c ly cc ai la 20km.
Cap quang neu BTS c at tnh con BSC thanh
pho.

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1.3 Cac thanh phan cua he thong con NSS (Network


Switching Subsystem):
a. MSC (Mobile services Switching Center)
Thc hien chc nang chuyen mach cac cuoc goi gia
cac MS. MSC c xem nh tong ai cua mang di ong.
ay la ni duy nhat trong he thong thc hien chc
nang nay.
MSC chu trach nhiem thiet lap cac ket noi:
- en BSS

- en MSC khac
- en cac mang khac (nh mang PSTN)
Ngoai ra MSC con thc hien quan ly cac cell va cac
location areas (LA) (LA la mot vung gom nhieu cell).
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a. MSC (Mobile services Switching Center)

PSTN

ISDN

GMSC

MSC
Khac
EIR
AuC

OMC

HLR

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Mot MSC quan ly c nhieu BSC trong mot vung.


Cac MSC cac vung se au noi vi nhau e cho phep
thc hien cuoc goi lien vung. Ngoai ra MSC con c noi
vi mang PSTN e thc hien cuoc goi en cac thue bao
co nh.
MSC c at cac thanh pho ln.
MSC thc hien cac chc nang giong nh mot tong ai
cua mang ien thoai co nh. Tuy nhien viec quan ly
thue bao th khac.

Vay cac thue bao di ong c quan ly au va nh the


nao?
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Trong mang GSM, viec quan ly thue bao khong do cac tong
ai thc hien v thue bao di ong khong c ket noi lau
dai vi mot MSC. Thay vao o, v tr hien tai cua thue bao
xac nh MSC chu trach nhiem quan ly no tai thi iem o.
Do o, mang GSM co mot thanh phan c goi la HLR e
cha d lieu cua thue bao cua mot vung nao o.

b. HLR (Home Location Register)

HLR

HLR la mot c s d lieu ni ma cac thue bao di ong


c tao ra, b chan hoac b xoa bi nha khai thac.
HLR cha tat ca cac thong tin lau dai cua thue bao cung
nh cac dch vu va cac gii han ma mot thue bao di ong
c phep s dung, cu the gom: so IMSI, Ki, VLR hien
tai cua thue bao va cac dch vu cua thue bao di ong.
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Thong tin nay khong cho biet v tr cu the cua thue bao di
ong ma ch cho biet VLR ma thue bao ang hien dien.
Goi la thanh ghi nh v thng tru v thong tin cua thue
bao c lu tr lau dai trong HLR va du thue bao o co
di chuyen en au th thong tin trong HLR van khong b
xoa.
Mot phan ln d lieu cua thue bao trong HLR c s dung
e thiet lap va xoa ket noi.
e am bao d lieu nay co the c s dung ngay lap tc
cho mot cuoc goi th no con c lu tr mot c s d lieu
na, c goi la VLR va VLR c lien ket vi MSC.
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c. VLR (Visistor Location Register)

VLR

Cung la mot c s d lieu e cha thong tin cua thue bao


di ong. Thong tin nay cho biet v tr hien tai, trang thai
cua MS, va VLR se cung cap d lieu cua thue bao e
x ly cuoc goi bat c khi nao c yeu cau.

Thong tin trong VLR co tnh chat tam thi, no thay oi


kha thng xuyen va khong phai c cap nhat bang tay
nh trong HLR ma c cap nhat thong qua thu tuc cap
nhat v tr.
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v Thu tuc cap nhat v tr


Cap nhat v tr la mot thu tuc e thong bao cho mang
ve v tr hien tai cua thue bao di ong.
Thu tuc cap nhat v tr xay ra trong vai giay khi co 1
trong 3 ieu kien sau:
MS chuyen t tat " m may
MS di chuyen
Theo nh ky
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Thong qua thu tuc cap nhat v tr, d lieu cua thue bao
c chuyen t HLR sang VRL hien tai.
D lieu nay c lu tr trong VLR chng nao ma thue
bao o con di chuyen quanh quan trong vung do VLR nay
quan ly.

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V du: Vao nhng nam 1993 1994, cac thue bao di ong
c anh so theo khu vc Mien Bac, Mien Trung va Mien
Nam, cu the nh mang MobiFone
- 0901,2,3, xxxxxx: la cac thue bao di ong ang ky mien Bac
- 0907,8,9 xxxxxx: la cac thue bao di ong ang ky mien Nam
- 0905,6 xxxxxx: la cac thue bao di ong ang ky mien Trung

Th trong HLR thuoc mien Bac ch cha d lieu cua cac MS


co au so la 0904 nhng trong VLR cua mien nay th ngoai
cac thue bao co au so 0904 con co cac thue bao co cac au
so 0908 va 0905 di chuyen t mien Nam va mien Trung ra.

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Neu mot thue bao di chuyen sang vung phuc vu cua mot
VLR khac th thu tuc cap nhat v tr se c lap lai: VRL
mi yeu cau d lieu cua thue bao nay t HLR quan ly
thue bao o.

ong thi, d lieu cua thue bao nay trong VLR cu se b


xoa. Ngoai ra, thong tin trong VLR cung se b xoa khi
thue bao tat may.
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Ngoai ra, VLR con tham gia kiem tra mot thue bao co u
quyen e truy xuat vao mang hay khong, ngha la thc
hien nhan thc thue bao.

d. AuC (Authentication Center): Trung tam nhan thc


thue bao
Chc nang: ket hp vi HLR cung cap cho VLR cac thong
so e nhan thc mot MS co quyen truy nhap vao mang hay
khong.

e. EIR (Equipment Identity Register): Thanh ghi nhan


dang thiet b.
Chc nng: Dung e lu tr so IMEI (International Mobile
Equipment Identity) cua tat ca cac thue bao trong vung
phuc vu cua no.
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Moi ME c san xuat ra eu co mot so IMEI duy


nhat tren the gii, so nay va c lu trong ROM cua
ME, va c lu trong EIR.
Trong EIR, so IMEI cua tat ca thiet b di ong c s
dung c phan vao 3 danh sach (list):
WHITE LIST cha cac ME khong b gii han
GREY LIST cha cac thiet b ang c giam sat,
theo doi
BLACK LIST cha cac thiet b khong hp le (vd:
thiet b o a b an cap,)
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e kiem tra mot ME co hp le hay khong th au tien


MSC se yeu cau so IMEI t MS sau o MSC se gi so
IMEI nay en EIR.
EIR se kiem tra xem thiet b o thuoc danh sach nao
va gi ket qua ve lai cho MSC.

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V du: Neu ME o thuoc BLACK LIST th no khong the


thc hien/nhan cuoc goi.

Thanh ghi EIR khong quan trong nhng neu quan ly


thanh ghi nay tot th se khong co hien tng mat may di
ong!
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1.4 He thong con OMS (Operation & Maintenance Subsystem)


Mot OMS gom 1 hoac nhieu OMC. Mot OMC ho tr cac
chc nang sau:
Quan ly cau hnh mang
Quan ly qua trnh lam viec cua mang
Quan ly bao mat
OMC c ket noi vi NSS (SSS) va BSC thong qua mot
mang d lieu goi X.25.

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OMC bao gom cac may tnh ma t ay nha khai thac


co the nhap cac lenh e ieu hanh, bao dng he
thong. Cac may tnh nay c ket noi vi nhau qua mot
mang LAN.

