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Geographic setting

-Physical barriers
-Gobi Desert

-Mongolian and Tibetan Plateaus

-Himalaya mountains

-Rainforrest

-home to 1.2 billion people (1/5 of world pop.)

-most live on eastern seaboard (1/2 the size of U.S.)

-Mountains and plateaus cover 80 percent of China

-this has led to the formation of terraces (ridges in hills)

Regions
-China has 6main regions, 2 lie in densely populated E. China known
(known as the Chinese heartland)

The Heartland
-the two regions of the heartland are North and South China

North China
- warm and hot summers and cold winters

-rainfall varies greatly (can be flooding or drought)

-the chief crop is wheat and millet (cereal/grain)

-Beijing and Tianjin are chief industrial centers

-Beijing is the capital of China

South China
-mild humid climate

-richer soil for farming

-chief crops are rice, cotton, tea, vegetables, and others

-very hilly so most live on farmland in river valleys or around lakes

Outlying regions
Northeast:

-formerly known as Manchuria

- cold climate

- sparsely populated

- gov't rewards try to attract people to the region

- abundant resources

Mongolia
-lies in the Gobi Desert

-hot summers

-cold winters

-tried to improve farming with irrigation

Xinjiang
-important oil predicting region

-located in a desert basin

-many dierent ethnicities live here (Muslims,Kazakhs,Kyrgyz)

-Aka Tibet; barren and treeless

-some farming possible

-China trying to develop its rivers for hydroelectric power

Rivers
-3 rivers have played an important role in Chinese history

-huang He River

-Chang River

-Xi River

Huang He
-Aka: Yellow River

-contains yellow brown soil called loess (lohehs) which is blown by the
wind from the N. China Plain

-Known as the "River of Sorrow" because it often floods

-After flood a fertile layer of silt is left behind (because of loess)

Change River
Aka:yangzi

-Shanghai is the port city in the mouth of River

-dams for hydroelectric power

-Three Gorges Dam: people are opposed to it because it will cause


massive flooding and displace millions of people

XI River
-Aka: Xi jiang, or West River

-Located in S China

- is navigable and trade occurs but also provides good source of food
and water for many to live along the delta

Demographic
-95% of China is Han, or ethnic Chinese

-minorities live in interior

-many dialects spoken

-Asa result the gov't has declared Mandarin Chinese to be the ocial
language

SECTION 2
-Agricultural revolution led to the trise civilization

-by 1650 BC the Shang dynasty was set up

-under the Shang dynasty Chinese civilization began to take root and
would influence China for centuries

Government

-Anyang-capital city of Shang dynasty

-well-organized and strong

Religion
-Important duty of the King was to perform rituals to please the gods

-Chinese believe that heaven is the home of many gods

-Shang Di was the chief god

-if the gods were pleased then they would send good harvest/victory

-the king was viewed as the "Son of Heaven" and served as the link
between heaven and earth

-Used "oracle bones" to consult the ancestors and determine the will of
the gods

Achievements:
-by the Shang dynasty the Chinese had their own form of writing

-based on pictographs-pictures of objects

-also used ideographs- symbols to express ideas such as beauty joy and
justice

-an accurate calendar was created(aiding farmers)

-Bronze making flourished as did making silk and pottery

-1027- theZhou (joh) people invaded and ruled China for the next 800
years

The Mandate Of Heaven


The Mandate of Heaven- right to rule granted by heaven

-demanded the obedience of the people

-linked power and responsibly

-implied people had right to rebel

-war famine floods and poor gov't were signs to the people that the ruler
lost the Mandate of Heaven

-Mandate of Heaven was used to justify the rule of the Zhou dynasty and
the other dynasties thereafter

3 Schools of Thought

-3 philosophies or schools of thought developed at the end of the Zhou


dynasty

Confucianism

Daoism

Legalism

- "what principles should be guide human conduct and ensure order in


society"

Confucius
-Confucius (king Zi (Kuhung dzuh) is China's best known philosopher b.
551 BC

-developed ideas about how to red for peace and ensure harmony

-teachings are complied in the Analects

5 relationships
-to restore order Confucius taught that 5 relationships must govern
human society they are:

