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Bahrain Polytechnic

Bahrain Polytechnic [ THE FUTURE BAHRAIN PUBLIC TRANSPORT SYSTEM ] Nada Salman 201100832 Fatema Obaid 201101371

[THE FUTURE BAHRAIN PUBLIC TRANSPORT SYSTEM]

Nada Salman 201100832

Fatema Obaid 201101371

Zainab Naser 201101711

Table of Contents

Table of Contents Introduction 2 Ownership 3 Operating System 6 The Light Rail Metro System 8

Introduction

2

Ownership

3

Operating System

6

The Light Rail Metro System

8

The Tramway System

16

The Bus Rapid Transit system (BRT) and feeder buses

27

Conclusion

47

Figure 1 the benefits of Public Private

4

Figure 2 Dubai Metro operating in a separate lane higher than the road

10

Figure 3 Metro Terminal in Dubai

12

19

19

19

19

25

27

28

30

31

44

45

46

46

Introduction

Purpose

Introduction Purpose The aim of this report is to propose a design for the public transport

The aim of this report is to propose a design for the public transport system in Bahrain that will

encourage the existing and future population to make us of it. It will focus on points like: how the

system will work, the benefits of it and challenges faced, will be discussed.

Terms of references

This report was requested by Mr. Andrew Bardsley, Logistics tutor at Bahrain Polytechnic. This report

will be submitted to Mr. Andrew on the 7 th of June according to the due date.

Methods

The information was gathered from different sources which are websites, videos, figures, online maps,

CILT sessions and class notes.

Based on the SWOT analysis that has been made in the previous assignment, it was

Based on the SWOT analysis that has been made in the previous assignment, it was found that there are

major problems within the current public transport system in Bahrain which need major improvements

to develop the system. Dana Company is the future transport company that will provide a new design

for passenger public transport in the Kingdome. It will consist of three transport modes connected to

each other providing efficient and reliable services. These three modes are: Light Rail Metro, Tram

System and Bus Rapid Transit system (BRT) with feeder buses. All of them will be discussed in detail

within this report.

Ownership

The proposed public transportation system will be jointly owned by the public and the private sectors

(Public Private Partnership PPP). This means that services are going to be planned and provided by a

private operator (which is Dana Company), yet coordinated by a regulatory authority (Ministry of

Transportation) and subjected to its regulations.

The reason behind choosing public private partnership is that it brings out win-win solutions for both

parties (DCED, n.d.). The private company alone will lack the financial capabilities of purchasing a

modern fleet and infrastructure. So, the government will help it in financing this project which will

contribute in creating more jobs for the public and reduce the unemployment problem. Moreover, this

financial support will help the operating company to take risks in adapting new technologies and

approaches. This will help in focusing on the core competency of the business, increasing the efficiency

and affectivity of the services provided and lifting them up to meet high quality standards; which will

attract more people to use them.

When the company increases the business outcome, it will increase customer satisfaction and expand

Modern fleet and infrastructure New PPP technologies and approaches Jobs creation and reducing unemployment More
Modern fleet and infrastructure New PPP technologies and approaches Jobs creation and reducing unemployment
Modern fleet
and
infrastructure
New
PPP
technologies and
approaches
Jobs creation
and reducing
unemployment
More profits Better economic growth
More profits
Better economic
growth

Increased

efficiency and

affectivity

Better business

outcome

High quality

services

Satisfied

customers

Figure 1 the benefits of Public Private Partnership.

Subsidies:

The public transport providing company is going to be subsidized. A subsidy refers to a financial aid supplied by the government to businesses, for the reasons of public welfare and balance of payments (The Free Dictionary, 2014). Moreover, it can be direct like cash money and indirect like assistance with land acquisition.

The main reasons for subsidizing public transport are to:

Compensate for losses

The provider company need to make profits so that it can continue operating and providing the service. However, public transport is not likely to make profits because and it depends on the purchasing power of the community. It’s uncertain and losses are most likely to be incurred. Therefore, the government will provide a subsidy to cover any shortfall.

Maintain certain price level

The purpose of public transport is to provide services that satisfy public needs. In order for it to work well, it must be available and affordable for everyone. For this reason, subsidies are needed; to keep the price of the service suitable and affordable.

Encourage the use of public transport services

When services are frequent and in high quality and prices are suitable and affordable, then, the people will be encouraged to use them and improve public transport capacity; which is a reason for subsidies.

Other sources of finance:

Other sources of finance: The company is going to provide other services than the public transport

The company is going to provide other services than the public transport to get more finance for its operations. These services are:

Excursions and Tours

The company is going to provide tour services for the tourism places in Bahrain by contracting with tourism agencies and hotels. By this, the company will be recognized by different agencies and tourists which will help in expanding the turnover.

Chartering services

These services are going to be provided for businesses (both governmental and private sectors) as well as the public. For example, when a big group of family and friends are planning to have a visit for Durrat al Bahrain Island, they can use this chartering service at any time. Another example is when there is a school visit for an educational or entertainment centre.

Station naming rights

Instead of naming the stations of the public transportation system, the company is going to sell the naming rights for other individuals and organizations. For example, when Batelco buy the naming rights, then they will have a station that holds their name and be called “Batelco Station”.

Advertising

Different types of commercial advertising are going to be provided for other individuals and organizations to get more profits. For instance, advertisements on the system modes (internally and externally), advertisements outside and inside the terminals and stations plus advertisements in the company’s website. This will help in attracting more customers as well as getting more profits.

Rental of properties

Spaces in the terminals are going to be rented out for the long term use by businesses like retail shops, coffee shops and restaurants. This will guarantee a sustainable way of finance and attract more customers as well.