Printer

OMS

Console

TCP/IP (LAN)

Console
MSC

OMS

ay cung la ni duy nhat ma ngi khai thac giao tiep


c vi mang di ong.
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Ngoai ra, trong mang GSM con co:


v He thong billing:
Thc hien chc nang tnh cc cho cac cuoc goi.
Billing bao gm:
H thong tra trc - Prepaid
H thong tra sau - Postpaid
v SMSC (Short Message Service Center)
Thc hien chc nang cung cap dch vu SMS cho cac MS.
Lu tr tam thi cac ban tin SMS.
Co 2 loai ban tin la : 80 ky t (mang Sfone thi ky
au) va 160 ky t.
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2. GIAO DIEN VO TUYEN Um


2.1 Muc tieu:
Sau khi hoan tat phan nay, chung ta co the:
Liet ke c cac bang tan ma cac he thong di ong
GSM ang s dung.
Giai thch c cau truc vat ly cua cac kenh giao
dien vo tuyen.
Phan biet c cac loai kenh logic giao dien vo tuyen.
Giai thch c cau truc cua kenh lu lng.
Giai thch c chc nang va cau truc cua cac kenh
ieu khien.
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2.2 Cac bang tan so trong GSM


He thong GSM co hai bang tan lam viec la bang tan
900 MHz c goi la GSM 900 va bang tan 1800 MHz
c goi la DCS 1800.
Trong o, moi bang tan nay lai c chia lam 2 bang
tan con:
Bang tan hng len (UPLINK UL): la bang tan c
MS s dung e truyen tn hieu en BTS.
Bang tan hng xuong (DOWNLINK DL): la bang
tan c BTS s dung e truyen tn hieu en MS.
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GSM 900 lam viec trong dai tan so t 890MHz en


960MHz, trong o:
Bang tan hng len nam trong dai tan so t 890MHz
en 915MHz.
Bang tan hng xuong nam trong dai tan so t
935MHz en 960MHz.
Dai tan so t 915MHz en 935MHz la khoang bao ve.
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DCS 1800 lam viec trong dai tan so t 1710 MHz en


1880 MHz, trong o:
Bang tan hng len nam trong dai tan so t 1710
MHz en 1785 MHz.
Bang tan hng xuong nam trong dai tan so t 1805
MHz en 1880 MHz.
Dai tan so t 1785 MHz en 1805 MHz la khoang bao
ve.
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Moi hng cua bang tan GSM 900 c chia thanh 124
song mang (Carrier C).
Toan bo bang tan GSM 900 c chia lam 124 kenh tan
so vo tuyen (RFC Radio Frequency Channel), moi
RFC gom 2 song mang: 1 cho hng len va 1 cho hng
xuong.
o rong bang tan cua moi song mang la 200 kHz.
Khoang cach gia song mang hng len va hng
xuong trong cung mot kenh la 45 MHz.
Chu y: Song mang au tien (200kHz) khong c s dung.
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Tng t, moi hng cua bang tan DCS 1800 c chia


thanh 374 song mang.
Toan bo bang tan DCS 1800 c chia lam 374 kenh tan
so (RFC), moi kenh gom 2 song mang: 1 cho hng len
va 1 cho hng xuong.
o rong bang tan cua moi song mang cung la 200 kHz.
Khoang cach gia song mang hng len va hng
xuong trong cung mot kenh la 95 MHz.
Chu y: Cung nh bang tan GSM 900, song mang au tien
(200kHz) khong c s dung.
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v Viec truy cap vao mang thong qua cac kenh tan so vo
tuyen trong mot dai tan c goi la a truy cap phan
chia theo tan so (FDMA).
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v Bang sau liet ke cac s khac nhau gia bang tan GSM
900 va DCS 1800.
ac iem so sanh

GSM 900

Tan so hoat ong

DCS 1800

Hoat ong bang Hoat ong bang


tan 900 MHz
tan 1800 MHz

o rong bang tan moi hng

25 MHz

75 MHz

Khoang cach gia hai tan so


trong 1 kenh tan so

45 MHz

95 MHz

124

374

So lng kenh tan so

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Tuy thuoc vao lu lng, mot cell co the s dung mot


hoac nhieu kenh tan so (RFC).
V so lng kenh tan so la co han nen mot RFC phai
c s dung lai rat nhieu lan.
Tuy nhien, e tranh hien tng nhieu ong kenh th cac
cell gan nhau phai s dung cac RFC khac nhau.
Do o, cac BTS s dung cung mot RFC phai am bao
cach nhau mot khoang cach an toan (safe distance).
Khoang cach an toan nay c goi la REUSE
DISTANCE (KHOANG CACH S DUNG LAI TAN
SO).
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2.3 Cac kenh vat ly


Giong nh he thong PCM32 (1 luong PCM32 gom 32
kenh), 1 RFC bao gom 8 kenh. V the, nhieu thue bao di
ong co the truy cap mot RFC.

Phng phap truy cap nay c goi la a truy cap phan


chia theo thi gian (Time Division Multiple AccessTDMA).
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2.3 Cac kenh vat ly (tt)

Kenh vat ly la tan so dung e truyen tai thong tin.


V du kenh tan so 890Mhz la kenh vat ly.
Kenh Logic la do kenh vat ly tach ra, trong GSM mot
kenh vat ly c chia ra lam 8 kenh logic.

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Mot kenh vat ly c xac nh bi mot cap song mang


cu the (ngha la bi mot RFC) va mot khe thi gian
trong khung TDMA.

So lng kenh vat ly toi a cua mot he thong GSM la bao


nhieu?
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2.4 Cac kenh logic


Kenh Logic la do kenh vat ly tach ra
Mot kenh vat ly co the hoat ong nh:
Mot kenh lu lng (traffic channel) e truyen thoai va
d lieu cho ngi dung.

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Hoac nh mot kenh ieu khien e truyen thong tin ieu


khien va bao hieu.

v Kenh lu lng va kenh ieu khien c goi chung la


kenh logic (logic channel).
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2.4.1 Cac kenh lu lng


Cac kenh lu lng (Traffic Channel TCH) khac nhau
tuy theo:
Loai thong tin ma chung van chuyen: thoai c so
hoa hoac d lieu cua ngi dung.
Toc o truyen cua kenh: full rate hoac half rate.
Toc o cua d lieu oi vi truyen d lieu (ngha la toc
o d lieu cua ngi dung thc s c truyen), nh:
o D lieu toan toc cho 9.6 kb/s, 4.8 kb/s, 2.4 kb/s.
o D lieu ban toc cho 4.8 kb/s, 2.4 kb/s.
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Hnh sau cho ta thay cac loai kenh lu lng

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v Kenh thoai toan toc va ban toc (Full/Half


rate speech)
Thong tin thoai c truyen qua giao dien vo tuyen
c nen thanh toc o 13 kb/s (full rate) hoac 6.5 kb/s
(half rate) bang cac thuat toan ma hoa thoai ac biet.
Ma hoa thoai ban toc co c trien khai hay khong phu
thuoc vao s tng thch cua thiet b chuyen oi ma
trong BSC va trong MS.
Toc o kenh la 22.8 kb/s oi vi full rate va 11.4 kb/s oi
vi half rate co c la do viec chen them cac bit sa loi
e truyen i cung vi thong tin thoai giao dien vo
tuyen.
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Bang sau cho ta thay toc o kenh thoai full rate va half rate
trc va sau khi ma hoa (them cac bit sa loi).

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Khi truyen thoai va d lieu half rate, so lng kenh


lu lng tang len gap oi v mot khe thi gian vat ly
cung luc phuc vu en hai ket noi.
ieu nay at c la do 2 ket noi nay thay phien nhau
s dung cung mot khe thi gian.

Tuy nhien, ban se khong cam nhan c s suy giam


chat lng ket noi.
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2.4.2 Cac kenh ieu khien


Ngi ta nh ngha ba nhom kenh ieu khien sau:
Cac kenh quang ba (BCHBroadcast Channel)
BCH la cac kenh ieu khien hng xuong, c s dung
e mang thong tin ac thu cua cell dung trong viec ong
bo, sa loi,
Cac kenh ieu khien chung (CCCHCommon Control
Channels)
CCCH la cac kenh ieu khien c s dung bi tat ca
MS va BTS chang han nh e yeu cau va cung cap cac
kenh ieu khien danh rieng.
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Cac kenh ieu khien danh rieng (DCCHDedicated


Control Channels)
DCCH c an nh cho mot MS e no thc hien mot
phien giao dch cu the khi ma cac kenh lu lng cha
c cung cap.
Moi nhom kenh ieu khien bao gom nhieu kenh ieu khien
e cung cap cac chc nang ieu khien can thiet cho mang
GSM, nh c the hien tren hnh sau.