1. Ruler and ruled

2. Father and son

3. Older brother and younger brother

4. Husband and wife

5. Friend and friend

-thought that family relationships were key to ensuring an orderly society

-Stressed the idea of filial piety- duty or respect that children owe their
parents

Influence
-Confucius created a guide to proper behavior based on ethical or moral
principles

-family and the good of the nature was placed above the interests of the
individual

Daoism
-Lao Zi (low dzuh)- founder of Daoism

-teaching are contained in the way of virtue


-emphasized link between people and nature

-Daoist believed the best way to live was the natural way

Influence
-Daoists made steady progression in science and technology

Astronomy

Magnetic compass

-possibly invented gunpowder (scare ghosts)

Legalism
-Han Feizi (Hahn Fay dzuh) most famous Legalistic writer

-wrote Han Feizi which rejected Confucion ideas about proper behavior
and said people acted out of self-interest

-because of this, people would respond to rewards and punishments


rather than good examples

-to legalists only harsh laws imposed by a strong ruler would ensure order

-The Qin (Chihn) emperor Shi Huangdi (Sher hwang dee) used legalism to
unite China

Buddhism
-reached China India in the 1st century AD

-Appeal

-the Chinese found great comfort in Buddihsm

-it promised salvation to those who lived moral/good lives and


punishment for the wicked

-Buddhism blended with their traditional beliefs and became widely


accepted

-Nirvana became associated with their concept of the afterlife known as


Western Heaven

-Chinese Buddhism adopted aspects of Confucianism and Daoism

creating a Hybrid religion

Section3

Social Classes
-according to Confucion ideas ones age,sex,education and occupation
aected their status in society

-at the top of society were the gentry followed by the peasants then the
artisans and merchants,soldiers had a very low status in society

Gentry
-wealthy landowners that are educated by Confucion classics

-looked down on those who did physical labor

-produced most of scholars and gov't ocials

-collected taxes, kept the peace, advised the emperor

Peasants
-vast majority and peasants

-some own land most are tenant farmer and some and landless

-most lived in villages surrounded by land and avoided the imperial gov't
as possible (taxes) for they feared its harsh system of justice

Social mobility

-Although lowly class, merchants and artisans were vital

-families could move up in society by gaining enough wealth to educate


their ospring

-if they passed the exams the family would move up in society

Family life
-joint family

-joint families were the ideal in China

-includes many generations

-Filial Piety

-from birth children are to put family interests above their own

parents expect

-respect for their Ancestors

-Filial Piety included respect for ones ancestors

-Marriage

-parents arranged marriages for the children

-through marriage the gentry could strengthen their portion in society

-Before marriage a family would consult their ancestors for approval

Role of women
-believed women to be inferior to men

-did not celebrate their birth

-if she birthed a son she gained respect

-By AD 950 the practice of binding women's feet was practiced

-only women with bound feet were thought to be beautiful

Section 4

Powerful Empires
-following Zhou dynasty, Qin family conquers

-leaders takes the name Shi Huangdi or "First Emperor"

-legalist and used harsh means to enforce his will

-centralized power in his own hands

-Shi Huangdi United China through several measures

Created a single law code

Uniform standard for weights and measures

Built roads and the Great Wall through forced labor


HAN DYNASTY
-after the death of Shi Huangdi revolts broke out

-Liu Bang (Lyoh bong) a peasants leader overthrew the Qin and
established the Han dynasty

-Ruled from 26 BC to AD 220

-China expanded under their reign and armies were used to keep the
peace and protect trade

-The Silk Road was plodded and established during this time period
bringing in trade from all over the globe

-ideas were Also spread between the Mediterranean, India and Asian
countries

Qin

Legalism

GRT

Terracotta

Civil service system


Han dynasty set up a civil service system

-restored Confucian ideas

-created an examination to decide the best qualified people for gov't


positions

-known Confucion thoughts history and tradition of China as well as


law of China

-University created to increase education

-strengthened China as gov't ocials gained positions through skill not by


wealth or birth

Achievement

-astronomers improved calendar

-invented seismograph

-medical colleges flourished

-pulse began to be recorded for medical purposes

Acupuncture developed

-complex flood control systems were developed

-new irrigation methods

-drought resistance rice

-foot stirrup

-made paper (1000 years before European

Golden Ages
-Tang Dynsasty (618-917) and Song Dynasty (960-1270) brought long
periods of peace to China aka golden eras

