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» ENGLISH INTONATION a ee eS ge ee ee SORIA, MARIO D English Teacher English Intonation Intonation ~ the rise and fall of pinch in aur voices — plays a -erveial sole in how we express meaning. This wceessible iuro- duction shows the student how to recognize and reproduce the intonation pattems of Englisi, providing clear explans- tions of what they mur andl heuw they are used. 1 looks én particular at three key functions of intonation — to express ‘ouraminde, to structure our mensayes to one another and to focus aflention wn particular parts of what we are saying, An invaluable guide to how English intonation works. itis cou plewe with extensive esercises, arity and practice material. . -encouraiging students to produce and understand the intona- ton partems for themselves. The sceumpanying CD coetains 3 weullh ol spaier examples, clearly demansirating English intonation in comext. Drawing on the perspectives of both language teaching and linguistics, thik textbook will be wel ‘camed by bath learners of English and beginning undergrad- ates in phonetics anal linguistics. he C. WOLLS Bs Professor of Phonetics at University College. London. He tas lectured i counines ail over the world and makes negular appearances on RBC Radio and TV. Heis suthor of the three volume set Accents of Eglin {Cambridge University Press, 1982), English Intonation An introduction J.C. WELLS Prfessar of Phoneties. UCL. =| CAMBRIDGE E&P UNIVERSITY PRESS Cambridge, New York, Metbowase, Mand, Cupe Town, Sinzepore. Si Pato Cambridge Univer “The Einhargh Building, Cambridge CB2 2RL, UK Poptishodt in the United Staws of America by Cambridge Unversity Fresx, New York, werewecambridge sg Infoemiatnon (4 ths trie: worwenmbeicge omsy9TROSINGHSADT ee. Wells 2006 his pohliention ix in opyrighe. Subject te statuliny exeeprion and to th prowinines of ceksirant cotlserme Ficensing azrecenezts. ‘a0 ice of any past may lake place wahour she writen geen ssean of Canabridge University Pros. First peblanes 206: Prinied in the United Kangen af the Uniecrsity Press, Cambridge ‘A eamalngme recov! fre cis pusbiferton és nwallabe fore tse British Library ISBNIS 9TE0-871-A0021 feucdback ISUN-10 0.831 865¢-7 furdback ISBN-15 9PEO-521-08 180-7 paperback. ISDN 10 O-521-98580-7 paperback craity Pros as a fespansibitily for the pessiucnce oe neciumey of URLs for external or third pany intemet websites referred usin this publicaliom, sor] does wo such webmilen is, or will resisin, apeurate or apps Contents Preface ix 1 Introduction LI What is imtanatien’? 12 Prowodic features 13 Ts English 2 wine tangunge 14 Thethae Ts: wome, tonicity. tonality LS The fonctions of intonation 1.6 Trmonation in EFL: wansfer and interference 2 Tone: going up und going down Pall, rise amd fall-rive 21 Halling anal nein falling tomes 22 Falls ‘Statements ‘25 The definitive fall 2h The implicotional fali-eise 2.7 More about the implicational fal-rise 28 Declarative questions 29 Uptath ENO Yes, no und ellis EIN nlepernfent Fs ‘Questions 212 Wh questions ‘2.13 Yes—no questions 214 Tag questions 2.15 Independent elliptical questions 216 Checking (Other sentence types Exclamation: 218 Corman 2.19 Inverjections and greetings Sequences of tones 220) Leading and urailing umes 221 Topic and comment 2 5) 8 61 6g Rn suntonts 222 Open and closect ists 2.33 Adverbials 224 Fall plus Fixe 228 Taneconconl Tone meanings 2.24 Generalized ancmmings of different tones 2.27 Checklist of tone meaninas Tonicity: where dees the nncleus go? Basic principles 3. Ona siressed syllable 3.2 Quor near the last word 3.3 Content words and function words: 34 Compounds 3.5 Double stiessed compounds ‘The ofd and the new 3.6 Infirrmation status 3.7 Synoxyns 3.8 Prospect anid implied givenmess Focus 3.9 Biioad and narrow fveus 3.10 Contrastive focus HL Pronouns amd demanserrmives Reflexive, cociprneal and indefinite preawuns 3.15 Contrastive focus overriies other factors 2.14 Contrastine Focus on polity or tense 3.15) Dymamie focus x. Nuclens on a fonction word 3.16 Naruw focus: yes-no answers and tags Prepusitions 3.13. Whi +iebe 3.19. Othe functi Final, but not nuclear Enipay ‘sonds ond pro-forms ‘Vocatives Reponing claweses Adverbs of time and place Other unilecuser adverbs and sdverbials words that attract the maclews Phrasal vertst 3.25 Verb plus adverbial panicle 3.26 Verh plus prepositional particle 3.27 Adwects or preposition? 3.28 Separated particles ‘Nucleus on the last nou 3.29 Final verhs and aclyocth 3.40 Events 7 87 31 93 93 05 8 7 joo) Ins 109 ot mi it 16 16 19 mw 130 2 iM 138 uo 140, 14d 145 148 150 150 153 15s 156 1st 162 162 163 165 167 170 70 ia Couteats vii Accenting old material WF jh Reusing the offer speaker's words W7 3.32 Reusing your own words 18 ‘What is known? 180 333) Kaowledze: shared, common and imputed 130 434 Difficult cases of toniciey 184 ‘Lunulity: chunking, or division into IPs 187 4.1 Signalling the structure 187 4.2 Choosing the size of the chunks 191 43° Chunking and grammar 198 4A Vocatives ane imprecations 195 45 Advertials 196 4.6 Hewy noun phrases 198 43 Topics 199 48° Defining and non detining mz 49 Parallel structures 7 410 iz questions: ‘205 Beyond the three Ts Prenuclear patterns $.L The antsiomay of the prenaciear part of the IF Simple heauls $3 Complex bess 54 Prebeads incr distinctions of towe SS Varieties of fall SA Varieties of fall-cise ST Varieties af rise 3.8 Prenuclear and nuclear tows ascaning Non-nuchear arcenting $9 Lenieal sess und downgrading 3.10 Two ar snone lexical stresses S11 The focus domain 3.12 Major aud minar focus 5.13 Unimportant words at the beginning S14 Onset on a funetives word Further considerations 1S. Stylization 316 Key Putting it all together 6.1 Deseribing an intonation pattern: the oral examination 8.2 Analysing spoken rat 63 Passages for analysers: M6 ak. aan 230 omens 33 Books 634 Comwall Appendix: notution Al The intonation symboleused in this book AD Comparison with other notation sys AG The ToBI system Key io exercises 263 References 271 Index 274 251 286 29 359 261 261 Preface ‘This book is written from a descriptive-linguistic and language-teaching perspec- tive. Itjs intended both fornarive speakers and for learners of English af university level. My aianis 1 help the reader ta recognize and reproduce the important into- nation patierns of English and 10 understand what they mean and how they are used. The emphasis is on conversational English. My debt to my teachers J. D. O'Connor and Michael Halliday will be evi- dent. Among more recent writers on intonation | would particularly mention Paul Tench, to whom I owe the idea of devoting a separate chapter to each of the three. Ts. My other main sources are listed in the References. Thave benefited from many discussions over the years with my colleagues Michael Ashby, Patricia Ashby, Jill House and John Maidment. Emuil discussions un the Supras list were stimulating, particularly the input from Tamikazu Date. Mercedes Cabrera offered useful comments on a draft version. Thanks to all. ‘Thanks, tov, to those whose voices are heard, along with my own, on the accompanying CD: Michael Ashby. Patricia Ashby, Jill Iouse, Alison Keable, Josette Lesser. Jane Setter and Mart Youens. And thanks to Masaki Taniguchi for help with pronfreading. Intonation is the melody of speech. In studying intonation we study use this pitch vari It als involves the study of Twe had no intonation, our speech would be — in the fiteral sense of the word— wonous. Either it would all recoain on one pitch throughout, or every utterance employ cxactly the same stereotyped tune al all limes. Bul speakers do her of those things: they make the pitch of their voice rise, fall, jump and . in all sorts of different ways. Eiven the most boring speaker has access a considerable repertoire of tunes (intonation patterns) — though mayhe some akers arc beter than others at exploiting this. Lively speakers typically make use of the wide repertuire of possible intonation patterns that English offers, This is truc both for the broudcaster, lecturer, preacher, pu! ‘or business addressing 4 public audience and for the participant in an ordinary everyday versational imterchange or informal chat. describe a selection of the intonation patterns of Eaglish from the point of view of English language teaching (ELT). The emphasis is on points thal should be useful for those teaching or learning English as a non-native language, Mt the same time it will, [hope, enable native speakers of English to appreciate the functioning of English intonation. Why is the study of English intonation useful for the student of English’ The Tinguistic study of uny language is of course academically valuable in itself, But for the Ieamer of English there is also a very practical reason for making some attempt to acquire a command. both active and passive, of its intonation. If they study pronunciation at all, leamers of English usually concentrate on the segmental phonetics — the ‘sounds’ of the language (known technically as the segments). It is indeed important to learn to recognize aud reproduce the consonant svands and vowel sounds of English and the differences between them. Every leamer of English should be taught to make the fr sounds of thick and this, the vowel sound of nurse, and the differences in sound between leave and five, 2 INT ROTUICTION ber snd bat. Most leamers also learn about word stress. They know that happy is seressecl on the first syTlable. but regret on the second. But intonation (also kaown as prasody or suprasegmentals) is mostly neglected. The tacher fails t© teach it, and the learner fails to leum it. Like other elements of language. some gifted leumers will pick it up more or less unconsciously: but many will not The problem is this: native speakers of English know that leamers have ditt culty with vowels and consonants. When interacting with someone who is not a pative speaker of English, they make allowances for segmental errors, but they do not stake allowances for errors of intonation. This is probably because they do not reulize that intonation can be erruncous ‘After all, almost any intonation panern is possible in English: but different intonation parteras have different meanings, The difficulty is that the parte the learner uses may HOL have the meaning he or she intends. Speakers of English assume that — when it comes to intonation ~ you mean what you say. This muy nol be the same as what you think you are saying ‘Audho recordings of selected examples from the text and exercises are provided 2 CD. The icon @ tells you which they are, The intonation symbols used in this book are explained in appeadix Al