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Sau ay se mieu ta chc nang cua tng kenh:


a. Cac kenh quang ba
Kenh ieu khien quang ba (BCCHBroadcast Control
Channel)
L knh ng xung cung cp thng tin chung v
mng, cell m MS ang v cc cell ln cn.
Kenh hiu chnh tn s (FCCHFrequency Correction
Channel)
La kenh ng xuong cung cap thong tin e MS ong
bo tan so noi cua no (bo dao ong noi) en tan so ma
mang cap cho MS o s dung.
Khi thc hien nhay tan th noi dung cua kenh nay thay
oi lien tuc.
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Kenh ng b (SCHSynchronization Channel)


La kenh ng xuong mang thong tin ve ong bo
khung va nhan dang tram BTS.
S d phai co kenh ong bo la v mot MS co the cach
BTS ang phuc vu no en 30 km mang thng phai
ieu chnh thi gian phat cua mot MS sao cho tn hieu
thu c tai BTS c ong bo vi ong ho cua BTS.
BTS cung xuat lenh phat sm en MS qua kenh SCH
nay.
59
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v V du ng dung cua kenh BCH


Thong qua kenh quang ba, BTS truyen d lieu mot
cach lien tuc chang han nh truyen thong tin nhan
dang cell en MS.
Bang cach nay, MS co the xac nh c hien tai no
ang ng cell nao.

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b. Cac kenh ieu khien chung


Kenh tm goi (PCHPaging Channel)
La kenh hng xuong, dung e thong bao cho MS biet
la co cuoc goi en no.
Ngoai ra, PCH con c s dung e truyen cac ban tin
SMS en MS.
Kenh truy xuat ngau nhien (RACHRandom Access
Channel)
La mot kenh hng len, c MS s dung e phuc ap
lai mot ban tin tm goi t kenh PCH.
Ngoai ra, RACH con c MS s dung e bao cho
mang biet la no muon thc hien mot cuoc goi.
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Khi can thc hien cuoc goi, MS phat ban tin nay roi
ch BTS tra li.
Neu sau mot khoang thi gian khong nhan c tn
hieu tra li t BTS th MS t ong phat lai ban tin nay
nen kenh nay co ten la kenh truy xuat ngau nhien.
Kenh cho phep truy cap (AGCHAccess Grant Channel)
La mot kenh hng xuong, c BTS s dung e ap
lai 1 RACH.
Muc ch cua kenh AGCH la e cap phat cac tai
nguyen cho MS (SDCCH va TCH).
62
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c. Cac kenh ieu khien danh rieng


Co 3 loai kenh ieu khien danh rieng trong GSM.
Cung giong nh cac kenh lu lng, cac kenh ieu
khien danh rieng la 2 chieu va co format cung nh
chc nang giong nhau ca hng len va hng xuong.

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Kenh ieu khien danh rieng mot mnh (SDCCH


Stand-alone Dedicated Control Channel)
SDCCH mang d lieu bao hieu sau khi ket noi gia
MS va BTS c thiet lap nhng trc khi BTS cap
phat mot TCH cho MS.
SDCCH am bao MS va BTS van duy tr ket noi trong
khi BSS va MSC xac minh MS co quyen truy cap vao
mang hay khong.
Do o, SDCCH co the c xem la mot kenh tam
thi, trung gian.
SDCCH c s dung e gi thong tin nhan thc va
cac ban tin canh bao.
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Kenh ieu khien ket hp


Associated Control Channel)

cham

(SACCHSlow

SACCH luon luon c ket hp vi mot kenh lu lng


TCH hoac mot kenh SDCCH.
hng xuong, SACCH c s dung e gi nhng
thay oi ve thong tin ieu khien en MS nh cac hng
dan ve mc cong suat phat, cac ch dan ve thi gian
phat sm.
Thong tin nay c gi cham nhng eu an.
hng len, SACCH mang thong tin ve chat lng
cua kenh TCH cung nh ket qua cng o trng cua
cac cell lan can ma MS o lng c e mang s dung
trong viec ieu khien chuyen giao.
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N2

Kenh ieu khien ket hp nhanh (FACCHFast


Associated Control Channel)
FACCH mang cac ban tin khan va tren thc te th no
cha cung loai thong tin nh SDCCH.
Mot FACCH c cap phat bat c khi nao mot kenh
SDCCH khong c danh rieng cho mot MS nao o va
khi co mot ban tin khan (nh mot yeu cau chuyen giao).
FACCH lam viec che o lay cap. ieu nay c thc
hien bang cach set 2 bit ac biet, c goi la cac bit lay
cap trong kenh TCH len 1.
Neu cac bit lay cap c thiet lap th khe thi gian c
coi nh cha d lieu FACCH ch khong phai la TCH.
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Slide 66
N2

Sa SACCH li thnh SDCCH


Nhan, 10/5/2007

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v V du ve cac kenh DCCH, CCCH

Mot MS quay so thue bao can goi

Cac loai kenh nao se c cap cho MS nay va loai thong


tin nao se c truyen?

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Trc khi MS co the gi so thue bao b goi en BTS th


MS yeu cau mot kenh ieu khien danh rieng t BSC
thong qua mot kenh ieu khien chung, o chnh la kenh
RACH.

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BSC cap phat mot DCCH cho MS cung lai thong qua
mot CCCH, o chnh la kenh AGCH.

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Thong qua DCCH, tat ca tn hieu bao hieu dung e thiet


lap ket noi c trao oi (v du nh nhan thc thue bao,
gi so thue bao b goi, cap phat kenh lu lng).

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2.5 Cac cum (bursts):


Cau truc bit cua mot kenh phu thuoc vao viec no c
s dung nh kenh lu lng hay kenh ieu khien.
Mot kenh lu lng co cau truc bit nh sau:

Mot chuoi bit c nh ngha nh tren goi la mot cum.


Cum tren c goi la cum thng (Normal Burst).
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73

Trong o:
TB = Tail Bits: Phan nay gom 3 bit va c dung e xac
nh cac c cua khe thi gian.
Coded Bits: Cac phan nay cha thong tin cua ngi
dung a c ma hoa (thoai hoac d lieu) trong 2 57
bits.
Training Sequence: Phan nay cha mot mau bit dai 26
bit, c s dung e cho phep bo can bang thch ng
trong may thu cua MS hoac BTS phan tch cac ac tnh
cua kenh vo tuyen trc khi giai ma d lieu cua ngi
dung.
GP = Guard Period: 8,25 bit nay c s dung nham
tranh cac s lech pha (xay ra do s di chuyen cua MS).
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Mot khe thi gian c s dung nh kenh ieu khien co the


cha:
Hoac la mot cum ong bo (Synchronisation Burst
SB) e s dung cho kenh ong bo.
Hoac mot cum ieu chnh tan so (Frequency
Correction Burst FB) cho kenh ieu chnh tan so.

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Hnh sau mieu ta tat ca cac cum trong GSM.

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Trong o cum truy xuat (Access Burst) c s dung


bi tat ca cac MS khi co nhu cau truy cap dch vu cua he
thong.

Ngoai ra trong GSM con co mot loai cum na c goi


la cum gia (Dummy Burst), c s dung e lam ay
thong tin cho cac khe thi gian khong c s dung
hng xuong.

Cum gia nay co cau truc hoan toan giong vi cum


thng.
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2.6 Cau truc thi gian cua cac kenh vat ly


Neu mot khe thi gian c s dung e truyen thong tin
ieu khien th no cha cac loai kenh ieu khien khac
nhau hay noi cach khac no cha cac loai cum khac
nhau.
Cu the, cac kenh BCH va CCCH ch c truyen TS0
trong cac khung TDMA nao o trong mot a khung
gom 51 khung lap i lap lai nhng RFC danh cho muc
ch quang ba.
a khung nay c goi la a khung ieu khien.
Nh vay, t TS1 en TS7 cua cac khung nay van mang
lu lng TCH bnh thng.
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oi vi cac RFC quang ba, khung th 51 khong cha


bat ky d lieu cua cac kenh BCH/CCCH hng xuong
nao va c coi nh mot khung roi.
Tuy nhien, kenh CCCH hng len co the nhan thong
tin cua thue bao trong suot TS0 cua moi khung (tham
ch ngay ca khung roi).