Operating System

Operating System The new public transport system that will be designed for the future of Bahrain

The new public transport system that will be designed for the future of Bahrain will be operated using

several systems that will help in making the use of it useful, effective and efficient.

Ticketing System

An automated ticketing system will be used for the new system that is proposed as a way to collect fares

from passengers that are going to use the system. The automated ticketing system will be based on

electronic cards that will be sold at the terminals and stations; this method has many advantages as

there are variable ticket options and different methods of payments could be used (CILT, 2011 c). In

addition, this method of ticketing system gives the passengers the opportunity to pre-book their ticket

and reserve seats. Variety of ticket types will be used for the new public transport system which gives

the passengers the freedom to choose what suits them most; these types will include:

Integrated tickets (used for the three modes of public transport).

Seasonal tickets (mainly used for tourists).

One trip ticket (for passengers who wants to use only one mode one time).

Each type of tickets has different price and duration because cards are used for different journeys and

modes of transport. The integrated ticketing system is recommended for residential who will use public

transport every day as it reduce congestions in terminals and variety of modes could be used via one

card. The use of automate ticketing system using electronic cards will be beneficial for the new system

as it will ease the flow of passengers in and out the modes and will make the system more reliable and

convinced to be used.

Online Services

Online Services An online website for the company will be operated that will be useful to

An online website for the company will be operated that will be useful to communicate with passengers.

Passengers could have a look, use it and find which the appropriate mode for them to use is. The

website will include all the needed information for passengers to use the public transport system such

as: location of stations and terminals, schedules that shows all the timetables of each mode being

considered in the system, price of each ticketing type and how to have the best use of it, number of lines

and where are the stops and final destinations of each line and system.

Moreover, a phone application will be operated for passengers to benefit of especially for those who

cannot access the internet using computers because they are away. The phone application will show

almost all the information that is in the website to give passengers the opportunity to access all the

needed information no matter where they were. Besides, the application will help passengers in

reaching the terminals and stops because it will show them where they are and the directions to where

the needed or nearer stop is.

In Terminals and StationsServices

Furthermore, terminals and stations will have several systems that passengers could benefit from. A

ticketing machine to check how much money left in the card to be used. In addition, LCD screens will be

placed in terminals and stations showing all schedules and time tables of the three chosen modes of

public transport. All terminals and stations will have electronic cameras to watch the flow of passengers

in order for development in the future and for the safety of passengers.

Communicating and Tracking systems

Drivers and employees working in the new designed system will be communicating with each other

more efficiently. All buses, trams and metro will be tracked through a tracking system that shows the

network and movement of all public transport modes. Serious enforcements will be taken from supervision

network and movement of all public transport modes. Serious enforcements will be taken from

supervision to ensure that employees are not breaking the rules and are conform to time keeping.

In addition, management information system will be used to ensure the effective management of the

new public transport. Key Performance Indicators (KPI) will be highly used to measure the operational,

personnel and financial indicators which will be used in preparing reports that shows how efficient the

system is.

The Light Rail Metro System

A light rail metro is one of the urban forms of public transport. It is an electric railway system,

characterized by its ability to operate single or multiple trains along exclusive rights of way at ground

level (Lightrail.com, 2008). The proposed public transport design is going to include a light rail metro

system as a part of the whole integrated system.

Light Rail Metro Characteristics:

The light rail metro has been chosen due to its advantages and characteristic that will benefit Bahrain in

present and for the future. The main characteristic of the Light rail metro are:

Used for long destinations and carry large number of passengers.

Operates in a reserved guide way with at-grade crossings.

Stops only at dedicated stations, more widely spaced than local bus stops.

Has off-vehicle fare collection.

Have multiple doors, all for combined entry and exit.

Provides a smooth and quiet ride at average speeds often competitive with travel by private car.

High fixed costs but lower variable costs.

 High fixed costs but lower variable costs. Sources :( MCBRAYER,) (CILT, 2011 a) In addition,

Sources :( MCBRAYER,) (CILT, 2011 a)

In addition, the light rail metro will operates on an exclusive running way that is fully segregated and not

used by other traffic or mode of transportations because it is used for long distance journeys with few

stops. The advantages of the segregated lane for the light rail metro are:

Operates with a high speed, large vehicles, higher capacity and more frequent journeys.

Congestions will be avoided and risk of accidents will be reduced.

Higher level of technology will be used with unmanned vehicles.

The system will be accessible, affordable and reliable to be used.

Metro Infrastructure:

(CILT, 2011 j)

New infrastructure will be built for the Metro in order to make it operate. New roads, terminals, bridges

and workshops will be needed for the new Metro infrastructure. Building these infrastructures will cost

a lot of money and long period of time; however, having such good infrastructure with goods planned

public transport will benefits the future of Bahrain and will reduce congestions in roads in the long term.

Metro Tracks:

The Metro will operate on separate lanes that will be built higher than the road level as shown in

figure1. The designed Metro will need two lanes that are going to meet in the center of Bahrain; the

lanes will consist of two lanes, the first lane “Lane number One” will operate from north “Muharraq” to

south “Sakhir” and vice versa. The second lane “Lane Number Two” will operates from East “Hidd” to

west “Borders of Bahrain” and vice versa as shown in map 1.

Figure 2 Dubai Metro operating in a separate lane higher than the road level. Map
Figure 2 Dubai Metro operating in a separate lane higher than the road level. Map

Figure 2 Dubai Metro operating in a separate lane higher than the road level.