on the accompany’ EXERCISES EL.1e1 Listen to the fnllowing sentences spoken (i) normally and (i) strictly on a monotone (= the pitch of the wice stays level, not going up and net geing down}. Repeat them alond in jhe sine wy. Team t stand. "What-do I do snow’? O -Losd, | Soper thow our slips? Ave you ‘ready (ir awwer? “Silly old Sool! vooon ‘What io these sound like when spoken on a monotone? Woald they ever be said like this in real fife? (Singine? Chanted ina church servive? In conversation, with some special meaning? El.L2 Piteh awareness exercise. @ Listen to the syllable em said vith high pitch (md) and then with low pitch (mer). Imitale. Learn to produce high (H) or low (L.) pitch at wail. ma “ma mma mm i 8 ee a SE “ma ma “id sm oma “ma ie ake ee ELL.3 Repeat E112, but with English words. cmine =mine mine “oline “mine HM L I H H yours “yours “yours yours yours L H H L i 1.2 Prosodic features The prosodic (ur suprasezmemal) characteristics of speech are those Joudness and speed (or tempo, or speech rate; its inverse is the dumiion ‘These combine wyelber to make up the rhythm of specch, and arc combined in tum with stretches of silence (pause) to break up Whe flow of speech ‘To some extent prosodic characteristics are the same in all languages. It is probably truc of all human societies that speakers speed up whea they are excited ‘cr impatient and slow down when they are being thoughtful or weighty. We all speak more quietly than normal when we do not wish to be overheard, Weall have to speak more loudly to be heard over a distance or in noisy conditions (untess, of course, we can use modem technology to transmit and amplify the signal for us). But it is clear thai different languages also regularly difler in their prosodic characteristics. Simply transferring the prosodic patterns of one’s mother tongue or L1 ww a foreign language or L2 (such as English) comributes to making you sound foreign. und may quite possibly lead to your being misunderstood by other speakers. Stress is realized by a combination of loudness, pitch and duration. Some lag- guages use stress placement leaically (= to distinguish between different words in the dictionary). For example, the Greek words 726% [‘poli] and mA [poli] differ imeaning, The first means ‘city’. the second means ‘much, very". The differ- ence of meaning depends entirely upon the Incation of the stress, and involves 10 difference in the consonant and vowel sounds. Other languages du not use stress lexically-in Prench there are no pairs of words of different meaning distinguished by siress placement, In 1 there are a fiw pairs of words distinguished just by stress, for example ‘hillow and he'Few or ‘import (noun) and im'port (verb), However, the English habit of weakening unstressed vowels means that most pairs of words differing in stress often also have differences in their vowel sounds, $0 that Uke distinction is not curried by stress alone. Nevertheless, English is, like Greek, a stress language: stress is an important part af the spoken identity of an English word, A complicating factor is that differences of stress in English are largely sig- nalled by pilch movements, as discussed in chapters 2 and 5 below: ‘Tone is another prosodic characteristic, being replized mainly by differences yw level, tising oF falling ion af the vocal Folds in the low pitch from aorisliecls slow vibration, An acceleration in the rate of vibration is heard as a rising pitch, a slowing down asa falling pitch. Ina level pitch the vocal folds vibrate at-2 constunt rite, Some languages use tone lexically. For example, in Thai the syllable [khaz] has different meanings depending on the tone with which itis said. With tone | 1 INTRODUCTION (a mid level tone} it means ‘to be stuck". With tune 2 (low level) it is the mame of a plane, ‘galingale’. With tone 3 (falling) it means “value”, with tone 4 (high level} ‘to trade’, and with tone 5 (rising) ‘leg’. In Mandarin Chinese, [ma] with tac 1 (high) means ‘mother’, with tone 2 (rising) ‘hemp’, with tone 3 (lew fall-risep “horse”, and with lone 4 (falling) ‘to scold”. In Zulu, [ipanga] iayenya with high loses on the first and last syllables means “moon, month”, but with high lone only ‘on the first syllable means ‘Leaditional practitioner, herbalist’. Some languages have tonal differences, but only am stressed syllables. In Nor wegian. ['byinor] has two possible meanings. With one toncon the siressed syllable it means ‘peasants’ (Pender), but with another, ‘beans’ (deaner). ‘Tokyo Japanese makes lexical use of what is known as pitch accent. which is manifested asa sudden drop in pitch inumediately after the place inthe word where the uccenu (if any) is located. The segmental string [haci] hashi with ne accent means ‘end, edge”. With an accent on the first syllable it means “chopsticks” and with am accent an the second syllable il means ‘bridge’. For “ehopsticks’ the sccond syllable is much lower pitched than the first, but the difference berween “bridge” and ‘end, edge” is manifested in the pitch of the syllable atthe beginning of the following purticle, e.g. in the [ga] of Aashi-ga. which is low pitched for “bridge” but not for “end, edge’ EXERCISES. EL2| Practise making and hearing sequences of high and low Jevel tones mama mama ema ind ciao LA HL de Bee Be one twe Tone Two ane two | Lone"IwoT ne Tonetwo"oae Tigo eee Lato et 2 Practise’ hearing. and peoduce falling and rising tones, in-which there is a change of pitch on gle syllable. e “nmr NT Ama ma HE 1H: HE Wo 1H EH BETH LH & sanine ymine mine nine amkouwn van dnown HL LH LH HL LHHL MLE 1.3 Is English a tone language? ike these prosodic characteristics of Thai, Man- in this English has noi darin, Zulu, Norwegian or Japanese. English dives nnt ase tone lexicelly: sORse. iis nol a tone language. Bur English does use tune for intonation LE. Us English a wine language? ‘We can say any English word with any of the intonational “tones” identified in his book, but the chyice of tone does not alter the lexical identity of the word. hever we say of lexical meaning (= the meaning as shown in a dictionary) is still the same. not-lexical meaning is different. as discussed in chapter 2, whese we see that 4a fall may indicate definiteness, a rise may indicate incompleteness. anda fall- rise may indicate implications. But these intonational meanings apply equally wo any other word: = emvakey * ‘pr, More usually, to a clause, sentence, ar sentence fragment. ‘Thus English makes use of tone intonationally, bur not lexically: In fact the Smlonation system of English constitutes the mest important and complex part of English prosody. By combining different pitch levels (= unchanging pitch “Beights) and contours (= sequences of levels, changing pitch shapes) we express @ range of intonational meanings: breuking the utterance into chunks, perhups inguishing beoween clause types (such as statement vs. question), focusing on "some parts of the utterance and not on others, indicating which part of our message "is background information and which is foreground, signalling ourautitude to what wwe art saying. Some of this intonational meaning is shown im writing, through the use af “Punctination, but most of it is net, This is why spoken English, as spoken by “Rative speakers. is icher in information content than written English, This is also _why some non-native speakers, not being attuned to English intonation and what st mewns, may fail to catch a substantial part af the overall meaning of something spoken by a native speaker. ‘We complain, ‘It’s not what you said, it’s the way that you said it’, meaning that your words shen written down appear innocuous — yel when spoken aloud they were offensive or insensitive, The same words in the same grammatical constructions may have different pragmatic effects. This is because they may differ in intonation, and perhaps alvo in other, paralingvistic, features (c.g. huskiness, breathiness, whisper, nasality, special voice qualities). Like other prosodic characteristics, intonation is partly universal (= the same inall languages). butalso partly Inguage-specilic (= differing from one lunguaze to another). Languages differ in the intonation patterns they use. and in the extent to which they rely on intonation to convey aspects of meaning, Mong importantly, 4 INTRODUCTION he sume physical pattern of rises and falls may have different meanings ~ different pragmatic implications ~ in different languages. A low-rise tone pattern may signal a simple statement in Danish or Norwe- jan. Bul in mest kinds of English it has implications of non-finality, ar perhaps ungeraiaty or truculence. An accent oma pronoun (a high tone, say} may have a neutral meaning in many African languages, and indeed in French or some other European languages: bul in English it highlights the pronoun, perhaps suggesting a contrast between its referent and some other person invelved. Between speakers of differcnt languages, intonation pattems can be much more easily nrisunderstood than segmental patterns. EXERCISES ELA] Proctise making and heating mixtures of level and moving tones on Sequences of inenosyllables, a Tmama = mam ema mam, tara, HHL BLL LH H uk Hou snore “noxno = snin-na ao"a0 nova DoD. L i HHL HLL na HLM L HL ‘As concems intonation, speakers of English repeatedly face three iypes of decision as they speak. They are: how to break the marerial up into chunks, what is to he accented. and what tones are to be used. These linguistic intonation systems are known respectively as tonality, tonicity and to them us the three Ts. Tonality. The first matter a speaker has to decide is the division of the spoken material inlp.chunks. There wall be an intonation palfern associated with cach n phrases or TPs. Fach 1 in an group’) In peneral, we make each clause into a separate TP. (The symbols | and || represent the boundaries between IPs.) Bocause | love languages | I'm studying intonation. [Whoa I've linixhed this book, | PM know 2 fot more about i. However, the speaker does not inevitably have to follow the cule of an IP for each clause. There are many cases where different kinds of chunkiny are possible. 