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Tng t nh cac kenh ieu khien, cac kenh lu lng


cung c ket hp lai e tao thanh mot a khung va
c goi la a khung thoai.
Moi a khung thoai gom 26 khung TDMA.
Trong 26 khung, khung th 13 va 26 khong c dung
cho lu lng ma cho cac muc ch ieu khien, cu the:
Khung 13 cha d lieu cua kenh SACCH.
Khung 26 cha cac bit roi khi cac kenh lu lng toan
toc c s dung, va cha d lieu cua kenh SACCH
khi cac kenh lu lng ban toc c s dung.
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Vi mot kenh lu lng ban toc, cau truc thi gian cua khe
thi gian th x nh sau:

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2.7 Cau truc khung cua GSM


Co 8 khe thi gian trong mot khung TDMA, va chu ky
khung la 4.615 ms.
Mot khung cha 8 156.25 = 1250 bit.
Cac khung (frame) thng c nhom thanh cac cau
truc ln hn c goi la a khung (multiframe), cac a
khung c nhom thanh cac super frame va cac super
frame lai c nhom thanh cac hyper frame.
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T hnh ve ta thay, oi vi kenh lu lng th:


Mot multiframe gom 26 TDMA frame.
Mot super frame gom 51 multi frame (tc gom 1326
TDMA frame).
Mot hyper frame gom 2048 super frame (tc gom
2715648 TDMA frame).
Con oi vi kenh bao hieu (ieu khien) th:
Mot multiframe gom 51 TDMA frame.
Mot super frame gom 26 multi frame (tc gom 1326
TDMA frame).
Mot hyper frame gom 2048 super frame (tc gom
2715648 TDMA frame).
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88

2.8 T CHC MNG V MT A L CA GSM


Trong mt quc gia c th
c nhiu mng GSM cng
tn ti v chng c th
bao ph ln nhau v mt
a l.

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2.8 T CHC MNG V MT A L CA GSM (TT)


Mt h thng GSM quc
gia u tin c chia
thnh cc vng phc v
ca MSC.

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2.8 T CHC MNG V MT A L CA GSM (TT)


Cc thu bao di ng
m tin hnh th tc
cp nht v tr trong
vng phc v ca MSC
no th s c ng k
trong VLR lin kt vi
MSC .

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2.8 T CHC MNG V MT A L CA GSM (TT)


MSC c kt ni vi cc BSS trong vng phc v ca
n. BSS chu trch nhim qun l cc cell. Cell l vng
phc v nh nht ca mng GSM.
Mt BTS chu trch nhim cung cp cc ng truyn v
tuyn cho mt cell.

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2.8 T CHC MNG V MT A L CA GSM (TT)


Kch thc ca cc cell khc nhau tu thuc vo a hnh
v mt thu bao; c th l cell vng ng dn c
lun lun c bn knh nh hn so vi cc cell cc vng
nng thn.
gc qun l, nhiu cell c kt hp li hnh
thnh mt Location Area (LA).
Mi LA c mt s nhn dng ring c gi l LAI
(Location Area Identity), s ny l duy nht trn th gii.

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2.8 T CHC MNG V MT A L CA GSM (TT)

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2.8 T CHC MNG V MT A L CA GSM (TT)


S LAI bao gm cc trng sau:
MCC (Mobile Country Code) dng nhn dng quc
gia, gm 3 ch s.
MNC (Mobile Network Code) dng nhn dng cc
mng GSM khc nhau trong 1 quc gia, gm 2 ch s.
LAC (Location Area Code) dng ch r mt LA no
trong mt mng GSM bng cch s dng 2 byte.

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N4

2.9 CC S NHN DNG THU BAO DI NG TRONG GSM

2.9.1. S MSISDN
Bng cch quay mt t hp cc con s no , bn c th gi
mt thu bao di ng.
T hp cc con s ny c gi l s MSISDN (Mobile
Station ISDN).
Nh vy, MSISDN l mt s c th quay c (dialable),
c thu bao ch gi s dng tip cn vi thu bao b gi.

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Slide 96
N4

THAM KHAO FILE Introduction to GSM (file Internet explorer)


Nhan, 10/11/2007

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2.9 CC S NHN DNG THU BAO DI NG TRONG GSM (TT)

MSISDN bao gm:


Country Code (CC): M quc gia dng nhn dng
quc gia v n chnh l m quc gia trong mng PSTN
quc t. S lng cc ch s ca CC l khng c nh.
NDC (National Destination Code): Dng nhn dng
mng di ng mt t v cng c chiu di bin i.
SN (Subscriber Number): S ny dng nhn dng mt
thu bao di ng.

Hin ti, chiu di ti a ca MSISDN l 12 ch s.

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2.9 CC S NHN DNG THU BAO DI NG TRONG GSM (TT)

2.9.2 S IMSI

IMSI (International Mobile Subscriber Identity): L s


nhn dng thu bao di ng quc t, l mt s nondialable duy nht c cp pht cho mi thu bao di
ng trong h thng GSM nhn dng thu bao trong
mng.
S IMSI c s dng trong lc trao i bo hiu trong
ni b h thng di ng nhn dng mt thu bao.

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2.9 CC S NHN DNG THU BAO DI NG TRONG GSM (TT)

S IMSI c cu trc nh sau:


MCC (Mobile Country Code): L m nhn dng quc
gia, s dng 3 ch s.
MNC (Mobile Network Code): M mng di ng dng
nhn dng mng di ng mt t s dng 2 ch s.
MSIN (Mobile Subscriber Identification Number): C
chiu di c nh l 10 ch s, 2 ch s u dng
nhn dng HLR qun l thu bao, 8 ch s cn li
dng nhn dng tng thu bao di ng.

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2.9 CC S NHN DNG THU BAO DI NG TRONG GSM (TT)

IMSI c lu tr lu di, c nh trong SIM card. Tuy


nhin, thu bao di ng khng bit s IMSI ny.
Trong HLR, IMSI c s dng nh a ch ca b nh
d liu ca thu bao.
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2.9 CC S NHN DNG THU BAO DI NG TRONG GSM (TT)

2.9.3. S TMSI
Cc bo hiu giao din v tuyn phi c kh nng nhn
dng mt thu bao.
Khi cc bn tin bo hiu khng c m ho hon ton
th s IMSI khng ph hp truyn trn cc giao din
v tuyn v cc nguyn nhn v vn bo mt.
Ni cch khc, s bo mt ca thu bao khng c bo
m trong mt s trng hp no .

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2.9 CC S NHN DNG THU BAO DI NG TRONG GSM (TT)

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2.9 CC S NHN DNG THU BAO DI NG TRONG GSM (TT)

y l nguyn nhn gii thch ti sao giao din v


tuyn th s IMSI c thay th bi mt s nhn dng
khc, s ny c cp pht tm thi v c lu tr
trong VLR v trong SIM card.
S nhn dng ny c gi l TMSI (Temporary
Mobile Subscriber Identity). S ny c cu trc bin
i.
TMSI l mt s gi ngu nhin c to ra t s IMSI.
TMSI c s dng trnh vic phi truyn IMSI
qua giao din v tuyn. iu ny gip gi s IMSI c
bo mt hn.
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2.9 CC S NHN DNG THU BAO DI NG TRONG GSM (TT)

theo di mt thu bao di ng thng qua IMSI/TMSI,


ngi nghe trm phi thm nhp vo qu trnh lin lc
ca mng GSM khi s TMSI c tho thun ngay t lc
ban u.
Ngoi ra, v s TMSI c tho thun li theo nh k
nn ngi nghe trm phi thm nhp vo mng mi khi
s TMSI c tho thun li.