Figure 2 Dubai Metro operating in a separate lane higher than the road level. Map 1

Map 1 the Light Rail Metro tracks

Metro Terminals and Stations:

Metro Terminals and Stations: Five new terminals will be constructed for the Metro; four terminals will

Five new terminals will be constructed for the Metro; four terminals will be distributed at the end of

lanes and one terminal will be at the middle of Bahrain which will be the meeting point of the two lanes

so passengers can change their routes or chose another integrated mode to reach their final

destinations as shown map 2. Each terminal will have an area for cars to park and ride the metro. In

addition, terminals will be air conditioned and the middle terminal will consist of two stories. Small retail

shops, coffee shops, transport agencies and public transport ticketing shops will be distributed in these

terminals to give passengers comfortable zone and make more people use public transport; besides, it

will be a good way to get some money for funding public transport.

besides, it will be a good way to get some money for funding public transport. Map

Map 2

Location of Metro terminals.

Figure 3 Metro Terminal in Dubai. Metro Workshops: Two workshops will be constructed for maintenance
Figure 3 Metro Terminal in Dubai. Metro Workshops: Two workshops will be constructed for maintenance

Figure 3 Metro Terminal in Dubai.

Metro Workshops:

Two workshops will be constructed for maintenance and any defect that could happened. These two

workshops will be constructed near the terminals in Hidd and Sakhir; these areas were chosen due to

the availability of land, being near the industrial area and far from residential areas.

Metro Bridges:

Bridges will be built for the Metro as it will not be at the same level with land because there is no

enough land to construct the Metro on and we cannot build an underground due to the reason of

having the water level near to the land level and Bahrain is an island.

Challenges:

Some challenges might face constructing the new infrastructure of the Metro. Some of these challenges

are people resistance because of the unknown results and buying lands that are not governmental

owned. In addition, constructing the infrastructure will take long period of time which will cause some

problems in some areas that are upper the private cars roads.

Metro Routes:

Metro Routes: The Metro will be used for the long distance in order to move people

The Metro will be used for the long distance in order to move people quickly and congestions would be

avoided. The designed Metro for Bahrain public transport will consist of two lanes that one goes from

north to south and the other one goes from east to west and vice versa. The first Metro route will

operate along Sheikh Khalifa Bin Salman Highway starting from University of Bahrain in Sakhir, crossing

City Center Mall Gate four and King Hamad University Hospital reaching to Bahrain International Airport.

The second Metro route will operate along Sheikh Isa Bin Salman Highway starting from Hidd, crossing

Adhari Park heading towards King Fahad Causeway and reaching to Borders of Bahrain and Saudi Arabia.

These routes have been chosen because they are primary routes, have space to construct the Metro

“between the two lanes of cars” and they link between vital areas. Map 3 shows the two routes of the

proposed Metro.

of cars” and they link between vital areas. Map 3 shows the two routes of the

Map 3

the Metro routes.

In addition, the Metro will have Metro stations where it will stop in to collect

In addition, the Metro will have Metro stations where it will stop in to collect or drop passengers. These

stations will be in the way of the Metro; and they were chosen because of being near vital areas and

areas where people usually went to. Metro line number one will have two stations besides the middle

terminal where it will stop in. Metro line number two will have three stations besides the middle

terminal that it would cross; stations’ location has been chosen due to the number of people living and

working in that areas. Also, stations’ locations were chosen because it is linked to other modes stations

which will help people to integrate and use the appropriate public transport to reach their final

destinations. The following map shows the Metro routes, Metro terminals and Metro stations.

shows the Metro routes, Metro terminals and Metro stations. Map 4 the Metro routes, terminals stations

Map 4 the Metro routes, terminals stations in the integrated system.

Sustainability:

Sustainability: The Light rail Metro will be operated using a third-rail power supply which electrified rail

The Light rail Metro will be operated using a third-rail power supply which electrified rail will be covered

and the power drawn from the underside to avoid the visual intrusion of overhead line equipment. This

power supply was chosen because it does not cause visual intrusion and emissions will not be produced

besides CO2. This power supply will not harm the environment and it is sustainable for the long term. In

addition, oil will be used as an alternative if an emerging issue happens and electricity was shut down in

the present time because it is cheap in Bahrain and could be easily found. However, oil is not a

sustainable energy but it will only be used in emerging situations as an alternative. Furthermore, the

light rail Metro will be built and used in Bahrain as a mode of public transport to make people use it as

an alternative for private cars which most infrastructure damages are caused by these cars. So if people

use the metro fewer damages will be caused to infrastructure and the environment.

Energy trends:

The solar power system will be studied for the future of Bahrain to be used for the public transport as a

sustainable energy source because Bahrain receive high amount of sun light every day especially in

summer; the solar power is a very expensive type of sustainable energies but it is almost the most

effective and reliable one to be used in Bahrain in the future. Constructing the solar cells which convert

the sun light into an energy that could be used in operating the light Metro will need high amount of

money; however, studies will be done for the future in order to find the most appropriate way to

constructs these cells with the lowest cost.

New technology:

The designed Metro will be driverless, fully automated and fully air conditioned to meet all Bahrain

requirements specially the hot weather in summer (Railway technology,). The Metro will have LCD

screens showing all Metro lanes and the nearer integrated systems. Furthermore, fares are collected

using cards that are purchased in terminals; these cards will be using a RFID technology

using cards that are purchased in terminals; these cards will be using a RFID technology to ease the flow

of passengers. Metro stations and terminals will have a machine to check how much money left in the

card. All stations and terminals will be equipped with TV screens showing the important news and LCD

screens to show the public transport schedules. In addition, Wi-Fi will be enabled in the Metro. A tracker

system will be installed in the Metro so the real time of arrival will be shown on screens in terminals and

stations.