14 The three Ts: a quick overview of Es wglosh intomatiion example, if'a speaker wants to say We dor’ know who she is, itis possible to. W the whole utterance as 8 single [F (= one intonation pattern): ‘We don’t know who she is, 1 it is also possible to divide the material up. in at least the following possible ‘We don’t know | who she as. We | don'tknow wo she is, We don't | Know who she is, We | don't know | who she is s the speaker may present the material as two, or three, pieces of information her than as a single piece. This is tonality (or chunking), and is the topic of highlight some wonds as importans for meaning they wi wey. These ure the words on which the speaker ‘the hearer’s atrention. To highlight an important word we accent it More le (or one ar both of its stressed syllables, ‘has more than one), That is to say, we add pitch prominence change in ch, or the beginning of a pitch m ent) to the rhythmic prominence that a ssed syllable bears. The accents that result are also the “hovks’ on which the tion patlera js hung. Which words are to have attention drawn to them by being accented? And which are not to be focused on im this way? In particular, where is the speaker to te the last accent (the nucleus) within the intunaliun phrase? The nucleus is he most important wcvent in the IP. I indicates the end of the focused part of the the place where the pitch [think = it was ridiculous. -— 8 8 8 @ sae 3 To think it was ringigafeus ae = . . In this example the nnclens is the syllable -dic-. I dues not matter what nuclear fone is used: the point is thal the tone movement hegins on this syllable. In this way both the syllable -die- and the word ridictdous ure accemted, (Some authors call it the “tor us. Other names are “intonation centre” 8 reo and “sentence accent’ or cven “sentence siress’.} The nucleus is usually placed at the end of the IP woless there are special rez At this point we nced to consider the anatomy of the IF as a whole. The part atthe IP that follows the nucleus ied the tail, By definition, the tail contains “no accented syllubles Jftbe nucleus is located on the last syllable in. is no tail: e Tm ame. e Im sue Ian IP contains un accent in the part before the nucleus, the first (or only) such acc call onset, The. part extending from the onsct to the last syllable before the nucleus is called the head: e ie as relmarkably ‘good. Boe * . o Tt was re'markably good In this example the onset is the syllable -mark-. ‘here ts a pitch change there, making the syllable stand out. In this way the syllable, and therefore the word remarkably, are scented, The syllables -markably constitute the head. The part before: the onset is called the prehead. By definition, the prehead ‘contains no accented syl Me ud is [1 wees Pe Ian TP contains no accented syMlables hefore the nucleus, there is no head, If it contains no unaccented syllables before the first accent (onset o¢ nucleus), there is no prebeau,— The houndaries of prehead, head, nucleus and tail do not necessarily coincide with word boundaries, although they always coincide with syllable boundaries. : contains a nucleus, not all TPs. contain a prehead, w head or For most ullerances, the speaker can select from 2 wie range of possible intonation parteens. Depending on the circumstances and the meaning, the nucleus 1.4) The three Ts: a quick overview of English intonation pol in various places, For example, the statement We ‘re planning ta fly ta We're ‘planing = fly to Maly. e ° oe * ° . se prehead = head nucleus tail , the nucleus is dt- and the tail is ~aly. The onset is plum, and the bead is ing ta fly to. The prehead is We're ‘However, the same statement could also be said in any of the following ways, nding on the circumstances under which itis uttered. (The underlining shows ¢ location of the nucleus. The mark * shows the accented syllables.) ‘We've ‘planning to ‘fix wo Italy. We're "planning ty fly tes Iualy. ‘We're planning to fly to Italy. question of tonicity (or nucleus placement) is the topic af chapter 3, ‘Tone. Having decided the tonicity — that ix, having select itable location ‘the nucleus — whut kind of pitch movemeat (what tone) is the speaker going wssuctate with it? “For cxample, a speaker wanting to say You musta’ worry can choose between cal possible tones: a) You ‘ntwstn't — werry. The basic choice between fall, rise amd falls fe general, a fall tends to indicate that the information Someesati aoe be complete, whereas ri fo indicate, that there i soepsshine more to come {either fram the sume speaker. or from a different spesieriS The default tome (= the ume usec if there ane no special circumstances) fa statements exclamations. commands and wh questious is a full, but for ves-no questions it is arise, A Gall-tise often signals particular implications, We also have to make decisions about which words (if any) in addition wo the nucleus are to be accented. There may he different kinds of prenuclear pitch patiern. There arc also tone choices involving more sublle distinctions than a simple fall vs. rise vs, fall-rise. For example, 2 fall can be a high fall, a low fall ora rise—fall. These further choices are discussed in chapter 5. Although logically the speaker first has to decide the tonality, then the tonicity, and last of all the tone, it is convenient for our discussion to treat the three Ts: in reverse order, namely: tone (chapter 2), then tonicity (chapter 3), then tonality (chapter 4). After that we deal with the less crucial choices in chapter 5, and bring everything together in chupter 6. EXERCISES 4.1 Soy whether the following puis differ in waality, tonicity or tone. 1( Sot} You want to Killme! Gi) So-you want lo kill met 2) —_‘T'm ‘angry about his be'haviowr. 5 Gi Von ‘sngyry abou Bis helsiviene 34 She wwants to be invited. fii) She wants 1o be imviest? (i) ‘Some of us | are “very ‘pleased Gi} "Soule of “us | are “very pleased. 3G) ‘Txdon’e think | irs ase. 4G) Dudow's think | i's sfaie. E14.2 For cack of the following, identify the nucleus and (if present) the onset, pehead. head and. T tdon't b'lbeve it: Ts thar whit you think? ust don't agree with you We've had a ‘wonderful holiday. ‘There's s'nother tesin ‘coming. "When will you de'cide” Ws im'possible. 15 ‘The functioas of intonation it ‘Native speakers of English exploit intonation patterns in many subtle ‘ways that are not obvious at first sight. If you speak English as a second ot foreign ge, these uses of intonation may have no parallel in your first language. This, n lead to. breakdown in communication when a native speaker is interacting ath anon-nalive speaker. Ina conversational situation, many a non-native speaker yy fail ta understand some or all of that part of the native speaker's message that conveyed by intonation patterns. The native speaker, unaware bath of his or own use of intonation und of the non-native’s fuilure to pick up on il, wrongly sume thet the message has been fully understood. Later, it becomes evident gt the message hus nor been fully underswod, and neither participant in the conversation knows why, Tt may well be the cuse that English makes more claborate usc of intonation signal meaning than do most other languages. This is a further reason why it id not be neglected by learners and teachers of English asa foreign language, What, then, are the Fupetions of Faglish intonation? We can recognize several eae fpsionsof Fe = an on. ‘The most obviows role of intonati express our attitudes and emotions — 10 show shock or s SUTC OT anEcr, interest or boredom, seriousness of Sarcasm, and many others, We do this by tome, |) The grammatical function. Intonation helps identit ‘situctures in speech, rather as pmmetuation does in \ intonation to mark the beginnmg and end of gramum: as clause and sentence (the demarcalive function) We do this: by tonality. We also use intonation to distinguist cha question vs. starement, and 10 disambiguate various Saar ambiguous structures (the syatactic function). We do this mainly hy fone. he focusing (also called accentual function. Into- ation helps to show what information in un ullerance is new and what is already known. We use it to bring some parts of the message in foens, and leave other parts out of focus; to emphasize or high some parts and nol others, We do this by tonicity and by the place- ment of other uccents. This is one of the most important functions af ‘English imonation, and perhaps the function most readily taugtat in the BFL. classroom. We combing acceniuation with the choice of tone 4 present some longer stretches of the message as comstiluling the foreground of the picture we paint, while leaving other stretches as ‘background, These are pragmatic functions. . \{ The discourse (or cohesive) function. Intonation signals how {to contrast or to cobere. It functions like the division of writen text into sentences and parageaphs. It enables us to signal whether or mat Ps R INTRODUCTION we have come to the end of the paint we are making; whether we want to keep talking or are ready lo give another speaker a lum +) The psvehological function, Intonation heins us organize speech into unis Ubal are easy lo perceive, memorize aod perform. We can all Fepest an arbitrary string of three, four or five numbers, but nut a. siring of ten — unless we spl them inte two units vl five, This is why awe need tanality. The indexical function. Just as with other pronunciation features, intonation may act as 2 marker of personal or social identity. What makes mothers sound like mothers, lovers sound like lovers, lawyers. sound like lawyers, clergymen sound like clergymen, newsreaders. sound like newsreaders, officials sound like officials? Partly, their characteristic intonation. ‘As in other areas af foreign or second language learning, learners of English will tend wn start by assuming that English is like their own first language, They will transfer the intonation habits of the L] ta the L2. To some extent, this assumption may well be correct. All those elements of intonaliva that are amily universal must, by definition, apply to English just as they do to other danguugs Depending.on the leamer’s L.1, there may indeed be many other, non-universal. elements of intonation that are the same in English as in the D1. thus allowing their Positive transfer to the learner's usc of English (his or her so-called interlan- guage). For example, German and Dutch have tonicity systems exteemely similar to that of English, so that German and Dutch learners already know this part of English intonation. French, however, does not use tonicity im the same way, and French leamers typically have difficulties with English tonicity because of their nnegulive transfer of the French sysiem to Englisti, Unchecked, the assumption that English is like your L thus leads to interference from the L1 asinappropriate elements are irunsferred_ A more complex example of positive transfer of German tonicily is seen in the following example: into English Englisi: T've lost my ‘bas. German; eh habe meme “Tasche perlewen. T have my bag lost. in English, the ordinary intonation pallers for this sealence involves a aucleus on the wont bag, which happens to be the lust word. The ordinary intonation pattern