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Summary of the Article

The title of my article is critical thinking across the curriculum: process over output by
Claudett Thompson. He is an assistant professor at St. Bonaventure University in western
New York, United States of America. I found this article on 12 th march 2015 from The
International Journal of Humanities and Social Science which is published on July 2011. This
article tells us about the important of critical thinking among the students in curriculum and it
discussed about the methods to improve the way of teaching in order to encourage the
students to think critically across the curriculum. According to Thompson (2011), in order to
form the students that have ability to think critically, the educators itself must understand well
first what critical thinking actually is. This is because sometimes teachers itself lack of
understanding and do not know what the purpose of critical thinking that can caused
embedding of critical thinking in curriculum is limited. The researcher conducted the study
about the best way to teach critical thinking towards the student by using three methods
which are critical thinking in general instruction, critical thinking in general instruction
within a course and use language effectively to foster critical thinking. However, based on the
result, the three methods above reveal the most appropriate way to teach critical thinking.
The methods that were discussed by the author are by reading and writing, questioning,
engagement with students, using visuals and assessing critical thinking towards the students.
From the five methods that were discussed, the most helpful strategy that teacher can use to
apply critical thinking is by using questioning. This is because by asking them with good
types of question it can be as an indicator for students to think further and it helps the
students to analyse, interpret and synthesize the information that they had learnt easily.
Besides that, the author tells us if we want to produce a better critical thinker, reading and
writing in curriculum should be implemented in school. This is because from the reading and
writing, it can develop the experience of the students that can make them to adapt with
outside environment. The third method is by student engagement where the teacher should
have interaction between their students such as having activities in group that can enhance
them to think out of box. Teacher should acts as facilitator that can give direction on what
they are going to do and let them to think like a researcher. The author said that this method
can encourage the student to think more and not just waiting for the answer. Next method that
was discussed by the author is assessing critical thinking towards the students. In this method,
teacher gives the students assessment that can help their student used problem solving
process to complete the task given. Based on this article, the types of assessment should be in

formal and informal form because these types of assessment can enhance dimension of
critical thinking of the students. Besides that, the author said that the teachers can use visuals
to deliver the contents to the students because it is one of the interesting approaches to train
the student to think in critical way. Therefore, students were able to collect the information
and analyze it in various angles. As a conclusion of this articles, the author focus on the
educators, where the educators should apply the best way of teaching to produce the students
that are able to think critically with independently. This is because, the students can develop
the skill and become critical thinker through the effective learning methods.

Opinions Regarding the Contents of the Article

First of all, we know that critical thinking is the skill that is very important towards the
teachers as well as the students especially in academics and curriculum. As we know,
development of critical thinking was emphasized as learning goals in all levels of education
in Malaysia. Based on the article, I was agreed that to produce a student that can be a critical
thinker, the educator itself must have knowledge, understand and able to use appropriate
teaching methods to the students in order to cultivate critical thinking. According to Hashim
(2004), lack of understanding and knowledge of teacher to teach critical thinking was the
biggest problem. In my opinion, students should to be taught in proper techniques and correct
approaches in order for them to improve their critical thinking because without proper
techniques, the contents and information are might be delivered to the students but they are
not being able to synthesize and analyse the contents properly because the way they think are
limited. As we know, education in Malaysia is no longer just focus on education that is based
on examination oriented but emphasizes higher order thinking skills for each subject for
primary and lower secondary students. For example, in Malaysia, School-based assessment
has been introduced to produce students who can think critically subsequently encourage
students to discuss together about what they have learned. As for me, this method can help
students to think more broadly when there is interaction between teachers and students.
Based on my reading, the most useful method to develop critical thinking is by using
questioning method because this technique can enhance the student to think out of the box
about what they had learnt. In my opinion, to use this method teacher must be well prepared
in order to develop the strategies in questioning the student in creative way to enhance the
way the student think. Besides that, in the classroom teacher also should enhance the students
to ask the question such as give the addition information that can make them curious. Saroja

Dhanapa (2008), stated that in Malaysia education system the format of question has changed
to higher order thinkings question. For example, the Form Three Assessments (PT3)
question is not the same as PMRs question because all questions of PT3 required students to
think and all question are in subjective question format. No more objectives question in PT3.
From the changes of the format, I think that it is good for students because it can help the
students to brainstorm and explain more what they understand and this type of format can
enhance the way of the student think.
Engagement of the students in every subject was very important to enhance their critical
thinking. This is because, by student engagement they are having discussion together and can
develop the idea to solve the problem. According to Utusan Online (2014), in Malaysia
education, this method was used in PT3 which are under the School-Based Assessment
(PBS). In this method, the students are freely to give their opinion such as in discussion
session that spontaneously can increase their creativity in thinking skill. For example, teacher
can give some activity that required the students to solve a problem by using critical thinking
skill such as give them some materials and ask them to build a bridge that can hold 8 pieces
of books and ball can pass away under the bridge. Therefore, I think that this method can
encourage the students to solve the problem in a critical way.
Besides that, assessing the students in critical thinking also was implemented in Malaysias
education system where we are changing how students are being tested. As we know, our
education is focusing on assessing the student in the classroom that used higher thinking
order skill. According to Nooraini Othman and Khairul Azmi Mohamad (2014), this
assessment used Higher Thinking Order Skills and the student were ranking based on their
ability in form of Bands 1 to 6. I think that, this method is useful because it give the student
the chance to think deeply such as solve the scientific problem, can reflect what they had
learnt, able to stimulate the information and can applied the knowledge in the real world. In
Malaysian education, we know that PBS has been implemented in order to assess the ability
of the students in every subject on each time after learning session was completed (Hurley,
M., & Hurley, D., 2013). In my opinion, this type of assessment is a good method because
from the evaluation the teachers are able to identify the level of students ability and
deficiencies. So that, the teachers can helps and assist the students who are weak in order to
achieve the objective of our education system that want to produce the students who are not
only excel in examination but will able to adapt the real world by applied what they had



As a conclusion, I agreed with the author in order to produce students who are capable of
being higher order thinking, teachers should be more creative during teaching sessions
because it have a significant impact on the students. Teachers also need to really understand
and learn to think critically for deliver the input that allows students to think outside the box.
Nowadays, capable of think critically is very important to produce a generation that can adapt
to the outside world and be able to compete in growing challenging job. Therefore, I support
the actions taken by the ministry of education to change the education system in which we are
not only based on examination oriented but evaluate the students thinking ability. The
methods that were discussed are really useful in the instructional process during teaching and
learning session in order to increase the ability to think in higher order among the students.
For me, this approach will enhance and cultivate the critical thinking of the students and the
objectives of our ministry of education will be achieved.



Hashim, R. (2004). Investigation on the Teaching of Critical and Creative Thinking in

Malaysia. Jurnal Pendidikan Islam, 10(1).
Hurley, M., & Hurley, D. (2013). Enhancing Critical Thinking Skills Among Authoritarian
Students. International Journal of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education, Vol
25(2). Retrieved April 9, 2015, from
Nooraini Othman, & Khairul Azmi Mohamad. (2014). Thinking Skill Education and
Transformational Progress in Malaysia. International Education Studies, Vol 7.




PBS, PT3 asuh pelajar berbincang, berfikir lebih kreatif. (2014, July 1).






Saroja Dhanapal. (2008). Cultivating Critical and Creative Thinking Skills through an
Integrated Approach to the Teaching of Literary Texts. Retrieved April 5, 2015, from