The Tramway System

Trams are a very common form of the urban public transport and were first launched at the beginnings

of the 19 th Century. A tram is a passenger vehicle that runs on a fixed rail and also operates on the

streets, sharing the road space with other road users (thetrams.co.uk). The proposed public transport

design is going to include a tramway system as a part of the whole integrated system.

Tram Characteristics:

Rail-based technology

The first characteristic of the tram is that it uses a rail-based technology and operates on a grooved

rail track. Also, it uses electricity from a third rail to power the system (CILT, 2011).

Articulated

It consists of two or more lightweight, steel-wheeled carriages that run on steel wheels and

connected by flexible joints; which provides a higher capacity service than buses. Moreover, it is

lighter and shorter than trains.

Low floor

Like no other vehicle, it has a low-floor design with the same platform level of

Like no other vehicle, it has a low-floor design with the same platform level of the stations which

increases the accessibility and allows passengers -including those in wheelchairs- to get in and out

very easily and quickly.

Attractiveness

Plus the speed, it has a very modern design unlike buses; which makes it more attractive for the

public and help in reducing the cars on the streets (Lewis Lesley, 2008).

Flexibility

It is very flexible as it can operate with the traffic and in its own lane, as well as the ability to move

with the flow and against it (ArcelorMittal, n.d.).

Less environmental impact

As it works on rail by electricity power, it reduces the environmental impact and the air pollution

caused by the CO2 emissions.

Tram Infrastructure:

Building the tram infrastructure is going to take a long period of time to be ready. Therefore, it must be

planned very well in order to meet the population growth and the increasing demands (CILT, 2011). In

addition, the infrastructure of the tramway system is going to be included in a road network that links

the trams with the other modes of the future public transportation system.

The main component of this mode’s infrastructure is the track that is comprised of two parallel steel

rails plus a third rail to provide the electricity that powers the system.

There are going to be eight tracks in this tramway system as can be seen

There are going to be eight tracks in this tramway system as can be seen in the map in Map5. These

tracks are going to be placed with grooved rails on concrete sleepers into the road flush with the surface

for street running (figure 4, 6). Furthermore, there are going to be some grassed tracks where the track

is laid into grass turf surfaces like the one in figure 5. Besides, the standard gauge of 1435 millimeters is

going to be used in constructing the tracks of the tram infrastructure.

be used in constructing the tracks of the tram infrastructure. Map 5 the tramway system tracks

Map 5 the tramway system tracks in the integrated system.

Figure 6 how the grooved rail track looks in the street. Stations: Figure 4 the

Figure 6

how the grooved rail track looks in the

street.

Stations:

the grooved rail track looks in the street. Stations: Figure 4 the grooved rail. Figure 5

Figure 4 the grooved rail.

in the street. Stations: Figure 4 the grooved rail. Figure 5 a grassed track in Europe.
in the street. Stations: Figure 4 the grooved rail. Figure 5 a grassed track in Europe.

Figure 5 a grassed track in Europe.

Tram stops/stations are also considered as a part of the tram infrastructure. Most of the tram stations

are linked with or very near to the other modes’ stations in order for the quick interchange between the

modes of the integrated system. Figure 7 shows an example of a tram stop in Paris. However, our tram

stops is not going to be similar to it due to various reasons. The recommended stations are closed and

air-conditioned to protect the passengers from the bad weather conditions of Bahrain (Hot, wet and

dusty). Add to that, they are going to be fitted with lights, seats and cameras to ensure the safety and

security, as well as the tramway system trips schedule.

There are going to be 29 tram stations and the places of them are going to be pointed out in the next

section.

Figure 7 a tram stop in Paris.
Figure 7 a tram stop in Paris.

Challenges:

Challenges: The main challenge that faces the tram infrastructure is the lack of road space. Most

The main challenge that faces the tram infrastructure is the lack of road space. Most of the roads in

Bahrain are narrow and there is no enough road space to construct a dedicated lane for the tram track

only. This means that there must be some land purchasing in order make space for the new system.

Another challenge is the cost of the construction itself. Constructing the infrastructure for the tramway

system is going to be very expensive as it involves many operations - not forgetting the need for

maintenance of the existing infrastructure. On top of that, the process is time consuming. It’s going to

take a long time and until it is done, many things might be changed and new trends and technologies

might enter the market and affect the demand.

Tram Routes:

It is impossible to provide direct routes to meet all the requirements of the public. However, the future

public transportation system is going to provide a network of routes where passengers can make

complex journeys for different purposes by

using a combination of these routes within

the different modes of the system.

The tram network was designed based on the

routes priority in terms of use and demand.

As can be seen from the map provided in

Map 6, all the routes of the tram network are

located in the northern part of the island. The

reason for this is that most of the population

in the northern part of the island. The reason for this is that most of the

Map 6 the tram road network.

is living there and all the activities are located in this area (StateUniversity.com, 2011). Line

is living there and all the activities are located in this area (StateUniversity.com, 2011).

Line 1 + 2:

in this area (StateUniversity.com, 2011). Line 1 + 2: Map 7 a map that shows line

Map 7 a map that shows line 1 and 2 of the tramway system.

Line 1 is going to be located in Al Janabiyah Highway and connected to the horizontal metro line as well

as the second line of the tram network. The second line is going to be fitted along with Al Budaiya

Highway and connected to the vertical line of the metro. The main purpose of these lines is to move the

public from the residential areas to the workplace area. Of course, the tram route is not direct from

their homes to their workplaces, but they can adjust

their journey by interchanging to the metro or the

BRT system.