of German equally involves a nucleus on Tasche, the German for “hag”. although because of the different word order im German it is not the last word. The German word order is different from the English, Despite this, in German as in English 1.6 Intonation in BFL: wansfer and imerfcrence B principle applies that in such sentences the nucleus goes on the grammatical @bject (the last lexical noun phrase). "Thus the superficial difference between the 19 languages (nuclens on the last word in English, bul not in German) is less Smportant than the deeper. more abstract mule which the two languages share fnucleus on the object noun), ‘As an cxample of negative (unsfer of an intonation pattern from an 11 into lish, consider this example: ‘A: What job would you like to have? B> Thaven't thought about it ve speakers of English would normally place the nucleus for B's reply on sought: B: Ehaven’t ‘thought about it. ch people, whose language does nat share the English rule directing accents way from fenction words, would be Tikely to say: B: Thaven’t thought about ‘it. or Be Uhaven't thought a'h the comesponding Japanese sentence the last word is a negative particle suct as a. which in Japanese carries the equivalental the nucieus. So a Japanese speaker PEnglish would tend tv place the English nuclews on the word that incorporates be canslation of nat, namely haven't: B: J ‘haven't thought about it ermans, though, enjay the benefit of positive transfer from their own pattern: Durlber habe ich nicht ‘achgedacht. ubuotit have T not — thowght place the nucleus on thonghe even though the word order is different, iglish compound. words are a suurve of difficulty for many learners. Even ers of Germanic languages such as Ciermun and Danish, who have a com- id srress rule in their LI identical to that of English, encounter negative fer in cases where English docs not use an expected compound, or where the glish compound is late-xuressed: Az "Was wollen Sie ‘inken? what will you drink B: ‘leh nehme “Weiwein. 1 take while wine Sompare English: Ap Wheat wot yeu Fike B: ‘Tilhave some white ‘wine. ib INTRODUCTION Although German Weifwein has compound stress (‘Weifwein), its English equiv- alent white wine has phrase stress (white ‘wine), The same difference is seen in ‘Haupistadt as against ,cupital ‘city, Naturally, speakers of languages that make little of no use of tonicity are likely to muke many inappropriate tonicity choices in English. Typically, they tend mp accent the last word in an intonation phrase, even in cases where L1 speakers ‘of English would not do so. On occasions this can make such 2 speaker sound bizarre or absurd to the listener, since it sends out the wrong signals about where the new information in the message ends, or about whut is in focus and what is not. Eretish: AL CA80 | 'sLarutirds have greatly improved. Fierce: Dans la plupart des ‘eas | - French English: In most’cases |... English French: Je vais quel“gu’un. French English: Jean see some! JLis not known whether tonality, to. causes problems of negative transfer. Tone certainly does, since many lanzuayres have characteristic tone pallets ortone uses that sound strange or misleading in English. ¢.y. the rise used by many Norwegians and Danes on a situple statement, where most native English speakers would be likely to use a fall ‘TOPICS FOR DISCUSSION OR ESSAY I Explain the terms srress and sane. What does it mean to say that some languages use thea lexically? (Por those whose LI is not English) Is your first language a wne language? I so, demonstrate this by finding sets of words distin guished only by tone. If not, what use does your language make of pitch differences? 2 Is English a tone language” What use does English make of variation in the pitch of the voic 3 ‘Whiut are “the three Ts’? Explain the terms tonicity, toe and foncility, 4 What fonctions dees intonation perform in English? Does it perform the sume functions in other languages you are familiar with? 5 How might the intonation of a learner's L1 cause problems in learning and using English intonation? distinction among Eaglish nuclear tones between falling and non-falling. ferent kinds of falling tone (high fall, low fall, rise-fall) evidently Sveen them, bul treat them all as just falls. There is also something in common mull the various kinds of non-falling tone (highrise, low rise, mid level. fall-rise), Qwhich we refer w as non-fells. However, here it is often necessary to distinguish between rises on the one hand and fall—rises on the other, A popular idea among language students is that statements are said with a fall, stions with arise. Although there is an clement of truth in this generalization, Stis very far from the complete wuth. In English, at amy rate, statements may have Sill but they may also have a non-falling tone (a fall-rise ora rise). Questions ay have a rise — bul they may also have a fall. In general there is no simple prediciable relationship between sentence type and lone choice, Nevertheless. it useful to apply the notion of a default tone (= unmarked tone. neutral tone) for each sentence type.' As we shall sec, the default tone is, aLfull for slutements, exclamations, wh questions and commands; Atise for-yes-no questions. Another useful generalization is that Lae default for utterances involving Two onation phrases is to have a fall on the main: per, and ’ subordinate or dependent part, n sections 2,2-4 we smdy the anatomy of falls. rises and fall-rises. Leurning to recognize and reproduce these different tones. In sections 2.5—19 we consider “Their use in independent tones, as scen in short utterances that involve only a single intonation phrase. Then, in 2.20-5, we look at dependent tones and the tones of successive IPs in sequence. Finally, in 2.26.7, we discuss general tone | meanings and tabulate all the tone meanings we have identified. 16 TONE: GOING UI AND GOING Bown In considering tone meanings, we classify sentences according to their dis tion. We look in turn at statements, questions, exclamations, com- smiandis and interjections. EXERCISES E2.1.1 Listen and repeat. Listen to the word navr spoken with various kinds of falling (one. or the moment, the important (hing is just to perceive that in each the pitch of the voice falls: it starts higher, cds lower. Although they differ in vanous ways, cach is a fall, Repeat therm yrurselé. feeling, the pitch of the voice fall. If you can whistle, whistle then too. o snow sn now “now saow 2.1.2 Listen and repent. Listen to further monosyllabie words spoken with a falling tone. Some have no final Consonant; some have a ysioed final consonant; some have = voiceless final consonant. Does this have any effect on how the pitch movement sounds? cs see go uray ue vhod Apne Spin! Sing seine mice sstop Mist wight six E2.1.3 Inclass, leamets shovld practise these (and all pai-work exercises im this book) first speaking together in chorus, and thea speaking individually. marke the “context” tum in a canvenotion (tt privvide a.centeat) * marks the deill turn in dhe conversation (the point ef the exercise) a @ "Whode'is “this? 9 + \Mine. SF + Vous. + John’s, @ 2 Where de you come from? E214 Liston and repeat. Listen to the word naw spoken with various kinuls of rising ume. Again, for the morneat, the iroportant thing is just to perceive thatin each the pitch of the voice rises: it starts lower. ends higher. Although they differ in various ways, each iba rise. Repeat them yourself, fevling the pitch of the voice tise. If you can whistle, winistle aos mow ngs eaow “Dow [5 Lister and repeat, Lister to further monosyllabic words spokem with a rise. Does the tic stmenire of the word have any cffect on bow the pitch maxtencnit sounds? Hr De PE eee ee eae toa eat “E216 Pair-work practice. a e*This money is Uola’s. G+ John's? G+ Whose? e "These are “Sophie's. 9 T'd ‘like same vchieken, please. » We're ‘all sdoomed. 2.1.7 Liwen to the difference berween 9 fall and a rise, Depencing: om the Wane used far wher? in as response, the meaning is quile different (sce 2.16). Ac Bill could ask a friend. Bi: SWho? (= Which friend could Bill ask} A: Dillcould ask a friend. B2: AWho? (= Whe did you say could asta (pend?) Decide whether esch test izem is afall, ke BI. ora rise, like 12. Az Billeould ask = friend. Bz Who? (sem items) Ina falling nuclear tone the pitch of the voice starts relatively high then moves downwards, The starting point ma be an re From mid to Bah. The endpointis low. There may be some upward movement before the pitch wes downwards (discussed further in 5.5). In the simplest cases the fall takes place on a single syllable. We cages where the nuclear syllable is the ov he IP, or where the Jear syllable is the dust syllable in the IP. The fall then happens on that lable. sy aaWws wins igneall Tn ideatifying the nuclear tone we must disregard all the pitch levels and pas- sible pitch movements that are found earlier in the intonation phrase. ie. before the nucleus. (We shall analyse these prenuclear patterns in chapter 5.) o 1 ‘really don’t cane! 2 ie e = 2 . e How very ‘gtiamget e . e In both these examples the pitch movement on the nucleus is a fall. ‘The preceding pitch patterns are irrelevant in determining the nuctear tone. ‘There is very often a step up in pitch as we reach the beginning of the nuclear fall. Do not let this mislead you into thinking that the tone ‘ising. 1 ‘really don’t cam! ° 7 © 7 op : op Hew ‘very strange! . in ¥ even be some upward movement at the beginning of the nuclear . But as long as the pitch then comes down, it is a falling tone. thers are syllables afer the nucleus, ic. a tail. After a falling nucteus, gil is always fow. The fall (= the downward pitch movement) happens on 1 the syllable that bears the nucleus (the lexically stressed syllable}. The hen we'll see what—_-appens! the vowel in the nucleus syllable is short, or if this vowel is followed by ‘Again. in identifying a quclear tone (in these casesas falling) we disregard any nelear pitch pattern: ‘What a 9 a TONE! GOING UP AND GOING DOWN E2.2.2 Pair-work practice. i PIL be ‘there by sive: # Great! a © W's ‘acarly weight. © Goodness! | 'm going w be slate. 2 Care for a rdrin + Thanks! | Fd Move one. Can [tell “Lacy-abour it? No! | She'll "ell everyone. [painted it myssell + There's aclever gic. E223 Listen and repeal. Iumore the prenuclear material: concentrate on the falling tone that takes place on, or slarts at. the nuelens. Risdiculous! “How ridiculous! But that's risdiculous! How ‘absoluely ridicules! think that's ‘really. quite rindiculogs! Invereditiet ‘How imeredible! That's inseredihle! How “utterly incredible? They're soi You're aight? You're vight, you know. You're ‘absolutely wright! 