-trade increased and new goods were introduced

-Navy was built under the Song Dynasty to protect trade

-used the sternpost rubber and a magnetic compass

Mongol conquest

-Song Dynasty battled the Mongols constantly

-under Genghiz Khan the Mongols conquered a vast empire

-extended from China to Danube in Europe

-By 1279 Kublai Khan (g'son of Genghis

-renamed empire the yuan

-appointed Mongols to higher positions

-Marco polo visited China under Kublai Khan

-trade continued to flourish and the rubber compass gunpowder clock


and printing all managed to make it to the west

Chinese revival
-Chinese eventually found a leader in Zhu Yuanzhang

-he drove the Mongols from the land in 1368 and captured Beijing

-following this he claimed the Mandate of Heaven and called himself Ming
Hung Wu and set up the Ming dynasty

The Ming dynasty ruled from 1368 to 1664

-Sought to restore China to greatness that was achieved under Tang and
Song dynasties

-revived Confucian learning and expanding the civil service system

-built the Forbidden City

-between 1405 and 1433 the Ming dynasty sent several fleets across the
ocean to reclaim naval superiority and renew trade

-suddenly the voyages stopped and the Ming Dynasty isolated China
from occident(meaning west)

-Restricted trade

-prevented citizens from leaving

Invaders from the northeast


-in 1644 China fell to foreign rule again

-invaders came from Manchuria

-Manchus set up thee Qing (chihng) dynasty

-ruled China Until 1911

-power extended into Burma, Laos, Thailand, Nepal, Vietnam and Korea

European Invasion
2 developments occurred by the 1700s which would aect China's
relationships with the west

1.Qing dynasty entered a long period of decline and peasants were


unable to produce enough crops to support themselves which resulted
in a revolt

2. The industrial Revolution in Europe increased military might allowing


European nations to back their trading demands/ rights with China

European
by the late 1700s the Europeans refused to kowtow- bow low to the
Chinese emperor (implied inferiority)

Opium war

The Chinese gov't tried to stop the illegal drug trade by passing harsh
laws

In 1839 the Chinese destroyed a British opium ship and war broke out

The Chinese lacked the military might and England easily won

Chinese had to accept the British terms for peace

Emperor agreed to pay for opium destroyed open up other ports for
trade and give Britain the island of Hong Kong

Westerners won the right to extraterritoriality- if a westerns was


accused of a crime in China they could be tried by courts in their
country

By the late 1800s China was carved up into spheres of influence- area
which a foreign nation has special economic privileges and
subsequently political influence

US was afraid the European countries were going to set up colonies in


China and encouraged an Open Door policy where all countries would
have equal trade opportunities with China

revolutions
1. Taiping rebellion- 1851

government was weakened


Reforms

Set up factories and dockyards to set up weapons and ships

Send the people abroad to study

Improve the civil service system

Improve exam

Set up western style schools

Encourage economic change (1898 100 days of Reform)

Ci Xi

Seizes control and ends reform

2. Boxer rebellion

Fists of righteous harmony begin to expel foreigners and christian


Chinese supported by the empress Ci Xi

Result of the rebellion

Foreigners send troops and ships to squash rebellion

3.revolution of 1911

Sun Yatsen form nationalist party

3 goals

1. Nationalism and an end to foreign domination

2. Democracy

3. Wants to improve the livelihood of all people

Yuan shikai forces yatsen out of power in 1912

Nationalist vs Communist

Chiang Kaishek - new leader of nat party(1928)

Chinese communist party (ccp) opponents to nat party

Led by Mao Zedong

Both parties ally to expel foreigners(1927-1928)

1927 ccp is expelled from govt

1934 Long March

Ccp went on a 6000 mile March

1937 Japanese declare war on China

WWll-ccp made nationalist party ally to defeat Japan

1945 China splits

North controlled by communist

South controlled by nationalist party