Line 3:

Line three is connected to the second line of the

tramway system and the horizontal line of the

metro. It starts from Alsahla Highway and continues

of the metro. It starts from Alsahla Highway and continues Map 8 a map that shows

Map 8 a map that shows a part of line 3 and 2 of the tramway system.

down to the Shaikh Salman Highway. The main and direct destination here is the Educational

down to the Shaikh Salman Highway. The main and direct destination here is the Educational area

located in Isa Town. Moreover, there are other destinations like: The Ministry of Labour, The Driving

Training School, Bahrain National Stadium, and General Directorate of Traffic. So, this line is built to

move the students to the educational institutes, employees to their workplaces and the public for other

purposes.

Line 4:

their workplaces and the public for other purposes. Line 4: Map 9 a map that shows

Map 9 a map that shows line 4 of the tramway system.

This line starts in Road number 2819 next to the Reef Island and extends to Avenue 58 in Karbabad. The

purposes of this route are shopping, entertainment, leisure and tourism as the destinations on it are

malls (City Centre, Al-Ali Mall and Seef Mall); hotels like Elite Grand Hotel; Karbabad Beach; Bahrain Fort

and Bahrain Fort Museum.

Line 5:

This line runs along Al Fateh Highway and has a

variety of purposes including tourism, religion,

leisure, entertainment and business. The main

destinations there are: Bahrain National

Museum, Beit Al Quran, ALCORNICHE, Marina

Garden Park, Al Fateh Grand Mosque, Shaikh Isa

National Library and the Gulf Hotel.

Line 6:

Shaikh Isa National Library and the Gulf Hotel. Line 6: Map 10 a map that shows
Shaikh Isa National Library and the Gulf Hotel. Line 6: Map 10 a map that shows

Map 10 a map that shows line 5 of the tramway system.

Hotel. Line 6: Map 10 a map that shows line 5 of the tramway system. Map

Map 11 a map that shows line 6 of the tramway system.

Line 6 runs between some residential villages in Muharraq Island and the Dry Dock Highway.

Line 6 runs between some residential villages in Muharraq Island and the Dry Dock Highway. It also

connects Deyar Al Muharraq Island, Amwaj Islands and Dilmunia Island. The purposes of this line are

entertainment, social visits and employment.

Lines 7 + 8:

Line 7 is going to be connected to the horizontal

metro line and the 8 th line of the tramway system. It

runs along Shaikh Jaber Al Subah Highway between

Nabih Saleh and Sitra Islands. The destinations here

are the residential areas, workplaces and the

industrial area in Sitra.

Line 8 is connected to line 7 from the right and line

3 plus the vertical metro line from the left. It

operates along Shaikh Jaber Al Subah Highway and

left. It operates along Shaikh Jaber Al Subah Highway and Map 12 a map that shows

Map 12 a map that shows line 7 and part of line 8 of the tramway system.

Alriffa Avenue. The destinations are mostly residential areas and sports (like Awali Golf Club).

mostly residential areas and sports (like Awali Golf Club). Map 13 a map that shows line

Map 13 a map that shows line 8 and part of line 3 of the tramway system.

Sustainability:

Sustainability: The tramway system is not 100% sustainable. However, it is one of the most environmentally

The tramway system is not 100% sustainable. However, it is one of the most environmentally friendly

modes of transport. Although it uses a non-renewable resource which is electricity, tram emits no CO2

in the operating cycle and by that; it reduces the total CO2 emissions caused by the transport modes

(Lewis Lesley, 2008). Moreover, the streets in Bahrain are congested with the traffic of private cars. The

tram system is planned to move masses of people and get them out of their private cars to reduce the

traffic congestion; which will help in reducing the damages on the infrastructure and the environment.

Energy trends:

There is a global demand for energy and the conventional energy

resources are in the threat of running out. Therefore, there is a big

trend to develop sustainable energy sources and use renewable

ones to get the needed energy that operates the system. Hydro-

electricity, wind power, solar power and nuclear power are

examples of these trends. However, the most viable solution for

of these trends. However, the most viable solution for Figure 8 a chart that shows Bahrain

Figure 8 a chart that shows Bahrain climate.

Bahrain is solar energy. This is because of the climate conditions in

the Kingdom as it is hot and sunny in most months of the year (figure 8).

The solar energy is a radiant energy that is emitted by the sun (Mosaic, 2012). Despite the fact that it is

very expensive, it is very important as every beam of light that is converted into electricity is another

step in reducing Bahrain dependence on the polluting fossil fuels.

Therefore, a solar energy system is the new trend that is recommended to be built for the future public

transportation system in Bahrain.

New technology:

New technology: New technologies are recommended to be installed in the future public transportation system in

New technologies are recommended to be installed in the future public transportation system in order

to increase its efficiency.

The Dedicated Short Range Communication (DSRC) is a new information system that is used for

the trams in Melbourne, Australia. It allows vehicles to “communicate” with each other giving

warnings to avoid accidents and information like vehicle speed, position and direction. It also

helps in the traffic management (Public Transport Victoria, n.d.).

The TransitTracker™ is a satellite tracker that is used in Portland, USA to track the public

transport vehicles and provided the customer with the real-time arrival data (TriMet, 2013).

A smartcard ticketing system with Radio-Frequency Identification (RFID) chip is being used in

London that saves the travellers’ time and effort, as well as Wi-Fi connection in most of the

stations (Transport For London, n.d.).

All of these technologies increase the efficiency of the public transport services, make them more

reliable and guarantee the high quality level and consumers’ satisfaction. Therefore, they are

recommended to be applied for the tramway system.