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2.10 CC TH TC CHNH TRONG GSM


2.10.1 Th tc nhn thc
Th tc nhn thc c thc hin trong rt nhiu hot
ng khc nhau ca thu bao di ng nh trong qu trnh
cp nht v tr, trc khi nhn cuc gi, trc khi thc hin
cuc gi, kim tra xem mt thu bao di ng c quyn
truy cp vo mng hay khng.
Vic to ra mt thu bao trong mng di ng GSM bt u
bng vic sn xut ra mt SIM card.
Ngoi IMSI, LAI, TMSI v Ki, trong SIM cn lu tr cc
thut ton A3 v A8.
D liu ny (IMSI, Ki, A3 v A8) cng c lu tr trong
AC v c s dng tnh ton cc thng s nhn thc
thu bao (b ba triples).
B ba nhn thc bao gm: RAND, SRES v Kc.
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105

2.10 CC TH TC CHNH TRONG GSM (tt)

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2.10 CC TH TC CHNH TRONG GSM (tt)


Vic tnh ton b ba trong AC c thc hin nh sau:

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2.10 CC TH TC CHNH TRONG GSM (tt)


AC lun to ra nhiu b ba cho mi thu bao di ng
v gi n n VLR thng qua HLR khi c yu cu.
Trong qu trnh nhn thc, VLR gi s ngu nhin
(RAND) n MS. SIM s dng thng tin ny tnh ra
SRES v gi s ny (SRES) tr li VLR so snh.
Nu VLR so snh thy 2 SRES ny ging nhau th coi
nh qu trnh nhn thc thnh cng.
Trong ln nhn thc sau , VLR s s dng b ba k
tip. Nu VLR s dng ht cc b ba th n s yu
cu mt tp b ba mi t HLR.
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2.10 CC TH TC CHNH TRONG GSM (tt)


Hnh sau minh ho th tc nhn thc trong GSM.

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2.10 CC TH TC CHNH TRONG GSM (tt)


Cng nh hnh trn, hnh sau cng minh ho th tc
nhn thc trong GSM.

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2.10 CC TH TC CHNH TRONG GSM (tt)


2.10.2 Th tc cp nht v tr
Nu LAI c lu trong SIM khc vi LAI nhn c
knh qung b ca cell th lc ny MS s khi ng th
tc cp nht v tr.
Ni cch khc, cp nht v tr c khi xng bi MS
khi n di chuyn sang LA khc.
Gi s mt thu bao di ng ng k HLR Munich s
dng SIM card ca anh ta ln u tin MSC thuc
vng Berlin.
Lc ny, MS nhn thy LAI m n nhn c knh
qung b khc vi LAI c lu trong SIM card nn
n s yu cu mt th tc cp nht v tr s dng IMSI.
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2.10 CC TH TC CHNH TRONG GSM (tt)

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2.10 CC TH TC CHNH TRONG GSM (tt)


VLR Berlin nhp IMSI vo c s d liu ca n v yu
cu cc b ba t AC Munich thng qua HLR Munich
thc hin th tc nhn thc.
AC Munich cung cp cc b ba theo yu cu v gi chng
n VLR Berlin thng qua HLR Munich.
Trong VLR Berlin, cc b ba ny c s dng cho th
tc nhn thc.
By gi VLR Berlin yu cu d liu ca thu bao di ng
t HLR Munich. Cng vi yu cu ny, VLR Berlin s
gi s VLR ca n v mt LMSI n HLR Munich.

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2.10 CC TH TC CHNH TRONG GSM (tt)


VLR number: L a ch bo hiu quc t ca VLR.
VLR number c format ging vi mt MSISDN.
LMSI (Local Mobile Subscriber Identity) l a ch d
liu ca thu bao trong VLR cho php truy cp d
liu ny mt cch nhanh chng.

S VLR v LMSI c bit quan trng trong th tc tm


gi.
HLR Munich lu tr s VLR Berlin v LMSI v cung
cp d liu ca thu bao nh c yu cu cho VLR
Berlin.
VLR Berlin lu tr d liu ca thu bao v cp pht mt
TMSI cho thu bao di ng.
TMSI c m ha v gi n MS, ti y n c lu
tr trong SIM card cng vi LAI mi.
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2.10 CC TH TC CHNH TRONG GSM (tt)


Hnh sau minh ha th tc cp nht v tr.

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2.10 CC TH TC CHNH TRONG GSM (tt)


Nh vy, sau khi cp nht v tr th:
VLR cha tt c d liu ca thu bao cn thit x
l mt cuc v LAI hin ti ca thu bao di ng .
HLR cha a ch ca VLR hin ti v c s dng
khi c cuc gi n thu bao di ng ..
D liu c lu tr trong SIM card sau khi th tc
cp nht v tr c thc hin l:
D liu c nh
IMSI
Ki
A3
A8

D liu tm thi
LAI
TMSI

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2.10 CC TH TC CHNH TRONG GSM (tt)


2.10.3 Th tc nhn cuc gi (Mobile Terminating CallMTC)

Xt mt thu bao di ng ng k Munich nhng hin


ti di chuyn sang Berlin.
Gi s mt thu bao PSTN quay s MSISDN ca thu
bao di ng ny.
Sau khi phn tch s, mng PSTN s thit lp mt knh
lu lng gia tng i ch gi v MSC ca mng di
ng. MSC ny c gi l Gateway MSC (GMSC).

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2.10 CC TH TC CHNH TRONG GSM (tt)

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2.10 CC TH TC CHNH TRONG GSM (tt)


GMSC cn thm thng tin nh tuyn thit lp knh
lu lng n ng MSC m thu bao di ng hin ti
ang c mt .
Thng tin nh tuyn ny c gi l Mobile Station
Roaming Number (MSRN).
Qu trnh cung cp s MSRN bao gm cc bc sau:

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2.10 CC TH TC CHNH TRONG GSM (tt)


Bc 1: GMSC xc nh HLR Munich bng cch s
dng HLR-ID trong s MSISDN nhn c, sau
yu cu s MSRN t HLR Munich.

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2.10 CC TH TC CHNH TRONG GSM (tt)


Bc 2: HLR Munich xc nh VLR hin ti ca thu
bao ny (VLR Berlin) v yu cu mt MSRN t VLR
ny s dng s IMSI.
Bc 3: VLR Berlin gi MSRN n GMSC thng qua
HLR Munich.

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2.10 CC TH TC CHNH TRONG GSM (tt)


MSRN l mt t hp s c cu trc ging nh MSISDN.
VLR Berlin s nh s MSRN cung cp cho thu bao di
ng ny.
GMSC thit lp mt kt ni lu lng v gi tr li s
MSRN nhn.
MSC Berlin yu cu VLR ca n cung cp TMSI v LAI
cho thu bao ny thng qua MSRN.
p ng yu cu ny, VLR Berlin cung cp TMSI v LAI
c lu tr trong ln cp nht v tr sau cng cho MSC
Berlin.

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V MSC Berlin ch bit LA ca ln cp nht cui cng
nn n s iu khin tt c cc BSC phc v LA ny pht
mt bn tin tm kim tt c cc cell trong LA.
Th tc ny c gi l Paging.

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MS trong cell hin ti tr li bng mt paging respone.
paging respone ny s c chuyn n MSC thng
qua BSC.

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Sau khi tin hnh nhn thc li v VLR cp pht mt
TMSI mi th qu trnh thit lp cuc gi n MS c
hon tt.

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2.10.4 Th tc xut pht cuc gi (Mobile Originating Call
MOC)
iu g s xy ra nu mt thu bao di ng mun gi
cho mt thu bao (di ng/c nh) khc ?

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Nu mt thu bao di ng quay mt s in thoi th c
ngha l thu bao ang yu cu mt knh lu lng
cho n.