1 think you're “ahsofutely sright! You're going lo be proved ‘quite ~tight! Qonen Ce one of One E2.2.4 Pairswork practice, * o We've just gor engaged, * ‘How marvellous! e She's had a ‘baby sboy. * But that's ~wonderful! eI got "seventy percent. © Well sdone! o We won ‘scven-\gil. * What an achiceement! oT 'missed the stain. + How arsmying: e "Now they want us to re-\segister . a » The ‘sansages gor sburnt + What a spiny’ -o ‘Now he’s crashed his scar. + “Ob ‘dear! And ‘then the sceiling fell down. . 9 He ‘couldn't make himself sheard_ . For farther practice on pronducing falls in exclamations, turn to 7.17 Ina rising nucicar tone the pitch of the voice starts relatively low and sn moves upwards. The starling point may be anywhere from low to mid, and id to high. (Some other possibilities are discussed Hf the aucteus is on the Inst or only syllable in the intonation phrase, then the takes place on that vylluble: Whe? = bain. in identifying the nuclear tone we must disregard any prenuclear pitch ¢ is often a step down in pitch as we reach the beginning of the nuclear rise. wnat let this mislead you into thinking that the tone is falling. means that the fast syllable is actually the highest pitched, even though itis ented. Some people find this difficult to perceive, and instead tend to hear nucleus Inter in the intonation phrase than it really is. In fact. if there is no clear mmulerial the nucleus, perceptually the must salicat syllable for native speakers, is actually the Lowest-pitched syllable in the IP. 21 n TONE: GOING UP AKN GOING DOWN Her ‘name's Melspomene, + “What did you say her name was?! a What did you omy hero mne. was? EXERCISES 2.3.1 Listen and repeat. # JWhar? — AWho? = Where? When? flim? Madge? Hill? Bub! Neve? Always? Thousands? This one? E2.3.2 Pair-work practice. 2 © You'll “have to take: tne tube = What? G+ Sony? + Pardon? « AWhat did you say? + Atthat was * a Td ‘tike a wmelon, plense, o's "time: te neds. oL thinkit was marvellous a 2 Well ‘need am assistant, * Annis? + Judith? £2:3.3 Listen to the reconding and idesily the tones. The nucleus is already underlined fur you, and the accent mark * is used.as a placebolder for the ouclear tone mark. (The oasct accent, 100, is shown. if there is one.) 6 Ac ‘Who's “that over there? Bs Oh fu’s ‘one of our bes ‘smdents, "What's he ‘studying? “Mexden ‘languages. Pepe 24 Fallerises, 25 Which languages? ‘Engtish, | ‘French | and ‘Spanish. . “That | sounds 'inievesting "Ina fall-sise nuclear tone, the pitch of the voice stants relatively high mowes first downwards and then upwards again, The starting point may Some other possibilities are discussed in 5.15.) the nucleus is on the last or only syMable in the intonation phrase, then the fall—tise movement takes place on that sylkible: ‘As usual, in identifying the auclear tome we ast disregard any prennclear h pattern: serine. o "Aare yuu eeacdy yer? + vAlmost. o “This one’s «mine. + vMine, yur mican, "Was she hurt? + Fortunately, | she weusn't Almost. ee a8 TONE! GOING Ur AND GOING DOWN @ vMine, you mean. EXERCISES E241 Listen amd repeat. e whestly, vPanly, Ivthiakso, He wsyysse. I vhopeso. vie x Tow Avgain. virally, vHappily. Revarettibly. Revpodedly, Alvicsedly. F242 Pair-werk practice. e "Are you sure, then? + Tovthink so. © 'Did be finish it? + He vsiys a0. 5'Is it ready now? + Panty. o o Have they ‘finished the cbousework? —* vMust uf it * > You ‘promises it for Hell be herein ten » Dyou ‘think they" ols this the one we chose? * T-don"t sethink se. 2 SosKieran wo * [ont think he -edi. = Vou ‘might win a xprize, © Bur [ ‘thought you said he'd slo 2 *Coukd 1 bormow your -knife? * It isn't very vshap: 7.10 Practise these and construct further similar examples uf your wn. T'said Td sborrow one, | ‘new vbuy orie. I 'dickn't say I'd vbuy one, | [said Td ~borrow one. It was Janet inthe picture, | ‘not viackie. It ‘wasn't vJackie in the picture, | it was Janet. o They've ‘moved to ‘Sussex. © Not vSussen, | Essex. # To Essex, | not to vStssex. 7.11 Por each question, formulate a positive answer (with a tall) and a negative answer ith a fall-riso) Model o' Have you been tothe Old-Vicl * Ses, | sseveral times, + No, | ‘not wreceatly. Have you seen thar mei play’? ‘Would you care fer a bees? Do you travel anuch? ‘Tio you like my new hairstyle? ‘Can I temps you with s sandwich? £2,7.(2 Explain the difference in meaning in the following pairs T just don’t went sanything. T ident want just vanythiny. TONE: GOING UF AND GoINs DOWN rn ‘nor going te coene to the ‘purty because “Sophie invited me. Tm ‘not going to come to the “party because vSephiie invited me. I English — unlike Spanish or Greek. forexample usually have a special interrogative grammatical form, involving the inversion of the subject and the verb, We discuss their intonation in 2.13. However, we do-also sometimes use declarative questions, which are geammatically like statements. They can be ideatified as questions only by their intonation. orby the pragmatics of the situation where they are used. They are usually said with a a yes—no rise_ es—no questions ® ‘You'll be ‘coming to dinner? (= Are you coming # He ‘took bis “passport? (= Diel he take his passport?) You “think I'm “grazy? (= Do you think I'm crazy?) Thad ana'macing cxsperience —* You rd! ( [hear what you say.) Sometimes they are suid with « fall-rise: 6 You ‘diun’t po aud vtell hin’? (= Does thal mean that you told hian?) and sometimes, confusingly, with a fall: e ‘So we'll be ‘free by \six, then? You avcan he ‘did't turn sup? (= Do you mean we'll he free by six?) It can be difficult for the hearer to know whether 2 question or a slalement is intended, particularly when a falling tone is used: ° So there were whree of them, * Are you sasking me | or telling me? EXERCISES E281 Pair-woek practice. a © You "oughin't to emt thal vpie. * You meun it’s “poisonous? 9 'Someone’s been in the Shaws. + We've hnd burghers? eTeeetleases the body's sencray flows, * You ‘really believe thar? @ Nosyou take the car. + Tt!won't inconvenience you! orLet’s peta pizza, * You've "got cnough -moncy? They'll have to close -slown, * You ‘really ahink so? The ‘answer is slsety. * You're saure of that? © Yow can “hike the wacissors + You 'won't be saweuling therm’? VIL “gee it t0-you by “Friday. * You ‘can’t do it before -then’? co He's lost his ob. * They've “tise him? 2.9 Uptalk Since about 198().a new use of rising tone on statements has started be heard in English, Tt is used under cirrumstanees in which 4 fall would have en used by an earlier generation (and a fall is still felt to be more appropriate “most native speakers of English). GUE, | Een “Cathy \Pomerey, | Mma ‘customer sservice agent, Gi) SHE | Pm ‘Cathy “Pomeroy. | Pama ‘customer «service agent. tvaditional intonation pattem, with a definitive fall, is (i). The new pattern is [has been variously referred to as the high rising terminal (TIRT), upspeak i uptalk. It is speculated that it originated in New Zealand, though other gmed sources are Australia, California and British regional accents 9 older peaple who do nat use it the uptalk puttern sounds like a pardon gestion rise (see 2.16), It is as if the uptalker is asking a question, checking hether something is the case or not, rather than giving information. In example itis us if the speaker were nol sure of her identity, or felt she could mol assert But the pragmatic context calls not for checking or querying. but for assertion [something the speaker certainly knows. Tence ta non uptatkers it feels like am late choice of tonc.? Here are some cxumples overheard during 2004— Ja each case I myself would have used a fall where I heard a young speaker ily use a rise. IG be ‘safer if you stayed with friends for a couple of days TIL *really really really | be pissed coll | if Ven ‘still here foe wChristinas, “There was this -girl | who lived like ‘three danrs clown frien me, We're ‘working vpeuple. | but aur ‘pay doesn’t se-figct thar. ‘At vmight be { ‘over there by the “Fence, Sorry. | I "just wanted w use the “phone. ‘How’ do you find out about the amangemenis? —# ‘Emails and posters (Suielents commenting en a speech pathology videos) He vseems | to hive some anguige impairment, ‘He's wnot mentally ill, | bur he’s pretending to be journalist Matt Seaton (2001) claims that his six-year-old Londoner daughter med from an American summer camp and reported as follows: Well, we mt canoeing an the lake? Whick was, lke, really really fin? And then we iad myrelling in the barn? And we all had to tell « siery abous, like, where we're 7 or aur family or something? The question marks, of course, indicate the to unexpected rise tone. ar ‘What do you feel about his criticism? * Icon be ‘quite “harsh sometimes. Where ane you working? > Pmin an ‘office in Princess “Hall. TONER: GOING UP AND GOING DOWN ‘What should the learner of EFL do about uptalk? Ifyou were bom before about 1980, do nor use uptalk, If you were bom later, you can imitate its use by native speake: do not overde it, Uptalk is nover essential, Bear in mind that uptalk may annoy older people listening to you. EXERCISES E2Y.1 Answer these questions (1) with a fall and (bp with a rise. What's your name? Where do you come from? What's your favourite food? Would pou prefer coffee or tea? Tell me, how okt are you, Miss Thomas? “The answer to a yes-no question is usually not a complete statement. Ruther. it is just yes or ne (ur an equivalent). Quite often, we support the yer or no by an elliptical verb phrase. Or we may jost use the cllipticul verb phrase on ils own 8 Do you krww Petey? ois. Sure + OF course, @ Ves [Tada + 1sdo, = Of course Ido! @ © Of course I know Peter! Have you ever been to Minsk? # No. awen't, | vactually. = Lon’ think T shave, © OF course I hin * No I shaven't heen to Minsk. The tone fur these answers may be any of the tones that can be used in full statements. Typically, it will be a definitive fall; bot other tones are possible: Are yousoing to object? (Mes) | Irn + (ees) | Tam... and TH tell you yuby.) = (vYes,) | I vam. {... | though not imvmediately,) 210 Yes. ne-and elliptical answers wv Have you done your homewerk? No.) | Tshaven't © (-Ne) [Edtewen’t (and 1m not sgoing to.) ~ (vig) | L vhaven’t (... but vwill)) Do you sell stamps? Go We alo. > Yes, | we @ + Well we vdo. ( = | but we've ‘sold out.) srammatical panems can be used not only to answer a direct question but ‘la express our agreement with what the other person is saying, oralternatively contrdict them, A straightforward agreement typically uses a fall: So you'vedone yourhomework. + Wes. +? | certainly shave. * ses, | I shave, * Of scoune T have. + v¥es. (. but noi vall of i) ‘Look. | it’s snowing. + Sots, | Ie wasn't very good + sNo. (= You're right it wasa’t) #11 definitely sweasn'. * No, | it wasn't. + wNo_{... though it ‘wasn’t vhopeless.) contradict what the olher person says, it is possible to use a definitive fall or ive fall-rise: but the most uswal tone is a rise: ‘You haven't brought the mill. + I have, It was brilliant. = Iwasa’, swe put (oh) yer or fot) no before the elliptical vers phrase in a contraciictian, ish has fixed idiomatic tone pattems, and in particular Uisallows a sequence. (You cunnol contradict a negative statement by saying yes alone.) used only to contradict a statement. nol i answer a question: You haven't braught the milk! Gi Wes, | Ihave, (= You're wrong.) # 30h yes, [T have. Ti was brilliant 84 No, |it wasn’t! (= You're wrong) * Ob no, | it wasn’ No it vasa’ not x + No, | itssiaan"s De you sell stamps’? ne xc ses | we ain, stradictions can also-he said with a definitive (all: the difference: is that a (high) fl implies warmth und solidarity with the other person —i.c- is supportive —while rise implies defensiveness and unfricndliness — that is, it is unsupportive: a PONE: GOIN! You ha You hi n't paid for the cofice. + paid for the coffee. EXERCISES EXO Pair work practice, @ Are you ‘coming swith us? 9 Have you ‘gor yout -passport? 