The Bus Rapid Transit system (BRT) and feeder buses BRT is a distinctive, frequent, and

The Bus Rapid Transit system (BRT) and feeder buses

BRT is a distinctive, frequent, and limited stop bus service. It is an innovative of high quality and high

capacity public transit.

This permanent, integrated system uses buses or specialized vehicles on

roadways or dedicated lanes to quickly and efficiently transport passengers to their destinations, while

offering the flexibility to meet transit demand.

BRT systems can easily be customized to community

needs and incorporate state-of-the-art, low-cost technologies that result in more passengers and less

congestion. (CMacKechnie, nd)

in more passengers and less congestion. (CMacKechnie, nd) Feeder buses: Figure 9 Type of Bus Rapid

Feeder buses:

Figure 9 Type of Bus Rapid Transit bus.

Feeder buses are small buses which can use narrow roads sharing them with the other transportations.

Feeder bus services will be revised to provide direct service to BRT stops which it means linking

residential areas with the main traffic networks.

Figure 10 Type of feeder buses. Characteristics: BRT systems generally have the following characteristics, where
Figure 10 Type of feeder buses. Characteristics: BRT systems generally have the following characteristics, where

Figure 10 Type of feeder buses.

Characteristics:

BRT systems generally have the following characteristics, where single elements can be designed and

combined in flexible ways:

Maintaining the buses place in traffic queues where shared running is unavoidable.

Traffic signal and other priorities to assure service reliability.

High quality, extensive and accessible stations for boarding and alighting featuring real time

arrival and departure times.

High frequency services.

Off-board and integrated ticketing machines.

High standard of information provision with real-time signage at stations.

Good integration with the other modes

Distinctive branding to create high passenger acceptance, awareness and ridership

 BRT lines can operate in mixed traffic like other bus routes, in reserved bus

BRT lines can operate in mixed traffic like other bus routes, in reserved bus lanes, or even in

segregated rights of way.

Usually buses come every ten minutes, although in some cities with less robust transit BRT lines

operate on a fifteen minute frequency.

Depending on transportation needs, vehicles with different transport capacity can be used in

the required frequency to optimize utilization and avoid empty runs.

Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) allow flexible control over the entire system and progressive

vehicle management.

Features of the feeder buses :

(CILT, 2011)

The buses can seat 18 to 20 people with 10 persons standing.

They are environment friendly with CNG engine.

Control Centers are being set up to monitor the movement of vehicles and will have traffic

managers, traffic inspectors and Control Room Operators.

Buses are air conditioned.

First Aid Box and Fire Extinguisher are provided in the buses.

Infrastructure:

(DMRC website, 2013)

The infrastructure of a BRT system includes roads, stations, terminals, depots, control centers and public

utilities. The layout of the mentioned elements mainly depends on local conditions like climatic factors.

From a passenger’s point of view statio ns and bus lanes are the most obvious

From a passenger’s point of view stations and bus lanes are the most obvious elements of a BRT system;

therefore special focus should be given to these BRT elements:

Roads:

The infrastructure in Bahrain is weak and cannot operate a new modern transport system like the BRT.

The infrastructure in Bahrain will need to be developed, maintained and redesigned in line with the

needs of the BRT system. A new segregate lane will be built for the use of the BRT buses only in the wide

and big roads like Aradous Highway. While in less wider roads, buses will share roads with other modes

of transport. The segregated lanes can be in a different color from the other lanes; they will need to

have new traffic lights which have the priorities to provide fast services and new special road signs for

the buses like: speed limits signs.

to provide fast services and new special road signs for the buses like: speed limits signs.

Figure 11 BRT segregated lane.

Stations:

Stations: BRT system will need to have more than the available stations to operate in Bahrain.

BRT system will need to have more than the available stations to operate in Bahrain. Some of the old

unusable stations will be redesigned and redeveloped to suit the modern system and to satisfy the

passengers. Also new modern stations will be building increasing the number of bus stops. Stations are

the entry point to the BRT system and therefore directly affect passenger awareness regarding

accessibility, comfort and system image. New stations will larger and air conditioned because of the hot

weather of Bahrain. It will have enough comfortable seats, electronic screen provided with detailed

information about routes, services and fixed route schedules. Also there will be electronic ticketing

system which passengers can pay using cards.

ticketing system which passengers can pay using cards. Figure 12 Type of modern BRT station. Feeder

Figure 12 Type of modern BRT station.

Feeder Infrastructure:

Roads:

The roads infrastructure in Bahrain will need develop for vehicles movements, even for feeder buses

The roads infrastructure in Bahrain will need develop for vehicles movements, even for feeder buses

because feeder buses use the roads with other vehicles. Feeder buses mainly go to the residential areas

where there are a lot of damaged roads that need to be redesigned and maintained to fit with the

feeder buses needs. A lot of roads also have damaged lights which need to be change because in the

night it is dangerous for a feeder to go to these dark roads.

Stations:

Some of the old bus stations will be redesigned for the feeder buses services and new modern stations

will be built so they can fit with the passengers' satisfaction. All stations will be air conditioned and have

comfortable seats and provide passengers with fixed schedules and important information.