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VLR thc hin th tc nhn thc, cp pht mt TMSI
mi v kim tra xem thu bao c c quyn s dng
dch v m thu bao yu cu hay khng (qu trnh ny
c gi l subsciption check).

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Nu qu trnh subsciption check thnh cng, MSC s
thit lp knh lu lng n BSC v thu bao, ngha l thu
bao c cp pht mt knh lu lng thc hin cuc
gi.

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2.10.5 Th tc chuyn giao (Handover/Handoff)

Khi nim: Chuyn giao l qu trnh chuyn i BTS


phc v ca MS khi MS ny ang trong ch m
thoi.
Cc iu kin xy ra chuyn giao:
iu kin 1:
Khi MS ang m thoi nhng di chuyn t vng ph
sng ca BTS ny sang vng ph sng ca BTS khc th
cng trng ca BTS phc v gim dn, cng
trng ca BTS ln cn tng ln nhiu.
Nu MS tip tc di chuyn theo hng ny th n mt
thi im no cng trng ca BTS phc v
khng hot ng. Do , mun tip tc m thoi
th phi chuyn giao sang BTS ln cn.
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iu kin 2:
Khi MS khng di chuyn nhng n ang trong vng
ph sng l giao ca 2 BTS.
Khi , v mt l do no lm cho ch s bit li trn
BTS ang phc v tng ln th h thng cng thc
hin chuyn giao sang BTS mi ci thin cht
lng.
Chuyn giao ny c gi l chuyn giao cht
lng.

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iu kin 3:
Khi MS khng di chuyn nhng n ang trong vng
ph sng l giao ca 2 BTS.
Khi , nu lu lng trn BTS ang phc v bo
ho hoc sp bo ho th h thng cng thc hin
chuyn giao mt s MS sang BTS mi BTS ny c
th phc v c cho cc MS mi khc.
Chuyn giao ny c gi l chuyn giao lu lng.

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Chuyn giao c phn thnh cc loi sau:
Chuyn giao do BSC iu khin. Loi chuyn giao ny
c chia thnh 2 loi:
Chuyn giao trong cng mt cell (Intra-Cell Handover).
Chuyn giao gia cc cell thuc cng mt BSC (InterCell Handover).

Chuyn giao do MSC iu khin. Loi chuyn giao ny


cng c chia thnh 2 loi:
Chuyn giao gia cc cell thuc 2 BSC khc nhau v 2
BSC ny thuc cng mt MSC (Intra-MSC Handover).
Chuyn giao gia cc cell thuc 2 BSC khc nhau v 2
BSC ny thuc hai MSC khc nhau (Inter-MSC
Handover).
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Nguyn tc chuyn giao
V c bn, mt th tc chuyn giao c thc hin qua 4
giai on.
Giai on 1: BSC quyt nh xem mt s chuyn giao
cn phi c tin hnh hay khng ?
Giai on 2: Mt kt ni mi c thit lp song song
vi kt ni ang c.
Giai on 3: MSC chuyn mch cuc gi sang kt ni
mi.
Giai on 4: Kt ni ban u c xa.
By gi chng ta s xt cc giai on ny chi tit hn, s
dng mt Inter-MSC Handover nh mt v d.

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Giai on 1:
Gi s mt thu bao di ng thc hin mt cuc gi
cell A v ang di chuyn sang cell B.
Trong khi thc hin cuc gi, MS lin tc o lng
cht lng ca kt ni hin ti v cng trng thu
c t cc cell xung quanh.
Cc kt qu o lng c truyn n BSC v BSC s
yu cu MS chuyn giao sang cell no c cht lng
truyn dn cao hn.

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Trong v d ny, BSC pht hin cn phi thc hin mt s
chuyn giao m c iu khin bi MSC v thng bo cho
MSC1.

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2.10 CC TH TC CHNH TRONG GSM (tt)


Giai on 2:
MSC1 yu cu mt s chuyn giao (Handover
Number HON) t MSC2 v thng bo MSC2 v cell
B.
MSC2 yu cu VLR cung cp mt HON v BSC cung
cp cc knh v tuyn.

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D liu ca knh v tuyn v HON c gi tr li cho
MSC1.

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Giai on 3:
Vi HON, by gi MSC1 c th thit lp mt kt ni
lu lng vi MSC2. Kt ni ny c m rng cho
n BTS.
Sau , MSC1 thng bo cho MS v knh v tuyn m
n phi chuyn giao sang.

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Giai on 4: Kt ni vi BTS c c gii phng.

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2.10.6 Th tc MS nhn bn tin nhn ngn (SMS MT)

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2.11 X LY TN HIEU TRONG GSM


Hnh sau minh hoa tat ca cac hoat ong cua GSM t
au phat en au thu.

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1) So hoa:
Trong GSM, tieng noi c micro bien oi thanh tn hieu
ien dang tng t (analog). Tn hieu nay c bien oi sang
tn hieu so (digital) dung ky thuat ieu che xung ma PCM vi
tan so lay mau la 8 kHz va ma hoa moi mau bang 13 bit.
Nh vay trong GSM, luong tn hieu so sau khi bien oi co toc
o la 8 13 = 104 (kb/s).

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2) Ma nguon:
Ma nguon tc la nen tn hieu, ngha la lam cho toc o bit
giam xuong.
oi vi tn hieu tieng noi, viec nen tn hieu phai am bao
c thi gian thc va chat lng co the chap nhan.
Nguyen tac cua ky thuat nen nay la thay v truyen i cac
bit mang noi dung cua tieng noi th ta ch truyen i cac
thong so cua bo loc trong thanh quan e tao ra tieng noi
o.
Ngha la trc tien ngi ta phai nghien cu cach phat am,
phat ra tieng noi cua con ngi. Khi day thanh quan mnh
rung theo kieu rung khac nhau th phat ra tieng noi khac
nhau ngi ta khong truyen i tieng noi ma truyen i
thong so, thong so nay lien quan en cach tao ra tieng noi.
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Tn hieu so ngo ra cua bo A/D co toc o 104 kbps
c chia thanh tng oan co chieu dai 20 ms, moi
oan cha 2080 bit (tng ng 160 mau).
Thay v truyen i 160 mau, th ngi ta truyen i
thong so cua bo loc tao ra 160 mau o, thong so cua bo
loc nay ch co o dai la 260 bit nen toc o truyen thc
s la 13 kbps.
Ngi ta con co the nen xuong toc o thap hn na la
6.5 kb/s nhng chat lng kem hn nen ngi ta t s
dung.

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2.11 X LY TN HIEU TRONG GSM (tt)

3) Ma hoa kenh (cho kenh thoai toan toc):


Ma hoa kenh la them vao mot so bit d tha e
giup cho au thu phat hien va sa c cac loi bit,
muc ch cuoi cung la giam ty so bit loi BER (Bit
Error Rate) e nang cao chat lng.
Nh vay sau khi ma hoa kenh th so bit can truyen
se tang len. ieu nay co ngha la phai tra gia trong
viec s dung bang thong ng truyen la phai
truyen i nhieu bit hn so can thiet cho thong tin
nhng lai c o an toan chong loi cao hn.
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Co the chia ma kiem tra loi thanh hai loai la ma khoi
va ma xoan (ma chap).
Ma khoi: la ma khong nh, ngha la cac bit kiem tra
c tnh toan ch da tren khoi thong tin hien thi.
V du ve ma khoi la ma CRC.
Quy tac:
at M(x) la thong tin can truyen (k bit)
G(x) la a thc sinh (dai n + 1 bit, vi n la bac cua a
thc sinh).
R(x) la phan d (dai n bit)
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n
M
(
x
)
x
R( x)
au phat thc hien:
= Q ( x) +
G ( x)
G ( x)
Sau o truyen i M(x).xn + R(x)
au thu thc hien:

M ( x).x n + R( x)
G ( x)
Neu so d bang 0 th khong co loi.

M ( x).x + R( x)
R( x) R( x)
= Q ( x) +
+
= Q ( x)
G ( x)
G ( x) G ( x)
n

Neu so d khac 0 th a co loi xay ra tren ng truyen.