9 Dick yon ‘lock the door? o Will you be “back before -seven? (Can you speak French? o Have you 'ever been to “Mali? 6 Will you be “joining us? "Has she brought vhe cham ‘Did they ask for an extension? o “Tse ssatisticd? F2.10.2 Pair-work practice: contadiceins. 6 You've lfinished all the «mill: They ‘all failed the exam, 2 1Chlog"s coming with us. o He“usually finishes hy sien. od can “Hitt in after “ o Yau scam't eat | that echeeolae! it’s OK nothing’s wrong.) Don't accuse Yes, [of senurse | will Nes, | [gun speak French, + sNo, | Ishaven’t. re Ais satisfied. SNe, | [fiaven's, * No. | they “didn't. + No, | she visi * sa, | he doesn’t. + Oh no, | you “can’t {| We're going yout) + \¥es, | L-com o You “haven't finished yourshomework. + «Yes. | F vhave, e There's *hever been 2 war im vCarmacks o This “isn’t the tallest building in the vimorld, though. * Yes, | there = Oh yes, | it vis. + \Ohyes. | she -did. £2.10.3 Supply a suitable context in which cach of the following mijght be said: 1 Wes, | they do. 2 Wes, | they “1 3 SNo, | they sdon’ 4 Na, | the; 3 \Ob yes, 1141 6 SDA no. | Pai rant five ait answer, with appropriate ‘Sophie's gol a mew hainto. You haven't done any ~cooking citation, contradicting each of these anvertsan: "Darren's been at the swine again. Tm justa com’ plete ~failare. 0.5 Pin-work practice Ts i goin tos vrai’ = Yes, | Pthink ir sis. (ie ee ee aire made ‘dreadlul mistake! * \Yes, | [think you shave, They ‘haven't bought any sffuit! = No. | “don’t ihink they shave, 2 Did we sscune? = No, [don't think we did. 1s ‘that Mrs Bailey’? = Yes, | I think so. = NYes, | Fvthind tis. + vNo, [1 'doa't vthi ©No, | Vdon't + Dm ‘nol really sure. E2.10.6 Consider each of the responses given below, Is the intonation pantera plausible? FE: Al ‘Is this the “book you wanted” (As "Are you cmeatiy’? As well as for declarative questions and in uptalk rises are used for rL responses encouraging further conversation. They signal no more than thal social interaction is running smoothly. ‘Have acup of ste, = Tha’s “very “kind of you. ers of English should be carefull however, aotto use this tone for non-routine ers: “Where are you xirom, then? *7Norway. ae |6!|hChCC Ul a PONE: GOING UP AND GON With a rise on Norway, this could sound rude (suggesting, perhaps, that this is routine information thst the person asking the question ought to know already). For a straightforward statement in answer lo the question, use a fall Rises are also used for various interjections (see 2.19) and for dependent parts ofa larger structure (s¢¢ 2.20-4). But they are fairly unusual with statements that are Inaly independent. Tijust asked for some extra time, | It's a ‘perfectly reusombble rerquest_ ‘The rise here perhaps sigmals that the second sentence is not actually independent. ‘but an afterthought to, or qualification of, the first. Further discussion of rises im slatements must w; clear patterns, in chapter 5. until the analysis of premu- EXERCISES F2.11.1 Pair work practice. e 9 ‘Any problems with the sbuilelers? — @* [dont “think ss. tee “Not really. @* No ‘cversthing’s O-R, all going. smoothly. # They're ‘just gelling on with the job. QUESTIONS 2.12 Wh questions Wh questions (= question-word questinas, special questions) are: those that are formed with a question word such as who, whaz, whic where, why, how. They ask for a more specific answer than just "yes" « Where's my L'don’t think PU sao. “Why not? © Oh, this wretched computer! 9 What's wma wih ssw Zot | at the “parry. * "Who wns she here with? © [used to live in Metper. + And ‘where d’yqa live nom? aid they've gone scout. + *Horw soon willl they be “back? 2.13 Yes nw questions 43 12.8 Practise these responees first in a straightforward businessfike way (with a fall} and them ned, Friendly way (with 2 rise). Im ‘leaving ussorron, 6 So Pye been here a few vwecks. se. o Twas ‘wondering if Icould fave = “How many would you ‘like? sole more leaflets, o They've ‘gone for a ~walk, © “How soon will they be ‘back, d'you think? o We're ‘having a marvellous “Who's in ‘change ofthe group? 2.12.9 Explain the difference in tone meaning in thise pat. Which wool Be likely to fe weed immigration officer speaking to un ariving passenger at an airport? Who might use the one? "How lony will you be “How long will you be saving? “Where will you be sliving? “Where will you be living? x ‘Yes-no questions (= general questions, polar questions) ask whether snciling is the case or noi. Such questions are capable of meaningfully being. vered “yes’ or ‘no’ (though there may be other possible answers such as ips" or ‘'m nor sure"). The default tone for a yes-nw questiun is a rise. We it the yes—ne rise, ‘Are yeu frealy? Is ‘that the ftime’? “Will you be at the /nceting? Have you *been here flone? *Has he algrced to it? Tim |just going to the ssupermarkel. = Can ‘I come /too? 10 questions can be posilive or negative. Whatever their polarity, they usnally a yes no rise: "Won't you beat the /mesting? ‘Haven't you /finished yet? "Doa't you like your /soup? “Haven't we met be/fore? 6 TORE: GOING 2 BOING DOWN Some ulterances with the grammatical form of yes-no interrogatives are not questions so much as requests. They. ton. usually have a yes-no rise: “Would you puess me the cwater? ‘Will you send him a lener? ‘Could [have sume -paner? *Coulehn't Ltake the scar? Ti is also possible for a yes—no question tu be said with a fall. ‘This makes the question more insistent. is more businesslike, more serious, perhaps more thre ing. We call this tone meaning for yes ny questions the insistent fall. ent 9 Ac PIL ‘ask you once smi Br No, [ 1 slidn’t, Az ‘Can you xprove thar? | Biel you take the money? The insistent yes-no fall is offen used in guessing games. come fram sSpatin’? ‘The insistent yes-no fall is also regularly used when a speaker repeats a question because the other person didn’t hear it proper 6 A: ‘Have you com: B: Sorry? Ac Lvsaid, | ‘have you come far, EP In colloquial speech the initial auxiliary verb and pronoun are often omitted: o “Gotthe skeys! (= ‘Have you got the drys?) [Do you] ‘sce wharT -mean? [Have ynu] ‘all -pot thar? (= Do you all understand?) [Are you] ‘short of veash? [Wowk you) ike a edrink’? Us it] ‘still ssnowine? EXERCISES 2.13.1 Listen and iepeat a Have you ‘finished your Yes but ‘tind you understand the explanation? o 1 ¢an't get my vBluc, | isn't in? © Three nines ere teerny wight. Twenty-vseven, | zarea’t they? co They te from Ligand, + Revvanda, | varen’t they? They're in Znrich. # Beri, |ddon"t you ameun? E2144 Performance practice: falling wig. appealing for agreement, insisiers (ll 1S a "beautiful sav. [sisn'c i? ‘Twoand two makes our | doesnt? “The “linst three vnotes | are ‘de, re, vii, | sagen’ they? ‘The ‘Vatican's in ‘Rame, | sisn't it? “Ah, | you're \Margaret, | saren’t you? We could ‘order a .pizra, | soouldn’t we Looks tpretty cniscrable, | sdeesn't “Bence than the viirst one, |swasn't he? De'licions veake, | sisnt a? *Premy decovtstions, | .aren’t they? 14.5 Pairs work practice; fall plus falling tag, agreeing and appealing for azceemem, 9 So we've had to xcancel i. oosPiay, | isn't ir? o Whats tecrible accetent! + Shocking, | swasa’t it? ot "looks like -zain, + Ie xdioes, | ~dloean’t it? o We've ‘spent move thin we wmeant ta. * \Yes, | we shave, | vhaven't we? o "Apples are quite expensive here. * They sane, | saren’e they? We don’t nced vboth of them. #4No, Je don’t, [ado we? o She thasa’t been here bevfowe: + No she shasa't | shas she? e They “haven't sung vihisone before + ‘They shaver"t, | shuve they? o We ‘can't stant aygain * No we vcan’s } xcan we? You ‘havent gota vticket! * NoT shaven’t, | steve 1? L6 Explain the difference in tone meaning in the following pairs. Practise saying therm in ne ate contents. 52. TONE: GOING UP AND GOING mOWN Li} "That's corwect. [i i)" Thar’s conaoet, | Ase 2G) You're from sfealy, | saren’t you? ii) You're from slealy, | caren’: SG) We'didn’s vwin, We didn’t vwin, | 2.14.7 Performance practice: constant-polarity tag, rising. You'se ‘ready to-go, | vare you? So 'ehis ic Humphrey, | ix it? So we're ‘facing a bit of a problem, | vare we? ‘You pre‘ler the »ether ane, | ia you? Shell be “here toxmorronw. | “will she? o They ‘want a scise. + Oh they do, |-dathey? oHe’s going wschulhenge you. * Hesis, | is be? 5 What a ‘lovely ~dress! * You like it, |ydo you? wv Yes T've unld | “Heather 9 "Hew about asking “There ase further examples of tag questions in 3.16 and 4.10. = Obyou've ~sora her. | 4 i? © You think he'd eweree 2.15 Independent elliptical questions One wav of reacting to a statement made by another speaker is to use short yes-no question of an elliptical (= shortened) verb phrase This resembles a lag yuest like a tag question it involves a change of speaker. The default tone for an independent elliptical question is a yes—no- consist @ Vim ‘thinking of taking a sbreak. —* “Are you? He's “just scea «Peter. + Alas be? ‘This isa kind of minimal response to keep the conversation going. [Lmay indicate nding on the pitch range used. It means He's “just seca «Peter. Independent elliptical questions of this Ly negative) as the clause just utered by the other speaker: Te "wasn’t very good. * Ase it? They ‘date’ hive amy steal. + Dida't they? 2.15 _Lnlepensient efliptical questions 33 Az She ‘won't be at all vpleased Br Won't she? Az Na, [ she swon't Independent