Routes:

The fleet of the BRT system will be large and it will not only have large buses but also the feeders which

are smaller than the other buses. BRT buses will mainly provide the services around the residential areas

to connect these areas with the industrial areas, business areas and active areas. For example, a

passenger from Karbabad wants to go to the University of Bahrain in Isa town which means he will move

from residential area to the educational area. The BRT buses will be in the wider roads because they use

segregated lane which means that this passenger will need to have other transport to move him from

his village to the BRT station. As a result, feeder buses are provided for the residential areas because

they are able to move in narrow roads rather than the BRT large buses. So the feeder busses will be the

connection between the passenger and the BRT buses. Feeder stations are distributed among the

residential areas where passengers can find them easily and wait for the feeder buses to come to move

them to the BRT stations to take them to their destinations either directly or they will need to use other

mode of the transport system, either the light rail metro or the trams. The pictures

mode of the transport system, either the light rail metro or the trams. The pictures below will show the

different residential areas provided with red sign which means this is a feeder station or a green sign

which means BRT stations.

red sign which means this is a feeder station or a green sign which means BRT

Map 14 BRT system in Amwaj island

Map 15 BRT system and feeder buses stations in north muharraq. Map 16 BRT stations
Map 15 BRT system and feeder buses stations in north muharraq. Map 16 BRT stations

Map 15 BRT system and feeder buses stations in north muharraq.

Map 15 BRT system and feeder buses stations in north muharraq. Map 16 BRT stations and

Map 16 BRT stations and feeder buses stations in Busaiteen.

Map 17 BRT stations and feeder buses stations in south muharraq and Arad. Map 18
Map 17 BRT stations and feeder buses stations in south muharraq and Arad. Map 18

Map 17 BRT stations and feeder buses stations in south muharraq and Arad.

BRT stations and feeder buses stations in south muharraq and Arad. Map 18 BRT stations and

Map 18 BRT stations and feeder buses stations in Arad.

Map 19 BRT stations and feeder buses stations in Manama. Map 20 BRT stations and
Map 19 BRT stations and feeder buses stations in Manama. Map 20 BRT stations and

Map 19 BRT stations and feeder buses stations in Manama.

Map 19 BRT stations and feeder buses stations in Manama. Map 20 BRT stations and feeder

Map 20 BRT stations and feeder buses stations in Karbabad.

Map 21 BRT stations and feeder buses stations in Budaiya Hwy. Map 22 BRT stations
Map 21 BRT stations and feeder buses stations in Budaiya Hwy. Map 22 BRT stations

Map 21 BRT stations and feeder buses stations in Budaiya Hwy.

Map 21 BRT stations and feeder buses stations in Budaiya Hwy. Map 22 BRT stations and

Map 22 BRT stations and feeder buses stations in Tubli.

Map 23 BRT stations and feeder buses stations in Sitra.
Map 23 BRT stations and feeder buses stations in Sitra.

Map 23 BRT stations and feeder buses stations in Sitra.

Map 24 BRT stations and feeder buses stations in educational area. Map 25 BRT stations
Map 24 BRT stations and feeder buses stations in educational area. Map 25 BRT stations

Map 24 BRT stations and feeder buses stations in educational area.

Map 24 BRT stations and feeder buses stations in educational area. Map 25 BRT stations and

Map 25 BRT stations and feeder buses stations in Riffa.

Map 26 BRT stations and feeder buses stations in Hamad town.
Map 26 BRT stations and feeder buses stations in Hamad town.

Map 26 BRT stations and feeder buses stations in Hamad town.

Map 27 BRT stations and feeder buses stations in Sadad.
Map 27 BRT stations and feeder buses stations in Sadad.

Map 27 BRT stations and feeder buses stations in Sadad.

Map 28 BRT stations and feeder buses stations in Sakhir. Energy Trends: BRT uses diesel
Map 28 BRT stations and feeder buses stations in Sakhir. Energy Trends: BRT uses diesel

Map 28 BRT stations and feeder buses stations in Sakhir.

Energy Trends:

BRT uses diesel which it produce CO2 emissions that harm the environment. In addition, diesel

production depends on the fossil fuels which they will finish sooner or later. As a result, BRT system will

need different renewable resources to keep the movement of the system. In the future Vehicles maybe

can be powered by hybrid electric, wind energy or solar energy reducing the CO2 emissions and the

harms on the environment.

Feeder buses are the same, they are more sustainable than the BRT buses and the emissions are lower.

However, even the Compressed Natural Gas will finish someday so as a result, the same mentioned

renewable resources will be considered as factors that can help raising the sustainability.

Sustainability:

Sustainability: Because in Bahrain the oil is cheap and affordable, BRT system will be fuelled by

Because in Bahrain the oil is cheap and affordable, BRT system will be fuelled by diesel. There are a lot of

fuel stations in Bahrain which BRT system can deal with them. Drivers must fuel the buses at night when

there are no passengers in the buses. In the future Vehicles maybe can be powered by hybrid electric,

clean diesel or zero-emission fuel cells.

Feeder buses are fueled with Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) (Methane stored at high pressure) which

can be used in place of gasoline (petrol), Diesel fuel and propane/LPG. CNG combustion produces fewer

undesirable gases than the fuels mentioned above. It is safer than other fuels in the event of a spill,

because natural gas is lighter than air and disperses quickly when released. Also it will be cheaper

because natural gas in produced in Bahrain and it is cheap.

Technology:

Buses:

Intelligent Transportation System (ITS)

BRT uses sophisticated communication system called Intelligent Transportation System (ITS), it includes

all types of communication in buses, between the buses and between buses and fixed locations like

communication between bus driver and his manager in the control center. BRT system uses ITS to track

buses locations, control traffic signals and provide buses arrival information. (ETSI organization website,

2014), (AC Transit organization website, 2014).

Figure 13 How ITS works.  Mechanically Guided: BRT system use small "bogey" wheels which
Figure 13 How ITS works.  Mechanically Guided: BRT system use small "bogey" wheels which

Figure 13 How ITS works.