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2.11 X LY TN HIEU TRONG GSM (tt)


V du:
Gia s d lieu can truyen la: 11100110
a thc sinh la: 11001
Tc: M(x) = x7 + x6 + x5 + x2 + x
G(x) = x4 + x3 + 1
M(x).xn = M(x).x4 = x11 + x10 + x9 + x6 + x5

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= R(x) = 0110
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Vay d lieu can truyen la 111001100110
Gia s d lieu thu la 101001100110 = x11 + x9 + x6 + x5 + x2 + x

x11 + x9 + x6 + x5 + x2 + x
x11 + x10 + x7

x4 + x3 + 1
x7 + x6 + x3 + x2

x10 + x9 + x7 + x6 + x5+ x2 + x
x10 + x9 + x6
x7 + x5+ x2 + x
x7 + x6 + x3
x6 + x5+ x3 + x2 + x
6
5
2
x +x +x
x3 + x so d khac 0 co loi
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Ma xoan: Ma xoan tot hn ma khoi v no co kha nang t
phat hien loi va sa loi.
ma xoan, bo ma hoa tao ra cac bit ma khong ch phu
thuoc vao cac bit cua khoi ban tin hien thi c dch vao
bo ma hoa ma no con phu thuoc vao cac bit cua cac khoi
trc o.
Mot bo ma xoan bao gom cac thanh ghi dch tao thanh t
cac Flip-Flop.
Ma xoan c xac nh bi cac thong so sau:
- Ty le ma: r = k/n, vi n la so bit au ra khi ng vi k bit
au vao bo ma hoa.
- o dai hay so phan t nh cua thanh ghi dch.
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Trong GSM th cac bit ngo ra cua bo so hoa va


ma hoa nguon c xap at thanh cac nhom can
c vao s quan trong cua chung trong viec ong
gop vao chat lng thoai.
Trong so 260 bit, 50 bit quan trong nhat c goi
la cac bit loai Ia, c them vao 3 bit CRC e phat
hien loi tao thanh 53 bit. Cac bit them vao nay
c xac nh da tren a thc tao ma x3 + x + 1,
cho phep phat hien 1 loi bit tren 1 khoi 50 bit.

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132 bit ke tiep cung vi 53 bit au tien (50 bit loai Ia
va 3 bit CRC) c xap at lai va noi vao them 4 bit
uoi bang 0, do o tao ra mot khoi d lieu co 189 bit.
Sau o khoi d lieu nay c ma hoa s dung ma xoan
vi ty le ma la 1/2, v the tao ra mot chuoi 378 bit.
Cuoi cung, 78 bit t quan trong nhat khong c ma
hoa va c noi vao chuoi hien co e hnh thanh mot
khoi 456 bit trong 20 ms.
Lc o ma hoa kenh nay lam tang toc o d lieu cua
tn hieu thoai trong GSM len en 22.8 kbps. Lc o
ma hoa kenh nay c minh hoa trong hnh sau.

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4) Ghep xen:
Trong thong tin di ong, do cac fading sau lau nen cac
loi bit thng xay ra tng cum dai. Tuy nhien ma hoa
kenh ch hieu qua nhat khi phat hien va sa sai cac loi
ngau nhien n le va cac cum loi khong qua dai.
e oi pho vi van e nay, ngi ta chia khoi ban tin
can gi thanh cac cum ngan roi hoan v cac cum nay vi
cac cum cua khoi ban tin khac, nh vay khi xay ra loi
dai th moi ban tin ch mat i mot cum nho, phan con lai
cua ban tin van cho phep cac dang ma hoa kenh khoi
phuc lai c ung.
Qua trnh tren c goi la ghep xen. Nh vay muc ch
cua ghep xen la phan bo loi neu co v loi phan bo de
dang khac phuc hn loi lien tuc.

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Ghep xen cho thoai (tieng) trong GSM: Gom cac bc sau:
Bc 1: Toan bo 456 bit c phan ra thanh tam khoi con 57 bit.
Nhom A: 1, 9, 17, , 449
Nhom B: 2, 10, 18, , 450
Nhom C: 3, 11, 19, , 451
Nhom D: 4, 12, 20, , 452
Nhom E: 5, 13, 21, , 453
Nhom F: 6, 14, 22, , 454
Nhom G: 7, 15, 23, , 455
Nhom H: 8, 16, 24, , 456

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Bc 2: Cac nhom noi tren lai c ghep xen mc th 2.
mc nay, 4 nhom au cua mot t ma (la A, B, C, D) c at
vao v tr au tien cua 4 cum, 4 nhom con lai c at vao v tr
sau cua 4 cum tiep theo.
Phan con lai cua cac cum nay dung e ghep tn hieu cua cac t
ma lan can.

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Vay moi cum truyen thong tin cho 2 t ma.
1 t ma can 8 cum e truyen.
2 t ma can 12 cum e truyen
3 t ma can 16 cum e truyen
Nhc iem: Neu khong ghep xen th ch can thu 4
cum la a biet c t ma, con neu dung ghep xen th
phai thu 8 cum mi biet c t ma gay ra tre
nhng van co the chap nhan c.
Neu mat 1 cum th he thong co the gan la bit 0 hoac
bit 1 tuy y, qua bo giai ma se sa loi.
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Ghep xen cho d lieu trong GSM: oi vi tn hieu d
lieu th ngi ta ghep xen nhieu hn na, 1 t ma c
truyen i trong 22 cum v no can o chnh xac cao.
Khac vi ghep xen cho thoai la so bit cua mot t ma
c cha trong cac cum khong eu nhau.

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Cum 1 A1

B1

A2

Cum 3 C1

B2

Cum 2

Cum 4 D1 C2

Cum 6

D2

A3

B3 A4

C3 B4 A5
.
.
.

Cum 21

D18 C19

Cu m 22

D19

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5) To chc cum: la them d lieu nh phan vao cac khoi
a c ghep xen e giup ong bo tn hieu c thu.
6) Mat ma hoa:
Tren ng truyen vo tuyen, mac du thong tin a
c ghep xen, ch truyen i thong so cua bo loc ch
khong truyen tieng noi, nhng van cha am bao
thong tin cua ngi dung c bao mat hoan toan
Do o, tn hieu sau khi a to chc cum, trc khi a
vao ieu che th ngi ta a qua mot cong XOR e
XOR tn hieu can truyen vi 1 chuoi gia ngau nhien.

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e tao chuoi gia ngau nhien ngi ta s dung cac FlipFlop va c goi la cac phan t nh.
Trong GSM, ngi ta s dung so phan t nh la 15
chu ky cua chuoi gia ngau nhien la 215 1.
Trc khi lu lng c truyen th MS va BTS phai
thoa thuan vi nhau chuoi gia ngau nhien nay va bao
cho MSC biet.
Lu y la mat ma hoa ch ap dung cho cac cum thng
va ch lay 114 bit thong tin e XOR vi chuoi PN.
7) ieu che: Lc o ieu che c s dung bi GSM
la GMSK, GMSK la mot kieu ieu che ac biet cua
ieu che FM so.
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au thu, sau khi tn hieu c giai ieu che thanh
thong tin nh phan th thong tin nh phan nay c
giai mat ma, giai ghep xen, giai ma kenh, giai ma
nguon va c bien oi D/A e khoi phuc lai tieng noi.

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2.12 Cu trc ca BSS v SSS (Switching Subsystem)


Sau khi hon tt phn ny bn s c mt ci nhn tng
quan v cu trc phn cng ca BSS v SSS (NSS), c
th bn c th miu t:
Cu trc ca mt BTS
Cu trc ca mt BSC
Cc chc nng ca b TRAU
Cu trc ca SSS

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a) Cu trc ca BTS
V c bn mt BTS gm:
Mt n v iu khin
Mt mch giao din
Mt hoc nhiu h thng TDMA
Mt trm anten

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Mi TDMA system chu trch nhim truyn dn cho 8
knh vt l trong khung TDMA ca mt RFC.
iu ny c ngha l s TDMA system bng vi s RFC
c s dng bi BTS.
Thng qua cc kt ni ni m thng tin iu khin v
thng tin v mng c truyn t cc TDMA system
n antenna combiner v ngc li.