clliptical questions can also be said with an insistent fall. ‘The tone meaning isone of slight surprise or scepticism. but accepting that the other speaker has expressed an opinion. This tone can sound hostile: a 1 really slike it here #320 you? (1 was 3" Irsid you She ‘took a cwhat? © She did ewhat? » She whut? Altematively the wh word may he fronted. If so, it still bears the nucleus and has arising tone: She wok » yonga, # vhat did she take? > Atihat did you say she took? Any clemeat of the first speaker's utterance may be queried in this way. The nucleus always goes on the question word; + ‘Martin's done what to his cat? + ‘Martin's Jost his what? Broad-focus (see 3.9} pardon questions requesta repetition of everything the olher speaker has just said. Like repetition wh questions, they have a pardlon-question rise on the questina word, She ‘took 2 stonpa On the other hand, if the speaker asks not for a repetition but for a clarification, we have an ordinary wh question (see 5.9), which will most likely be said with a definitive fall: ‘She ‘took a wigoga, + What's a wonga? ‘The difference between the definitive fall on a wh question and the pardon- question rise using the same symtax is seen in this pair of examples: phie’s brought hersfriend along. + s Who! (= wwhich fricinf?) ‘Sopllie’s brought her \irienl ale + Wha? (= -who bas?) 216 Checking The appropriate answer lo whe to who? in (ii) is Sophie* 7 in (2) is the friend sname. The appropriate answer EXERCISES 7.16.1 Awach one of the following. with a rising sone: OR?, right? all right?, yeah?, fiah?. ‘Think of an appropriate comiest where each sentence might be said. Meoelel- ‘So you're spleased with the presents, We can ‘start neal ssmonth “You can ‘pick her up at \Garwick. They*Il be "waiting ouside, So ‘Vemon could collect the ~llowers. ‘We need sume sbin liners. “Don't forge the «soouring pads. "Ask them about the tiles, So we'll "just have to accept it Til wy and do ieby nest gveck, (12.16,2 Puinaverk practice. "May Thave a worl? o1'm ‘trying to make 2 ~call. eT owant to reach \Madelsine. re ‘wonder if Fmmight sirable you. - * 1-bes your pardon? ‘Could you get me saene-rmil * You rwhat? o'Let's switch ‘overte the BBXC. = “What was that again? o They're ‘playing vhaskethall. * Come again’? Pur in a spage break. = Som? The strains are delayed. = What? oI "rmedls reanalysis, + Pardon? FL16.3 Pair work. One person cays something, with a non-(all tone, The other says scurry? an equivalent phrase. with ase. The first person then repeats their words, hut using a Model: A: Vm ‘not going to take oat a vbank loan. B: Sorry? Ac Fra ‘not going to take out a sbank loan, don’ like her vets “Have you ted “yoghart? It'woo'l take viens. *Are you planning tw-restire soon? ‘Could [have a fook at your newspaper? 2.16.4 Pair-work practice: pardon questions and echo questions. oHe’s “been ona sha * Atal? * Aroha o Um ‘going to visit \Chlge. Who! = Aho are you goiny:to visit? * You're ‘going to do: what? * You're ‘going to do -what to her? = We mre? 9 Pve “broken my stusrierns. * Your -what? * Your hum + You've ‘done —w + You've thraken your shat? + Vou trave? (|) OF wall people!) (6.5 Pair-work practioe: second-order questions. Have you done the rowing? + ‘Have T done the -irmning? | ~¥es! 6 Can we alefond it? * Con we afford it? | OF sgourse. + What is it? | A sleek! # "How march will cost” | A slot. © Where do 1 live? | ln Sydeaham. [2.166 Dialogue practice. You could extend this dislogue by adding firther conversational exchanges in the same vcin. Jor much would a new \cazpel cost? B: Anpw -cuport? Az SNo, | » \carpet Ob. | a carpet ij "Quite a slot, | Eshould -thinie Az Well I've (just been looking at this scat You've bean ‘doing “what? Az ‘Looking at a .gatatogue, B: And? ‘Ae Well there’s.a ‘very reasonable volfer here. = Ast zatbor?|) ‘Whar d" yoo ‘Come xia! * Sit wown! + 'Poll up a ~chair! Make yourself at shorne! * Go ‘tight ashead, = "See if she’s wceady. + “Enter die date. # Add the sseasoning, * ‘Bormulate ahysputhesis. + "Take a break. * Well ‘cake veare. + Make sure he veloes, * Well ‘say it.as if you veneamt it. + "Do wy and vlisen! + Well make up your vm a 63 TOME; GOING UP AND GOING ROWN F2.148.6 Performance and pair. work practice: negutive commands. "Dont thach that visit! “Don’t try and winfinence me. 'Dan’tthink I'm going 10 come vback to you. ‘Don’t forget your vpassport. ‘Don't offer him vmoney o So we'll see you on \Friday. + “Doa’t forget to revanin ef'm ‘going avhead with it * Well ‘don’t say I dida’t warn you, eV lthink it’s going to rain, # Qh ‘don't say vial. ovicould cary the lealfets, + Den't vsuain yourself. Soi’ ‘all \sculed then, * ‘Don’t be ina wsure. o My Jee’s hurting. + Oh ‘Won't wyoui sant! oN" ‘make start on the sdishes. + No “don’t wyou do the ~ | I will. oT bring my “gase den. # "Don't vywu liftit. | Get Jim to. o*All arboand. thea. + Don't vyau drive. | You've been “drinking. 2 T' just call the swaiter. + Don’t vyou pay. } Let me, E2,18.7 Perfocmance practice: snothing. possibly patronizing “Don't worry, ‘Cheer vup. E2188 Pair-work practice: sl * Well ‘keep siryany, a @ 1 'do find this vdifficalt + Don’t worry, | 1s "nearly saver. o Tm a'fiaid I'm in your sway, "Don't mmave. | There's “ots of oom. 2 °Am | diselutbing ys? = No ‘come “in. o'AmTinthe sway? * No "gu svbead ‘2.19 Interjections and greetings ‘The categories of interjection and exclamation partly overlap. So, not surprisingly, the default tone for interjections is an exclumulory (o¢ definitive) fall: wThank you. "Oh send! Sure. 2.19 _Intecjections and grectings 65 However, many short interjections can be said with an encouraging rise, inviting the other person to speak ur 19 continue speaking: (answering the phone) > Hullo, Aba cler® te the mext customer} * Good smoming. (-How can I sbelp you?) Pee ‘bought ancw shat, darling, + Ub buh. (sTell ime about it) ‘Oh vMary. + Nex! ‘The interjection oops. whoops (uttered when you have just made 4 mistake or dropped something) seems always to havea rise (including under ‘rise’ its variant, the mid level; see 5.7. In other cases a rise on an imerjection signals no more than a routine acknowl edgement: Here's your schange. love. + /Thank you, You'll need this soem. + Right. be scen in the following pair of examples: 9) "Unscrew the weylinder bead. © sRight. {1 sill) Gi) “Unscrew the sevlinder hed. + -Right, (And "what snext?} The fall on right in (i) implies the potential completion of the conversational interchange, whereas the msc i) can be taken by the first speaker as an inwi tation to issue a further instruction. It means something like ‘please continue speaking", Not ull encouraging rises oa interjections mean “please continue speaking’. Tn the following examples the meaning is more “please continue with your course of action’: Its my gam | to-moriem. + Good dual Would you ‘like metodo it mow? "Yes rpleaue. In calling someone by name, we normally use a rise ot fall-rise if trying to gel their ellention. A fall, on the other hand, is a straightforward greeting (or, of course, an exclamation): Pro'fessor Jones: | I ‘wander if Lcould have a sword. Pro'fessor vJones: | "wonder if Tcould have a werd. Pro'fessor sJones! | How ‘wie wn xsee your! Peter’? (Is “thal “you? It's ~ae! ter! (Fancy seeing .you!) For mist greetings, both falls and rises are perfectly possible and acceptable A definitive fall is mace formal, an encouraging rise more personal. ti Helo! ir) Hebets. ee a i 6 vont Ur ANH GOING DOWN ® Gowal sanorning! i} Good -momine. ‘Variant (i), with a fall, means just “Lam greeting you’. whereas variant (ii), with arise, expresses an added interest in the person addressed, ‘as | greet you, [am acknowledging you". A voeative after hello or hi-usually has its owm, rising, sone (sce 4.4). In this cave ‘ello may be stress-shilted (see 5.10} so that the accent falls on the first syllable: SHi,| Kevin, Hello, | «Margaret. er sHlello, | /dargaret HulJo. | ‘Tim or “Hullo, | ‘Tim. ‘One or two greetings are tonally restricted. Whereas hell may have any tome, ‘Ai (if said with an ordinary tone, nvt a slylized one; sve 5.15) can only have a fall, The same is true of hey. Likewise cheers, in its British sense of “thank you’, always has a full: Hey, | syoutl| I want to-sialk to you Cheers, mate, a fall, hank you has the straightforward meaning “T am thanking you"; with a rise, it suggests ‘as I thank you, 1 amv acknowledging you’. This is, however, a routine kind of acknowledgement. To express genuine gratinde, it is necessary to use @ fall. varzaat (i): Thank you. (straighsformand) 4a) ou, (routine acknowledgesnent) Forsaying farewell, goodbye and its equivalents often have.a rise. Since good- bye signals the completion of a conversational exchange, you might expect it normally to be said with a definitive fall; but in practice a rise is much more frequent. Why? Because ie is an encouraging rise. expressing good will and an acknowledgement of the other person, The same applies when a television pre senter signs off. o Tm sof | snow.) (Good-bye. "Good night || ‘See you to-morrow. "Sa clang then, “Thar’s it from mg. ‘But to get rid of an unwelcome guest you would say: “Goodbye, Strangely, the informal see you tends to have a fallrise rather than a rise: vSee you, Tnuerjoctions anu gre EXERCISES £2.18:1 Performance practice: inerjections with a fall. ont Grea! aWow! “vipypec! Gosh it’s wold twelay! \Winw! | Look at vthat! Super! | Pm really vphewwal wel a. My sgoodness! Blimey! | Get aload of sthat! E2192 Pair-work practice. Joseph said you'd resfased. *\Nonsense! 2 Did you finish the rerpo + sHeavens yes! | Ages so. ‘Can tell “lina about it? * Goodness no! Ti be there by six. + \Great | See you sthen. ol puimed irmy-velf, Dad. a clever bo: 2.19.3 Baie-work practice: imerjections with a rise, encouraging. or routine. o lst ‘really 4 + Of coune, Shall we ‘meet al -ten?™ + OK 9 Good unarning, sir * Good anvening, 6 [ve ‘laken same more spaper. ° Alh-huh » ‘Here's your hange. » “Thanks. 9 “Take these «cases up. * Nery “good, sir Would you bring me sume water? —*“Very “good, madam, ‘Let me do it smy way. 1 We ‘finished on sti 2 ‘Mere’ my scoursework. AS ‘Grasp the patient's vhanel. As Find a sunlable -yein. Ay Say “jost a small pi ‘Ac In'sert the meee, Aclivject, | and withdraw the needle. £2,194 Get someone to tell you something, Each time they pimise, say sah-huls to show that you are listening. oe rene: Ge UP AND GOING DOWN 2.19.5 Explain the difference in meaning. 