Mechanically Guided:

BRT system use small "bogey" wheels which runs along or in a track for mechanical guidance. These

wheels are connected by a linkage to the bus steering mechanism. The purpose of the linkage is to

correct the wrong drifts of the buses so if the bus drifts to the right, the steering mechanism steers the

bus to the left. This technology is to provide safety services to the passengers.

Low-Floor buses:

Low-floor buses complies the requirements of the disabilities passengers. The access of disabilities

passengers to the bus can either by using an on vehicle ramp which flips down to bridge the gap or by

raised platforms (providing level boarding). Low-floor bus is an effective way of reducing dwell time at

stations to provide fast convenience services.

Figure 14 low-floor BRT buses.  Automatic control: With low floor buses there is one
Figure 14 low-floor BRT buses.  Automatic control: With low floor buses there is one

Figure 14 low-floor BRT buses.

Automatic control:

With low floor buses there is one concern about docking the buses close enough to the raised station

without damaging the buses' tires or structure. The solution for this problem is using the automatic

control of buses to provide accurate docking. The buses will be equipped with radar sensors and vision

to control and guide the bus movements particularly at stations.

GPS:

(FTA website, nd)

Global Positioning System (GPS) is provided in the buses to provide the driver with information about

the station locations and map of routes he can take. GPS can also determine the movement of the bus

so the control center knows exactly these movements.

   Stations:  Digital screen: Figure 15 GPS functions. Stations will be equipped with
 

Stations:

Digital screen:

Figure 15 GPS functions.

Stations will be equipped with digital screens which has internet access so passengers can use it to open

the transportation website for any enquiries. It will

also contain fixed schedules for the routes showing

maps

and

it

will

have connection to the GPS

to

provide

passengers

with

the

destination

of

the

nearest bus. Mainly, it will provide passengers with

the most important information they would like to

know.

Figure 16 Digital screen in station.
Figure 16 Digital screen in station.

Conclusion

Conclusion In conclusion, it is not impossible for anything to change and develop even the public

In conclusion, it is not impossible for anything to change and develop even the public transport in

Bahrain. This change will be hard and it will take a lot of years because the main network which is the

infrastructure will need massive changes. Moreover, it will cost a lot, but if the result is satisfying for the

operators and passengers, the money spent will be worth spending!

References

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Administration, F. (n.d.). Vehicle design. Retrieved from

Agency, D. (n.d.). What is brt?. Retrieved from http://brt.mercedes-

ArcelorMittal. (n.d.). Tram Rails”. Retrieved from:

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ETSI, W. (2014). Intelligent transport systems. Retrieved from http://www.etsi.org/technologies-

clusters/technologies/intelligent-transport

Lewis Lesley. (26 th October 2008). “SUSTAINABLE LIGHT RAIL”. Retrieved form:

Lightrail.com. (2008, July 30). “What is light rail?”. Retrieved from http://www.lightrail.com/definition.htm

McBrayer, D. (n.d.). “Light rail transit and other modes”. Retrieved from

Mosaic. (2012). “What is Solar Energy”. Retrieved from: https://joinmosaic.com/what-is-solar-

Public Transport Victoria. (n.d.). “ Projects ”. Retrieved from: http://ptv.vic.gov.au/projects/ Railway technology.

Public Transport Victoria. (n.d.). “Projects”. Retrieved from: http://ptv.vic.gov.au/projects/

Railway technology. (n.d.). “Dubai metro network, United Arab Emirates”. Retrieved

StateUniversity.com. (2011). “Bahrain – History”. Retrieved from:

The Free Dictionary. (2014). “Subsidies”. Retrieved from:

thetrams.co.uk. (n.d.). “ What is a tram?”. Retrieved from:

Transit, A. (2014). What is brt?. Retrieved from http://www.actransit.org/planning-focus/your-

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CILT sessions

Chartered Institute of Logistics and Transport. (2011) a: (session1) “Characteristics of Public Transport”.

Retrieved from Moodle database, Bahrain Polytechnic.

Chartered Institute of Logistics and Transport. (2011) c: (session3) “Transport Infrastructure”. Retrieved

from Moodle database, Bahrain Polytechnic.

Chartered Institute of Logistics and Transport. (2011) j: (session10 ) “ Transport Planning ”. Retrieved

Chartered Institute of Logistics and Transport. (2011) j: (session10) “Transport Planning”. Retrieved from

Moodle database, Bahrain Polytechnic.

Figures

Figure 2: Dubai Metro operating in a separate lane higher than the road level” Retrieved from:

Figure 3: Metro Terminal in DubaiRetrieved from: http://www.2daydubai.com/pages/dubai- techno-park.php

Figure 4: “the grooved rail”. Retrieved from:

Figure 5: “a grassed track in Europe”. Retrieved from: http://tinypic.com/dhaiyv.jpg

Figure 6: “how the grooved rail track looks in the street”. Retrieved from:

Figure 7: “a tram stop in Paris”. Retrieved from: http://blog.velib.paris.fr/wp-

Figure 8: “a chart that shows Bahrain climate”. Retrieved from:

Figure 9: Type of Bus Rapid Transit bus, Retrieved from

Figure 10: Type of feeder buses, Retrieved from

Figure 11: BRT segregated lane, Retrieved from http://www.nairaland.com/1144134/lagos-

Figure 12: Type of modern BRT station, Retrieved from http://www.azuremagazine.com/article/bus-shelters-worth-waiting-in/

Figure 13: How ITS works, Retrieved from http://www.actransit.org/planning-focus/your-guide-

Figure 14: Low-floor BRT buses, Retrieved from

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