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n v iu khin ca BTS iu khin v gim st cc
n v chc nng khc ca BTS thng qua cc ng bo
hiu ni.
Ngoi ra, n cn iu khin vic nhy tn.

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Nhy tn c ngha l mi knh v tuyn logic (ngoi tr
knh BCCH) s thay i tn s ca n c mi khung
TDMA theo mt thut ton xc nh.
Tuy nhin khe thi gian vn c gi c nh.
Mc ch ca nhy tn l phn b ngun nhiu m tc
ng ln mt RFC cho tt c cc knh ang c m
bo rng chng c mc cht lng truyn dn ging
nhau.

Tt nhin MS cng phi thc hin vic nhy tn ny.


Do , BTS truyn thut ton nhy tn ny qua mt
knh qung b xung MS. V vy, bn thn knh qung
b khng c bao gm trong th tc nhy tn.
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2.12 Cu trc ca BSS v SSS (Switching Subsystem) (tt)

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2.12 Cu trc ca BSS v SSS (Switching Subsystem) (tt)


Mch giao tip (interface circuit) l thit b kt cui cho
lin kt 2 Mbit/s n BSC.
N x l tt c cc chc nng giao din vt l nh ng
b, phn b knh n cc TDMA system.

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2.12 Cu trc ca BSS v SSS (Switching Subsystem) (tt)


b) Kin trc ca n v thch ng tc v chuyn m
Transcoding and Rate Adaption Unit TRAU):
Vic chuyn i tc bit thoi t 64 kb/s thnh 13 kb/s
cho thoi ton tc hoc 6.5 kb/s cho thoi bn tc c
gi l chuyn i m v c x l bi b TRAU.

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2.12 Cu trc ca BSS v SSS (Switching Subsystem) (tt)


B TRAU gn thm mt header vo cc tn hiu 13 kb/s
v 6.5 kb/s t c 16 kb/s, sau gi n phn h
ghp knh (submultiplexer).
ng ra ca b ghp knh ny, mt tn hiu mi 64
kb/s (t 4 kt ni thoi c chuyn m) sn sng cho
vic truyn dn qua h thng PCM30.

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2.12 Cu trc ca BSS v SSS (Switching Subsystem) (tt)

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2.12 Cu trc ca BSS v SSS (Switching Subsystem) (tt)


hng ngc li, cc tn hiu 13 kbit/s hoc 6.5 kbit/s
n c chuyn i thnh tn hiu 64 kbit/s.

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2.12 Cu trc ca BSS v SSS (Switching Subsystem) (tt)


D liu c truyn t MSC n BSS lun lun l tn
hiu s v c ghp trong mt knh 64 kbit/s.
B TRAU lc d liu ra khi tn hiu 64 kb/s v thm
header vo. Bng cch ny, ta thu c mt tn hiu 16
kb/s.

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2.12 Cu trc ca BSS v SSS (Switching Subsystem) (tt)

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2.12 Cu trc ca BSS v SSS (Switching Subsystem) (tt)


Trong b TRAU, cc knh 64 kb/s (nh cc knh bo
hiu s 7) c chuyn mch trong sut.

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2.12 Cu trc ca BSS v SSS (Switching Subsystem) (tt)


c) Kin trc ca BSC:
BSC chu trch nhim iu khin BTS, qun l ti
nguyn v tn s v tuyn.
BSC c cc mch giao din ph hp cho cc link 2 Mb/s
n b TRAU v n BTS khc.
Cc knh iu khin v lu lng t v n BTS c
chuyn mch thng qua thit b chuyn mch
(switching device).
Cc chc nng qun l thc s ca BSC c thc
hin trong mt n v iu khin trung tm. V vy,
vic iu khin cc n v chc nng ca BSC c
thc hin bi mt n v iu khin ca n.
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2.12 Cu trc ca BSS v SSS (Switching Subsystem) (tt)

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2.12 Cu trc ca BSS v SSS (Switching Subsystem) (tt)


Thng tin bo hiu CCS7 c chuyn mch thng qua
b TRAU mt cch trong sut v c chuyn n mt
n v iu khin cho cc chc nng thu pht.

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2.12 Cu trc ca BSS v SSS (Switching Subsystem) (tt)


Ti y, bn tin c chuyn i sang format m BSC c
th hiu c.

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2.12 Cu trc ca BSS v SSS (Switching Subsystem) (tt)


d) Kin trc ca SSS
Vic trin khai cc phn t ca SSS thay i tu thuc
vo nh sn xut. y bn s c lm quen vi gii
php c ngh bi Siemens.
Cc phn t ca SSS gm MSC, VLR, HLR, AC v
EIR v c bn c trin khai nh cc chc nng v
phn mm v c da vo cng mt kin trc phn
cng.
Vic mt phn t vt l ca mng thc hin chc nng
g ph thuc ch yu vo vic phn mm c load vo
n.
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2.12 Cu trc ca BSS v SSS (Switching Subsystem) (tt)

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2.12 Cu trc ca BSS v SSS (Switching Subsystem) (tt)

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2.12 Cu trc ca BSS v SSS (Switching Subsystem) (tt)

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2.12 Cu trc ca BSS v SSS (Switching Subsystem) (tt)


Kin trc phn cng ca mt phn t ca SSS lun
lun bao gm:
Mt mng chuyn mch (switching network)
chuyn mch cc knh lu lng v iu khin.
Cc mch giao din (interface circuit) cho cc h thng
PCM30 n cc phn t mng khc.
Mt b x l iu khin (control processor) trung tm
v
Mt n v iu khin cho cc knh bo hiu CCS7.

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2.12 Cu trc ca BSS v SSS (Switching Subsystem) (tt)


Nu mt phn t mng hot ng nh mt MSC th phi
cn thm mt n v c bit na bn cnh cu hnh c
bn ny. n v ny cung cp cc chc nng lin mng
khi cn thit cho tt c cc dch v.
N cha MODEM v cc chc nng cn thit cho vic
chuyn i cc tc d liu v cho vic x l giao thc.

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2.13 Cc kt ni vt l trong GSM


Tt c cc kt ni vt l trong SSS, BSS v n mng PSTN l
cc lung PCM30.
Thng qua cc kt ni vt l m h thng c th truyn thoi
hoc thng tin bo hiu.
Cc kt ni vt l th hin cc thuc tnh ca mt lin kt
truyn dn nh:
Truyn dn c thc hin qua ng hu tuyn hay v
tuyn.

Truyn dn l tng t hay s

Truyn dn s dng k thut chuyn mch knh hay


chuyn mch gi, tc bit bng bao nhiu,
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2.13 Cc kt ni vt l trong GSM (tt)


a) Cc kt ni knh lu lng
Hnh sau miu t mt kt ni thoi trong mng PLMN.

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2.13 Cc kt ni vt l trong GSM (tt)


Knh lu lng gia mng PSTN v mng PLMN nh
sau:

Trong c 2 trng hp, cc lin kt PCM30 c s dng


truyn dn.

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2.13 Cc kt ni vt l trong GSM (tt)


b) Cc kt ni bo hiu:
Trong trng hp bo hiu, cc lin kt cng l cc knh
PCM30.
Qu trnh bo hiu s dng h thng bo hiu knh
chung s 7 (CCS7):
Gia cc phn t mng ca SSS.
Gia MSC v BSC
Gia MSC v tng i Gateway trong mng PSTN
Bn cnh cc kt ni bo hiu CCS7 cn c cc kt ni
bo hiu gia BSC v BTS.
V gia MSC v MS. Cc knh ny c chuyn mch
mt cch trong sut trong BSC v BTS.
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2.13 Cc kt ni vt l trong GSM (tt)

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