14) You'll ees a sscremsttiver, fii)» You'll “need a secrewsriver, 24i) a Teame'‘top of the \elnes: 4) 9 | came ‘top of the velass 343) « ‘Here are your stickets Gi) a ‘Heme are your wickets. E2.19-6 Performance practice: gecetings with a rise, showing interest in the addressee. Good moming. Goost revening. Hels Good "after-noon. Good “afternoon, Archibald E2.19,7 Practise saying thank yow (i) in a routine son of way (rise). and (ii) when you are expressing real gratirude (fall). Which is appropriate in response to each of these? "Heres your sehange. Tve ‘brought pow a fitle spreseat. ‘We were ‘wondering if you could come ta sdinnex tomorrow. Sol can newduce the price | by ‘twenty percent, praiating’\ This way. “Try some of these “peanuts. Woulil you ‘care for a drink? (somedne makes recm for you ina crowded tram) Your shill, sir. "Room service will be along Slater. 152,19.8 Proctixe saying poodbye, with a rise or fall rise, What would it mean if you were to use a fall instead? "So slong. *Cheesi-o! "Good-bye then. ‘Goodbye! | ‘Come again “soon. wvSce yeu tha E2.19.9 Performance practice: greetings with a fall, more formal. Good smoming! Good severing! ag Hello. Jeremy. aMoming, Mrs Allardyce, ‘Helo! | ‘Anyone shure? Good smnomning. | Id ‘like to speak to the \manager. Good ‘afternoon. | T wonder if | could see Mr sc 2.20 Leading and ersiling oes Hi. | ‘My name's ‘Ricky ~Pearee, | I telephoned surtser. Hobo, |1"rien'guiring about my sexcount ‘Many phrases or clauses do not stand alone. but are attached to some other element. They are not complete in themselves, but are dependent on some ‘other (independent) structure, Usually they precede this other, main element but sometines they follew it. Ifa dependent element precedes the main clement. we say itis leading. If it follows the main clement. we say it is trailing. In either case, the unmarked tone for a dependent element is 4 non-fall (— a fall-rise or a rise). With a leading dependent element, this non-fall is most usually a fall—rise. ‘We call this tone meaning the dependent fall—rise. lt indicates thal there is more material still to come. and is thus an indication of non-finali * "After viunch | se could ‘call on Mary. ‘British vAirways | ‘flies there on Tuesdays, ‘First we find the vsockel, | ‘then we insert the spin. Alternatively, a leading dependent clement muy have a rise (including the possi bility of a mid-level tone}, We call this tone meaning the dependent rise. e “After uneh | we coulel ‘call on sMary. ‘With a trailing dependent element, the most usual tone is a rise. The tone meaning of this trailing dependent rise is merely to indicate that it belongs with what went befare: Mm ‘rather annoyed, [ raakly @ ‘We're “going to \Spain | in -/ugust, They're as'riving liramoriow, | a& far as 1 now. The following pairs each contain the same material, but in different orders. Ln the variunts numbered (7), the dependent element has a leading fall-rise, In the variants numbered (ii) it bas a trailing rise, The independent element in each case has a definitive tall: a Tf you're veady, | we could bevgin- i) We could begin | if' you're ready, a TONE: GOING UF AND GOING DowN {iI were vyou, | Fd regent it. G Gi) TA reject it [if T were @ ‘They're ‘not from vSpain, | they're from \Porwzul a ‘Theyre from Portugal, | they're ‘not from “Spain. ILis possible for a dependent fall-rise to be, al the same time, an implicationl fall-rise, as in the following example, where you is in coatrast with me. Eidan't kanw about wyou, | but "I'm wxtarving. So the typical pattems are: . fall-rise plus fall, for the onder dependent-incependent, and - fall plus rise, for the order indepeadent-Jependeat, AAltematively, but less commonly, as we have seen, a leading dependent tone can be arise, while a trailing dependent tone can be a fall-rise. Personally, | I ‘thought it was vieqrible. (deading fail-rise} or oBersonally, | Thought fl was werrible. (lewding rise} I ‘thought it was sterrible. | personally. (trailing rise) or Tithemygin it way errible, | vpersnnally. (erniling fsll-rive) Smudents of EFL. may need to spend time practising the leading fall-rise. It ix a lone very characteristic of mainstream English (RP and GA), yet rare or absent in most other languages. EXERCISES E2.20.1. Performance practice: leading fall-rise. ‘When [come vback | we can have a "bale toes Ti T'm srighr, | he'll pass with sease. ‘The ‘thing vis, | wre ‘can’t risk amvayonizing her. ‘As you vingw. | we'll be ‘staying at the Sheraton. ‘ks you can ivmagine, [here's tplemy of work 1 de, Qa the-wabk: | you'll ind 2 jus. Tf Lwere vou, [1d “wait and see wheat rappers, Tfit's “OK by vyou, | ('d ‘rather have a spizza. ‘Come to vthink of it, | ought to get any oan room tibed up. “Under the veireumstanees. | we'd ‘better ucweept. F2.20.2 Pair wurk practice. © ‘How d"you get to work? Jsually | "take the © D'you eacjoy. your job? + vEtankly. | Esloathe 2.20 Leading and cailing tomes us Ase they sreally going 1 setle? = Apyparently | they are. 2 (What's the "Lake District vl = Tthe vxeather's good, | it’ ‘you “like my new shit + Ih-you "don"t semble, 2.20.3 Pexformance praktice: trailing rise. jn ‘gesting a bit fed sup, | ftankly. ‘The ‘service is suspended j on /Sundays: Ven ‘offi Masjorca, | as a matter of fuer. Til do it toumorron, | if Lean fit it 4 ‘We coald ‘do it ingethier | if that's OK with -you. ‘You'll find a jue | om the “table, Td ‘wait and see what shappens, | if [were We see the distinction between ihe closed fall (= delinitive fall) anid the apen non-fall (= nom. final full-rise o¢ rise) most clearly in the intunation of I e (0) You can have seoffee | or ten. ° (ii) You ean have ccoffee | or a The fall on fea in (i) signals that there are no more options: you must chonse either coffee or tea The rise on fea in (ii) signals that there may be other pussibilities too. as yet unmentioned. ¢.8. or yow could have an worenge juice. «ib #Chickea | or xbeef? iv) othicken | or steer? In (iii) the addressee (the passenger on an airline, pechaps) is heing invited wo choose between the wo possibilities, chicken and beef. [n (iv) she is bei to choose ane of those two. or - if she prefers — some other option. 18 TONE: GOING UF AND GOING DOWN ~ lm. | Ho. oa) ‘We've heen 1 -Manches! (abree | four, | sive Edinburgh [ und London. Example (v) demonstrates how you might count a small child’s fingers for ber. “The rises in the first four intonation phrases leave the list open. The fall on the fifth closes it. In (vi) the non-fulls (which might be rises or fall-rises} on Manchester and Ediniuergh indicate that there is more to come. The fall on London indlicates that we have come to the end, Although the intonation pultems in these examples are valid, they are not the only way of treating lists. First, we do not have to give each item its own IP: ‘openness of a list can be signalled simply by not yer having reached the nucleus, Le, by giving the non-final items fread accents ruther than nuclear accents: a ‘You can have “coffee or ston, i You cun have ‘coffee or “ica. “Chicken or sheet? ie) ‘Chicken or beet? Ww) *One, ‘two. ‘three, “four. “fi wi) We've heen to ‘Monchester, ‘Edinburgh and “Landon, Secondly, the Tist as a whule may require a non-falling tone, in whieh case it mmay he impossible for the hearer to know whether the speaker intended the list to be left open or nat: Well you can have ‘coffec er view, | and then we've some ‘rather special sandwiches to offer you. Here the dependent fall-rise on cea (signalling that the utterance. rather than the Tist, is aot yet complete} leaves us uncertain whether there are other possibilities. ‘Alternative questions are sets of two or more yes-no questions linked by or They are treated as lists. A closed list ends it @ definitive full, and in principle anopen list Gf nuclear) ends ina dependent rise. However, the speaker has some discretion to ignore this nule. or does she ‘need some mone stime! e Would you Tike menu, | of at the send Is thal a “gun in your pocket? | Or are you ‘just pleased le see me? Is it'a vbird? | Is ita -plane? (| sNo, | it's Superman!) ‘Am lacking itty dollars? | Or forty doltars?] sNo, {it's "pours for stwenty! Is ‘Mary realy ye eal? EXERCISES 2.22.1 Pair-work practice; closed lists, oCount from ‘six totem. © Six, | seven, | veight | ming, | er o"Whatare the ‘last three lemersef 9 +78] 4, | and Z the salphaber? 6 "When could Isee you? E2.22.2 Parr-work practice: apen lists, 2°Goon counting. “Say the ‘alphabet backwards, 2.22 Open and closed Hises 7 | #Bthan | and andy. Just “chicken Lor sfish. + Well, “Monday | or pec‘haps “Tuesday. [Gd (Count ‘backwards from asbundred, * 'Niney-rthree. | ‘eighty-six, | | Taking away \seven | “each stime, "What have you get snagilable? Who was at the pany? ¢/ {ALL sorts of things.) » Derek, | and -Stewe, | ‘Jim and “Linda, | Verity... () sats of peonte.) 152-22. Practise enumerating the people in the ream. the different sports you play. the members of your Family, the days of the week, the months of the year, the places yiu like to visit, the subjects you are studying, ote. Tse rise or fall tones appropeistely. 2.22.4 Performance practice: alternative questions, claves! list ‘Woald you prefer -eotice | or vea? Sire you ‘coming -with us, | or are you “staying at home? Did you “write your vessay. | or did you ‘just mess a\nam ‘Shall we sing a shymn, [or would you prefee a psalm at this point? Ishe a tenor | or axbass? Have you got ‘change for a filly, | or siall Towe ito you? “Woald you like to go “out to eat, | or ‘shall we just open = win? “Did she say she was coming «| | or ‘is she going straight home? Can I so now, | or have 1 ‘got to wail til the ver Are:you Asie it's all aight, [rare you “just hoping in is? 2.22.5 Pair-work practice. ‘6 “This box sis heavy! oe This ‘drawing ix sexcellemt. els!something -up? oo He wae “very wrude, | oN Tht [ wats a bit unexpected, + D’you "want a hand, | or cun you ‘manage con your sown? + D’you ‘really mean thar, | or are you ast being povlite? + Was thut a ‘knock at the “doot, | or am I ivmagining things? Is he calways like thut, | or had ‘sormething. wupsser him? = Yes: | am I going scrazy, | or did he “just agree he'd “pay forir? 7 1@NU: GOLNG UP AND GOING now Adverbs und adverbial phrascs that qualify a whole clause or sentence (futher than qualifying just one word) often have their own intonation phrase. placed at the beginning, they usually have a leading non-fimal fall_rise (or rise}, Af plaved at the end, they tend to have # trailing rise. & ‘Unfortunately | I've ‘lost your setter, or & Unefirmumately | I've ‘Fost your sletey. cs Eve “lost your etter. { unfortunately. Most advecbials, like unfovzimately in this example, limit the sense of the main clause in some way. So we call this pattern with an adverbial a limiting non-fall Here are some more examples: (ewding) Fram, [I"m 'nuter si vNext week | I'm ‘going to